Article

Psychological Benefits of Indoor Plants in Workplaces: Putting Experimental Results into Context

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Abstract

Laboratory experiments and quasi-experimental field studies have documented beneficial effects of indoor plants on outcomes such as psychophysiological stress, task performance, and symptoms of ill health. Such studies have taken an interest in the value of indoor plants in work settings, but they typically have not considered how the effects of plants might compare with effects of other workplace characteristics. The present study makes an initial attempt to situate the potential benefits of indoor plants in a broader workplace context. With cross-sectional survey data from 385 Norwegian office workers, we used hierarchical regression analyses to estimate the associations that plants and several often-studied workplace factors have with perceived stress, sick leave, and productivity. Other variables included in our models were gender, age, physical workplace factors (e.g., noise, temperature, lighting, air quality), and psychosocial workplace factors (demands, control, social support). After controlling for these variables, the number of indoor plants proximal to a worker's desk had small but statistically reliable associations with sick leave and productivity. Although small, such associations can have substantial practical significance given aggregation over the large number of office workers over time.

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... Bringslimark et al. [40] Korpela et al. [41] Lee et al. [42] * Schempp et al. [31] Schoemaker et al. [43] Toyoda et al. [44] * Yin et al. [3] A brief analysis of the papers selected was performed in order to provide a context for the research described in them. Figure 1 shows relevant information concerning the publication in terms of year and field of research. ...
... The unit of measure refers to the number of plant individuals, regardless of species or size. In the reviewed works, some authors tend to report the number of pots [40,43], with the assumption that each pot contains one individual plant. In Irga et al. [24] each pot is planted with two plants to compensate for eventual losses, which are not further specified. ...
... Testing space in an existing real-life indoor environment, with users performing their usual daily routines. The majority of the real-environment spaces tested are office spaces [17,36,40,41,43,44] or similar (photocopy center [30], a greenhouse used as office space [31], "room" not further defined but supposedly an office setting [13,42]). Other spaces tested include a classroom [35], indoor atriums [16,34], and private homes [41]. ...
Article
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The introduction of green plants in indoor spaces has raised a great amount of interest motivated by plants’ supposed capacity to improve the quality of indoor built environments. Subsequent studies have covered a broad range of topics, testing plants in indoor environments for their climate-mitigating effects, acoustic benefits, potential energy savings and the enhancement of the indoor microbial communities. Despite the diversity of focus in these studies, no major breakthroughs have been made involving the use of plants in indoor environments after nearly thirty years of research. To identify major inconsistencies and gaps in the research, this review, of an explorative nature, presents an analysis of plant-related parameters reported in 31 cases of experimental research involving the use of plants in indoor environments. The papers were identified by searching the online databases Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Scopus and MDPI and were selected based on their relevance to the topic and diversity of focus. Two classifications in table form provide an overview of the 38 plant-related parameters used in the reviewed research. The conclusions drawn from the analysis of the tables highlight a strongly anthropocentric frame of reference across the majority of the studies, which prioritize human and experimental convenience above plant physiology, and display an overall scarcity and inconsistency in the plant-related parameters reported.
... Results on work performance and other organisational outcomes in the presence of indoor plants have been more mixed. Bringslimark et al. (2007) found evidence for increased self-reported productivity, while Nieuwenhuis et al. (2014) found that the presence of plants improved self-reported productivity but not supervisors' ratings of productivity. In two survey studies Bringslimark et al. (2007) found that the presence of plants increased sick leave whereas Bjørnstad et al. (2016) found that plants decreased sick leave. ...
... Bringslimark et al. (2007) found evidence for increased self-reported productivity, while Nieuwenhuis et al. (2014) found that the presence of plants improved self-reported productivity but not supervisors' ratings of productivity. In two survey studies Bringslimark et al. (2007) found that the presence of plants increased sick leave whereas Bjørnstad et al. (2016) found that plants decreased sick leave. In another organisational outcome, Dravigne et al. (2008) found that job satisfaction was significantly related to the presence of plants whereas Shoemaker et al. (1992) found no such relationship. ...
... Study 1 seeks to confirm, within a controlled laboratory environment, whether indoor plants or pictures of plants have a significant impact on evaluations of the work environment (Dijkstra et al., 2008;Lohr & Pearson-Mims, 2000) and work performance (Knight & Haslam, 2010;Lohr et al., 1996;Raanaas et al., 2011;Shibata & Suzuki, 2002). Studies 2 and 3 are fieldwork studies to examine whether the findings from the experimental laboratory conditions are robust in real office environments with regards to self-reported physical health (Bjørnstad et al., 2016;Bringslimark et al., 2007;Evensen et al., 2013;Fjeld, 2000), evaluations of the work environment (Evensen et al., 2013;Nieuwenhuis et al., 2014;Shoemaker et al., 1992), and perceived work performance (Nieuwenhuis et al., 2014). Finally, previous research (Hartig et al., 2011;Mayer et al., 2009) suggests that a person's relationship with nature might moderate these processes. ...
Article
Laboratory studies, mostly with students as samples, consistently demonstrate the psychological benefits of indoor plants. However, these findings do not always translate into benefits for employees in real work contexts. In three studies, this paper first looked to replicate the findings of previous laboratory studies for the South African context and then to assess whether these findings were robust in two call centre field studies. In the laboratory study, the condition with indoor plants performed statistically better on three measures of work performance. These positive outcomes could not be replicated in two field studies using various proxy measures of performance and wellbeing (perceived productivity, perceived physical and psychological health, work engagement, job satisfaction, and evaluations of the work environment) with varying lengths of exposure to indoor plants (6 weeks in Study 2 and 14 weeks in Study 3). The moderating role of connectedness to nature (Studies 1 and 2) was not supported while the moderating role of attractiveness of the plants (Study 3) was only partially supported in Study 3. These results are discussed in relation to the differences between laboratory and field studies, specifically in the context of call centre agents.
... The ev i dence sup ports the use of ei ther outdoor or in door na ture ex po sure for re duc ing both phys i cal and psycho log i cal stress among of fice work ers. Bringsli mark et al. [ 43 ] however found no as so ci a tion be tween ex po sure to in door plants and stress as sessed with a con text -free mea sure. Al though this re sult is con trary to the other stud ies [e.g. ...
... For ex am ple, out door na ture ex po sure re duces stress and in creases stress cop ing. Restor ing di rected at ten tion through na ture ex po sure can con tribute to re duc ing or mit i gat ing psy cho log i cal stress [ 43 ]. How ever, the im pact of restora tion on stress is in di cated as sec ondary be cause not all ex haustion of di rected at ten tion would lead to stress. ...
... • Largo -Wight et al. [ 61 ] • Korpela et al. [ 42 ] • Korpela et al. [ 41 ] • Lottrup et al. [ 45 ] • McFarland [ 46 ] • Shin [ 47 ] • Cinderby and Bagwell [ 36 ] • Gilchrist et al. [ 37 ] • van Esch et al. [ 22 ] • Hyvönen et al. [ 30 ] • • Colley et al. [ 31 ] • Jahncke et al. [ 34 ] • Loder [ 39 ] • Ayuso Sanchez et al. [ 50 ] • • Bringslimark et al. [ 43 ] • • Haynes et al. [ 60 ] • • Lottrup et al. [ 38 ] • • Colley et al. [ 32 ] • • • Bjornstad et al. [ 52 ] • • • Kim et al. [ 44 ] • • • strongly re lated to pos i tive psy chol ogy that will positevely af fect both ob jec tive and sub jec tive health. Em ploy ees' per for mance can be assessed us ing sev eral vari ables in clud ing job per for mance and pro ductiv ity. ...
Article
Mental health, a key component of social sustainability, costs £1.6 trillion globally and office workers are among the most affected. However, social sustainability is the least considered sustainability dimension by businesses. Although the literature associates human exposure to nature with positive mental health, there are limited critical reviews of nature exposure impact on office workers. The aim of this research was to demonstrate the impact of nature exposure on office workers by consolidating empirical research evidence and to provide insight into how it can contribute to achieving integrated sustainability. A total of 42 peer-reviewed journal articles that met the inclusion criteria were selected. A systematic review following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) framework was conducted. The results show that indoor nature exposure contributes to social sustainability through its impact on workers' health and motivation while outdoor nature exposure contributes to economic, environmental and social sustainability through its impact on workers' restoration, stress reduction and stress coping. Workplace design should therefore embed both indoor and outdoor nature exposure to maximise impacts on employees and achieve integrated sustainability. The nature exposure network developed in this research will facilitate design decisions regarding nature exposure in workplaces to maximise the impact on employees’ well-being and performance.
... The relationship between human and nature is crucial to reestablish a built environment that is conducive to the human health; known as 'biophilic design' (Kellert 2008). Apparently, the previous studies were based only on ornamental plants and conducted in contemporary buildings: in a greenhouse (Lee et al. 2015), in an indoor office (Jumeno and Matsumoto 2015), in a reverberation chamber of a university (Asdrubali et al. 2014;D'Alessandro, Asdrubali, and Mencarelli 2015), and many others. In Malaysia, the use of Malay local knowledge in edible and medicinal plants can be found in villages and smaller rural towns. ...
... The patrons were able to visually access the courtyard with relaxing and calming feeling while enhancing their biophilia experience (P1). According to Asdrubali et al. (2014) and Wolverton (1996), plants can act as sound absorbers. ...
