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Abstract

Presents the development of a German version of the "Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding" (Paulhus, 1994), a two-factor inventory for the measurement of socially desirable responding. The final version consists of two scales with 10 items each. The inventory measures two distinguishable components of social desirability: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management. In three cross-validation studies, both subscales showed satisfactory psychometric qualities, a clear two-factorial loading structure and good convergent and discriminant validity.

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... Whereas the first subscale describes a conscious tendency to describe oneself more socially desirable, the latter represents a non-conscious predisposition to portrait oneself in a positively biased way (Hart, Ritchie, Hepper, & Gebauer, 2015). People's proclivity to respond in a socially desirable way was assessed German version of the BIDR (Musch et al., 2002), consisting of 20 items. ...
... Internal consistencies of the measures in Study 2. Table 2 shows the internal consistencies of the validation scales in Study 2. Most internal consistencies ranged from good to excellent. The internal consistency of the BIDR subscales was questionable, but in line with the results of the scale developers (see Musch et al., 2002). Indicating poor reliability, the internal consistency of the Sociosexual Orientation subscale Previous Sexual Behavior was also questionable. ...
... Contrary to what was predicted, a significant correlation was obtained between men's inclination to create a socially desirable image (impression management; Musch et al., 2002) for the two-factor model at Time 1: Men who showed greater impression management tendencies (which were measured at Time 1), also demonstrated a greater sexual objectification proclivity at Time 1, but not at Time 2. Contradictorily, men with greater values on the factor Interpersonal Objectification indicated a greater tendency to perceive themselves favorable in terms of self-deception (self-deceptive enhancement; Musch et al., 2002). ...
Thesis
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Despite a steadily growing number of social psychological studies on the sexual objectification of others, two essential aspects have been neglected, so far: First, research lacks a thoroughly validated instrument to assess individuals’ proclivity to sexually objectify others. Second, little evidence is available on how people evaluate individuals who engage in sexual objectification as well as individuals who are objectified. With a total of eight empirical studies, this dissertation seeks to close both research gaps. Empirical Part I of this thesis describes the development and validation of the Sexual Objectification of Others Inventory (SOOI) within five studies (NStudy 1 = 213, NStudy 2 = 219, NStudy 3 = 95, NStudy 4 = 139, NStudy 5 = 116). The scale consists of 11 items which were selected by applying exploratory factor analyses (see Study 1 and Study 2). The factor analyses identified two factors: Instrumental Objectification and Visual Objectification. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the two-factor model in most studies conducted. However, poor internal consistencies for the factor Instrumental Objectification throughout the studies indicated that it is recommendable to only draw on the overall SOOI score as a measure of sexual objectification proclivity. Reliability analysis showed largely good internal consistencies and evidenced a good test-retest reliability of the SOOI. Correlational analyses provided compelling evidence for the SOOI’s convergent validity. Moreover, demonstrating criterion validity, the scale was able to predict men’s outcomes on behavioral measures after a manipulation of their masculinity (see Study 5). By applying the SOOI to a sample from the LGBTQ* community, this thesis, moreover, demonstrates that the scale is able to assess sexual objectification proclivity of people of any gender and various sexual orientations (see Study 3). Additionally, Study 4 successfully administered an English version of the SOOI. To summarize, the SOOI is the first reliable and thoroughly validated measure of people’s sexual objectification proclivity. Future studies may want to improve the reliability of the two factors by item modification. Item modification would allow for creating an updated SOOI version with two functional subscales. The current SOOI is available in German and English and comes in three analogously worded versions, assessing sexual objectification toward women, men, and people in general. With Empirical Part II, this thesis seeks to answer the open question of how people evaluate perpetrators and targets of sexual objectification. Three online studies were conducted (NStudy 1 = 290, NStudy 2 = 338, NStudy 3 = 245) assessing attributed power, warmth, competence to as well as preferred social distance toward targets and perpetrators of sexual objectification. Furthermore, Study 2 and Study 3 investigated to what extent sexual objectification was perceived as an ethical issue in comparison to sexual harassment and control behaviors. Although social norm violation can lead to an increased attribution of power (see van Kleef et al., 2011), Studies 1-3 showed that perpetrators of sexual objectification were not perceived as more powerful due to their behavior. Correspondingly, targets of sexual objectification were not evaluated as less powerful. Results indicated that this outcome might reflect a bias similar to rape victim blame (e.g., Grubb & Turner, 2012). Furthermore, as hypothesized, sexual objectification was perceived as a less severe ethical issue than sexual harassment. Remarkably, however, sexual objectification was perceived on the same level of severity as the control behaviors. Research on ethical decision-making (Jones, 1991) suggests that participants might have attributed little negative consequences to sexual objectification, resulting in a reduced perception of severity. Studies 1-3 moreover demonstrated that male perpetrators were perceived as being less warm and competent than female perpetrators. Furthermore, people preferred more social distance toward male perpetrators than female ones. Attribution theory (Pryor, 1985) offers an explanation for this outcome: While objectifying and harassing behaviors by men can be attributed to their presumed misogyny, people lack an analogous schema to integrate and explain the same behavior by female perpetrators. However, future studies need to investigate why also male perpetrators of the control behaviors were evaluated more negatively compared to women.
... However, self-report measures are prone to social desirability, same-source bias, and distortions of perception. 94,95 Considering the time spent on SMU, we asked our participants to refer to the SMU time tracked by specific application to tackle this limitation at least partly. But we did not control how many participants used such applications. ...
... Furthermore, they should assess social desirability to control for it in the statistical analyses (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, BIDR). 94 Fifth, we measured suicide-related outcomes with only one item. This approach is recommended for screening purposes. ...
Article
Background Women who belong to the age group “emerging adulthood” (18 to 29 years) are vulnerable to mental health issues and suicide-related outcomes. Objectives This study investigated potential predictors of suicide-related outcomes in females emerging adulthood and compared them to older women. Design and Methods Data of 2537 women from Russia (group “18 to 29 years”: n = 1123; group “> 29 years”: n = 1414) on lifetime suicide-related outcomes, (problematic) social media use, daily stress, depression and anxiety symptoms, and positive mental health were assessed via online cross-sectional surveys. Results The younger group spent significantly more time on social media use than the older group. It had significantly higher levels of daily stress, problematic social media use, depression and anxiety symptoms, and suicide-related outcomes. The older group showed significantly higher levels of positive mental health. Only in the younger group, problematic social media use significantly mediated the relationship between daily stress and suicide-related outcomes in a moderated mediation analysis. Positive mental health significantly moderated the association between problematic social media use and suicide-related outcomes. Specifically, the higher the positive mental health level, the less close the link between both variables. Conclusion The current results reveal that young women in Russia could be at enhanced risk for daily stress, problematic social media use, and low levels of mental health. The interaction between these variables could foster suicide-related outcomes. Public governmental communication in Russia should call attention to potential negative impact of intensive social media use.
... These constellations should also be investigated by future experimental studies. Third, we used only self-report measurements that are prone to same-source bias and social desirability [56,57]. Therefore, our results should be replicated by the assessment of and control for social desirability in the statistical analyses (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Social Desirability [56]). ...
... Third, we used only self-report measurements that are prone to same-source bias and social desirability [56,57]. Therefore, our results should be replicated by the assessment of and control for social desirability in the statistical analyses (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Social Desirability [56]). In addition, future studies should focus on additional data sources, for example, objective measures of psychological distress such as blood pressure. ...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 caused high psychological burden for many people. Some people tend to excessive social media use (SMU) to escape the negative emotions which can foster addictive tendencies. The present study investigated positive mental health (PMH) and mindfulness as protective factors that could reduce the risk for addictive SMU. Data of 1,049 participants from Germany were assessed via online surveys in autumn 2021. The current results reveal a positive relationship between COVID-19 burden and addictive SMU. Both were negatively linked to PMH and mindfulness. In a moderated mediation analysis, the relationship between COVID-19 burden and addictive SMU was mediated by PMH. Mindfulness moderated the association between PMH and addictive SMU. The COVID-19 situation can be burdensome and contribute to dysfunctional coping strategies such as addictive SMU. However, PMH and mindfulness serve as protective factors. The protective effect of mindfulness could be especially important for persons with low PMH.
... Against this background, conclusions on the direction of the relationship between both variables that was investigated by Hypothesis 2e and Hypothesis 3b in the present study should be considered with caution. Fourth, the data were assessed by self-report measurements that are prone to social desirability and same-source bias (Musch et al. 2002;Conway and Lance 2010). Future studies that replicate the present findings should measure and include social desirability in the statistical analyses (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Social Desirability; Musch et al. 2002). ...
... Fourth, the data were assessed by self-report measurements that are prone to social desirability and same-source bias (Musch et al. 2002;Conway and Lance 2010). Future studies that replicate the present findings should measure and include social desirability in the statistical analyses (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Social Desirability; Musch et al. 2002). Furthermore, they should include additional data sources, for example, objective measures of physical health. ...
Article
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Aim Suicide ideation has increased since the outbreak of Covid-19 in many countries. The present longitudinal study investigated potential predictors of suicide ideation. Subject and methods Data of 406 participants from Germany (age M = 27.69, SD = 6.88) were assessed via online surveys in spring 2020 (baseline, BL) and in spring 2021 (follow-up, FU). Results The current results reveal a significant increase in symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress between 2020 and 2021. Positive mental health (PMH), sense of control, and physical health significantly decreased. Depression symptoms (BL), PMH (BL), and consciously enhanced physical activity since the pandemic outbreak (FU) significantly predicted 12-month suicide ideation (FU). In a moderated mediation analysis, the positive relationship between depression and suicide ideation was significantly mediated by PMH. Consciously enhanced physical activity significantly moderated the negative association between PMH and suicide ideation. Conclusion The context of Covid-19 could negatively impact mental health and physical health. This might increase the risk for suicide ideation. However, PMH and physical activity might serve as protective factors. The protective effect of physical activity could be especially important in people with high depression symptoms and low PMH, such as clinical patients. Potential ways of how PMH and physical activity could be enhanced in the Covid-19 context to prevent suicide ideation are discussed.
