Article

EPHECT I: European household survey on domestic use of consumer products and development of worst-case scenarios for daily use

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Consumer products are frequently and regularly used in the domestic environment. Realistic estimates for product use are required for exposure modelling and health risk assessment. This paper provides significant data that can be used as input for such modelling studies. A European survey was conducted, within the framework of the DG Sanco-funded EPHECT project, on the household use of 15 consumer products. These products are all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The analysis of the results from the household survey (1st phase) focused on identifying consumer behaviour patterns (selection criteria, frequency of use, quantities, period of use and ventilation conditions during product use). This can provide valuable input to modelling studies, as this information is not reported in the open literature. The above results were further analysed (2nd phase), to provide the basis for the development of 'most representative worst-case scenarios' regarding the use of the 15 products by home-based population groups (housekeepers and retired people), in four geographical regions in Europe. These scenarios will be used for the exposure and health risk assessment within the EPHECT project. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that daily worst-case scenarios are presented in the scientific published literature concerning the use of a wide range of 15 consumer products across Europe. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The frequency and quantity of use of HCPs and PCPs depends on sociodemographic factors, such as gender, age, work and education [60,61]. Many studies in the past ten years have performed surveys aiming to establish a representative use pattern for the target population in different regions, including the United States, Europe and South Korea [27,60,[62][63][64][65][66][67][68]. Based on the product function in the above-mentioned studies, HCPs and PCPs that are commonly used in people's everyday life can be categorized into several groups, including floor cleaner, glass cleaner, face cleaner, hair cleaner, deodorant, lip care, shaving product, body lotion and perfume. ...
... Figs. 4 and 5 provide a summary of the adult's frequency and quantity of use for groups of HCPs and PCPs in the different studies [27,60,[62][63][64][65][66][67][68] and a comparison with the use pattern database of PCPs of the ConsExpo model (version 4.0) [69]. The studies for PCPs were carried out in the United States and Europe, and the studies for HCPs were carried out in the United States, Europe and South Korea (only for all-purpose cleaners). ...
... A study on evaporation of pure VOCs based on laminar boundary layer theory has shown that the evaporation rate increased with higher air temperatures and velocities [70]. This is because an increased air temperature can lead to a higher chemical vapor pressure, and an increased air velocity can lead to a higher mass transfer rate in the boundary layer adjacent to the surface where the products are used [64]. The temperature can affect not only the liquid-to-air transfer, but also the liquid-to-skin transfer. ...
Article
Chemicals in household cleaning and personal care products (HCPs and PCPs) can be released into the indoor air primarily during and after product use, leading to human exposures to these chemicals via inhalation and dermal contact. Thus, HCPs and PCPs are a group of important intermittent sources, contributing to chemical emissions in the indoor environment. To characterize emissions more accurately, we reviewed three types of emission models from 17 studies for HCPs and PCPs, i.e., models based on evaporation, on convective mass transfer, and on diffusion. While the three types of models present different levels of complexity, they cover a variety of application scenarios. We also summarized some important input parameters for the models, i.e., the frequency and quantity of use of HCPs and PCPs, and the chemical's evaporation rate and diffusion coefficient. The frequency and quantity of use for many types of products, including shampoo, hand soap and deodorant show some consistency among different studies. Our review of these model inputs reveals a promising basis for further improvement of emission models for HCPs and PCPs.
... As target population, the population groups of housekeepers and retired people (N 65 years old) were considered, as these spend the majority of their time indoors and are, therefore, mostly exposed to emissions following consumer product use. This paper is based on the results of two interrelated studies in which profiles for domestic use of consumer products in the EU (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015–a) and population exposure assessment to household consumer products were investigated (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015–b). Taking into account the underlying assumptions and limitations, this paper reports the outcome of HRA associated with exposure to five priority respiratory healthrelevant pollutants, obtained from the use of 15 consumer product classes in households. ...
... As target population, the population groups of housekeepers and retired people (N 65 years old) were considered, as these spend the majority of their time indoors and are, therefore, mostly exposed to emissions following consumer product use. This paper is based on the results of two interrelated studies in which profiles for domestic use of consumer products in the EU (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015–a) and population exposure assessment to household consumer products were investigated (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015–b). Taking into account the underlying assumptions and limitations, this paper reports the outcome of HRA associated with exposure to five priority respiratory healthrelevant pollutants, obtained from the use of 15 consumer product classes in households. ...
