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Abstract

Vaginitis is a rare disease in adult female dogs. However, knowledge regarding this illness is important because, if secondary to reproductive tract anomalies that go uncorrected, it can cause ascending uterine infections and, consequently, subfertility or even infertility. Usually, these infections are caused by Enterobacter or microorganisms from the urogenital inferior system, such as Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella, etc. In some cases, vaginitis may be caused by primary infections with Brucella canis, which is zoonotic, or by canine herpesvirus; both of these agents have the potential to cause reproductive failure. The disease can occur in any age, breed or ovarian condition and can be identified by vaginal cytology, vaginoscopy and culture of vaginal secretions. The most common clinical signs are erythema of the vaginal mucous, vaginal discharge, pollakiuria, licking of the vulva and attraction of male dogs, independent of the phase of the estrous cycle. This disease is generally self-limiting, and the treatment, when necessary, consists of antibiotic therapy, vaginal cleaning with antiseptic and, eventually, surgical correction of predisposing abnormalities.

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... Vaginitis can occur in any age or breed, and in both intact and spayed bitches. The causes of vaginitis can be very diverse, and include bacterial infection, viral infection (e.g., herpes virus type I-HVC I), fungal infection (however, it is very rare), hyper-or hypoestrogenism, urinary tract infection or urinary incontinence, genital infections such as pyometra, metritis or uterine stump abscess, vaginal trauma, chemical irritation due to urovagina, mechanical irritation caused by foreign bodies or tumors, anatomic abnormalities of the genitourinary system and vaginal atrophy after being spayed [1,2]. We distinguish juvenile vaginitis from adult bitch vaginitis depending on age and sexual maturity. ...
... are the most commonly isolated bacteria from both healthy and infected (vaginitis) bitches [2]. Other authors have also shown the presence of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella haemolytica [1]. ...
... Vaginitis may be self-limiting, and treatment, when necessary, includes therapy with an antibiotic (or antibiotics), vaginal cleaning, and/or surgical correction of predisposing abnormalities. If left untreated or if improperly treated, it may lead to subfertility or infertility [1]. ...
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Vaginitis in female dogs is a problem most veterinarians face in their practice. It manifests as localized inflammation, and its variable etiology and different severities often make diagnosis problematic. The study consisted of comparing blood smears taken from 16 animals: 8 healthy bitches and 8 bitches with confirmed vaginitis. We analyzed the percentage of different types of white blood cells (leukogram) and changes in the shape of red blood cells (erythrogram) in both groups. We observed changes in red blood cell morphology, i.e., a higher percentage of lacrimocytes and schistocytes in female dogs with vaginitis compared to their healthy counterparts. The observed hematological changes may illustrate the severity of inflammation. The analysis of erythrograms showed a significantly higher percentage of lacrimocytes and schistocytes in diseased bitches (1.58 ± 1.19% and 0.13 ± 0.12%) compared to healthy animals (0.58 ± 0.38 and 0.00 ± 0.00, respectively). The obtained results may indicate that the analysis of erythrograms throughout the course of vaginitis in bitches may constitute a diagnostic tool, as opposed to the analysis of leukograms, which is more sensitive when it comes to the systemic inflammatory response of the organism. It seems that simultaneous analysis of erythrograms and leukograms may facilitate the diagnostic process in clinical practice.
... Vaginitis, or inflammation of the vagina, is a rare disease in dogs that is generally considered to be primary, secondary, or age-related and in most cases, is o en self-limiting [1][2][3][4][5][6]. e treatment for vaginitis, when necessary, consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, oral probiotics, vaginal cleaning with an antiseptic, and/or surgical correction of predisposing anatomical abnormalities [1,3,4,7]. ...
... Vaginitis, or inflammation of the vagina, is a rare disease in dogs that is generally considered to be primary, secondary, or age-related and in most cases, is o en self-limiting [1][2][3][4][5][6]. e treatment for vaginitis, when necessary, consists of systemic antibiotic therapy, oral probiotics, vaginal cleaning with an antiseptic, and/or surgical correction of predisposing anatomical abnormalities [1,3,4,7]. While surgical intervention for vaginitis is uncommon and o en not required, subtotal vaginectomy has been described for the treatment of extensive chronic vaginitis in a dog [8]. ...
... While a urinary tract infection cannot be ruled out as primary cause, the patient's focal disease makes the differential seem less likely, as does the complete resolution of signs postoperatively. Other causes for secondary vaginitis include trauma, foreign bodies, and vaginal masses [1][2][3][4]7], none of which were found in the case presented. ...