... We were interested in whether respondents deceive themselves regarding their sensitivity to injustice (self-deception) or try to project an idealized image of themselves in their answers (impression management). Therefore, this study utilized a questionnaire developed by Musch et al. (2002), which measures two dimensions of social desirability: selfdeception and impression management. The questionnaire comprises 20 items (e.g., "Sometimes I lie when I have to. . ...
... Moreover, the dropout rate for the social desirability scale was relatively high, with only 101 out of 116 MPs continuing with the study after the social desirability scale. The social desirability scale (Musch et al., 2002) asked particularly personal questions (e.g., "I have doubted my abilities as a lover in the past."). Significantly more MPs from the Left Party (34.4% of all Left Party MPs) and the SPD (26.4% of all SPD MPs) took part than from the Green Party (14.3% of all Green Party MPs) and the CDU/CSU (11% of all CDU/CSU MPs). ...
Article
This explorative study compares the sensitivity to injustice of 116 Members of the German National Parliament and 998 German citizens eligible to vote, from the perspective of a victim, an observer, a beneficiary, and a perpetrator. Politicians were found to have a significantly higher observer, beneficiary, and perpetrator sensitivity and a significantly lower victim sensitivity than voters. These results fit with the findings that observer and perpetrator sensitivity usually correlates positively with political engagement and beneficiary sensitivity, whereas victim sensitivity correlates negatively with political commitment.
... Responding ;Paulhus, 1988; German version by Musch et al., 2002). Fourth, we hypothesized that the TGC would possess high convergent validity as indicated by significant positive associations with several relationship-related self-report measures, such as trust in the relationship (Dyadic Trust Scale; Larzelere & Huston, 1980; German version by Hank et al., 1990), satisfaction with the partner (Partnerschaftsfragebogen; Hahlweg, 1996), satisfaction with the partnership (Relationship Assessment Scale; Hendrick, 1988; German version by Sander & Böcker, 1993) and felt closeness with the partner (Inclusion of Other in the Self scale; Aron et al., 1992). ...
... and good validity as indicated by positive associations with institutional trust, life satisfaction, selfefficacy, optimism, and agreeableness(Beierlein et al., 2012). Aiming to assess partner-specific trust behavior in the TGC, we did not expect a significant association of the trust score with the KUSIV3.Tendencies for desirable responding were measured with the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR;Paulhus, 1988; German version byMusch et al., 2002), ...
Thesis
The hormone and neuropeptide oxytocin is critically involved in monogamous pair bonding behavior in mammals. In human couples, trust is widely considered to be one of the most important preconditions for stable and satisfactory long-term romantic relationships. While studies using intranasal administration of oxytocin confirmed intriguing effects on human social behavior, including increased trust during interactions with unfamiliar interaction partners, psychoendocrine regulation mechanisms of trust in couples remain nebulous. However, these mechanisms could be of critical importance for a comprehensive understanding of the specific evolutionary role oxytocin plays within our highly social species. This thesis aims to close this research gap by providing and validating a standardized tool for the quantitative assessment of trust towards a romantic partner, and implementing this tool in an experimental setting that examines the effects of oxytocin on partner-specific trust behavior compared to a placebo. In chapter 1, literature reviews on trust, the current approaches to measure the construct, its importance in romantic relationships, and the psychobiological model of trust are provided as a general introduction to this dissertation. Chapter 2 presents a comprehensive validation study of the newly developed Trust Game for Couples, an interactive paradigm in which trust is operationalized as the willingness to invest financial resources in pro-relationship attitudes of the partner. Results from 35 couples (N = 70) confirm excellent convergent and discriminant validity of our paradigm, being associated not only with explicit self-report measures of partnership quality, but also with implicit relationship-related measures based on response times. In chapter 3, we review initial studies and recent advances in oxytocin research, and present data from an extensive double-blind placebo-controlled randomized controlled trial on oxytocin’s effects on partner-specific trust compared to a placebo control condition in 60 couples (N = 120). While there was no main effect of oxytocin on trust decisions in the Trust Game for Couples, we found conditional effects dependent on self-reported trait perceptions of partner-specific and general interpersonal trust in the social environment. Subsequent analyses indicate that oxytocin primarily decreased trust behavior towards the partner in cases of lower trait levels of partner-specific and general interpersonal trust (and to a lesser extent increased trust behavior in cases of higher trait levels of trust), effects that were more pronounced in women. In support of the increasingly popular social salience hypothesis, these results contribute to a complex model of psychoendocrine regulation mechanisms of trust in couples, suggesting that oxytocin holds the potential to decrease the stability of romantic relationships if prior experiences with the partner or the social environment signal suboptimal preconditions for shared offspring. Finally, chapter 4 provides a general discussion of our results in an attempt to clarify what trust in couples is made of, how previous theoretical frameworks can be expanded to a psychobiological model of trust in couples, and which limitations should be addressed in future studies. We would like to invite researchers to make use of our newly developed behavioral and implicit relationship-related measurement tools to further investigate social, psychological, physiological or psychopathological mechanisms of human romantic relationships. Furthermore, we hope that our findings on psychoendocrine regulation mechanisms of trust in couples contribute to a differentiated psychobiological model of monogamous romantic relationships as well as our understanding of the evolutionary purpose of oxytocin in humans.
... As external validation criteria we used the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) with its subscales of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996;German version: Eckes & Six-Materna, 1999); the Gender Role Preference (GRP) scale (Becker & Wagner, 2009); and the Impression Management (IM) scale of the "Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding" (Paulhus, 1998; German version by Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002). ...
... In order to test the convergent and discriminant validity of AMMSA, we additionally administered the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) (Glick & Fiske, 1996;German version: Eckes & Six-Materna, 1999), which consists of the subscales hostile sexism (HS -11 items) and benevolent sexism (BS -11 items); the Gender Role Preference scale (GRP-eight items where high scores indicate a preference for traditional gender roles and low scores indicate a preference for progressive gender roles) (Becker & Wagner, 2009); and the German Impression Management Scale (IM -10 items) (Musch et al., 2002) from the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Paulhus, 1998). For the Russian versions we used our own Russian adaptations of these scales. ...
Article
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Background: Rape myths are usually described as a widely-accepted set of false beliefs and attitudes about victims and perpetrators of sexual assault. These beliefs serve to deny, downplay, or justify sexual violence that men commit against women. The Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression (AMMSA) scale assesses those stereotypical beliefs about sexual aggression in a more subtle way than traditional measurements of rape myths, which often use rather blatant wording. Objective: To develop a Russian version of the sixteen-item AMMSA scale. Design: Our design was non-experimental. Participants were recruited online. In total, data of 270 Russian female participants and 131 German female participants were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed using correlational analyses with other constructs that are believed to be related to AMMSA to different degrees (hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, traditional gender role preferences, and impression management). Results: It was found that the Russian AMMSA, just like the German AMMSA, was unidimensional, normally distributed, had high internal consistency, and showed good construct validity. Conclusion: The validation of a Russian version of the AMMSA forms an important first step for studying beliefs about sexual aggression in Russian society. The Russian AMMSA scale is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring modern myths about sexual aggression. Future studies are needed to test whether there are gender differences in the Russian population
... Second, we hypothesized that the trust scores of romantic partners would correlate and that the mean trust score would be positive, assuming considerable levels of interdependent trust in intact relationships lasting at least one year in our sample [5]. Third, we hypothesized that the TGC would possess high discriminant validity as indicated by non-significant associations with general interpersonal trust ( [19]; we measured interpersonal trust using the German Kurzskala Interpersonales Vertrauen, for the English version see Appendix C in [20]) and with socially desirable response tendencies (Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; [16], German version by [21]). Fourth, we hypothesized that the TGC would possess high convergent validity as indicated by significant positive associations with several relationship-related self-report measures, such as trust in the relationship (Dyadic Trust Scale; [22]; German version Vertrauen in der Partnerschaft by [23]), satisfaction with the partner (Partnerschaftsfragebogen [24]), satisfaction with the partnership (Relationship Assessment Scale [25], German version by [26]) and felt closeness with the partner (Inclusion of Other in the Self scale [27]). ...
... The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; [16]) assesses two dimensions of desirable responding; Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE) and Impression Management (IM). Participants completed the German version containing 20 items with 7-point Likert scales, with 10 items assigned to each of the two subscales ( [21]; α = .62 (SDE), α = .65 ...
Article
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Trust between couples is a prerequisite for stable and satisfactory romantic relationships. However, there has been no valid research tool to assess partner-specific trust behavior including costly investments in the trustworthiness of the romantic partner. We here present a comprehensive validation of the newly developed Trust Game for Couples (TGC) by means of various self-report and implicit relationship-related measures. The TGC operationalizes trust by measuring an individual’s willingness to invest his or her own financial resources in pro-relationship attitudes of their romantic partner (collected by dichotomous responses to relationship-relevant items, e.g., answering yes to “I am absolutely sure that I love my partner”). Thirty-five healthy couples between 20 and 34 years completed the TGC in an interactive (both partners present), but anonymous setting (no information on the partner’s responses revealed). Trust, as measured by the TGC, correlates positively with self-reported trust, satisfaction, and felt closeness in the relationship, but not with general interpersonal trust, confirming both its convergent and discriminant validity. In addition to explicit criteria for construct validity, implicit measures of partner valence and confidence explained variance in the TGC, demonstrating that it constitutes an economical measure of implicit and explicit ingredients of trust between couples. In sum, the TGC provides a novel, specific behavioral tool for a sensitive assessment of trust in dyadic relationships with potential for numerous research fields.