... laurentii, and D. reflexa are recommended to be placed in an indoor environment to purify the air. Boston fern or N. exaltata is also an air purifier as well as a noise absorber (Wolverton 1996;Asdrubali et al. 2014). E. palaefolius is neither the purifier nor noise absorber. ...
Article
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Biophilic design is a well-known design philosophy based on human-nature relationships. However, it has not been explored extensively in the Malaysian context and most of the previous studies were based on plants which were not suitable for tropical climate. This paper analyses the application of biophilic design and the usage of local edible and medicinal plants in Baba-Nyonya heritage shophouses' courtyards in George Town UNESCO World Heritage Site, Penang, Malaysia. The aim of this research is to enhance the human quality of life through biophilic design with local knowledge application in the urban setting. Qualitative method strategies were applied to collect the data: photographic survey, plant inventory and building observation. Three heritage shophouses that had been adaptively reused into contemporary cafes were selected for this study. Significant results showed that Biophilic Design Pattern under the 'visual connection with nature (P1)' has been achieved through the application of edible and medicinal plants. Unfortunately, the local knowledge for applying edible and medicinal plants for achieving biophilic design compliance is weak. In the future, a further study is needed to identify the species of local edible and medicinal plants which can be applied in the Baba-Nyonya heritage shophouses courtyards.
... Empirical studies proved nature brings positive impacts on occupants' well-being. There are a growing number of research groups using experimental or quasiexperimental research designs to test the effect of nature on occupants in many factors such as productivity, stress, and discomfort symptoms, mood, emotions, job satisfaction and attitude toward indoor workplace (Adachi, Rohde, & Kendle, 2000;Bringslimark, Hartig, & Patil, 2007;Chang & Chen, 2005;Lohr, Pearsons-Mims, & Goodwin, 1996;Shibata & Suzuki, 2004). Therefore, in order to enhance occupants' well-being in an adaptive reuse of heritage indoor co-working space, the relationship between occupants, nature is an essential aspect to be re-established. ...
... Nature is not only important for physical but also bring positive impacts on human well-being through passive interaction with nature. One of the most investigated aspects is human productivity and supports recovery from mental fatigue (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Larsen, Adams, Deal, Kweon, & Tyler, 1998;Lohr et al., 1996;Shibata & Suzuki, 2001, 2002, 2004). In addition, some studies have investigated that nature is able to reduce stress and discomfort symptoms and improve human mood and emotions (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Lohr et al., 1996;Adachi et al., 2000;Chang & Chen, 2005). ...
... One of the most investigated aspects is human productivity and supports recovery from mental fatigue (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Larsen, Adams, Deal, Kweon, & Tyler, 1998;Lohr et al., 1996;Shibata & Suzuki, 2001, 2002, 2004). In addition, some studies have investigated that nature is able to reduce stress and discomfort symptoms and improve human mood and emotions (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Lohr et al., 1996;Adachi et al., 2000;Chang & Chen, 2005). Patients in a hospital with plants showed significant impact of well-being resulted in shorter hospitalisation periods, fewer intakes of analgesics, lower ratings of pain, anxiety, and fatigue, more positive feelings and higher satisfaction of their rooms in the hospital. ...
Research
Full-text available
Modern lifestyles do influence Malaysian occupants to work long hours in a day in order to cope with large workloads and to meet a deadline. Majority of the occupants are overstressed, faced with negative emotions that lead to an unhealthy lifestyle. Studies show that nature is able to enhance human well-being by reconnecting human with natural elements in a built environment, which is known as biophilic design. Therefore, this study aims to create a biophilic design guideline to enhance occupants' well-being in heritage adaptive reuse indoor co-working space. This study is conducted in the Heritage World Site (WHS) in George Town, Penang. Mixed method research design was used to collect data from the site. Both qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using the triangulation method to validate the overall data and research by cross verifying the information from multiple methods to gather the data. The results proved that the existing biophilic design patterns do enhance co-workers' emotional well-being significantly and it can be used as design guideline. In addition, this study also investigated different ways of biophilic design patterns application which can affect the quality of biophilic experiences.
... Air temperature, humidity, and noise pollution also differ in different seasons and, at other times, inevitably cause interference to the test subjects. Therefore, real-time monitoring of air temperature, humidity, and noise changes is usually conducted in many outdoor experimental tests (Bringslimark, 2007;Kim et al., 2021). The Simma AS817 instrument monitored air temperature and humidity in this experiment. ...
... Suppose it reduces visual fatigue and alleviates working pressure. In that case, the green plant can create a relatively relaxed and cheerful bedroom environment atmosphere, which is beneficial to the health of a person's body and mind (Bringslimark, 2007). At the same time, plants positively impact people to complete creative tasks. ...
Article
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Objectives With the deepening of non-drug intervention research on human mental health, more and more attention has been paid to the benefits of horticultural activities and green exercise on physical and psychological health. This study compared the affect improvement between horticultural activities with the same intensity and green exercise and that with or without green plants to verify the value of horticultural activities and green exercise in improving human affect and the importance of green plants. Methods A total of 160 subjects aged 18–26 years (average age 22.5 years) were recruited and randomly divided into a control group, a horticultural activity group with green plants, a horticultural activity group without green plants, and a green exercise group. Demographics, sociological variables, and daily physical activity levels were investigated. Green space at Zhejiang Normal University was selected as the test site. After finishing the preparation work, the subjects sat quietly for 8 min before the pre-test. The horticultural group completed 20 min of horticultural activities {8 min of digging [40%*HRR(heart rate reserve) + RHR(resting heart rate)] + 8 min of transplantation [(50%*HRR + RHR) + 4 min of watering (30%*HRR + RHR)]}. The group returned to a calm state (no less than 20 min) for the post-test. The green exercise group completed a 20-min power bike ride. The activity intensity and activity time of the green exercise group were determined according to the activity intensity and time of the horticultural group. Dependent variables were collected, including blood pressure, positive/negative affects, heart rate variability (RMSSD, SDNN, and LF/HF), and controlled covariate environmental parameters (field temperature, humidity, and noise). Results (1) A significant difference was observed in the improvement effect except for negative affect between the green horticultural activity group and the green exercise group ( F = 3.310; ɳp ² = 0.046; p = 0.037). No significant difference was observed in other affect indicators. (2) In the same pattern of with and without green plant horticultural activity group, the green plant horticultural activity group had a better effect on the improvement of affect, and the two groups had a better negative affect ( F = 3.310; ɳp ² = 0.046; p = 0.037), SDNN index of heart rate variability( F = 1.035; ɳp ² = 0.015; p = 0.039), and RMSSD index ( F = 2.225; ɳp ² = 0.032; p = 0.014), and no significant difference was observed in the improvement effect of other affect indicators between the two groups. Conclusions Having green horticulture can give the same intensity as green exercise and affect improvement. Findings suggest that people can choose green exercise or horticultural activities according to their preferences and physical characteristics in the two physical activities. Under the same pattern of horticultural activities, green plants are the key factor in improving the affect of horticultural activities. Choosing suitable plant types in horticultural activities is positively significant in enhancing affect.
... The significant mental health effects stemming from the bleak urban environment can be combatted through inclusion of nature into the workplace, which enables workers to reap the cognitive effects outlined by ART [8,[17][18][19][20]. ...
... Studies conducted in the work environment suggest that exposure to plants helps people to feel less anxious, less fatigued, and more awake; in fact, the effects of nature are so strong that even exposure to nature through a window improves perceived wellbeing [8,17]. Additionally, research highlights that greenery in the workplace enhances employee productivity and satisfaction, fostering an environment where workers feel and perform better [18][19][20]. ...
... The interior health design offers lighting mimicking natural daylight that supports the biorhythms and indoor plants and green walls. The green interior and exterior design is aesthetic, but is also an opportunity for restoration and stress relief in an urban working life e.g., [61][62][63]. The building´s health design incorporates facilities to promote a healthy lifestyle, e.g., multi-purpose sports courts, an edible garden, and a demonstration kitchen for healthy cooking. ...
... In addition, convenient staircases encourage employees to take the stairs, in line with research that regards architecture a tool for physical activity [64,65]. Consistent with the Corporate Social Responsibility movement [53], so called CSR, the Midibank Place invites the surrounding community to use the building´s amphitheater, cafes, shops, and a public park [61]. Support of social responsibility is found in architectural research on its impact on a sense of community and place attachment [66,67]; socalled social wellbeing is positive for the social dimension of health, [59,68]. ...
Article
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This explorative case study investigates health-promoting office design from an experience and meaning-making perspective in an activity-based flex-office (A-FO) in a headquarter building. This small case study (n = 11) builds using qualitative data (walk-through and focus group interviews). A reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of the experience of design approach was performed on this from a health and sustainability perspective, including the physical, mental, and social dimensions of health defined by WHO. Results show a wide range in participants' experiences and meaning-making of the health-promoting office design of their office building. The control aspect plays a central role in participants' experiences, including factors such as surveillance and obeyance, related to status and power, in turn associated with experiences of pleasantness, symbolism , and inclusiveness. Three main themes are identified in participants´ experiences: (1) comfort -non-comfort, (2) outsider-insider, and (3) symbolism. The major finding of the study is the ambiguity among participants about the health-supportive office design of the office building per se and its various environments. There is a sense that it is chafing, due to dissonance between the intention of the office and the applied design.