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A 1-year-old sexually intact female Labrador Retriever was evaluated for malodorous vaginal discharge, lethargy, and vomiting. A diagnosis of pyometra was suspected based on signalment, clinical signs, and abdominal ultrasonography. The dog underwent an exploratory celiotomy revealing a palpably enlarged cervix and edematous, fluid-filled vagina with an otherwise normal uterus. The ovaries, uterus, cervix, and cranial vagina were surgically resected. Histopathology revealed mild to moderate regionally extensive subacute neutrophilic cervicovaginitis due to an unknown underlying etiology. The dog did not exhibit any postoperative complications or recurrence of clinical signs in 6 months. This case represents an unusual disease condition, which presented in a manner typical for pyometra, yet required more extensive surgical resection.
... A study presented here has described the effect of pharmacological treatment using aglepristone prior to surgical intervention and reported that such treatment could reduce tumor size, but not density assessed by Shear Wave Elastography benign tumor models. Vaginitis is an inflammatory process of the vagina and is a common problem found in clinical practice [6]. A study examined the link between hematological parameters and vaginitis and reported the potential value of leukogram as a diagnostic tool for vaginitis. ...
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Reproduction in canids has been characterized by having some peculiar aspects, such as the extended reproductive cycle and ovulation of immature oocytes [...]
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Este trabalho verificou a utilização do diagnóstico citológico, como método de identificação de afecções em cães e gatos domiciliados no município de Barra-BA atendidos no Hospital Veterinário Universitário (HVU) da Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia (UFOB). O estudo foi realizado a partir da análise de amostras citológicas relativas aos casos clínicos atendidos nos anos de 2018 e 2019. Foram atendidos 711 animais, desses contabilizadas 105 (101 caninos e 4 felinos - 59 fêmeas e 46 machos) solicitações do exame citológico. A maioria dos animais (28,57%) apresentavam de 6 a 10 anos, prevalecendo os animais Sem Raça Definida (62,38%). Os processos inflamatórios foram diagnosticados em 43,80% dos casos, identificados como de causa infecciosa em 86,90% (30% por Leishmania spp., 27,5% infecções bacterianas, 27,5% pela levedura Malassezia spp. e outros 15% por associação deste fungo a bactérias). Os processos inflamatórios de origem não infecciosa foram registrados em 13,10% casos (84% infiltrados de células inflamatórias e 16% como dermatite por lambedura). Observou-se processos não inflamatórios em 19,05% das amostras, sendo 95% de origem neoplásica, (63,15% TVT, 21,05% Carcinoma de Células Escamosas, 10,05% Adenocarcinoma e 5,30% Tricoblastoma). Já entre os processos não inflamatórios e não neoplásicos (5%) diagnosticou-se um cisto epidérmico (100%). A aplicabilidade do diagnóstico citológico em cães e gatos denota importância uma vez que, auxiliou médicos veterinários na confirmação de suspeitas clínicas, permitindo a emissão de laudos diagnósticos, estabelecimento de tratamentos e dados epidemiológicos que possibilitam a implantação de medidas de controle das enfermidades.
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Dogs from 12 commercial breeding kennels were submitted to clinical investigation and laboratorial tests for diagnosis of Brucella spp. infection. The sampling was carried out between April 2000 and February 2002 and the laboratorial tests employed were agar gel immunediffusion test (AGID) and blood culture. From 171 dogs examinated, 39 (22.8%) showed at least one clinical sign compatible with brucellosis, 58 (33.91%) were AGID positive and 24 (14.03%) were positive by blood culture. Gram negative bacterial cells with a biochemical pattern compatible with that of bacteria belonging to genus Brucella were isolated from blood specimens of 24 animals. According to Kappa index and McNemar test, the association between AGID and blood culture (k=0.360 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=25.93, p=0.000), between AGID and clinical test (k=0.248 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.11, p=0.013), and between blood culture and clinical examination (k=0.442 with 95% of confidence interval; X²=6.76, p=0.009) were not statistically significant. Qui-Square test indicated no association of sex and the results of clinical examination (X²=1.35 and p=0.2447), AGID (X²=1.58 and p=0.2086) or bacterial isolation (X²=1.48 and p=0.2230). Within 12 kennels, seven had at least one dog positive by blood culture and nine had at least one animal positive by AGID. The association of epidemiological data with direct and indirect methods of diagnosis is necessary to perform a definitive diagnosis of Brucella infection in dogs, as positive results by AGID can be consequence of non-specific reactions and must be confirmed by blood culture. Negative results by AGID must also be confirmed using direct methods of diagnosis or repeating the serologic test after 30 days, because of the low sensitivity of this test.