... The BIDR (Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002;according to Paulhus, 1991) identifies desirable responding based on tendencies toward self-deceptive enhancement and impression management HMT Achievement motivation. ...
... GSE = General perceived self-efficacy (Schwarzer & Jerusalen, 1995); SSSE = Study-specific selfefficacy (Schiefele, Moschner, & Husstegge, 2002); SCS = Self-concept scales (Schiefele, Moschner, & Husstegge, 2002); SES = Self-esteem scale (v. Collani & Herzberg, 2003); GHELP = Scale of general helplessness (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1986, 2010; SSHELP = study specific helplessness scale (Jerusalem & Schwarzer, 1986, 2010; SDS-17 = Social Desirability Scale (Stöber, 1999); BIDR = Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002); MARPS = Mehrabian Achievement Risk Preference Scale (Mikula, Uray, & Schwinger, 1976, 2009); AMS-R = Achievement Motives Scale (Lang & Fries, 2006); AMT = Achievement Motive Test (Modick, 1977). * p < .05. ** p < .01. *** p < .001. ...
Thesis
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Intelligence is one of the most central constructs in psychology and is of profound importance for individuals' academic or job achievements and health. Even though a wide range of reliable, valid, and approved intelligence tests exists, there are not many free ones. The Hagen Matrices Test (HMT) introduced in this paper is a free web-based intelligence test focused on reasoning. This study (N = 1,339) presents evidence for the reliability of the HMT. Furthermore, associations with other intelligence tests, self-rated multiple intelligences, self-efficiency related measures, as well as dimensions and facets of personality traits are used to demonstrate the convergent and discriminant validity of the HMT. Associations between the HMT and measures of academic performance were used to demonstrate criterion validity. (...)
... Lajunen et al. (1997) recommended that researchers always include an SDR measure when studying driving behavior via self-report. Therefore, we applied the German version of the BIDR ( Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002) as an instrument to control for and partial out the potential effects of social desirability, and developed a German version of the Driver Social Desirability Scales (DSDS; Lajunen et al., 1997), a specialized instrument for the assessment of traffic-related IM and SD. The DSDS are known be highly correlated with the original BIDR ( Lajunen et al., 1997). ...
... The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1994) is a two-factor inventory for the measurement of SDR. A German version of the BIDR consisting of two scales with 10 items each was used in the present studies ( Musch et al., 2002Musch et al., , 2012). Respondents were asked to rate how much they agreed with the given statements by using seven-point scales (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). ...
Article
The psychometric properties of the new German versions of the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) and the Driver Social Desirability Scales (DSDS) were examined. The DSI is a self-report measure assessing perceptual-motor skills and the safety motive as two important aspects of driving behavior. Self-report measures, however, are susceptible to socially desirable responding (SDR) which is why both general and specific driving-related SDR scales have been developed: Based on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR), the DSDS taps Driver Impression Management and Driver Self-Deception as two important aspects of SDR. In two validation studies with less experienced (N = 130) and experienced drivers (N = 1199), both inventories showed the expected two-factor structure and satisfactory internal consistency. In Study 1, self-ratings were compared with and confirmed by peer-ratings. In both studies, we accumulated evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the German version of the DSI by correlating it with demographic, driving-specific, and personality measures, including the Big Five, Type A behavior, and sensation seeking. The DSI seemed to be only marginally contaminated by SDR.
... On the one hand, we applied the short form of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) scale, which comprises two subscales: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management [54,55] to capture SDR. The 18 items were rated on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). ...
Article
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Background: Mental disorders in adolescence and young adulthood are major public health concerns. Digital tools such as text-based conversational agents (ie, chatbots) are a promising technology for facilitating mental health assessment. However, the human-like interaction style of chatbots may induce potential biases, such as socially desirable responding (SDR), and may require further effort to complete assessments. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the convergent and discriminant validity of chatbots for mental health assessments, the effect of assessment mode on SDR, and the effort required by participants for assessments using chatbots compared with established modes. Methods: In a counterbalanced within-subject design, we assessed 2 different constructs-psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Brief Symptom Inventory-18) and problematic alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-3)-in 3 modes (chatbot, paper-and-pencil, and web-based), and examined convergent and discriminant validity. In addition, we investigated the effect of mode on SDR, controlling for perceived sensitivity of items and individuals' tendency to respond in a socially desirable way, and we also assessed the perceived social presence of modes. Including a between-subject condition, we further investigated whether SDR is increased in chatbot assessments when applied in a self-report setting versus when human interaction may be expected. Finally, the effort (ie, complexity, difficulty, burden, and time) required to complete the assessments was investigated. Results: A total of 146 young adults (mean age 24, SD 6.42 years; n=67, 45.9% female) were recruited from a research panel for laboratory experiments. The results revealed high positive correlations (all P<.001) of measures of the same construct across different modes, indicating the convergent validity of chatbot assessments. Furthermore, there were no correlations between the distinct constructs, indicating discriminant validity. Moreover, there were no differences in SDR between modes and whether human interaction was expected, although the perceived social presence of the chatbot mode was higher than that of the established modes (P<.001). Finally, greater effort (all P<.05) and more time were needed to complete chatbot assessments than for completing the established modes (P<.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that chatbots may yield valid results. Furthermore, an understanding of chatbot design trade-offs in terms of potential strengths (ie, increased social presence) and limitations (ie, increased effort) when assessing mental health were established.
... Third, data were collected by online self-report surveys that are prone to socially desirable responding. Instruments measuring the tendency of social desirability (e.g., Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, BIDR; Musch et al. 2002) could tackle this problem at least partly. Fourth, due to the limited number of assessed variables, the present findings do not allow conclusions on additional factors that could influence the association between Facebook use, depression symptoms and FA. ...
Article
Background : The present study investigated the link of active and passive Facebook use, Facebook flow and depression symptoms with Facebook Addiction (FA). Methods : Data of 127 German Facebook users (Mage (SDage) = 25.10 (7.03), range: 18–58) were assessed at two measurement time points over a period of three months (first measurement = T1, second measurement = T2) via online surveys. Results : FA (T2) was significantly positively linked to active Facebook use (T1), Facebook flow (T1) and depression symptoms (T1). Its relationship with passive Facebook use (T1) was non-significant. Facebook flow (T1) positively mediated the association between active Facebook use (T1) and FA (T2). In contrast, active Facebook use (T1) did not serve as a mediator between Facebook flow (T1) and FA (T2). Limitations : Given the non-experimental design of the present study, only hypothetical conclusions on causality can be drawn. Conclusions : Current results demonstrate that active Facebook use could contribute to the experience of flow that serves as an antecedent of FA. This is particularly relevant for individuals with enhanced depression symptoms. The findings should be made a subject of discussion in education and prevention programs, and in therapeutic context.
... Self-report data are prone to social desirability which might limits the current findings. Future studies should include a social desirability measure (for example, Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, BIDR; Musch et al., 2002) to tackle this limitation at least partly and they should not miss the pre-registration of the planed investigation. Notably, the SBQ-R (Osman et al., 2001) consists of overall four items. ...
Article
Introduction Students worldwide are at marked risk of suicidal ideation/behavior, depression, and low positive mental health (PMH). Medical students are suspected to be a particularly burdened group. On this background, the aim of the present study was to determine prevalence rates of suicidal ideation/behavior, depression and PMH, among Chinese medical students compared to students from other disciplines. Methods A total of 2,695 Chinese students (41.2% women; age: M = 18.86, SD = .60, range: 18–21), including 461 medical students, filled out self-report measures on suicidal ideation/behavior, depression, and PMH. Results Twelve-month suicidal ideation was reported by 10.2% of the medical students and by 11.5% of the other students. Medical students had significantly lower levels of depression symptoms and significantly higher levels of PMH than students from other disciplines. Complete mental health – according to the dual-factor model of mental health – was reported by more than 84% of the total sample. Limitations Data were assessed by a self-report survey that is prone to social desirability. Conclusions Students in the present study displayed high rates of complete mental health – although the survey was conducted in the midst of the Corona pandemic. No evidence was found that medical students are particularly stressed.
... Despite the similarity between both forms of problematic behavior, future studies are recommended to replicate our results with other measures of problematic smartphone use such as the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV; Kwon et al., 2013) to establish their validity. Fourth, all data including smartphone use time and physical activity were assessed by self-report measures that are prone to social desirability, distortions of perception, and same-source bias (Conway & Lance, 2010;Musch et al., 2002). To tackle this limitation at least partly, participants were asked to provide the daily smartphone use time that was tracked by their smartphone when completing the surveys. ...
Article
The present experimental study compared the impact of a total abstinence from smartphone use and of a reduction of daily smartphone use by 1 hr on well-being and healthy lifestyle. Participants (Ntotal = 619) were smartphone users in Germany. The first experimental group (N = 200) waived smartphone use for 7 days, the second experimental group (N = 226) reduced its daily use by 1 hr, and the control group (N = 193) used smartphone as usual. Variables of smartphone use (time, intensity, problematic tendencies), life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, physical activity, and smoking behavior were assessed via online surveys at four measurement time points (baseline; postintervention; 1 and 4 months after postintervention). Both interventions reduced smartphone use intensity, problematic use tendencies, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. In both groups, life satisfaction and physical activity increased. Most effects were stronger and remained more stable over 4 months in the reduction group than in the abstinence group. Moreover, in the reduction group only, the number of daily smoked cigarettes decreased. Thus, less time spent on the smartphone leads to more well-being and a healthier lifestyle; a complete smartphone abstinence is not necessary. Programs that focus on the increase of well-being and a healthier lifestyle could benefit from the integration of controlled reduction of smartphone use. A potential "sweet spot" of smartphone use is discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Third, we assessed data via self-report that can be prone to social desirability and perception mistakes. The inclusion of a social desirability measure (for example, Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; [118]) and additional measure of objective data (for example, usage of applications that assess the daily time spent on smartphone use) could tackle this limitation in future studies. Fourth, available research described that the Covid-19 crisis including restrictive governmental measures to slow down the pandemic spread significantly changed the everyday routine of many people in Germany (e.g., [119]) as well as in other countries (e.g., [47,120]). ...