... Regarding the third step of the HRA procedure, exposure estimates to household consumer products were presented in a previous paper (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015–b); the procedure is briefly described below. The fifteen product classes under investigation are listed in Table 1. ...
Article
In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios specifically constructed for the present study, following a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' approach for exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Little is known about the use patterns of household products by consumers; thus, the estimation of exposure levels can be difficult and inaccurate (Weegels and van Veen 2001). Only four studies (Weegels and van Veen 2001;Lehuede 2009;Johnson and Lucica 2012;Dimitroulopoulou et al. 2015a) address the contact time and usage behavior of household products by consumers. All studies were performed in the European Union over the last 17 years. ...
... The results established that cleaning products and perfumes have the highest market penetration and women are the most frequent users. According to interviews, the presence of children during household activities does not have any influence on the product use pattern (Johnson and Lucica 2012;Dimitroulopoulou et al. 2015a). ...
... This result contrasts a CREDOC (Lehuede 2009) survey that showed that among the French population, efficiency was the main selection criterion reported. Interestingly, according to both studies, other aspects, such as product safety, chemical composition, and precision of use instructions, are not considered by users (Lehuede 2009;Dimitroulopoulou et al. 2015a). In terms of diffusion mode preference, two investigations in the framework of the EPHECT project are reviewed in this paper. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils are frequently used as natural fragrances in housecleaning products and air fresheners marketed as green and healthy. However, these substances are volatile and reactive chemical species. This review focuses on the impact of essential oil-based household products on indoor air quality. First, housecleaning products containing essential oils are explored in terms of composition and existing regulations. Specific insight is provided regarding terpenes in fragranced housecleaning products, air fresheners, and pure essential oils. Second, experimental methodologies for terpene monitoring, from sampling to experimental chambers and analytical methods, are addressed, emphasizing the experimental issues in monitoring terpenes in indoor air. Third, the temporal dynamics of terpene emissions reported in the literature are discussed. Despite experimental discrepancies, essential oil-based products are significant sources of terpenes in indoor air, inducing a high exposure of occupants to terpenes. Finally, the fate of terpenes is explored from sorptive and reactive points of view. In addition to terpene deposition on surfaces, indoor oxidants may induce homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, resulting in secondary pollutants, such as formaldehyde and secondary organic aerosols. Overall, essential oil-based products can negatively impact indoor air quality; therefore, standard protocols and real-scale approaches are needed to explore the indoor physics and chemistry of terpenes, from emissions to reactivity.
... The review article provides references for a number of industry-sponsored studies of consumer use characteristics. Dimitroulopoulou et al. (2015) present the results of a recent multi-country European survey on the use of 15 household consumer products mainly comprised of cleaning products (but also including some spray-formulated personal care products) [112]. The study provides information not only about the frequency and quantities of product use, but also on the prevalence of use, the location where the products are used and on the ventilation conditions during use. ...
... The review article provides references for a number of industry-sponsored studies of consumer use characteristics. Dimitroulopoulou et al. (2015) present the results of a recent multi-country European survey on the use of 15 household consumer products mainly comprised of cleaning products (but also including some spray-formulated personal care products) [112]. The study provides information not only about the frequency and quantities of product use, but also on the prevalence of use, the location where the products are used and on the ventilation conditions during use. ...
Article
Full-text available
This publication serves as a global comprehensive resource for readers seeking exposure factor data and information relevant to consumer exposure assessment. It describes the types of information that may be found in various official surveys and online and published resources. The relevant exposure factors cover a broad range, including general exposure factor data found in published compendia and databases and resources about specific exposure factors, such as human activity patterns and housing information. Also included are resources on exposure factors related to specific types of consumer products and the associated patterns of use, such as for a type of personal care product or a type of children’s toy. Further, a section on using exposure factors for designing representative exposure scenarios is included, along with a look into the future for databases and other exposure science developments relevant for consumer exposure assessment.
... The significance of these products has grown as historically dominant sources of VOCs such as road transport and fuel evaporation decline. 1 While atmospheric emissions of VOCs from fuels and vehicle exhaust have been well-characterized for many decades, both in terms of speciation and amount emitted, estimates of PCP emissions are only now becoming available. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The environmental and public health motivations to quantify and control VOCs from PCP and HCP sources are no different to other VOC emission sources. Their oxidation in the presence of NO x leads to the formation of tropospheric ozone, and they can form secondary organic aerosols (SOA), a component fraction of particulate matter. ...