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Descrevem-se os achados clínicos e patológicos e os exames laboratoriais de filhotes de cães com diagnóstico post mortem de infecção por herpesvírus canino. Os casos ocorreram em duas propriedades da Cidade de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, em abril de 2007 e julho de 2008. Clinicamente, os cães apresentaram anorexia, apatia, choro e dispneia. A morte dos cães ocorreu após 24-72 horas do início dos sinais clínicos. Na necropsia observaram-se hemorragia multifocal renal e hepatomegalia com petéquias e pontos brancos na superfície natural do fígado. Os pulmões se apresentaram não-colapsados e vermelhos. Havia esplenomegalia e, em alguns cães, petéquias na superfície capsular do baço. Aumento dos linfonodos mesentéricos e do timo foi observado. Lesões microscópicas incluíram hemorragia e necrose multifocal em células epiteliais tubulares renais, hepatócitos e tecidos linfoides. Nos pulmões, havia necrose alveolar multifocal acentuada com abundante material fibrinoso e infiltrado inflamatório misto de intensidade variada. Ocasionais corpúsculos de inclusão intranucleares em áreas periféricas à necrose foram identificados em hepatócitos, células epiteliais de túbulos renais e células alveolares. Amostras de fígado, rim e pulmão foram positivas na imunofluorescência direta para herpesvírus canino tipo 1 (CHV-1). O diagnóstico de infecção por herpesvírus foi baseado nos achados de necropsia, histológicos e de imunofluorescência positiva em tecidos usando anticorpo anti-CHV-1. De nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro relato da identificação do CHV-1 no Brasil, embora achados clínico-patológicos anteriores já sugerissem a presença do agente na população canina do país.
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The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%), and mongrel dogs (56.2%), showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.
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The prevalence of canine brucellosis was evaluated in the city of Alfenas, MG through the technique of agarose gel imunodifusion for Brucella canis and slow serum agglutination test with 2-mercaptoetanol for Brucella abortus. The prevalence was of 14.2% and 2.8%, respectively, for B. canis and B. abortus. The positives, characterized by animals above one year of age (77.8%), and mongrel dogs (56.2%), showed a prevalence of 50 and 48% for males and females, respectively. The canine brucellosis was prevalent in the city principally in dogs of outskirts.
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We compared the serological status of Brucella canis and canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) in Finnish breeding kennels with and without reproductive problems. Dogs from kennels with reproductive problems had significantly higher CHV-1 titres than dogs from kennels having no reproductive problems (p < 0.001). In dogs from kennels with reproductive problems 100% (32/32) had positive titres, whereas in dogs from kennels without reproductive problems 65% (22/34) had positive titres. The median titre for dogs from kennels with reproductive problems was 1 : 160 and for dogs from kennels without reproductive problems 1 : 80. The high prevalence of positive CHV-1 titres in this study indicates that prevention of the disease is difficult and reinforces the need to minimize the reproductive problems caused by CHV-1. All 388 dogs from 94 kennels had negative B. canis titres.
Article
The diagnosis of chronic vaginitis is made primarily on the basis of the historical and physical finding of a persistent, nonhemorrhagic vulvar discharge. Licking the vulva and pollakiuria are present in some (10%) bitches with vaginitis. The diagnosis can be confirmed with vaginal cytology and vaginoscopy. Treatment for vaginitis in bitches younger than 1 year of age is justifiably conservative, because the majority of such bitches (90%) recover with or without treatment. Chronic vaginitis in bitches older than 1 year of age most often is associated with identifiable abnormalities of the genitalia (35%) or urinary tract (26%). Resolution of the vaginitis is directly related to the resolution of the other abnormalities.
Article
Chronic vaginitis is the most common vaginal disorder. Dogs with vaginitis show no signs of systemic illness but often lick at the vulva and have purulent or hemorrhagic vaginal discharges. Vaginitis is most commonly secondary to a noninfectious inciting factor such as congenital vaginal anomalies, clitoral hypertrophy, foreign bodies, trauma to the vaginal mucosa, or vaginal tumors. Inspection of the caudal vagina and vestibule both visually and digitally will often reveal the source of vaginal irritation. Vaginal cytology is used to establish the stage of the estrous cycle as well as distinguish uterine from vaginal sources of discharge. Vaginal cultures are used to establish the predominant offending organism associated with vaginal discharges and may be used as a guide for selection of a therapeutic agent. Vaginitis is best managed by removing the inciting cause and treating the area locally with antiseptic douches. Congenital malformations at the vestibulovaginal or vestibulovulvar junction may prevent normal intromission. Affected bitches may be reluctant to breed naturally because of pain. Such defects are detected best by digital examination. Congenital vaginal defects may be corrected by digital or surgical means. Prolapse of tissue through the lips of the vulva may be caused by clitoral hypertrophy, vaginal hyperplasia, or vaginal tumors. Enlargement of clitoral tissue is the result of endogenous or exogenous sources of androgens. Treatment of this condition includes removal of the androgen source and/or surgical removal of clitoral tissue. Vaginal hyperplasia is detected during proestrus or estrus of young bitches. Hyperplastic tissue will regress during diestrus. Tissue that is excessively traumatized and/or prolapse of the entire vaginal circumference may be removed surgically. Ovariohysterectomy may be used to prevent recurrence. Vaginal tumors are detected most often in older intact bitches. Such tumors are generally of smooth muscle or fibrous tissue origin and benign. Surgical excision of the tumor combined with ovariohysterectomy is usually curative.