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Since the outbreak of Covid-19, the use of digital devices, especially smartphones, remarkably increased. Smartphone use belongs to one’s daily routine, but can negatively impact physical and mental health, performance, and relationships if used excessively. The present study aimed to investigate potential correlates of problematic smartphone use (PSU) severity and the mechanisms underlying its development. Data of 516 smartphone users from Germany ( M age = 31.91, SD age = 12.96) were assessed via online surveys in April and May 2021. PSU severity was significantly negatively associated with sense of control. In contrast, it was significantly positively linked to fear of missing out (FoMO), repetitive negative thinking (RNT), and daily time spent on smartphone use. In a moderated mediation analysis, the negative relationship between sense of control and PSU severity was significantly mediated by FoMO. RNT significantly moderated the positive association between FoMO and PSU severity. Specifically, the higher the RNT, the stronger the relationship between FoMO and PSU. The present findings disclose potential mechanisms that could contribute to PSU. Potential ways of how to reduce PSU severity are discussed.
... The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1988; German version by Musch et al., 2002) was used in order to control for the tendency of answering with social responding. Only the subscale Impression management (10 items; e.g., "I never swear") was administered. ...
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Physical inactivity, sedentary behavior and mental ill health, due to high levels of perceived stress or self-reported depressive symptoms, are highly prevalent among university students. There are concerns that these behaviors and mental symptoms have significantly increased during the current Covid-19 pandemic, partly because academic life has changed considerably from face-to-face communication to e-learning and studying at home. Self-regulation and physical activity are hard to maintain during pandemic lockdowns. Short activity breaks could be helpful to avoid physical inactivity and sustain mental health. The breaks should comprise short and easy-implementable physical activity exercises that can be integrated into the learning context. Moreover, cognitive interventions, such as writing about positive events and feelings might help as coping strategy for self-regulation during study breaks. This study investigated and compared the effects of a physical activity intervention and a cognitive intervention (positive expressive writing) on mental health among university students. Both interventions are particularly suitable for use at home. N = 20 university students, studying in Germany, were assigned to a physical activity group or a cognitive intervention group. The physical activity intervention consisted of a mix of physical exercises including endurance exercises, muscular strength, relaxation, and ballroom dance movements. The interventions were carried out guided, once a week, for 5–10 mins at the beginning of classes. The effects of group × time showed no significant interaction on self-reported perceived stress, mood, quality of life (QoL) assessed online and compared at the beginning of the term before the intervention (T0) and at the end of the term after the intervention (T3). However, the physical activity group reported a similar physical activity level per day over time, while the cognitive intervention group showed a decrease in physical activity from T0 to T3. Low-dose, short physical activity interventions as well as cognitive interventions consisting of positive expressive writing could buffer university students' perceived stress, mood, and QoL across the term. Moreover, both interventions seem to be promising in buffering the negative side effects of stress during the Covid-19 pandemic.
... For the present study, the German version of the BIDR, which has shown to be a valid questionnaire with acceptable psychometric properties, will be used. 81 ...
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Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy, psychometric properties, and clinical utility of the German version of the clinician-administered post-traumatic stress disorder scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in routine clinical settings. Methods and analysis: This study is a non-interventional, multitrait-multimethod design, multicenter study that will be carried out at German civil and military inpatient and outpatient clinics. A total sample size of N = 219 participants who have experienced at least one traumatic event according to criteria as defined in the DSM-5 will be recruited. For the investigation of the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of the CAPS-5, participants will be categorized into one of three groups, depending on their traumatic experiences and posttraumatic symptomatology: (1) mono-traumatization with PTSD; (2) multiple traumatization with PTSD; and (3) traumatization without PTSD. Interviews will be conducted face-to-face by interviewers in routine clinical settings. All participants will also be asked to complete a comprehensive set of questionnaires in order to investigate different facets of construct validity and clinical utility. First, differences between all three groups in CAPS-5 sum and subscale scores will be investigated. Test–retest reliability and inter-rater reliability will be determined. Internal consistency will be calculated using SEM-based internal consistency coefficients. Construct validity will be measured with Spearman’s rank correlation analyses and multivariate analyses of variance with Holm-Bonferroni corrected post-hoc ANOVAs. In order to test diagnostic accuracy, receiver operating characteristics and sensitivity and specificity analyses will be conducted. The model structure of the German CAPS-5 will be analyzed using confirmatory factor analyses. Ethics and dissemination: The study received ethical approval by the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Psychology at the Ruhr-Universität Bochum (reference numbers: 331 and 358). The results of the study will be presented nationally and internationally at scientific conferences and will be published in scientific journals.
... Social desirability. Socially desirable responding was assessed using the German version of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002;Paulhus, 1994). The instrument captures the dimensions impression management (IM; self-enhancement in the domain of agency) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE; self-enhancement in the domain of communion; Paulhus, 2002). ...
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How positively or negatively people generally view others is key for understanding personality, social behavior, and psychopathology. Previous research has measured generalized other-perceptions by relying on either explicit self-reports or judgments made in group settings. With the current research, we overcome the limitations of these past approaches by introducing a novel measurement instrument for generalized other-perceptions: the Online-Tool for Assessing Perceiver Effects (O-TAPE). By assessing perceivers’ first impressions of a standardized set of target people displayed in social network profiles or short video sequences, the O-TAPE captures individual differences in the positivity of other-perceptions. In Study 1 ( n = 219), the instrument demonstrated good psychometric properties and correlations with related constructs. Study 2 ( n = 142) replicated these findings and also showed that the O-TAPE predicted other-perceptions in a naturalistic group setting. Study 3 ( n = 200) refined the nomological network of the construct and demonstrated that the O-TAPE is invulnerable to effects of social desirability.
... Sum scores for both subscales were calculated (min: 3, max: 15), and scores for the NQ-subscale were reversed so that higher values indicated more socially desirable responding. Note that Lüke and Grosche (2018a) used a different scale (BIDR; Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002). In order to motivate as many pre-service teachers as possible to take part in the study voluntarily, we tried to keep the experiment as short as possible. ...
Article
Assessment of attitudes in inclusive education research is almost exclusively based on self-report scales. This may lead to overestimation of positive attitudes due to social desirability bias, and self-reported attitudes may not capture all relevant aspects of attitudes. Recently, Lüke and Grosche (2018a) proposed a new attitude test based on a single target variant of the Implicit Association Test. In their sample of pre-service teachers, Lüke and Grosche found self-reported attitudes toward inclusion to be related to socially desirable responding. In contrast, implicit attitudes, as measured by the Single Target Implicit Association Test (Inclusion ST-IAT), were unrelated to social desirability bias and neutral overall. Here, we attempted (1) to replicate these findings, and (2) to further test the discriminatory validity of the Inclusion ST-IAT using two samples expected to differ in their attitudes: pre-service teachers with a study program in primary education (PrE) and special education (SpE). In contrast to the findings by Lüke and Grosche (2018a), we found no evidence of a social desirability bias within self-reported attitudes, and implicit attitudes were positive overall. As expected, SpE pre-service teachers had more positive implicit attitudes than PrE pre-service teachers, which speaks to the validity of the Inclusion ST-IAT. We believe the Inclusion ST-IAT, in combination with self-reports, to be a promising tool in assessing attitudes and encourage further research in this field.
... Additionally, physical activity was assessed with only one item, whicheven though earlier found to have sufficient validity and reliability (e.g., Velten, et al., 2014) makes this measure especially prone to social desirability and memory biases. In future studies, these problems could partly be tackled, on the one hand, by the inclusion of an instrument measuring the tendency of social desirability (e.g., the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, BIDR; Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002). On the other hand, objective measures and physiological markers, such as blood pressure, heart rate, and skin conductance, which earlier studies have shown to be connected to problematic Internet use and stress reactions Romano, et al., 2017) could be considered. ...
Article
Physical activity has regularly been demonstrated to be a protective factor against stressful experiences. The present study investigated whether physical activity buffers the association between daily stress and Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) over a period of one year (first measurement time point, T1: October 2016; second measurement time point, T2: October 2017). In a sample of 122 German Facebook users (82.8% women; age at T1: M = 21.70, SD = 3.67, range: 17–38), physical activity at T1 mediated the significant positive relationship be-tween chronic daily stress at T1 and FAD at T2 (total effect: p = .036; direct effect: p = .164). Furthermore, at T2, FAD was significantly negatively associated with positive mental health (i.e., high level of emotional, social, and psychological well-being). The current study provides first longitudinal results of possible risk associated with and potential protective factors of FAD. These results demonstrated that this addictive behavior is positively related to chronic daily stress and negatively related to physical activity. Practical applications for future studies and limitations of the present results are discussed.
... Third, we borrowed six items from Krell (2015) to measure mental effort in order to adjust for differences between the educational groups as regards potential effort justification bias. Fourth, we used a scale from Musch, Brockhaus, and Bröder (2002) for measuring impression management because differences in effect estimates between the educational groups may be confounded by different tendencies of socially desirable responding. This scale is a German ten-item version of the impression management scale of Paulhus' 'Balanced Inventory of Desirable ...