... PCPs are predominantly an indoor VOC emission source, the bathroom being a location where they most commonly used, followed by the bedroom. 8 Showering is one activity, which for many people is a daily occurrence, that can include the use of a range of different products, and by extension is likely a significant component of daily VOC emissions from use of PCPs. There are several previous works describing exposure to VOCs from a range of consumer products, using both top-down and bottom-up approaches. ...
Article
Full-text available
An increasing fraction of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions come from the domestic use of solvents, contained within myriad commonplace consumer products. Emission rates are often poorly characterized and depend significantly on individual behavior and specific product formulation and usage. Time‐concentration profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) arising from the use of a representative selection of personal care products (PCPs) during showering are generated, and person‐to‐person variability in emissions calculated. A panel of 18 participants used a standardized set of products, dosages, and application times during showering in a controlled indoor bathroom setting. Proton transfer mass spectrometry was used to measure the in‐room VOC evolution of limonene (representing the sum of monoterpenes), benzyl alcohol, and ethanol. The release of VOCs had reproducible patterns between users, but noticeable variations in absolute peak concentrations, despite identical amounts of material being used. The amounts of VOC emitted to air for one showering activity were as follows: limonene (1.77 mg ± 42%), benzyl alcohol (1.07 mg ± 41%), and ethanol (0.33 mg ± 78%). Real‐world emissions to air were between 1.3 and 11 times lower than bottom‐up estimates based on dynamic headspace measurements of product emissions rates, likely a result of PCPs being washed away before VOC evaporation could occur.
... Probabilistic modeling helps overcome these issues since it uses consumer reported habits data and manufacturers' product data, and is, therefore, considered to be a more accurate, method for estimating aggregate exposure. The use of probabilistic exposure models to assess cosmetics and consumer product exposure is gaining attention Hall et al., 2007, Meek et al., 2011Vilone et al., 2014;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a,b;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Delmaar et al., 2015;Dudzina et al., 2015;Nijkamp et al., 2015;Tozer et al., 2015;Safford et al., 2015;Aylward et al., 2020;Tozer et al., 2019). The general application of probabilistic models to the safety assessment of chemicals is being discussed by regulatory agencies and their acceptance into regulatory frameworks is growing (e.g. ...
... Probabilistic modeling helps overcome these issues since it uses consumer reported habits data and manufacturers' product data, and is, therefore, considered to be a more accurate, method for estimating aggregate exposure. The use of probabilistic exposure models to assess cosmetics and consumer product exposure is gaining attention Hall et al., 2007, Meek et al., 2011Vilone et al., 2014;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a,b;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Delmaar et al., 2015;Dudzina et al., 2015;Nijkamp et al., 2015;Tozer et al., 2015;Safford et al., 2015;Aylward et al., 2020;Tozer et al., 2019). The general application of probabilistic models to the safety assessment of chemicals is being discussed by regulatory agencies and their acceptance into regulatory frameworks is growing (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2008, a proposal for assessing the risk of induction of skin sensitization to fragrance materials Quantitative Risk Assessment 1 (QRA1) was published. This was implemented for setting maximum limits for fragrance materials in consumer products. However, there was no formal validation or empirical verification after implementation. Additionally, concerns remained that QRA1 did not incorporate aggregate exposure from multiple product use and included assumptions, e.g. safety assessment factors (SAFs), that had not been critically reviewed. Accordingly, a review was undertaken, including detailed re-evaluation of each SAF together with development of an approach for estimating aggregate exposure of the skin to a potential fragrance allergen. This revision of QRA1, termed QRA2, provides an improved method for establishing safe levels for sensitizing fragrance materials in multiple products to limit the risk of induction of contact allergy. The use of alternative non-animal methods is not within the scope of this paper. Ultimately, only longitudinal clinical studies can verify the utility of QRA2 as a tool for the prevention of contact allergy to fragrance materials.
... Several studies on exposure factors associated with consumer products were conducted in Europe and the USA. In Europe, the Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products (EPHECT) project was set up as a European consumer product database [11]. The EPHECT conducted exposure and risk assessments for chemicals contained in consumer products [12,13]. ...