... Nontheless, it is also worth to note that too many plants (17.88% of total space) in an office may not contribute to the improvement of productivity that required repetitive action with focused attention. Meanwhile, Bringslimark et al. (2007) suggest different views, their findings demonstrated that more plants in view in workplaces are associated with greater productivity and lesser sick leave, although the number of plants the researchers reported in their study are less than . Interestingly, Shibata and Suzuki (2004) postulate indoor plants may improve task performance of female occupants than male occupants. ...
... In fact, one study suggests that complaints regarding cough, fatigue, feeling of heavy-headed, headache, hoarse throat and dry or flushed facial skin were decreased by 23% to 37% with the presence of plant (Fjeld, 2000). There is also less reliable statistical finding of having more plants in view with lower stress (Bringslimark et al., 2007). The reasons might be due to the plants were perceived less attractive in the indoor environment (e.g. ...
Article
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People tend to spend approximately 87% of their time in the indoor environment. There is a possibility that they are exposed to volatile organic compound (VOC) and particle pollution, and to experience stress related disorder. This has potential threaten the well-being of indoor occupants if left untreated. Hence, plants were introduced to alleviate these negative impacts. This paper reviews past literature from 1990 to 2010s, to examine the relationship of plants with indoor environment and identifies how they influence people, psychologically and physiologically, and how they promote indoor environment quality. Most studies suggest that the presence of plants is associated with positive feelings and able to enhance productivity. In addition, they also may help to promote general health such as reducing blood pressure, perceived stress, sick building syndrome, and increase pain tolerance of the patient. Moreover, plants also help in improving the indoor environment quality (IEQ), for instance, they can reduce carbon dioxide (CO2), indoor ozone (O3) level, VOC, and particulate matter accumulation through bioremediation process. Despite all the benefits that the plants could offer, several studies pointed out that factors such as gender, perceived attractiveness of the space, physical characteristics of plants, and methods of interaction with plants may lead to non-identical results. Hence, the selection of the right species of plant in an indoor environment becomes mandatory in order to improve the indoor environment quality; to provide restorative effect; to invoke positive feelings and comfort of the people. In conclusion, this review may provide notable insights to landscape architects, gardeners and even interior designers to choose the right species of plant in an indoor environment, to maximize their psychological and physiological benefits, at the same time, improving indoor environment quality.
... Bringslimark [30] attempted to discuss the potential benefits of indoor plants in a broad workplace context. Several studies have examined the positive effects of indoor plants on outcomes such as psychophysiological stress and ill health's task performance. ...
... For instance, "How often did you feel nervous and stressed during the last four weeks?" Sick leave was measured with a single question: "How many days last year have you been absent due to your own illness?" [30] . Productivity level was measured by four questions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, several studies demonstrate that viewing nature has positive effects on human health and well-being. This essay discusses about the essential methods of viewing natural environment and their impacts on human well-being by clarifying four important theoretical models: reducing stress, lowering heart rate, improving outcome of surgery, and increasing attention. In addition, some important research results in this field are taken as examples to introduce research methods. By collecting and organizing existing studies and theories about the relationship between viewing nature and human well-being, the methods of viewing nature can be divided into two parts: viewing nature through specific media (e.g., through a window, a book, a painting or a videotape) and being with the presence of nature. This study aims to clarify the research significance of viewing nature and find deficiency in this field to maximize the role of landscapes in human health and well-being.
... Bringslimark et al. 17 conducted a self-diagnosis survey of the job stress and task performance of 385 Norwegian white-collar workers and found that the workers showed higher job satisfaction and task performance in indoor environments with plants. According to the 2015 Human Spaces Report, 18 a survey of 7600 workers from 16 countries revealed that workers in an office utilizing biophilic design had a 15% more positive emotional state and 6% higher task performance than workers in an office without biophilic design elements. ...
... In the previous studies about biophilic design, plants inside office buildings enhanced the occupants' task performance, 15,17 while interaction with elements of nature improved attention and working memory. [49][50][51] However, the statistical results of this study contradict the results of the previous studies. ...
Article
As the time spent indoors increases significantly due to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic, creating an indoor environment to promote the health of occupants has become critical. Although green walls efficiently realize a healthy indoor environment, few studies have analyzed their impact on occupants based on the visual element of green walls. This study measures the emotional impact, task performance, and task load of the subjects according to four virtual experiments (a non‐green wall, a freestanding green wall, two freestanding green walls, and a full‐sized green wall). The results of the four experiments are as follows: (i) The visual elements of the green wall had an emotional impact on the occupants, which was verified through the Friedman test; (ii) the effect of the visual elements of the green wall on the task performance of the occupants was not verified by the one‐way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA); and (iii) the task load of the occupants influenced their task performance, which was verified by the repeated‐measures ANOVA. This study can help determine the optimal type and area of green walls by considering their impact on the occupants as well as on the economic and constructional aspects of the indoor space.
... The majority of the participants, however, were college students. Only six studies recruited office workers [54][55][56][57][58][59], five studies recruited patients [60][61][62][63][64], two studies recruited junior high school students [65,66], and one study recruited high school students as participants [67] ( Table 2). The records generally did not focus on only one measure of human functions. ...
... Regarding cognitive functions, when indoor plants were present, participants exhibited higher academic achievement [66,86] and better performance in various cognitive tasks [58,71,75,77,78,84,87,94]. In health-related functions, with exposure to indoor plants, participants less frequently took sick leave [54,55,65,67], consumed fewer pain killers [61,63,64], and had fewer hospitalization days [64] than participants in environments where indoor plants were absent. In behavioral functions, participants presented greater pain tolerance of putting hands in cold water [80,85] and less misconduct [65] when indoor plants were in the room than when indoor plants were not in the room. ...
Article
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The influences of indoor plants on people have been examined by only three systematic reviews and no meta-analyses. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of indoor plants on individuals’ physiological, cognitive, health-related, and behavioral functions by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses to fill the research gap. The eligibility criteria of this study were (1) any type of participants, (2) any type of indoor plants, (3) comparators without any plants or with other elements, (4) any type of objective human function outcomes, (5) any type of study design, and (6) publications in either English or Chinese. Records were extracted from the Web of Science (1990–), Scopus (1970–), WANFANG DATA (1980–), and Taiwan Periodical Literature (1970–). Therefore, at least two databases were searched in English and in Chinese—two of the most common languages in the world. The last search date of all four databases was on 18 February 2021. We used a quality appraisal system to evaluate the included records. A total of 42 records was included for the systematic review, which concluded that indoor plants affect participants’ functions positively, particularly those of relaxed physiology and enhanced cognition. Separate meta-analyses were then conducted for the effects of the absence or presence of indoor plants on human functions. The meta-analyses comprised only 16 records. The evidence synthesis showed that indoor plants can significantly benefit participants’ diastolic blood pressure (−2.526, 95% CI −4.142, −0.909) and academic achievement (0.534, 95% CI 0.167, 0.901), whereas indoor plants also affected participants’ electroencephalography (EEG) α and β waves, attention, and response time, though not significantly. The major limitations of this study were that we did not include the grey literature and used only two or three records for the meta-analysis of each function. In brief, to achieve the healthy city for people’s health and effective functioning, not only are green spaces needed in cities, but also plants are needed in buildings.
... Exposure to nature (e.g., trees, vegetation, plants, foliage, bodies of water, etc.) has been shown to generate beneficial and restorative effects on psychological and physiological well-being, including enhanced emotional affect, reduced stress, and improved cognitive functioning (Berman, Jonides & Kaplan, 2008;Berto, 2005Berto, , 2010Browning, de Kort, Meijnders, Sponselee & IJsselsteijn, 2006;Grinde & Patil, 2009;Gullone, 2000;Hartig, Böök, Garvill, Olsson & Gärling, 1996, 1991Herzog, Black, Fountaine & Knotts, 1997;Jiang, Chang & Sullivan, 2014;McMahan & Estes, 2015;Raanaas, Evensen, Rich, Sjøstrøm & Patil, 2011;Saeidi-Rizi, McAnirlin, Yoon & Pei, 2020;Tyrväinen et al., 2014;Ulrich, 1981;Ulrich et al., 1991;Van den Berg, Koole & van der Wulp, 2003). The benefits of nature environments can also enhance workplace and job satisfaction, reduce sick-days, and may even improve income (Bringslimark, Hartig & Patil, 2007;Browning & Heerwagen & Orians, 1986;Kweon, Ulrich, Walker & Tassinary, 2008;Leather, Pyrgas, Beale & Lawrence, 1998;Rigolon, 2019). ...
Article
Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to nature environments versus urban environments can help restore cognitive processing and improve overall well-being. The current study examined the restorative effects of nature on creativity using virtual backgrounds during videoconferencing on Zoom. Eighty participants completed the Alternative Uses Test (AUT) of creative divergent thinking when viewing one of three different virtual background images: nature setting, urban setting, plain grey background (control). Results showed that the nature background facilitated higher creativity performance compared to either the urban or control backgrounds (which did not significantly differ from each other). The results are discussed in terms of practical implications for workplace and educational environments that involve videoconferencing sessions between users.