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Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are frequently not an option in evaluation practice, which is why evaluators switch to non-experimental methods–such as the “counterfactual as self-estimated by program participants” (CSEPP) for estimating intervention effects. Unfortunately, no systematic attempt has been made to test under what conditions CSEPP provides valid estimates. Purpose: As a first step in this direction, this research compared the performance of CSEPP in terms of bias when applied in various groups of participants with various levels of education, when used for assessing the effects on various outcome variables, and when employed with various question orders within the questionnaire. Setting: NA Intervention: The treatment used in this research was a short educational video, in which the audience is educated about important concepts and aspects of organ donation. Research Design: Because investigating bias in CSEPP is difficult at participant level, a series of 40 trials was conducted and bias was analyzed at trial-level. For each trial, the effect of the same treatment was estimated by CSEPP and compared with the effect estimated by a simultaneously conducted RCT. Afterwards, we analyzed differences between CSEPP and experimental results as a function of the conditions under which the single trials took place. Despite small sample sizes of the single trials, the meta-analysis was sufficiently powered to detect even small differences between CSEPP and RCT. Data Collection and Analysis: The data was collected via online surveys on a crowdsourcing portal. For data analysis, we applied meta-analytic methods such as random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. Findings: Results show that CSEPP provided accurate effect estimates, no matter under what conditions the method was applied.
... We used online self-report questionnaires to assess data, so social desirability, a well-known problem in questionnaire surveys, cannot be excluded. For future questionnaire studies, we advise to use instruments measuring the tendency of social desirability, for example, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) [86]. Moreover, earlier studies (e.g., [87]) found discrepancies between self-reported and actual use of SNSs, such as Facebook. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between personality traits, mental health variables and media use among German students. The data of 633 participants were collected. Results indicate a positive association between general Internet use, general use of social platforms and Facebook use, on the one hand, and self-esteem, extraversion, narcissism, life satisfaction, social support and resilience, on the other hand. Use of computer games was found to be negatively related to these personality and mental health variables. The use of platforms that focus more on written interaction (Twitter, Tumblr) was assumed to be negatively associated with positive mental health variables and significantly positively with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In contrast, Instagram use, which focuses more on photo-sharing, correlated positively with positive mental health variables. Possible practical implications of the present results for mental health, as well as the limitations of the present work are discussed.
... Present data were collected by online self-report measures that, despite of the guarantee of anonymity, are prone to social desirability. Therefore, we advise future studies with a similar design to include an instrument measuring the tendency of social desirability, for example the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) [68], to control the effect of social desirability post hoc in the calculations. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD) in a German student sample over a period of one year. While mean FAD level did not increase during the investigation period, a significant increase was shown in the number of participants reaching the critical cutoff score. FAD was significantly positively related to the personality trait narcissism and to negative mental health variables (depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms). Furthermore, FAD fully mediated the significant positive relationship between narcissism and stress symptoms, which demonstrates that narcissistic people can be specifically at risk to develop FAD. Present results give a first overview of FAD in Germany. Practical applications for future studies and limitations of present results are discussed.
... Even though our participants were instructed to respond spontaneously and honestly to the questions, social desirability effects cannot be ruled out. To reduce this problem, we suggest to include a questionnaire of social desirability in future studies, for example, the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002;Paulhus, 1984). ...
Article
Four studies investigated the construct validity of the brief version of the German Narcissistic Personality Inventory–13 (G-NPI-13). Study 1 (N= 603) confirmed the three-factor structure of the G-NPI-13 and its associations with the NPI-40 and the NPI-16. In Study 2 (N = 438), the convergent and discriminant validity of the G-NPI-13 was analyzed by investigating its relationships with the “Big Five,” self-esteem, and mental health variables (depression, anxiety, stress symptoms; life satisfaction, happiness, social support). Study 3 (N = 118) provided further support for the convergence between the G-NPI-13 and the NPI-40 by investigating their associations with vulnerable narcissism, self-monitoring, and mental health. In Study 4 (N = 82), the 1-year test-retest reliability (three measurement time points) of the G-NPI-13 was investigated. Taken together, the G-NPI-13 is a valid, reliable, and economical instrument for measuring the personality trait narcissism. Possible practical applications and limitations of the G-NPI-13 are discussed.
... In order to take the potential influence of socially desirable responding into account in the analyses, during the group testing session the participants also completed the German adaptation of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Musch, Brockhaus, & Bröder, 2002), consisting of 10 items for the subscale impression nxanagement (e.g., "There have been occasious when I have taken advantage ofsomeone" freverse scored]; a= .66) and another ten items for the subscale self-deceptive enhancentent (e.g., "I always i<now why I like things"; o : .60). ...
Article
In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that individuals' motivational tendency to engage in effortful information processing (i.e., their need for cognition; NFC) is positively related to their self-control capacity. This hypothesis was based on previous findings that effortful information processing and self-control both depend on a joint strength resource, and that this resource is boosted by frequent use. NFC was assessed via questionnaire. One week later, the participants (N = 46) completed a test of self-control capacity (Stroop Task). As expected, NFC was positively related to self-control capacity but unrelated to general processing speed.
... So the answers themselves could be a kind of selfpresentation, or impression-management (Mummendey, 2006). The tendency of social desirability can be measuring by the BIDR (Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding; Musch, Brockhaus, & Br€ oder, 2002;Paulhus, 1998;Paulhus, Bruce, & Trapnell, 1995). ...
Article
The social platform Facebook has more than one billion members in different countries. Cross-culturally, the way users behave on this platform relates to some personality traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate, whether Russian and German Facebook users differ in the extent of open and covert narcissism, self-presentation and social interaction on Facebook. Furthermore, we investigated, whether there is a comparable relationship between narcissism and Facebook use in these countries. To this end, the data of 72 Russian platform members were collected and compared with the data of 122 German members. The narcissism values did not significantly differ between the two samples. This was also the case with the overall self-presentation and interaction. In contrast, some single measures of online behaviour differ. For example, German users set more “Likes” and had more online-friends than Russian users. Russian platform members used more applications than German users. In each group, a positive association between the two forms of narcissism and online activity was found. So far, the positive relations between narcissism and self-presentation and social interaction on Facebook seem to be universal in Western and Eastern countries. http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1RmmL2f~UVvIjv
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The authors present a revised version of the Acceptance of Modern Myths About Sexual Aggression scale (AMMSA-21) in four languages (English, German, Polish and Spanish) and examine its reliability and validity (total N = 1,459). AMMSA-21 addresses themes emerging in recent public discourse (e.g., beliefs about false accusations) and contents similar to the original scale (e.g., antagonism towards victims’ demands); with 21 items, it is 30% shorter than the original. Factor analyses suggested that AMMSA-21 may be treated as a unidimensional construct. Across the four language versions, AMMSA-21 showed high internal consistency and criterion validity (positive correlations with hostile and benevolent sexism, social dominance orientation, right-wing authoritarianism); its scores were unrelated to socially desirable responding. Also, AMMSA-21 predicted judgements of victim-blaming and rape proclivity in relation to acquaintance-rape scenarios. Mean differences across language versions (Spanish < English = German < Polish) are discussed in terms of cultural influences. In sum, AMMSA-21 represents a reliable, valid and economical measure of contemporary sexual aggression myths.
Thesis
In Anbetracht der hohen Dropoutraten in der Psychotherapie (z.B. Wierzbicki, & Pekarik, 1993) scheint es zentral, die zugrundeliegenden Ursachen dafür zu erfor- schen und einen angemessenen Umgang damit zu etablieren. Deshalb soll im Rah- men dieser Arbeit die Frage geklärt werden, welche Faktoren Einfluss auf einen Dropout haben und wie damit umgegangen werden kann. Zur Klärung dieser Frage- stellung wurde einerseits elektronisch, andererseits manuell Literatur recherchiert. Insgesamt kann davon ausgegangen werden, dass nicht nur die Patientenmerkmale, sondern auch die therapeutenbezogenen Faktoren und die Beziehung zwischen den beiden einen Einfluss auf einen Dropout haben. Darüber hinaus spielen auch die Therapie und weitere Rahmenbedingungen eine wichtige Rolle. Für den Umgang mit Dropouts gibt es in der Praxis diverse Ansatzpunkte. Auch für die Auswertung erho- bener Daten in der Forschung gibt es ein Verfahren, um der Verzerrung der Resultate durch Dropouts vorzubeugen.
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Research demonstrates that IATs are fakeable. Several indices [either slowing down or speeding up, and increasing errors or reducing errors in congruent and incongruent blocks; Combined Task Slowing (CTS); Ratio 150-10000] have been developed to detect faking. Findings on these are inconclusive but previous studies have used small samples suggesting they were statistically underpowered. Further, the results’ stability, the unique predictivity of indices, the advantage of combining indices, and the dependency of how faking success is computed have still to be examined. Therefore, we reanalyzed a large data set (N = 750) of fakers and non-fakers who completed an extraversion IAT. Results showed faking strategies depend on the direction of faking. It was possible to detect faking of low scores due to slowing down on the congruent block, and somewhat less with CTS – both strategies led to faking success. In contrast, the strategy of increasing errors on the congruent block was observed, but not successful in altering the IAT effect in the desired direction. Fakers of high scores could be detected due to slowing down on the incongruent block, increasing errors on the incongruent block, and with CTS – all three strategies led to faking success. The results proved stable in subsamples and generally across different computations of faking success. Using regression analyses and machine learning, increasing errors had the strongest impact on the classification. Apparently, fakers use various goal-dependent strategies and not all are successful. To detect faking, we recommend combining indices depending on the context (and examining convergence).
Article
Self-presentation in a selection setting has largely been viewed as deviant and detrimental for validity, often simplified by the label “faking behaviour”. Yet, applicants may also express meaningful skills and motivation when presenting themselves. In this paper, we present an empirical test of a theory of self-presentation, which takes this position. By simulating a complete selection process, from choosing a position to final decision-making about job offers, we test several key assumptions the model made. If motivation was operationalized as willingness to deviate from true self-image, findings provide partial support for proposed antecedents of initial motivation, for motivational changes during the selection process, for the hypothesis that greater discrepancy between true self-image and perceived expectations lower the motivation to self-present and for expected effects of analytical self-presentation skills. Hardly any support was found for propositions if motivation was operationalized as willingness to adapt to perceived employer’s ideals and for proposed antecedents of analytical skills.