... In previous studies that investigated exposure factors for household and personal care products, the actual users of the consumer products were considered when recruiting participants [11,15,22]. In this study, all the target consumer products were commonly used by adults, and therefore, all individuals included in this study were aged 19 years and older. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine health risks posed by chemicals in consumer products. We analyzed five risk-concerned product categories (anti-fogging, dye, disinfectant, repellent, and preservative products) for 13 products (three car anti-fogging products, a lens anti-fogging product, two car dye products, two drain disinfectants, an air conditioner disinfectant, a chlorine-based disinfectant, a fabric repellent, an insect repellent for food, and a wood preservative) considered to be of high risk in order to determine exposure factors via web surveys and estimation of amount of product. Among the 3000 participants (1482 (49%) men) aged ≥19 years, drain disinfectants were used most frequently (38.2%); the rate of usage of the other products ranged between 1.1–24.0%. The usage rates for the consumer products differed by sex, age, income, and education. Some consumer products such as car and lens anti-fogging products, chlorine-based disinfectants, fabric repellents, and drain disinfectants were regularly used more than once a month, while car dye products, air conditioner disinfectants, insect repellents for food, and wood preservatives were not regularly used owing to the specific product purposes and seasonal needs. Our results could be used for managing or controlling chemical substances in consumer products and conducting accurate exposure assessments.
... Some efforts have been made so far to improve the database on consumer behaviour. For example, in the EPHECT ("Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU") project [6][7][8] information on 16 product types from 10 European countries was surveyed. These product types include several cleaning products, cosmetics, biocides and air fresheners (none of these product types are addressed in this study). ...
... Only few reliable data sources exist for consumer behaviour data for the many product types in use. Recently, in the EPHECT project, consumer behaviour data for participants from 10 EU countries on 16 different product types were published [6][7][8]. However, some of the data retrieved by EPHECT were difficult to interpret. ...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. concentration) and on consumer behaviour (e.g. use frequency and amount of product used). This feasibility study in Germany investigated methods for conducting a consumer survey in order to identify and retrieve information on frequency, duration, use amounts and use conditions for six example product types (four mixtures, two articles): hand dishwashing liquid, cockpit spray, fillers, paints and lacquers, shoes made of rubber or plastic, and ball-pens/pencils. Retrospective questionnaire methods (Consumer Product Questionnaire (CPQ), and Recall-Foresight Questionnaire (RFQ)) as well as protocol methods (written reporting by participants and video documentation) were used. A combination of retrospective questionnaire and written protocol methods was identified to provide valid information in a resource-efficient way. Relevant information, which can readily be used in exposure modelling, was obtained for all parameters and product types investigated. Based on the observations in this feasibility study, recommendations are given for designing a large consumer survey.
... More data on sources of airborne particles and gas-phase pollutants are available for combustion processes, [50][51][52][53][54] cooking, 55,56 use of office equipment, 57-60 cleaning and many other types of activities [61][62][63][64][65] from additional studies and reviews. Dimitroulopoulou et al. [66][67][68] conducted a Europe-wide study on emissions from the use of consumer products (EPHECT, Emissions, exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer products in the EU), which can be used to assess the indoor key pollutants emission strength and pattern from these products. ...
Article
Full-text available
The IPCC 2021 report predicts rising global temperatures and more frequent extreme weather events in the future, which will have different effects on the regional climate and concentrations of ambient air pollutants. Consequently, changes in heat and mass transfer between the inside and outside of buildings will also have an increasing impact on indoor air quality. It is therefore surprising that indoor spaces and occupant well‐being still play a subordinate role in the studies of climate change. To increase awareness for this topic, the Indoor Air Quality Climate Change (IAQCC) model system was developed, which allows short and long‐term predictions of the indoor climate with respect to outdoor conditions. The IAQCC is a holistic model that combines different scenarios in the form of submodels: building physics, indoor emissions, chemical–physical reaction and transformation, mold growth, and indoor exposure. IAQCC allows simulation of indoor gas and particle concentrations with outdoor influences, indoor materials and activity emissions, particle deposition and coagulation, gas reactions, and SVOC partitioning. These key processes are fundamentally linked to temperature and relative humidity. With the aid of the building physics model, the indoor temperature and humidity, and pollutant transport in building zones can be simulated. The exposure model refers to the calculated concentrations and provides evaluations of indoor thermal comfort and exposure to gaseous, particulate, and microbial pollutants.