... Nieuwenhuis et al. (2014) and Fjeld (2000) found that indoor plants had no impact on levels of concentration. Bjørnstad, Patil, and Raanaas (2015) found that plants decreased sick leave whereas Bringslimark, Hartig, and Patil (2007) found that the presence of plants increased sick leave and had no impact on self-reported stress levels. Evensen et al. (2015) found that neither selfreported restoration nor directed attention was significantly affected by the presence of indoor plants. ...
Article
This study investigated whether indoor plants were as effective as guided meditation for enabling psychological recovery after fatigue induced by the abbreviated vigilance task. Sixty students were randomly assigned to an indoor plant, guided meditation, or control rest-break condition. The psychological processes most in need of recovery were identified as cognitive and affective restoration. Measures of affect, stress, and working memory were taken before and after the vigilance task, and again after a rest intervention. The vigilance task induced fatigue as shown by a significant vigilance decrement and also significantly lowered positive affect and cognitive engagement, and significantly increased distress across all three conditions. After exposure to the break interventions, distress significantly decreased for participants in the indoor plant break condition while distress significantly decreased and engagement significantly increased in the guided meditation break condition. Indoor plants and guided meditation had a small, but significant positive impact on affective restoration and no significant impact on cognitive restoration. Practitioner summary: Indoor plants are a cost-effective green ergonomics intervention in offices. This study found that a rest break with indoor plants was as effective as a rest break with guided meditation for affective restoration after fatigue from a vigilance task.
... For example, offices with a view of natural elements are known to improve job satisfaction and well-being, reduce stress and bad moods, and also reduce the number of sick days compared to offices without natural elements (e.g. Bringslimark, Hartig & Patil, 2007;Kweon et al., 2008). Even hospitals with a view of natural landscapes induce better recovery, less stress and lower pain perception (e.g. ...
Article
Numerous studies have shown a beneficial effect of exposing people to natural landscapes and plants on their well-being and attentional functioning. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a natural virtual environment on creativity in a task consisting of sketching ideas of creative solutions to a problem. The participants in this experiment were asked to sketch ideas of innovative workstation for a person in a wheelchair. To do this, they used a virtual reality sketching tool. They performed this task once in a neutral environment (all in the dark), one in a natural virtual environment (forest) and once in a non-natural environment (office). The results revealed that people tend to be more creative in this task when they are immersed in a natural environment than when they are in a neutral environment without any vegetation.
... Overall, a huge number of studies have shown that being in a natural environment, or even just looking at natural elements, improves cognitive functioning, including attention and memory (Berto 2005;Berman et al. 2008;Berto et al. 2010;Raanaas et al. 2011), in addition to reducing perceived or physiological stress (Ulrich 1981;Hartig et al. 1991Hartig et al. , 1996Ulrich et al. 1991;Van den Berg et al. 2003;de Kort et al. 2006;Valtchanov et al. 2010;Tyrväinen et al. 2014). For example, offices with a view of natural features are known to improve job satisfaction and well-being, reduce stress and low mood, and also reduce sick leave compared to offices without natural features (Heerwagen and Orians 1986;Leather et al. 1998;Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Bringslimark et al. 2007;Kweon et al. 2008). Even hospitals with a view of natural landscapes induce in their patients better recovery, less stress and lower pain perception (Ulrich 1984;Lechtzin et al. 2010;Beukeboom et al. 2012). ...
... Most previous studies on indoor greenery were related to workplaces, especially office spaces or classrooms (Raanaas et al., 2011;Han and Ruan, 2019). In addition, studies conducted in experimental settings have yielded mixed findings (Bringslimark et al. 2007(Bringslimark et al. , 2009). It is not clear how these findings translate to a situation where the daily loops of an individual are confined to the home environment for a prolonged period. ...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly changed people’s ability to recreate in public green spaces, which is likely to exacerbate the psychological impacts of the pandemic. In the current study, we seek to understand whether greenery can support mental health even with insufficient outdoor exposure in times of physical isolation from the outdoor environment. Methods: Between 17 May and 10 June 2020, we conducted an online survey among 323 students (21.99 ± 3.10 years; 31% male) in health-related programs from two universities in the city of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Severities of depressive and anxiety symptoms over the past two weeks were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale. We employed two self-reported measures of greenery experienced indoors (number of houseplants in the home and proportion of exterior greenery visible from inside the home) and two measures of greenery experienced outdoors (presence/absence of a domestic garden and availability of neighborhood greenery). Restorative quality of the home (the "being away" dimension of the Perceived Restorativeness Scale; PRS) and the neighborhood (the “being away” and “fascination” dimensions of the PRS), engagement with outdoor greenery (frequency of different types of interaction) and perceived social support were treated as mediators. Associations between greenery and mental health were tested using generalized linear regression and logistic regression. Structural equation modelling (SEM) techniques were used to test the theoretically-indicated relations among the variables. Results: Clinically-meaningful symptoms of moderate depression and anxiety were reported by approximately 33% and 20% of the students, respectively. The relative abundance of greenery visible from the home or in the neighborhood was associated with reduced depressive/anxiety symptoms and lower depression/anxiety rates. Having more houseplants or a garden was also associated with some of these markers of mental health. As hypothesized, the mental health-supportive effects of indoor greenery were largely explained by increased feelings of being away while at home. Neighborhood greenery contributed to neighborhood restorative quality, which in turn facilitated social support and more frequent engagement with greenery, and that led to better mental health. Conclusions: Students who spent most of their time at home during the COVID-19 epidemic experienced better mental health when exposed to more greenery. Our findings support the idea that exposure to greenery may be a valuable resource during social isolation in the home. However, causal interpretation of these associations is not straightforward.
... As well known, many people face significant stress in the workplace, which often deteriorates their performance and health. It has been reported that indoor plants reduce the discomfort symptoms of workers in offices (Fjeld et al., 1998;Wood et al., 2002;Bringslimark et al., 2007;Toyoda et al., 2020). The newly developed mini-PFAL products for office use are expected to relieve the stress of workers, allow them to relax moderately, and increase their vitality and productivity ( Fig. 15.5). ...
Chapter
Mini-plant factories with artificial lighting (mini-PFALs) have been creating many new, revolutionary opportunities for entrepreneurs in the private as well as public sectors to improve the quality of life in urban areas for a wide range of human life, encompassing various fields of life, such as foods, amusements, health, and environments. This chapter introduces the main applications and business models of mini-PFALs in Asia and Europe. In both regions alike, mini-PFALs are designed in various styles and added with a variety of different functions for use in restaurants, homes, supermarkets, public spaces, and urban communities. It is also demonstrated that the cost performance of commercial mini-PFAL business models is high enough to attract entrepreneurs, though it is quite sensitive to the price of outputs mini-PFALs produce, the acquisition cost of the mini-PFAL system, and the wage rate.
... In addition to its general ecological benefits, it has positive mental and physical effects on people. Proximity to urban green space can enable people to maintain the ability to concentrate for longer (Bringslimark et al., 2007;Hartig et al., 2003;Matsuoka, 2010), has a stress-reducing effect (World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, 2016), and can ameliorate feelings of loneliness (Maas et al., 2009). Further, proximity to a natural environment can encourage people to engage in physical activity, promote relaxation and recreation, and strengthen social cohesion (European Environment Agency, 2020). ...
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In recent years, multiple-burden maps were developed as a tool for assessing environmental health inequities in cities. Maps of this kind are particularly useful in identifying disadvantaged neighbourhoods. In the case of Erlangen (Germany), the historical development of poorer neighbourhoods may mean that their situation as regards environmental assets is relatively favourable. However, urban renewal often precipitates the redistribution of environmental “goods” and “bads” in such a way as to place a disproportionate burden on socio-economically deprived people and privilege the better-off. This type of environmental microsegregation occurs on a scale below that of neighbourhoods, which means that newly developed approaches in urban geography may fail to identify it. This article details the roots of these processes in changes in the structure of ownership and the respective administration of housing and considers possible methods for monitoring these tendencies.
... This holds for the location of the office, for instance, with a forest or park nearby, but also for the presence of plants inside the building or the office room (Grinde and Patil 2009). The plants have a positive effect on the emotional state and the experienced stress of office workers and as a result on their task performance (e.g., Bringslimark et al. 2007 andDravigne et al. 2008). ...
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The aim of this chapter is to examine to what extent the characteristics of the location where the negotiation takes place influence the negotiation process and outcomes. The role of environmental factors in negotiations has received only scarce attention. The chapter starts by discussing relevant insights from different disciplines and covers literature on the “home-field” advantage, which has mostly been studied in the domain of sports. Studies from environmental psychology provide ample evidence of the positive impact nature, both green (forests) and blue (coast, lakes), has on well-being, mindset, and creativity. After this overview, an experimental study is discussed in which the possible impact of the environment on negotiations has been examined. In a virtual reality laboratory, a location of a beach and an office has been created, in which participants had to carry out a face-to-face negotiation with either distributive or integrative characteristics. The results show that the environment predominantly affected psychological variables: negotiating at the beach increased positive emotions and reduced the stress experienced in the negotiation. However, the different settings did not lead to different negotiation outcomes. The implications of the environment for negotiations are discussed as well as the possibilities the virtual reality technology offers in this respect.