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Imposing and enforcing lockdown rules are effective means to decelerate the spread of SARS-CoV-2. That said, the effectiveness of these rules strongly depends on citizens’ compliance. Here, we investigate the extent to which lockdown compliance varies as a function of (a) time-variant factors (i.e., infection wave), (b) rule-related factors (i.e., length, intensity, and flexibility of lockdown), and/or (c) stable individual differences. Using latent-state trait modeling with panel data from 1,098 German individuals who reported on their willingness to comply with five lockdown scenarios at two time points (April and November, 2020), we show that a substantial amount of variance can be attributed to a latent trait. Using data from a third time point (January 2021; N = 834), we show that this latent trait is associated with honesty/humility and conscientiousness above and beyond social desirability. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
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This research examined the impact of sexual orientation on heterosexuals’ judgment of parental competence. Using a vignette approach, Study 1 presented participants with a lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couple who desired to have a child, either as adoptive parents or, in an additional heterosexual target condition, as biological parents. Study 2 presented a lesbian, gay, or heterosexual parent couple; heterosexual targets were either adoptive parents, reflecting the LG target conditions, or biological parents. Contradicting Hypothesis 1, neither target sexual orientation nor way to parenthood (with the latter varied in the heterosexual target condition only) had an impact on parental competence attributions. Confirming Hypothesis 2, participants with personal contact with lesbian and gay (LG) people provided higher ratings of LG target parental competence, mediated by positive attitudes toward homosexuality. Importantly, this mediation did not occur in the heterosexual target condition, corroborating the specificity of the intergroup contact effect.
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This paper presents a series of pre-registered analyses testing the same theoretically derived hypothesis: If (a) the attitudes that perceivers have toward targets contribute to the variance of judgments on most items, and (b) items’ rated social desirability values align very closely with the extent to which that is the case, then the product of two items’ mid-point-centered social desirability values should predict the amount of shared variance, and thus the correlation, between these items. This hypothesis applies equally to other ratings and self-ratings. Across samples, effect sizes ranged from r = .36 to r = .80 (average r = .61) and were statistically significant in every single case. We also found that the average effect is much larger for other-ratings (r = .71) than for self-ratings (r = .49). This difference was also replicable and is likely rooted in the greater relative importance of the attitude factor in other-ratings, as compared to self-ratings. An exploratory item resampling analysis suggested that scales may achieve good internal consistency, and correlate substantially with other scales, based solely on shared attitude variance. We discuss the relevance of these findings across different domains of psychological assessment, and possible ways of dealing with the issue.
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Using a vignette methodology, two studies examined the impact of sexual orientation and gender role orientation on heterosexuals’ attributions of parental competence and adoption suitability. Previous research (in domains other than parenthood) has repeatedly shown that lesbians and gay men are especially discriminated against if they transgress traditional gender roles. In Study 1, participants (N = 404) were sequentially presented with the two partners of a lesbian, gay, or heterosexual couple who desired to adopt a child. In terms of gender role orientation, the target couple was described as heterogeneous; one of the partners was described as feminine-communal and the other as masculine-agentic. In Study 2, participants (N = 516) were simultaneously presented with both partners of a lesbian, gay, or heterosexual adoption-seeking couple; the target couple either had a heterogeneous (as in Study 1) or a homogeneous gender role orientation (i.e., both partners were described as feminine-communal or masculine-agentic). Studies 1 and 2 consistently showed that parental competence and adoption suitability attributions depended on target gender role orientation alone. Feminine-communal partners (Study 1) and couples (Study 2) were perceived as more competent in parenting and more suitable for adoption than masculine-agentic targets; gender role heterogeneous couples fell in-between. Unexpectedly, attributions were independent of target sexual orientation and gender role conformity. Apparently, in times of growing acceptance of sexual orientation diversity and the general ideal of involved parenting, feminine communion outrivals masculine agency when it comes to the evaluation of prospective parents.
Article
The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) is among the most well-established instruments for the assessment of psychopathy. The PCL-R is a 20-item observer rating instrument based on file review and a semi-structured interview. The current study aimed to investigate the validity of the German adaptation of the PCL-R, its factor structure, construct validity, and association with socially desirable responding in a sample of male offenders ( N = 118). A parcel model with four facets and two factors yielded excellent model fit. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed based on correlational analyses, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrix, and a canonical correlation analysis (CCA) including measures of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), global personality dimensions, alexithymia, and impulsivity. The MTMM matrix as well as substantial associations with self-reported psychopathic traits and observer ratings of ASPD indicated convergent validity. Correlational analyses revealed that Factor 1 of the PCL-R was associated with low neuroticism, whereas Factor 2 was associated with impulsivity as well as with low agreeableness and conscientiousness. The PCL-R total score and Factor 2 were negatively correlated with impression management. Overall, the current findings support the validity of the German adaptation of the PCL-R.
Thesis
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In Germany distance education courses are very popular: Every year thousands of students begin a distance education course at a university. But studies of the prediction of academic performance in distance education are rare. Because psychology courses are one of the most popular ones and an accredited B. Sc. Psychology course is provided since 2008 by the University of Hagen, Germany, the potential predictors of grades in that distance course were examined. Essay 2 addresses the prediction of academic performance in distance education. Grades of 3647 students of the B. Sc. Psychology distance course at the University of Hagen were collected. A wide range of questionnaires and tests in the fields of intelligence, personality traits, coping, motivation, beliefs of control and skills, learning strategies and behavior (see Heller, 2001; Rindermann & Oubaid, 1999) was administered to examine the predictive validity of each measure. In addition, prior education (at school and if applicable at university) was taken into account. Results indicate the outstanding role of indicators of prior 10 academic performance (especially grades at school) for the prediction. Intelligence, traits, as well as specific learning strategies and learning behavior predict grades and show incremental validity beyond the high school grade point average.
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In achievement situations, individuals need to invest self-control in order to regulate their attention, thoughts, and emotions in a goal-directed manner. Research suggests that exerting self-control leads to decreasing self-control performance over time as a result of the short-term depletion of individuals’ state self-control capacity. In four studies, we validated a new version – the 5-item scale for measuring the momentary self-control capacity (SMS-5; English version available in Table 1) – of Ciarocco’s State Self-Control Capacity Scale (SSCCS) to assess changes in people’s perceived state self-control capacity (i.e., degree of perceived mental exhaustion) in achievement situations. Drawing on German samples of apprentices in vocational education and training (N = 2,395), tenth-graders (N = 129), and university students (N = 95; N = 140), we replicated the unidimensional internal structure of the SMS-5. Moreover, measurement invariance was supported for different groups of apprentices, for gender, and over time. The SMS-5 performed as well as the SSCCS in predicting achievement-related outcome variables and is a viable option for repeatedly assessing individuals’ perceived state self-control capacity and for tracking mental exhaustion over time. https://doi.org/10.1026/0012-1924/a000230
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Background Previous research has shown that achievement goals affect the frequency of academic dishonesty. However, mixed findings suggest that especially the effect of performance goals might depend on contextual factors. AimsWe wanted to investigate whether crucial aspects of the achievement situation influence the magnitude of the effect of performance goals (here: focused on appearance) on dishonesty. Specifically, we propose that social norms regarding the acceptance of dishonesty moderate the positive effect of performance goals on academic dishonesty. SampleWe sampled 105 German university students. They were in their first year at university and on average 20.6 (SD = 3.6) years old (72.4% female).Method We conducted a 2 (induced appearance goals versus no goal induction) x 2 (cheating confederate versus no observable cheating behavior by this person) experiment. A manipulation check confirmed that the manipulation of appearance goals was successful. Cheating behavior was observed by a confederate student and subsequently classified by two raters. Additionally, participants’ dishonesty in self-presentation questions was measured using deviations from baseline measures.Results The induction of appearance goals only led to increased cheating when the social norm suggested that cheating behavior was an acceptable way to increase performance (i.e., cheating confederate condition). For deceiving, we found a positive main effect of appearance goals and a negative interaction effect.Conclusions Taken together, our results highlight that the mixed findings on the effect of performance goals on academic dishonesty might be due to uninvestigated moderators such as social norms. Future research should build on these findings to identify additional moderators.
Preprint
Background Previous research has shown that achievement goals affect the frequency of academic dishonesty. However, mixed findings suggest that especially the effect of performance goals might depend on contextual factors.AimsWe wanted to investigate whether crucial aspects of the achievement situation influence the magnitude of the effect of performance goals (here: focused on appearance) on dishonesty. Specifically, we propose that social norms regarding the acceptance of dishonesty moderate the positive effect of performance goals on academic dishonesty. SampleWe sampled 105 German university students. They were in their first year at university and on average 20.6 (SD = 3.6) years old (72.4% female).Method We conducted a 2 (induced appearance goals versus no goal induction) x 2 (cheating confederate versus no observable cheating behavior by this person) experiment. A manipulation check confirmed that the manipulation of appearance goals was successful. Cheating behavior was observed by a confederate student and subsequently classified by two raters. Additionally, participants’ dishonesty in self-presentation questions was measured using deviations from baseline measures.Results The induction of appearance goals only led to increased cheating when the social norm suggested that cheating behavior was an acceptable way to increase performance (i.e., cheating confederate condition). For deceiving, we found a positive main effect of appearance goals and a negative interaction effect.Conclusions Taken together, our results highlight that the mixed findings on the effect of performance goals on academic dishonesty might be due to uninvestigated moderators such as social norms. Future research should build on these findings to identify additional moderators.