... More recently, Dimitroulopoulou et al (2015a) have estimated aggregate exposure for a range of VOCs (formaldehyde, benzene, acrolein, d-limonene, a-pinene) being emitted from cleaning and surface treatment products including all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible products, sprays, electric and passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The modelling was carried out using CONC-CPM microenvironmental (ME) model. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details much of the current state-of-the-art of consumer exposure assessment data and models that can be used in chemical risk assessment, with a particular focus upon aggregate exposure assessment. Aggregate exposure considers all sources of exposure to a single chemical (e.g. hair care products, cosmetics, detergents, foods, environmental media, etc.) via all routes (oral, dermal, and inhalation). The report focuses on consumer products (not including the assessment of occupational exposure), considering the following product domains: cosmetics and personal care products, household products, food and other consumer products (such as surface coatings, adhesives, sealants, disinfectants, automotive care products, toys etc.). Exposure assessment is, by necessity, an iterative process. If, in any tier, negligible or acceptable risk cannot be demonstrated, the assessment moves to a higher tier. The risk assessment is finished if (in any tier of the approach) it has been demonstrated that the risk for the population under consideration is negligible or acceptable, or if in the highest tier the risk is not acceptable and further refinements are not possible. This approach was proposed in the WHO/IPCS framework for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (Meek et al, 2011). The report is divided into four sections. Section One gives background on the tiered approach to exposure assessment, including aggregate exposure assessment in the consumer product domains. Section Two provides an overview of the current exposure landscape, detailing the main data sources, models and tools that are available for chemical risk assessment in the food, cosmetics, household, and consumer products domains. Conclusions and recommendations on current opportunities for the development and provision of new tools and data are also presented based on the outcome of this landscaping exercise. This section is accompanied by a detailed spreadsheet referencing all identified data sources and tools identified for chemical exposure assessment. Section Three presents examples of case studies of aggregate exposure to the chemicals triclosan and phenoxyethanol (PhE), outlining how current models and data can be best used for higher-tier exposure assessments. In addition, there is a literature review of the broader domain of aggregate exposure assessment, detailing other examples and approaches that exist for aggregate exposure assessment. Section Four contains discussion and conclusions on areas of opportunity for exposure science over the next two to five years. The key conclusions of this report are summarised as follows: • Exposure assessments should involve an iterative process, and should be conducted using a tiered strategy, where the lowest tier (0) involves a semi-quantitative assessment of the all sources, pathways and routes contributing to aggregate exposure to a substance, the mid-tier (1) tends to be a deterministic estimate with conservative assumptions, the higher tier (2) is a more realistic estimation of population exposure with increased use of measured data using probabilistic methods, and at the highest tier (3) exposure is modelled with a person-orientated approach using raw data sets. • Many tools and databases exist to support consumer exposure assessment, as demonstrated in the landscaping effort. Users can select the data and tools that best fit their specific situation and level of assessment. • Most consumer exposures tools are designed to evaluate single substance, single use assessments. • Higher tier exposure assessments require more realistic and representative data to the situation being assessed and additional understanding of data correlations. • Subject oriented aggregate tools (PACEM, Creme Care & Cosmetics) are available that allow aggregate exposure assessment within some consumer product domains. For example, in cosmetics and personal care products, the availability of robust tools and data sets (habits and practices data with product co-use, and the use of presence probabilities) allow refined estimates of aggregate exposure. • A major challenge in estimating aggregate exposure in many product categories is obtaining representative information on exposure factors (Habits and Practices Data, Co-use Data, Chemical Concentration Data and Chemical Occurrence Data), as well as potential correlations between these factors. For some domains, such as household care products, the available data are limited. • Guidance should be developed to indicate when higher tier aggregate assessments might be a priority. Considerations include relative contributions of different sources, level of conservatism in a screening single source assessment (for example, the case study indicates a higher tier aggregate assessment may produce a lower exposure estimate than the maximum screening exposure predicted for a single uses), and total exposure levels from representative biomonitoring studies. • Model verification with real-life data (e.g. biomonitoring) on a representative range of chemicals would assist to promote use/acceptance of exposure model predictions. Wider engagement of industry, the public and regulators into the generation, harmonisation and management of input data related to consumer exposure will foster the advances in aggregate exposure modelling, especially in domains where currently little data are available.