... Overall, a huge number of studies have shown that being in a natural environment, or even just looking at natural elements, improves cognitive functioning, including attention and memory (Berto 2005;Berman et al. 2008;Berto et al. 2010;Raanaas et al. 2011), in addition to reducing perceived or physiological stress (Ulrich 1981;Hartig et al. 1991Hartig et al. , 1996Ulrich et al. 1991;Van den Berg et al. 2003;de Kort et al. 2006;Valtchanov et al. 2010;Tyrväinen et al. 2014). For example, offices with a view of natural features are known to improve job satisfaction and well-being, reduce stress and low mood, and also reduce sick leave compared to offices without natural features (Heerwagen and Orians 1986;Leather et al. 1998;Shibata and Suzuki 2004;Bringslimark et al. 2007;Kweon et al. 2008). Even hospitals with a view of natural landscapes induce in their patients better recovery, less stress and lower pain perception (Ulrich 1984;Lechtzin et al. 2010;Beukeboom et al. 2012). ...
... The majority of the studies have been conducted in laboratory or quasi-office design [59][60][61][62][63]. A more limited number of studies targeting office workers in real office settings have also been conducted [53,[64][65][66][67][68][69][70]. In these studies, indoor plants were placed on the floor, windowsills, shelves, desks, or all of these office options to provide visual access to plants. ...
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In recent years, work-related stress has grown exponentially and the negative impact that this condition has on people’s health is considerable. The effects of work-related stress can be distinguished in those that affect workers (e.g., depression and anxiety) and those that affect the company (e.g., absenteeism and productivity). It is possible to distinguish two types of prevention interventions. Individual interventions aim at promoting coping and individual resilience strategies with the aim of modifying cognitive assessments of the potential stressor, thus reducing its negative impact on health. Mindfulness techniques have been found to be effective stress management tools that are also useful in dealing with stressful events in the workplace. Organizational interventions modify the risk factors connected to the context and content of the work. It was found that a restorative workplace (i.e., with natural elements) reduces stress and fatigue, improving work performance. Furthermore, practicing mindfulness in nature helps to improve the feeling of wellbeing and to relieve stress. In this paper, we review the role of mindfulness-based practices and of contact with nature in coping with stressful situations at work, and we propose a model of coping with work-related stress by using mindfulness in nature-based practices.
... Furthermore, the various uses of wood in living environments have been studied. For example, indoor environments with natural elements are usually highly regarded (Bringslimark et al., 2007). Furthermore, the treating of wood has also been studied: oiled wood floor was perceived of as more pleasing than oiled parquet and lacquered parquet (Berger et al., 2006). ...
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Log as building material is undergoing rapid technological changes due to the introduction of industrially developed lamella log. This new material expands the technological repertoire that is available to architects when designing with log. Furthermore, various societal trends relating to ecology, occupant health, and contemporary architectural expression are potentially altering the status and desirability of log as a building material. Thus, from the point of view of architectural research, the log as a building material should be re-investigated. In this paper, our aim is to scrutinise log and log construction through exploring how log is currently perceived as a material among Finnish building professionals. For this purpose, we analyse interviews conducted with 15 professionals in Finland. To gain these research materials, we utilised a method where a traditional semi-structured interview is combined with an in-situ interview in a pavilion construct built by our research team. We complement these materials with brief reviews into wood research and the history of log construction in Finland.
... Many nature experiences can make people feel relaxed, and the natural environment is more conducive to restoring emotion than the urban environment [34]. The physiological benefits are mainly manifested in reducing stress and the incidence of disease and enhancing perceived health and happiness [35][36][37][38]. With the decrease in young people's connection with nature, more and more scholars have expressed concerns about the psychological and physiological losses caused by this phenomenon. ...
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The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the extensive application of technology and young people’s “withdrawal from nature”. Among them, “withdrawal from nature” is mainly manifested in a reduced connection with and concern for nature. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 101 young people from China. Thematic analysis was performed to analyze the interview data and resulted in three main themes: the “compensation”, “shifting” and “shielding” effects of technology. More specifically, the application of technology can partially make up for nature’s reduced role in the growth of young people, shift their concerns for ecological problems, and even affect their perception and evaluation of ecological destruction. Thus, it was proved that the application of technology has an impact on young people’s “withdrawal from nature”. This study supplemented the current research on the factors that influence young people’s “withdrawal from nature” and also provided inspiration for better establishing the connection between young people and nature.
... A growing interest had developed in promoting accessible nature for therapeutic purposes, whether this involved passively experiencing nature, or active engagement (Hartig & Marcus, 2006;Hartig et al, 1991). Some tentative evidence through largely experimental controlled studies existed for the restorative benefits of plants within built environments including offices (Bringslimark et al, 2007) or simply viewing nature from a window in workplaces (Sop Shin, 2007) and hospital settings (Ulrich, 1984). However, Grinde and Patil (2009) maintained this was a weak substitute for actually being in nature. ...
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In recent years there has been considerable reporting of a range of physical and psycho-social benefits derived from ‘green exercise’, a term which describes a myriad of nature-based activities, including gardening, walking, climbing, and running in natural surroundings. Extant literature has largely focused upon exploring these benefits in respect of specific physical and psycho-social health and wellbeing outcomes, including positive impacts upon mood states, enhanced social connectedness, and improvements in recovery rates for patients in physical rehabilitation programmes. However, numerous gaps existed within the research beyond a focus on outcome measures: firstly, articulating the essential influences (mechanisms and processes) potentially driving these impacts. Secondly, insufficient qualitative investigations, particularly longitudinal ones. Third, a lack of innovation in researching green exercise, especially in respect of ethnographic studies. Fourth, and relatedly fifth, a need for more granular focused research upon specific population groups and settings, and utilising specific modes of green exercise - gardening, horticulture, and conservation activity - that had hitherto been under-investigated. The work consists of findings from six published papers that not only confirm that green exercise promotes positive enhancements to physical and psycho-social health and wellbeing for participants, but also offers possible explanations as to why and how these are derived, drawing upon relevant theories and concepts. The investigations were based upon a pragmatic overarching research approach employing ethnography to research participant experiences within four distinct contexts: a purpose-built garden within a medium secure NHS unit; a conservation project in an urban park; a woodland project outside formal mental health service provision; and a corporate health setting. Combined, these small-scale ‘case studies’ of GE offer important insight into the value of GE for specific groups and contexts and enable the development of a suggested socio-ecological model that emphasises a ‘green transformative ripple effect’ can be achieved delivering benefits not only for individuals, but also at group and community level. The latter is further evidenced through local ‘social impact’, demonstrating potential for the adoption of green exercise initiatives by practitioners and policymakers involved in social prescribing and community development as part of a more comprehensive health improvement strategy within communities.
... Συνεπώς, η μειωμένη έκθεση στα φυσικά τοπία -όπως, λ.χ., τα ορεινά -τείνει να έχει αρνητικές επιπτώσεις στην ευζωία και ευεξία των ανθρώπων (Μισθος & Μενεγάκη, 2016). Σε ένα πιο πρακτικό και καθημερινό επίπεδο, έχει καταδειχθεί ότι εργασιακοί χώροι που παρέχουν τη δυνατότητα θεάσεων προς αντικείμενα ή αναπαραστάσεις που συνδέονται με το φυσικό περιβάλλον (λ.χ., ύπαρξη φυτών ή/και πινάκων τοπίων στον χώρο, θέαση προς τον κήπο, κ.λπ.) οδηγούν σε υψηλότερα επίπεδα ικανοποίησης των απασχολούμενων από τη δουλειά και τη ζωή, λιγότερο στρες και λιγότερες ημέρες απουσίας, σε σύγκριση με εργασιακούς χώρους που δεν παρέχουν αυτές τις δυνατότητες (Leather et al., 1998;Bringslimark et al., 2007;Kweon et al., 2008;McMahan & Estes, 2015). ...
Article
Purpose An indoor office space should not only provide adequate illuminance on horizontal planes but also cater to the physiological and psychological requirements of the occupants. This paper aims to describe a lighting simulation-based work conducted in Kolkata, India which modeled an indoor office to investigate the effects of variation in room surface reflectance combinations on user perception, mean room surface exitance (MRSE), average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance. Design/methodology/approach A fluorescent illumination system–based office space was modeled and retrofitted with tubular LED lamps in DIALux. Simulations were conducted for 16 different room surface reflectance combinations and a five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire was formulated to conduct a survey with 32 test subjects to assess the subjective preferability of each resultant light scene. Findings Simulation results demonstrate that the relationship between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE as well as between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity of horizontal illuminance, was statistically significant ( p < 0.001). In the conducted survey, the resultant light scene arising out of the reflectance combination of wall:ceiling:floor = 60%:90%:20% was the most well-received one with 187 convinced agreements (“agree” and “strongly agree” responses). Originality/value This work found strong linear correlation between average horizontal illuminance and MRSE and between average horizontal illuminance and overall uniformity. A five-point Likert scale-type survey questionnaire with seven questions was formulated and validated with 32 test subjects (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.9295), which showed that the wall:ceiling:floor reflectance combination of 60%:90%:20% was the most favored choice.
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Green industry firms have competed for decades on the basis of quality and service. While these competitive dimensions are still important, the industry has continued along its path of maturation and firms must incorporate other factors into their value proposition in order to be successful in this hypercompetitive market. Given the recent economic downturn of 2008–2009, consumers are more value-conscious than ever, but are still willing to consume, and pay premiums for, products and services that enhance their quality of life. This paper summarizes the peer-reviewed research regarding the economic benefits, environmental benefits (eco-systems services), and health/well-being benefits of green industry products and services that serve to enhance the quality of life for consumers.