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An epidemiological survey investigated the prevalence of canine herpes virus-1 antibodies in a population of 325 pet dogs in England. Sera were analysed for the presence of canine herpes virus-1 neutralising antibody by means of a serum neutralisation test and for virus-specific IgG and IgM by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In contrast with published results from other parts of the world, canine herpes virus-1 infection was shown to be common among the domestic dog population of England.
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Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) is presumed to be enzootic in the dog population and is associated with fertility disorders and neonatal mortality. In this study we screened for risk factors affecting CHV-1 antibody titers and investigated the association between antibody titers and reproductive disorders. Therefore, serum from 545 dogs used for reproduction was analysed with an ELISA. Using a forward stepwise procedure and retaining significant risk factors (P<0.05), best fitting multifactorial generalized linear model (glm) procedures were built for males and females. The effect of antibody titers on reproductive disorders was analysed with logistic regression analysis. The association between reproductive disorders and seroprevalence was analysed in chi-square analyses using contingency tables. In both sexes, kennel cough and breeding management were found to have an impact on the CHV-1 antibody titer. Also, the influence of kennel cough on the antibody titer was correlated to the hygienic status of the kennel. In females, age, kennel size and cycle stage had an effect on CHV-1 antibody titers. Furthermore, kennel size and hygiene were found to be correlated. In males, mating experience had an impact on CHV-1 antibody titers. An association was observed between serological status and a history of abortion in bitches. In conclusion, this study suggests CHV-1 antibody titers may be affected by many factors, both on an environmental and host level. Therefore, interpretation of the serological status requires precaution. Furthermore, oronasal and venereal transmission seem to play a role in the spreading of infection.
Article
Canine infertility has many causes that must be considered during evaluation of abnormal reproductive function. An important infectious agent is Brucella canis. Classically deemed a major reason of abortion, this organism also produces infertility in stud dogs and poses a potential health hazard to dogs and humans. The State of Georgia has, out of necessity, instigated regulations to manage outbreaks and seek compliance by educating the pet owner population about this disease. A review of its etiology, methods of transmission, pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, serology and culture, pathology, treatment options, and regulated prevention featured by Georgia, are presented.
Article
Canine herpesvirus (CHV-1) causes neonatal deaths as well as infertility due to embryonal death, abortion and stillbirths in breeding kennels. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against canine herpesvirus in the serum of dogs older than 1 year in breeding kennels in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A serum neutralization test (SNT) and a newly developed enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to test the serum samples of 328 dogs in 38 breeding kennels. With SNT as well as ELISA, 22% of sera were positive (P>0.9). Seventeen kennels (45% of total kennels) each had at least one positive dog on SNT compared with twenty kennels (53% of total kennels) that each had at least one positive dog on ELISA (P=0.6). The prevalence of positive dogs in positive kennels was 42+/-26% (n=17 kennels) for SNT and 39+/-26% (n=20 kennels) for ELISA. Pairwise comparison of kennels showed that the prevalence of SNT positive dogs was similar to the prevalence of ELISA positive dogs (P=0.3, n=38 kennels). Seroprevalence was independent of age, gender or colony size. This study suggests that canine herpesvirus is sufficiently common in breeding dogs in the Gauteng Province of South Africa to pose a threat to neonatal survival and fertility.
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Among the causes for pregnancy loss, viruses and non-infectious factors are among the most important. In both dogs and cats, research and clinical evidence provide proof that there is an increasing incidence of pregnancy loss associated with infectious diseases like herpesvirus, as well as the presence of toxicants or chemicals in the animal's diet and environment. Endocrine causes must be taken into consideration when dealing with pregnancy loss. This review will cover the most recent knowledge regarding viral and non-infectious of pregnancy losses in the dog and cat.
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Brucella spp. Isolation from dogs from commercial breeding kennels in São Paulo estate
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Reproductive diseases of the female small animal
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Clinical and pathological findings in dogs naturally infected by herpesviruses canino1. Brazilian Veterinary Research
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Brucellosis -a systematic review
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Textbook of veterinary internal medicine
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PURSWELL, B. J.; Vaginal disorders. In: ETTINGER, S. J.; FELDMAN, E. C. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 6 th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2004. v. 2, chap. 253, p. 1686-1690.
Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease. 4 th
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