... More recently, Dimitroulopoulou et al (2015a) have estimated aggregate exposure for a range of VOCs (formaldehyde, benzene, acrolein, d-limonene, a-pinene) being emitted from cleaning and surface treatment products including all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible products, sprays, electric and passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes. The modelling was carried out using CONC-CPM microenvironmental (ME) model. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details much of the current state-of-the-art of consumer exposure assessment data and models that can be used in chemical risk assessment, with a particular focus upon aggregate exposure assessment. Aggregate exposure considers all sources of exposure to a single chemical (e.g. hair care products, cosmetics, detergents, foods, environmental media, etc.) via all routes (oral, dermal, and inhalation). The report focuses on consumer products (not including the assessment of occupational exposure), considering the following product domains: cosmetics and personal care products, household products, food and other consumer products (such as surface coatings, adhesives, sealants, disinfectants, automotive care products, toys etc.). Exposure assessment is, by necessity, an iterative process. If, in any tier, negligible or acceptable risk cannot be demonstrated, the assessment moves to a higher tier. The risk assessment is finished if (in any tier of the approach) it has been demonstrated that the risk for the population under consideration is negligible or acceptable, or if in the highest tier the risk is not acceptable and further refinements are not possible. This approach was proposed in the WHO/IPCS framework for risk assessment of combined exposure to multiple chemicals (Meek et al, 2011). The report is divided into four sections. Section One gives background on the tiered approach to exposure assessment, including aggregate exposure assessment in the consumer product domains. Section Two provides an overview of the current exposure landscape, detailing the main data sources, models and tools that are available for chemical risk assessment in the food, cosmetics, household, and consumer products domains. Conclusions and recommendations on current opportunities for the development and provision of new tools and data are also presented based on the outcome of this landscaping exercise. This section is accompanied by a detailed spreadsheet referencing all identified data sources and tools identified for chemical exposure assessment. Section Three presents examples of case studies of aggregate exposure to the chemicals triclosan and phenoxyethanol (PhE), outlining how current models and data can be best used for higher-tier exposure assessments. In addition, there is a literature review of the broader domain of aggregate exposure assessment, detailing other examples and approaches that exist for aggregate exposure assessment. Section Four contains discussion and conclusions on areas of opportunity for exposure science over the next two to five years. The key conclusions of this report are summarised as follows: • Exposure assessments should involve an iterative process, and should be conducted using a tiered strategy, where the lowest tier (0) involves a semi-quantitative assessment of the all sources, pathways and routes contributing to aggregate exposure to a substance, the mid-tier (1) tends to be a deterministic estimate with conservative assumptions, the higher tier (2) is a more realistic estimation of population exposure with increased use of measured data using probabilistic methods, and at the highest tier (3) exposure is modelled with a person-orientated approach using raw data sets. • Many tools and databases exist to support consumer exposure assessment, as demonstrated in the landscaping effort. Users can select the data and tools that best fit their specific situation and level of assessment. • Most consumer exposures tools are designed to evaluate single substance, single use assessments. • Higher tier exposure assessments require more realistic and representative data to the situation being assessed and additional understanding of data correlations. • Subject oriented aggregate tools (PACEM, Creme Care & Cosmetics) are available that allow aggregate exposure assessment within some consumer product domains. For example, in cosmetics and personal care products, the availability of robust tools and data sets (habits and practices data with product co-use, and the use of presence probabilities) allow refined estimates of aggregate exposure. • A major challenge in estimating aggregate exposure in many product categories is obtaining representative information on exposure factors (Habits and Practices Data, Co-use Data, Chemical Concentration Data and Chemical Occurrence Data), as well as potential correlations between these factors. For some domains, such as household care products, the available data are limited. • Guidance should be developed to indicate when higher tier aggregate assessments might be a priority. Considerations include relative contributions of different sources, level of conservatism in a screening single source assessment (for example, the case study indicates a higher tier aggregate assessment may produce a lower exposure estimate than the maximum screening exposure predicted for a single uses), and total exposure levels from representative biomonitoring studies. • Model verification with real-life data (e.g. biomonitoring) on a representative range of chemicals would assist to promote use/acceptance of exposure model predictions. Wider engagement of industry, the public and regulators into the generation, harmonisation and management of input data related to consumer exposure will foster the advances in aggregate exposure modelling, especially in domains where currently little data are available.