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Due to mounting concerns about the psychological well-being of university students, it is useful to consider whether and how the quality of the physical study environment can improve students’ functioning. The present study examined the presence of potted plants within a university library study room on students’ self-reported mood (i.e., fatigue and vigor), self-reported cognitive performance (i.e., attention and productivity), perceived environmental quality (i.e., room satisfaction, attractiveness, and comfort), and recorded duration of stay in the study room. We conducted a real-life quasi-experimental study in which potted plants were introduced in one study room (intervention group) whereas nothing changed in another study room (control group). Cross-sectional data of the dependent and co-variables were collected among separate groups of students pre- and post-intervention using questionnaires (N = 445) and recordings of students’ duration of stay in the study room (N = 1029). The pretest-posttest change in attractiveness (B = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.33; 0.72) and comfort (B = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08; 0.51) was greater in the study room with potted plants than the pretest-posttest change in attractiveness and comfort in the study room without plants. Students’ reasons to study in the room with potted plants next time they study included the perceived environmental quality, atmosphere, it being more relaxing, the homey feel, and indoor climate. Nevertheless, the pretest-posttest change in vigor (B = 0.29, 95% CI= -0.57; -0.01) was lower in the room with potted plants than the pretest-posttest change in vigor in the study room without plants, and no meaningful associations between the presence of potted plants and fatigue, cognitive performance, and duration of stay in the study room were found. Overall, findings suggest that students preferred the study room with potted plants to the one without. However, the findings do not support the hypothesis that adding potted plants to a study room improves mood or cognitive performance among students.
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Due to the rising numbers of developments in a land scarce and densely built environment like Singapore, the Singapore government has been encouraging the incorporation of sky-rise greenery in buildings. Despite the informed push to adopt Vertical Greenery Systems (VGS), the adoption of VGS is not as high as expected. In addition, very few studies have explored the views of building stakeholders towards the adoption of VGS in Singapore, and the influence of different VGS benefits on their spending decisions to install VGS. Therefore, this research conducted choice experiment to find out building stakeholders’ preferences and willingness-to-pay for VGS. A conditional logit model was used to analyze the data. Based on the results, most of the building stakeholders agreed that VGS provide various benefits such as reducing air temperature, removing air pollutants and reducing energy cooling demand, etc. However, they were mostly willing to pay more for the benefits of stress level and reduction of energy cooling demand. The results assist in the appropriate changes or enhancements to be made to existing policies on VGS to help create more opportunities for building stakeholders to adopt VGS. Furthermore, VGS service providers could also use this information to aid in their pricing of VGS.
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Evidence suggests that children spend much less time playing outdoors engaging in self-directed play than their parents did (Moss in Natural childhood. Park Lane Press, 2012; Tandon et al. in Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 166:707–712, 2012), perhaps as much as 71% less (Brown in Scholarpedia 9:30,449, 2014). School recess time has also decreased, with childen of color and children living in poverty having even less access to recess (London in Kappan 101:48–52, 2019). However, time spent in natural settings leads to improved mental well-being, cognitive function, and emotional regulation (Burdette & Whitaker in Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 159:46–50, 2005; Whitebread in Child and Adolescent Health 1:167–169, 2017). By teachers incorportating play-based outdoor learning experiences into their science instruction, children can have playful experiences in nature, reaping the benefits of being outdoors while gaining content knowledge and developing scientific thinking skills. This chapter focuses on the relationship between different types of play and specific science learning behaviors as children engaged in outdoor play during nine family play events in the Greater Toledo, Ohio Metropolitan Area in the U.S.
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Previous studies indicated a potential influence of physical workplace characteristics (e.g. light, noise, air quality) on employees' mental health (e.g. stress, fatigue, or mood). Until recently, most workplace-context research had a pathogenic instead of a salutogenic orientation. In this systematic scoping review (PRISMA) ten indicators of mental health are taken as a starting point, including both mental well-being and -illness. This provides a more holistic exploration of methods, measures, and employee-workplace theories that explain how physical workplace resources promote employees’ mental health. The directions of these relationships are also observed. Results show that some workplace characteristics are studied with many validated measures, while others appear less diverse or so far lack approaches with objective measures. Results show that some indicators of mental health (e.g. concentration, and stress) have frequently been related to indoor environmental quality (IEQ) (e.g. light and daylight), while others (e.g. burnout, engagement, and depression) have received less attention in relation to the physical workplace (especially to biophilia, views, look and feel). This review identifies important avenues for future research, potential objective and subjective measures for employee mental health in relation to the office workplace and calls for a more holistic approach to mental health at work.
Article
With the urban development, indoor air quality (IAQ) is of growing public health concern due to that fact people spend 80%–90% of their time indoors, which has prompted the use of plants to reduce the air pollution through the phytoremediation from interior spaces, especially in the enclosed rooms with air-conditioning and heating. Indoor plants have been proved to improve the indoor environment, relieve anxiety, and reduce CO2 concentration. However, the comprehensive review has not been published to summarize the development status and potential deficiencies of indoor green plants after 2018. The 50 published articles related to indoor green plants were selected by the primary retrieval system and the later manual screening. This review mainly focused on the effects of green plants on the indoor thermal environment and indoor pollutants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and CO2 concentration, while the application efficiency of green plants was described on learning or productivity efficiency, patients' post-operative recovery and emotion comprehensively.
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Zusammenfassung Debatten um Umweltgerechtigkeit gehen davon aus, dass ärmere Menschen von höheren gesundheitsrelevanten Umweltbelastungen betroffen sind, als wohlhabende. Untersuchungen in Erlangen zeigen jedoch, dass dies nicht zwangsläufig der Fall ist und nur einzelne sozioökonomisch benachteiligte Gebiete tatsächlich hohen Belastungen ausgeliefert sind. Andere hingegen verfügen durchaus über gute Umweltausstattungen. Zwar lassen sich einzelne besonders privilegierte Gebiete mit geringen Belastungen und guter sozioökonomischer Lage identifizieren aber andere eher wohlhabendere Gegenden zeigen sich als durchaus belastet. Im Zuge neuerer Innenentwicklung gibt es allerdings die Tendenz, dass Umweltressourcen und Umweltbelastungen zunehmend kleinräumiger nach Finanzkraft verteilt werden. Der Artikel entwirft eine leicht übertragbare Methode, die es ermöglicht, anhand der Kernindikatoren Lärmbelastung, Ausstattung mit öffentlichem/privatem Grün und Sozialdaten, Fragen der Umweltgerechtigkeit sehr kleinräumig zu betrachten und im Sinne eines „Frühwarnsystems“ Entwicklungen im Zeitverlauf zu beobachten. Zudem kann der praxisnahe Ansatz als ein Ausgangspunkt für integriertes Verwaltungshandeln gesehen werden, das insbesondere beim Zusammenhang Umwelt und Gesundheit häufig noch defizitär ist.
Article
(Français) Plusieurs études montrent que le stress vécu par les travailleurs et étudiants est de plus en plus présent au point de devenir une préoccupation de santé publique. Cette problématique serait notamment causée par l’augmentation des demandes sur le système cognitif. L’exposition à la nature est reconnue pour diminuer les symptômes d’anxiété, mais également pour restaurer les ressources cognitives. Cet article a donc pour objectif de présenter la façon dont le système cognitif peut bénéficier d’une exposition à la nature et de soulever les principales études qui appuient son intégration dans les milieux de travail ou scolaires. (English) Several studies have shown that stress among workers and students is increasingly common, to the extent of becoming a public health preoccupation. This might be partially explained by increasing demands on the cognitive system. Exposure to natural settings has been shown to help decrease anxiety levels, but also to restore cognitive resources. Hence, this article aims at presenting how cognitive processes can benefit from nature exposure and at highlighting the main studies supporting nature integration among work and scholar environments.
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The effects of plants in the workplace on the opinions and attitudes of workers was assessed. Attitudes of employees regarding plants were favorable, and most surveyed agreed that plants in the office made it a more desirable place to work. Office workers were aware of the benefits, such as improving air quality, that plants provide. No behavioral changes in response to the addition of plants to the office environment were demonstrated. There were no significant differences between gender, position in the corporation, and age regarding perceptions of plants in the office environment.
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This experiment measures the effects of indoor plants on participants' productivity, attitude toward the workplace, and overall mood in the office environment. In an office randomly altered to include no plants, a moderate number of plants, and a high number of plants, paid participants (N = 81) performed timed productivity tasks and completed a survey questionnaire. Surprisingly, the results of the productivity task showed an inverse linear relationship to the number of plants in the office, but self-reported perceptions of performance increased relative to the number of plants in the office. Consistent with expectations, participants reported higher levels of mood, perceived office attractiveness, and (in some cases) perceived comfort when plants were present than when they were not present. Decreased productivity scores are linked to the influence of positive and negative affect on decision making and cognitive processing.