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Intimate partner violence against women (IPV) and sexual harassment are both widespread. Research on their causes and attitudinal correlates has rarely examined implicit, automatic cognitive associations related to the partner (in IPV aggressors) or to women (in sexual harassment offenders). The aim of the present research was to study these implicit associations in 129 male German students. Participants completed scales of hostile sexism (HS), masculine gender role stress (MGRS), short-term (STMO) and long-term mating orientation (LTMO), and proclivity to both IPV and sexual harassment. Next they performed a primed lexical decision task that measured whether concepts of violence, power, hostility, and sexuality were differentially associated with representations of women, men, and the participant’s own intimate partner. Results showed that implicit associations of own partner with violence as well as hostility were generally high but did not correlate strongly with the proclivity measures. Furthermore, the proclivity measures were positively predicted by HS, MGRS, and STMO, whereas LTMO negatively predicted IPV proclivity. Practice implications point to the need to address early socialization processes that may shape men’s negative associations with female partners. Some strategies to prevent and reduce these types of implicit associations are discussed.
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Self-serving response distortions pose a threat to the validity of personality scales. A common approach to deal with this issue is to rely on impression management (IM) scales. More recently, the overclaiming technique (OCT) has been proposed as an alternative and arguably superior measure of such biases. In the present study (N = 162), we tested these approaches in the context of self- and other-ratings using the HEXACO personality inventory. To the extent that the OCT and IM scales can be considered valid measures of response distortions, they are expected to account for inflated self-ratings in particular for those personality dimensions that are prone to socially desirable responding. However, the results show that neither the OCT nor IM account for overly favorable self-ratings. The validity of IM as a measure of response biases was further scrutinized by a substantial correlation with other-rated honesty-humility. As such, the present study questions the use of both the OCT and IM to assess self-serving response distortions.
Thesis
Sport psychological training and coaching has become increasingly relevant in the context of youth promotion programs in soccer. Likewise, numerous sport psychologists are integrated into support frameworks at clubs and associations. Scientifically sound diagnostics of personality characteristics can be regarded as an important foundation for the optimization of such sport psychological work. The present dissertation examined the relevance of psychological personality characteristics in talented soccer players in order to provide an empirical basis for the application of psychological diagnostics. For this purpose diagnostics of personality characteristics were implemented in the talent development program of the German Soccer Association. In accordance with previous research in sport science and psychology, a stepwise procedure was used to examine the prognostic value of personality characteristics. Taking into consideration a multidimensional, domain-specific, dynamic, and prospective understanding of talent, this procedure comprised four steps, which were addressed in three empirical studies as part of this dissertation. For the purpose of selecting potentially relevant predictors of soccer talent (Step 1), an analysis of the literature on psychological characteristics in talent research was conducted. Subsequently, the characteristics were presented to experts in science and soccer, whose task was to evaluate their importance for soccer performance. On this basis, psychological personality characteristics were selected that could be assigned to the areas of motivation, volition, self-referential cognition, and emotion. Regarding the personality characteristics’ assessment (Step 2), established sport-specific questionnaires were identified and the individual scales were modified in terms of soccer-specific and age-appropriate adaptations. Study 1 examined whether the personality characteristics of U12 soccer players could be assessed based on scientifically sound diagnostics. This study demonstrated that the modified questionnaires show satisfactory psychometric properties in terms of reliability and validity. Furthermore, these findings revealed small effects of socially desirable responding that should be further considered. With respect to development over time (Step 3), Study 2 provided useful insights into the stabilities and changes of psychological personality characteristics across the U12 to U14 age classes. Moderate differential stabilities imply that, to a certain degree, the relative ordering of individuals within such characteristics changes over time. Small mean- and individual-level changes indicate that no major developmental effects seem to occur in such personality characteristics during early adolescence. An analysis of structural stability provided empirical evidence concerning the complex interplay between various personality characteristics over time. Finally, Study 3 examined the relationship of U12 players’ personality characteristics with current and future performance criteria (Step 4). Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated that these characteristics – except for self-referential cognition – were empirically unrelated to motor performance. Furthermore, these analyses revealed small but relevant associations with the players’ overall performance as subjectively rated by their coaches. Prospective analyses indicated that U12 players’ personality characteristics explained significant proportions of the players’ performance level four years later in the U16 age class. Against the backdrop of a stepwise procedure in talent research, the present dissertation provided new insights into the relevance of psychological personality characteristics in talented soccer players. Building on these findings, this work identified avenues for future research and highlighted conclusions for sport psychological work in the context of talent identification and development.
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between the personality traits of the Dark Triad, the moral judgment level, and the students'disciplinary choice. It was hypothesized that students who major in higher business and management education show higher levels of the Dark Triad and lower levels of moral judgment competence (self-selection hypothesis). According to the indoctrination hypothesis it was assumed that the differences between business and management students and other students would be higher in advanced semesters. The findings suggest that business and management students show higher levels of the Dark Triad but not of moral judgment competence. However, there was no evidence found for a higher difference in advanced students.
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Scenario-techniques or vignettes have been frequently used in the analysis of sensitive topics. However, up to now it remained an open question whether vignettes as an indirect technique of attitudes measuring lead to more valid measures of sensitive topics as classical, direct measures, e.g. with items. The study is based on the assumption that the detailedness of the descriptions and the disposition to respond in a socially desirable way will have an impact on the assessment of attitudes towards pro-social behaviors. In particular, the assumption that more detailed vignettes lead to more honest responses is analyzed on the basis of two split-ballot experiments. In one experiment, the vignettes refer to the experience of a pro-social opportunity in everyday life. This experiment focuses on a concrete situation of everyday life experience. In another experiment, the vignettes refer to pro-social opportunities in 'ordinary life'. Here, the special normative expectations towards the concrete situation are of interest. Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) of adult inhabitants of a German city aged 18 to 65 were carried out (n = 560). Logistic and OLS-regression analysis revealed the result that the presence and intensity of responsibility for pro-social behavior depended on the detailedness of the vignettes only in vignettes that are related to 'ordinary life' referring to normative expectations. The results are discussed with regard to the underlying methodological assumptions.
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Human resource (HR) managers play a vital role in hiring new employees. We administered a web-based questionnaire to a convenience sample of HR managers’ who were members of the Council of Hotel and Restaurant Trainers (CHART) to assess their attitudes towards workplace diversity, perceptions of ethical hiring within their organization, and their definition of ethical hiring. Significant differences were observed between attitudes towards ethical hiring and HR managers’ ethnicity, and between organizational size and perceptions of ethical hiring within organizations. Given the diversity of today's labor market, findings from this study have potential for impacting training of HR managers and hiring of foodservice personnel.
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Previous research has conceptualized dispositional envy as a general construct that does not vary across comparison domains. In five studies (N = 1393), we examine dispositional envy as a domain-specific construct. In Study 1, we present the development of a domain-specific measure of dispositional envy. Across samples from different populations and two countries (Studies 2 and 3), the measure is shown to have good reliability, construct validity and stability over three months, highlighting the trait-like character of the construct. State levels of envy were also examined in the academic domain (Study 4) and in dyadic interactions between unacquainted participants (Study 5). Results show a Person × Situation Interaction effect (i.e. Dispositional Envy × Situation) on experiences of envy. By placing domain-specific dispositional envy into a network of similar and dissimilar constructs, the current findings serve as a foundation for drawing conclusions about the nature of dispositional envy. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Personality Psychology
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Gender-fair language, that is, referring to men and women with symmetrical linguistic forms, has been found to promote gender equality, but it is largely unknown which factors help make gender-fair forms more common in everyday life. Two studies examined whether speakers of German used more gender-fair forms after reading a text with gender-fair wording (vs. masculine generics vs. no personal nouns vs. another topic). Both studies showed consistently that women used more gender-fair forms after reading the gender-fair text than the other texts, whereas men did not. Men employed more gender-fair forms only after being made aware of these forms (Study 2). To conclude, merely reading gender-fair texts enhances women’s inclination to use gender-fair language, whereas men need to be made aware of this type of language use. Both studies highlight the importance of using gender-fair language frequently and consistently in everyday life.
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In psychological assessment, we aim for the most accurate description of some cognitive or behavioral attribute. In assessment involving self-reports, this objective is invariably haunted by the possibility of misrepresentation. Certainly we would be sceptical of self-reports of intelligence, perhaps because of its universal desirability. Among the few qualities typically rated as even more desirable than intelligence is having a good personality. Thus it seems dangerous to ignore the possibility that at least some respondents systematically misrepresent their own personality.
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To examine the claim that self presentation distorts the structure of personality dimensions, 370 subjects were asked to respond as job applicants to a measure of the Big Five personality traits and two measures of socially desirable responding (SDR): Self-Deceptive Enhancement and Impression Management. They were randomly assigned to respond using one of seven strategies: fake the best possible candidate, fake good without arousing suspicion, play up your good points, respond honestly, be modest, fake bad without arousing suspicion, fake worst. The SDR scales and the Big Five were highly intercorrelated under all strategies except honest responding. Further analyses suggested that the high intercorrelations were due to outliers, not to a true convergence of dimensions. It was concluded that self presentation can either inflate or deflate intercorrelations among evaluative scales. Self presentation in individuals was best diagnosed by the Impression Management and Conscientiousness scales.