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Indoor plantings are widely used in building environments though little is known regarding the way office workers respond to indoor foliage plants. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of foliage plants in the office on health and symptoms of discomfort among office personnel. A cross-over study with randomised period order was conducted; one period with plants in the office and one period without. A questionnaire consisting of 12 questions related to neuropsychological symptoms, mucous membrane symptoms and skin symptoms was distributed among the 51 healthy subjects who participated in the study. It was found that the score sum of symptoms was 23&percnt; lower during the period when subjects had plants in their offices compared to the control period. (Mean score sum was 7.1 during the period without plants vs. 5.6 during the period with plants.) Complaints regarding cough and fatigue were reduced by 37 and 30&percnt;, respectively, if the offices contained plants. The self-reported level of dry/hoarse throat and dry/itching facial skin each decreased approximately 23&percnt; when plants were present. Overall, a significant reduction was obtained in neuropsychological symptoms and mucous membrane symptoms, while skin symptoms seemed to be unaffected by the presence of plants. The results from this study suggest that an improvement in health and a reduction in symptoms of discomfort may be obtained after introduction of foliage plants into the office environment.
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This study documents some of the benefits of adding plants to a windowless work place - a college computer lab. Participants' blood pressure and emotions were monitored while completing a simple, timed computer task in the presence or absence of plants. When plants were added to this interior space, the participants were more productive (12% quicker reaction time on the computer task) and less stressed (systolic blood pressure readings lowered by one to four units). Immediately after completing the task, participants in the room with plants present reported feeling more attentive (an increase of 0.5 on a self-reported scale from one to five) than people in the room with no plants.
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In this study we investigate the effect of leafy plants on subjects' task performance and mood. As independent variables, two types of tasks and several room arrangements were used. There was an association or a sorting task and the room was arranged either with the plant placed in front of the subjects, to the side of the subjects, or with no plant placed in the room. Gender was also considered as a variable for analysis. Undergraduate students (F=63,M =83) performed either the association task or the sorting task under one of the three room arrangements. The association task was to create no more than 30 words for 20 different items. The sorting task was to sort 180 index cards into Japanese syllabary order.As for the task performance, Room×Gender interaction was significant in the scores of the association task (p<0·05). Male subjects working without plants performed worse than female subjects under the same conditions (p<0·01). Moreover, the task performances of the male subjects using the front arrangement were higher than that of the male subjects working without plants (p<0·10). It was concluded that the presence of the plants affected the association task more than the sorting task, and male subjects more than female subjects. It was also suggested that the presence of the leafy plants might affects creative work positively.
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Different conceptual perspectives converge to predict that if individuals are stressed, an encounter with most unthreatening natural environments will have a stress reducing or restorative influence, whereas many urban environments will hamper recuperation. Hypotheses regarding emotional, attentional and physiological aspects of stress reducing influences of nature are derived from a psycho-evolutionary theory. To investigate these hypotheses, 120 subjects first viewed a stressful movie, and then were exposed to color/sound videotapes of one of six different natural and urban settings. Data concerning stress recovery during the environmental presentations were obtained from self-ratings of affective states and a battery of physiological measures: heart period, muscle tension, skin conductance and pulse transit time, a non-invasive measure that correlates with systolic blood pressure. Findings from the physiological and verbal measures converged to indicate that recovery was faster and more complete when subjects were exposed to natural rather than urban environments. The pattern of physiological findings raised the possibility that responses to nature had a salient parasympathetic nervous system component; however, there was no evidence of pronounced parasympathetic involvement in responses to the urban settings. There were directional differences in cardiac responses to the natural vs urban settings, suggesting that attention/intake was higher during the natural exposures. However, both the stressor film and the nature settings elicited high levels of involuntary or automatic attention, which contradicts the notion that restorative influences of nature stem from involuntary attention or fascination. Findings were consistent with the predictions of the psycho-evolutionary theory that restorative influences of nature involve a shift towards a more positively-toned emotional state, positive changes in physiological activity levels, and that these changes are accompanied by sustained attention/intake. Content differences in terms of natural vs human-made properties appeared decisive in accounting for the differences in recuperation and perceptual intake.
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The association between specific job characteristics and subsequent cardiovascular disease was tested using a large random sample of the male working Swedish population. The prospective development of coronary heart disease (CHD) symptoms and signs was analyzed using a multivariate logistic regression technique. Additionally, a case-controlled study was used to analyze all cardiovascular-cerebrovascular (CHD-CVD) deaths during a six-year follow-up. The indicator of CHD symptoms and signs was validated in a six-year prospective study of CHD deaths (standardized mortality ratio 5.0; p less than or equal to .001). A hectic and psychologically demanding job increases the risk of developing CHD symptoms and signs (standardized odds ratio 1.29, p less than 0.25) and premature CHD-CVD death (relative risk 4.0, p less than .01). Low decision latitude-expressed as low intellectual discretion and low personal schedule freedom-is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low intellectual discretion predicts the development of CHD symptoms and signs (SOR 1.44, p less than .01), while low personal schedule freedom among the majority of workers with the minimum statutory education increases the risk of CHD-CVD death (RR 6.6, p less than .0002). The associations exist after controlling for age, education, smoking, and overweight.
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This study examined the role of decision latitude and job strain in the etiology of a first myocardial infarction. Eligible case patients were all full-time working men 45 to 64 years of age who suffered a first myocardial infarction during the period January 1992 to January 1993 in the greater Stockholm region. Referents were selected from the general population. Participation rates were 82% (case patients) and 75% (referents). Both inferred and self-reported low decision latitude were associated with increased risk of a first myocardial infarction, although this association was weakened after adjustment for social class. A decrease in inferred decision latitude during the 10 years preceding the myocardial infarction was associated with increased risk after all adjustments, including chest pain and social class. The combination of high self-reported demands and low self-reported decision latitude was an independent predictor of risk after all adjustments. Both negative change in inferred decision latitude and self-reported job strain are important risk indicators in men less than 55 years of age and in blue-collar workers.
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During the last 15 years, the research on job stress and cardiovascular diseases has been dominated by the job strain model developed by R. Karasek (1979) and colleagues (R. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990). In this article the results of this research are briefly summarized, and the theoretical and methodological basis is discussed and criticized. A sociological interpretation of the model emphasizing theories of technological change, qualifications of the workers, and the organization of work is proposed. Furthermore, improvements with regard to measuring the job strain dimensions and to sampling the study base are suggested. Substantial improvements of the job strain research could be achieved if the principle of triangulation were used in the measurements of stressors, stress, and sickness and if occupation-based samples were used instead of large representative samples.
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To compare self-reported sickness absence days in the last 12 months with recorded absences from the employers' registers for the same period. Self-reported sickness absence data over the 12 months preceding baseline (1985-88) were compared with absence records from the employers' registers over the same period for 2406 women and 5589 men, participants in the Whitehall II study of British civil servants. Associations with self-rated health, longstanding illness, minor psychiatric disorder, physical illness, and prevalent coronary heart disease at baseline were determined. In general, women reported less sickness absence over the last year than was recorded in the employers' registers, while men, with the exception of those in the lower employment grades, reported more. Agreement between self-reported and recorded absence days decreased as the total number of days increased. After adjustment for employment grade and the average number of recorded and self-reported absence days, the total number of self-reported absence days was within two days of the recorded number of days for 63% of women and 67% of men. Associations between annual self-reported sickness absence days and self-rated health, longstanding illness, minor psychiatric disorder, physical illness, and prevalent coronary heart disease were as strong as those for recorded absence days. These findings suggest that agreement between the annual number of self-reported and the annual number of recorded sickness absence days is relatively good in both sexes and that associations with health are equivalent for both measures.
Article
The purpose of this paper was to report the effects of window views and indoor plants on human psychophysiological response in workplace environments. The effects of window views and indoor plants were recorded by measuring participant's electromyography (EMG), electroencephalography (EEG), blood volume pulse (BVP), and state-anxiety. Photo Impact 5.0 was used to simulate the environment in an office, where six conditions were examined: 1) window with a view of a city, 2) window with a view of a city and indoor plants, 3) window with a view of nature, 4) window with a view of nature and indoor plants, 5) office without a window view, and 6) office without a window view and indoor plants. Participants were less nervous or anxious when watching a view of nature and/or when indoor plants were present. When neither the window view nor the indoor plants were shown, participants suffered the highest degree of tension and anxiety.
Book
Today, environmental protection is among the central matters for natural conservation, public health and sustainable business. With advanced technologies and changing lifestyles, the consumption of resources and release of wastes and pollutants are increasing fast. This requires policy makers to design environmental policies that properly guide the development of new products and business operations. The goal of environmental policy is to limit, slow-down, reduce or eliminate environmental damages caused by industrial and human activities. Environmental issues generally addressed by environmental policy include (but are not limited to) air and water pollution, waste management, ecosystem management, biodiversity protection, and the protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. This book gathers the latest research from around the globe in this field.
Article
Interiorscaping has been prevalent in office environments in the United states since the 1960s. Historically, proponents of interior plantings have cited numerous benefits, including improved employee morale, increased productivity, and reduced absenteeism when plants are added to the workplace, despite little scientific research to support these claims. Contemporary research is beginning to document some of these purported benefits of interior plantings on human comfort, well-being, and productivity. If researchers continue to provide concrete evidence that interaction with plants is directly linked to improved human health and well-being, this information will provide further justification for the use of interior plants in a variety of indoor work settings. With an ever-increasing emphasis by business managers on minimizing costs, it is important for industry professionals to provide quantifiable justification for the inclusion of plants in modern work environments.
Article
Twelve 20-minute thermal biofeedback sessions were conducted with 26 university students. Visual stimuli were provided by a living foliage plant, a life-sized color photograph of that plant, or a metal stool (control). Of the participants, 38% responded positively to the presence of a live plant or plant photograph, while 23% showed lower stress in the control room. Stress reduction, as indicated by higher skin temperatures, occurred within the first 5 to 8 minutes of a 20-minute thermal-biofeedback session. A nonplant visual stimulus was not part of the experiment. The results are not intended as comparative, nor do they attribute unique or superior effects to plants. Due to the small number of participants, no significant results were obtained, but the trends were important and are being reported to help further research in this area.
Article
Results are presented of an investigation into the capacity of the indoor potted-plant/growth medium microcosm to remove air-borne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which contaminate the indoor environment, using three plant species, Howea forsteriana (Becc. (Kentia palm), Spathiphyllum wallisii Schott. 'Petite' (Peace Lily) and Dracaena deremensis Engl. 'Janet Craig'. The selected VOCs were benzene and n-hexane, both common contaminants of indoor air. The findings provide the first comprehensive demonstration of the ability of the potted-plant system to act as an integrated biofilter in removing these contaminants. Under the test conditions used, it was found that the microorganisms of the growth medium were the "rapid-response" agents of VOC removal, the role of the plants apparently being mainly in sustaining the root microorganisms. The use of potted-plants as a sustainable biofiltration system to help improve indoor air quality can now be confidently promoted. The results are a first step towards developing varieties of plants and associated microflora with enhanced air-cleaning capacities, while continuing to make an important contribution to the aesthetics and psychological comfort of the indoor environment.
Article
Changes in human emotions were investigated during exposure to three different indoor conditions: floral display present, foliage display present, and no display present. There were 20 subjects (10 males and 10 females) in each condition. The subjects were shown a video that introduced the University of Reading and included scenes of landscapes. It was shown that a floral display had positive effects on human emotions, such as composition and confidence, however, some evidence of a significant increase in annoyance was also found for this treatment. The foliage display had a somewhat negative effect by slightly increasing bad temper, and the foliage display tended to have a positive effect on clearheadedness. Investigations of psychological responses to nature are complex, and many opportunities for more work exist.
Article
ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. benefits of plants, foliage plants, fluorescent lighting, full-spectrum lighting, human–horticulture relationships, human issues in horticulture, human well-being, mucus membrane symptoms, neuropsychological symptoms, people–plant interactions SUMMARY. Plants are widely used in building environments; however, studies reporting the health and discomfort symptoms of people in response to indoor foliage plants are few. The objective of the presented studies was to assess the effect of foliage plants or a combination of foliage plants and full-spectrum fluorescent lamps on self-reported health and discomfort complaints in three different work environments: an office building, an X-ray department in a Norwegian hospital, and a junior high school. Health and discomfort symptoms were found to be 21% to 25% lower during the period when subjects had plants or plants and full-spectrum lighting present compared to a period without plants. Neuropsychological symptoms, such as fatigue and headache, and mucous membrane symptoms, such as dry and hoarse throat, seemed to be more affected by the treatments than skin symptoms, such as itching skin.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Abstract Complaints about discomfort and effects on health are commonly reported from homes, workplaces, schools and daycare centres in various countries. Despite difficulties in relating these problems to specific agents in the indoor environment, it is often possible in practice to initiate efficient remedial actions by using a strategy involving structured information from the occupants and various technical measurements. In this presentation, a practical approach to indoor air problems is discussed, based mainly on experience from studies using the standardized MM questionnaires. By using suitable reference values, one can deal with the complex situation arising from multiple low-level exposures of physical and biological origin, psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and variations in susceptibility of the occupants.
Article
Directed attention plays an important role in human information processing; its fatigue, in turn, has far-reaching consequences. Attention Restoration Theory provides an analysis of the kinds of experiences that lead to recovery from such fatigue. Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the characteristics necessary for restorative experiences. An integrative framework is proposed that places both directed attention and stress in the larger context of human-environment relationships.
Article
People have been bringing plants into residential and other indoor settings for centuries, but little is known about their psychological effects. In the present article, we critically review the experimental literature on the psychological benefits of indoor plants. We focus on benefits gained through passive interactions with indoor plants rather than on the effects of guided interactions with plants in horticultural therapy or the indirect effect of indoor plants as air purifiers or humidifiers. The reviewed experiments addressed a variety of outcomes, including emotional states, pain perception, creativity, task-performance, and indices of autonomic arousal. Some findings recur, such as enhanced pain management with plants present, but in general the results appear to be quite mixed. Sources of this heterogeneity include diversity in experimental manipulations, settings, samples, exposure durations, and measures. After addressing some overarching theoretical issues, we close with recommendations for further research with regard to experimental design, measurement, analysis, and reporting.
Article
A stress-management model of job strain is developed and tested with recent national survey data from Sweden and the United States. This model predicts that mental strain results from the interaction of job demands and job decision latitude. The model appears to clarify earlier contradictory findings based on separated effects of job demands and job decision latitude. The consistent finding is that it is the combination of low decision latitude and heavy job demands which is associated with mental strain. This same combination is also associated with job dissatisfaction. In addition, the analysis of dissatisfaction reveals a complex interaction of decision latitude and job demand effects that could be easily overlooked in conventional linear, unidimensional analyses. The major implication of this study is that redesigning work processes to allow increases in decision latitude for a broad range of workers could reduce mental strain, and do so without affecting the job demands that may plausibly be associated with organizational output levels.
Article
In this study, we investigated the effect of an indoor plant on task performance and on mood. Three room arrangements were used as independent variables: a room with (1) a plant, or (2) a magazine rack with magazines placed in front of the participants, or (3) a room with neither of these objects. Undergraduate students (M= 35, F= 55) performed a task of associating up to 30 words with each of 20 specified words in a room with one of the three room arrangements. Task performance scores showed that female participants performed better in view of the plant in comparison to the magazine rack (p < 0.05). Moreover, mood was better with the plant or the magazine rack in the room compared to the no object condition (p < 0.05). However, the difference in task performance was highly influenced by the evaluation about the plant or the magazine rack. It is suggested that the compatibility between task demand and the environment is an important factor in facilitating task performances.
Article
The well-being of the workforce is clearly a matter of concern to the employer. Such concern translates to considerable costs in the form of fringe benefit packages, health promotion programs, ergonomics, and other ways to reduce absence and enhance health and satisfaction. Despite such efforts, however, one way to address well-being that entails relatively low costs has been largely ignored in the work context. Proximity and availability of the natural environment can foster many desired outcomes, even if the employee does not spend a great amount of time in the natural setting. A theoretical framework is presented that helps explain why even the view from the window can have a positive impact with respect to well-being. Results from two studies offer some substantiation. Further research on the role of nature in the workplace is essential; however, decisions to provide health promoting programs and to enhance fringe benefit packages have not been offered as a direct consequence of empirical verification. While providing windows at work may not be a simple matter, other ways to increase contact with vegetation may provide a low-cost, high-gain approach to employee well-being and effectiveness. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/30542/1/0000175.pdf
Article
In this study, the leaves, roots, soil, and associated microorganisms of plants have been evaluated as a possible means of reducing indoor air pollutants. Additionally, a novel approach of using plant systems for removing high concentrations of indoor air pollutants such as cigarette smoke, organic solvents, and possibly radon has been designed from this work. This air filter design combines plants with an activated carbon filter. The rationale for this design, which evolved from wastewater treatment studies, is based on moving large volumes of contaminated air through an activated carbon bed where smoke, organic chemicals, pathogenic microorganisms (if present), and possibly radon are absorbed by the carbon filter. Plant roots and their associated microorganisms then destroy the pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and the organic chemicals, eventually converting all of these air pollutants into new plant tissue. It is believed that the decayed radon products would be taken up the plant roots and retained in the plant tissue.
Article
This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
Article
The physical environment can be an important contributor to occupational stress. Factors that contribute to stress and other negative outcomes include: lack of control over the environment, distractions from coworkers, lack of privacy, noise, crowding, and environmental deprivations (such as lack of windows and aesthetic impoverishment). The design of "salutogenic" environments requires not only the elimination of negative stress inducing features, but also the addition of environmental enhancements, including such factors as increased personal control, contact with nature and daylight, aesthetically pleasing spaces, and spaces for relaxation alone or with others. Salutogenic environments also take into consideration positive psychosocial "fit," as well as functional fit between people and environments. At the heart of the current interest in the work environment are two major concerns: organizational productivity and employee well being.
The changing work environ ment
  • R B Bechtel
Bechtel, R.B. 1997. The changing work environ ment. Sage Publ., Thousand Oaks, Calif.
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Foliage plants both with or without additional full-spectrum fluores cent light, may reduce indoor health and discom fort complaints
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Fjeld, T., F. Levy, C. Bonnevie, L. Sandvik, B. Veiersted, and G. Riise. 1999. Foliage plants both with or without additional full-spectrum fluores cent light, may reduce indoor health and discom fort complaints. Proc. Indoor Air 2:616-621.
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Steptoe, A. 1997. Stress and disease, p. 174-177. In: A. Baum, S. Newman, J. Weinman, R. West, and C. McManus (eds.). Cambridge handbook of psychology, health, and medicine. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
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