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A review of the extant literature and new empirical research suggests that social desirability is not much of a concern in personality and integrity testing for personnel selection. In particular, based on meta-analytically derived evidence, it appears that social desirability influences do not destroy the convergent and discriminant validity of the Big Five dimensions of personality (Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). We also present new empirical evidence regarding gender and age differences in socially desirable responding. Although social desirability predicts a number of important work variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and supervisor ratings of training success, social desirability does not seem to be a predictor of overall job performance and is only very weakly related to specific dimensions of job performance such as technical proficiency (r = -.07) and personal discipline (r = .05). Large sample investigations of the moderating influences of social desirability in actual work settings indicate that social desirability does not moderate the criterion-related validities of personality variables or integrity tests. The criterion-related validity of integrity tests for overall job performance with applicant samples in predictive studies is .41. Controlling for social desirability in integrity or personality test scores leaves the operational validities intact, thereby suggesting that social desirability functions neither as a mediator nor as a suppressor variable in personality-performance and integrity-performance relations. Theoretical explanations of why social desirability does not influence criterion-related validity are reviewed.
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Die “Social Desirability Scale” von Crowne und Marlowe (1960), SDS-CM, erfreut sich nach wie vor großer Beliebtheit. Dasselbe gilt für die deutsche Fassung (Lück & Timaeus, 1969). Nach 40 Jahren ist es jedoch fraglich, ob die SDS-CM noch zeitgemäß ist bzw. ob sich nicht neue Items finden lassen, die einen höheren Grad an sozialer Erwünschtheit aufweisen. Vier Studien werden beschrieben, in denen eine neue Skala im Stil der Crowne-Marlowe-Skala entwickelt und überprüft wird. Das Ergebnis ist die Soziale-Erwünschtheits-Skala-17 (SES-17). Diese umfaßt 17 Items. Reliabilität und konvergente Validität sind zufriedenstellend: Die interne Konsistenz liegt bei .72 bis .75, die Retest-Stabilität über vier Wochen bei .82 und die Korrelation mit der SDS-CM bei .67 bis .74. Damit ist die SES-17 ein der SDS-CM vergleichbares Verfahren, ist jedoch ökonomischer (17 statt 23 Items) und zeigt höhere Augenscheinvalidität: Eine Stichprobe von 49 Beurteilern schätzte die Items beider Skalen bezüglich sozialer Erwünschtheit ein. Die SES-17-Items erhielten signifikant und bedeutsam höhere Ratings als die SDS-CM-Items.
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Presents 4 studies (with a total of 440 Ss) that investigate the convergent validity, discriminant validity, and relationship with age of the Social Desirability Scale-17 (SDS-17). As to convergent validity, SDS-17 scores showed correlations between .52 and .85 with other measures of social desirability. With respect to the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, SDS-17 scores showed a unique correlation with impression management, but not with self-deception. As to discriminant validity, SDS-17 scores showed nonsignificant correlations with neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, and openness to experience, whereas there was some overlap with agreeableness and conscientiousness. With respect to relationship with age, the SDS-17 was administered in a sample stratified for age, with age ranging from 18 to 89 yrs. In all but the oldest age group, the SDS-17 showed substantial correlations with the Marlowe-Crowne Scale. The influence of age (cohort) on mean scores, however, was significantly smaller for the SDS-17 than for the Marlowe-Crowne Scale. In sum, results indicate that the SDS-17 is a reliable and valid measure of social desirability, suitable for adults of the target age range.
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Many psychologists still regard correlations with social desirability (SD) scales as evidence of the invalidity of measures, despite 20 yrs of research showing that this interpretation is usually unjustified. Although items or scales may be characterized as high or low in SD, there is little evidence that individuals differentially respond to this property when completing self-report questionnaires under normal instructional conditions. In an attempt to separate substance from style in SD scales, self-reports from 215 27–89 yr olds were compared to the external criterion of spouse ratings on a range of personality traits in the domains of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience (the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Inventory). When self-reports were "corrected" using scores from the Eysenck Personality Inventory Lie scale and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, validity coefficients decreased in most cases. Both scales were substantively related to neuroticism and, to a lesser degree, to extraversion and closedness. Results suggest that correlations with SD scales should be given substantive rather than artifactual interpretations and that the widespread practice of correcting scores for lying, defensiveness, or SD should be questioned. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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One research tradition has distinguished self-deception, the tendency to give favorably biased but honestly held self-descriptions from impression management, the tendency to give favorable self-descriptions to others. A 2nd tradition has distinguished enhancement, the claiming of positive attributes, from denial, the repudiation of negative attributes. The 2 distinctions were evaluated jointly in 3 studies with a total of 937 undergraduates. Factor analyses showed that impression management items (both enhancement and denial) loaded together. Self-deception items split up: Enhancement items formed a 2nd factor, whereas denial items fell closer to the impression management factor. Of the 4 types, self-deceptive enhancement best predicted adjustment. These results clarify the constructs of enhancement and denial. The critical distinction is not simply one of keying direction but whether the item content refers to a positive or negative attribute. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR; Paulhus, 1994) is a widely used instrument to measure the 2 components of social desirability: self-deceptive enhancement and impression management. With respect to scoring of the BIDR, Paulhus (1994) authorized 2 methods, namely continuous scoring (all answers on the continuous answer scale are counted) and dichotomous scoring (only extreme answers are counted). In this article, we report 3 studies with student samples, and continuous and dichotomous scoring of BIDR subscales are compared with respect to reliability, convergent validity, sensitivity to instructional variations, and correlations with personality. Across studies, the scores from continuous scoring (continuous scores) showed higher Cronbach's alphas than those from dichotomous scoring (dichotomous scores). Moreover, continuous scores showed higher convergent correlations with other measures of social desirability and more consistent effects with self-presentation instructions (fake-good vs. fake-bad instructions). Finally, continuous self-deceptive enhancement scores showed higher correlations with those traits of the Five-factor model for which substantial correlations were expected (i.e., Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness). Consequently, these findings indicate that continuous scoring may be preferable to dichotomous scoring when assessing socially desirable responding with the BIDR.
Article
The measurement of social responsibility as a disposition is based on the Berkowitz & Daniels-scale. The German translation attains satisfactory test statistics. In addition, two subscales have been developed: fulfillment of justified expectations of others and adherence to social rules. The validity results arc encouraging: Social responsibility is positively correlated with empathy and internal locus of control and negatively with uncertainty. The correlations with responsibility denial are in the expected direction for males, while null correlations are obtained for females. The results for females arc explained by the fact that the subscales correlate in the opposite direction with responsibility denial. Finally, results indicate that social responsibility and prosocial behavior covary.
Article
Persönlichkeitszüge spielen als Indikatoren einer Vulnerabilität für psychische Erkrankungen eine immer größere Rolle in der psychiatrischen Forschung. Probleme ihrer Erfassung werden hier anhand eigener Beiträge zur Methodenentwicklung, auf diesem Gebiet besprochen. Für prospektive wie für retrospektive Studien eignen sich Persönlichkeitsinventare zur Selbst- oder Fremdbeurteilung (durch einen Informanten). Sie sollten kurz und doch differenziert genug sein, um die Hauptdimensionen der Persönlichkeit, die sog. "Big Five", erfassen zu können. Als Beispiele werden der Münchner Persönlichkeits-Test (MPT) und der Sechs-Faktoren- Test (SFT) vorgestellt, die sich bereits in klinischen, poliklinischen und "high-risk"-Studien bewährt haben. Für retrospektive Untersuchungen kommt außerdem ein neu entwickeltes Verfahren zur operationalisierten Diagnostik von Persönlichkeitstypen anhand biographischer Krankengeschichtsangaben in Frage. Von diesem Ansatz ausgehend haben wir neuerdings ein Biographisches Persönlichkeits-Interview (BPI) ausgearbeitet, dessen Anwendung in Verbindung mit der von multidimensionalen Persönlichkeitsinventaren derzeit ein Optimum in der Erfassung prämorbider Persönlichkeitszüge psychiatrischer Patienten darstellen dürfte.
Article
Response bias continues to be the most frequently cited criticism of personality testing for personnel selection. The authors meta-analyzed the social desirability literature, examining whether social desirability functions as a predictor for a variety of criteria, as a suppressor, or as a mediator. Social desirability scales were found not to predict school success, task performance, counterproductive behaviors, and job performance. Correlations with the Big Five personality dimensions, cognitive ability, and years of education are presented along with empirical evidence that (a) social desirability is not as pervasive a problem as has been anticipated by industrial-organizational psychologists, (b) social desirability is in fact related to real individual differences in emotional stability and conscientiousness, and (c) social desirability does not function as a predictor, as a practically useful suppressor, or as a mediator variable for the criterion of job performance. Removing the effects of social desirability from the Big Five dimensions of personality leaves the criterion-related validity of personality constructs for predicting job performance intact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Personality traits play an increasing role in research on the vulnerability to mental disorders. Problems of their assessment are dealt with here with special reference to work of our own in this area. Personality inventories for self-rating or informants' rating are appropriate instruments for retrospective as well as prospective investigations. They should be short and, at the same time, suites for the assessment of the main dimensions of personality, the "Big Five". The Munich Personality Test (MPT) and the Six Factor Test (SFT) serve as examples in this context. They were already successfully applied in clinical and outpatient settings and in "high-risk" studies. In retrospective investigations, a newly developed method for the operationalized diagnosis of personality types from case history data can be used as well. On the basis of this approach, we have recently developed a Biographical Personality Interview (BPI) which, in combination with personality inventories, can be regarded an optimal device for the assessment of premorbid personality in psychiatric patients.
Article
The Self-Deceptive Enhancement and Impression Management scales of the Paulhus (1991) Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding were correlated with the Psychoticism, Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales of the Eysenck EPQ-R (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991) in a student sample. Extraversion correlated positively and Neuroticism correlated negatively with Self-Deceptive Enhancement, whereas Psychoticism correlated negatively and the Lie scale correlated positively with Impression Management. These findings suggest that the EPQ-R scales are involved in different aspects of socially desirable responding. It was concluded that social desirability should not be controlled in measures of Extraversion and Neuroticism but it should be controlled in measures of Psychoticism.
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