... 19 BAMA indoor air model is a simple but powerful tool, developed by the British Aerosol Manufacturers' Association (BAMA) and the European Aerosol Federation (FEA) that allows estimation of consumer inhalation exposure. Related also to inhalation exposure is the EU-funded EPHECT project; this project is focused on health relevant air pollutants in dwellings emitted by consumer products and contains a market study on the use, use pattern, habits and attitudes of EU consumers for 15 consumer products (all-purpose cleaners, kitchen cleaners, floor cleaners, glass and window cleaners, bathroom cleaners, furniture and floor polish products, combustible air fresheners, spray air fresheners, electric air fresheners, passive air fresheners, coating products for leather and textiles, hair styling products, spray deodorants and perfumes) (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a,b). ...
Article
Full-text available
The current scientific report aims at providing a document that compiles and summarise relevant information on non-dietary exposure derived from the use of consumer products and via the environment (dust, air, etc.). Leading institutions and organisations on non-dietary exposure are presented, in particular, the European Chemical Agency (ECHA). This scientific report also provides an overview of the registration process of chemical substances that should be followed under Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), including the use descriptor system. This system provides an appropriate level of information to allow understanding what is done with the substance and to ensure a meaningful and complete exposure assessment of the uses. Special attention is given to algorithms and toolboxes described by ECHA guidance that are used to estimate the external dose of one particular chemical through different routes and sources of exposure. These algorithms allow the estimation of non-dietary exposure following a stepwise or tiered approach, from deriving a reasonable ‘worst-case’ scenario to more refined exposure estimations when needed. Sources of information are also provided on default values (exposure factors) to be used when not measured values are available, such as body weight, dermal factors (e.g. skin area), consumer products use, activity factors, inhalation rates, incidental soil ingestion rates, etc. Finally, few examples are given on how to use some of the mentioned toolboxes and algorithms to estimate non-dietary exposure to different chemical compounds (carvone and bisphenol A) from consumer products and environment (indoor air). This scientific report was endorsed by the EFSA Scientific Committee on its 78th Plenary Meeting.
... Quantitative considerations in risk assessments include dose-response assessments, exposure assessments, and characterization of uncertainty. Reliable exposure factors are essential to determine the health risks posed by the ingredients in deodorizing products [38,39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The inhalation of a water aerosol from a humidifier containing disinfectants has led to serious lung injuries in Korea. To promote the safe use of products, the Korean government enacted regulations on the chemicals in various consumer products that could have adverse health effects. Given the concern over the potential health risks associated with the hazardous ingredients in deodorizing consumer products, 17 ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their health risk on 3 groups by the application type in 47 deodorizing products. The risk assessment study followed a stepwise procedure (e.g., collecting toxicological information, hazard identification/exposure assessment, and screening and detailed assessment for inhalation and dermal routes). The worst-case scenario and maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type were used as the screening assessment. In a detailed assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. The exposed concentrations of seven ingredients were calculated. Due to limitation of toxicity information, butylated hydroxyl toluene for a consumer’s exposure via the dermal route only was conducted for a detailed assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in deodorizing products. This approach can be used to establish guidelines for ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazards.
... Miscellaneous products. In the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU) several household and consumer products (cleaning agents air fresheners, polish, perfume) were selected and studied in test chambers [96,97]. On the basis of determined emission rates Trantallidi et al. [98] calculated exposure scenarios for different population groups in four geographical regions of Europe. ...
Article
Full-text available
A literature study was carried out with respect to the release and accumulation of formaldehyde indoors. With reference to representative emission data, exposure scenarios were calculated on the basis of the European Reference Room with the aid of Monte-Carlo methods. Furthermore, data concerning formaldehyde concentrations in indoor and outdoor air, as well as data on air exchange, were collected for the European region. Various permanent, intermitting and temporary emission sources were compared under the specified conditions of the Reference Room. It was thereby necessary to bear in mind that, for example, the emission tests for raw wood-based materials and mineral wool do not take place under realistic conditions, as these products are not applied open in indoor areas. It is demonstrated that coatings and coverings drastically reduce the release of formaldehyde into the room air. Moreover, it becomes clear that the Reference Room concept allows a comparison of emission sources but also greatly overestimates the formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas when diverse sources are simply added together. In view of the discussed aspects, as well as taking into account outdoor air conditions and diverse secondary sources, the potential problem of exposure to high formaldehyde concentrations in indoor areas can therefore not be solved through the further tightening of already existing regulations, in particular because peak concentrations and therefore high exposures would remain largely uninfluenced. Due to the fact that formaldehyde is a compound with a threshold effect, this aspect is of considerable importance. Consequently, an appropriate risk management option would be to primarily address the peak concentrations originating from temporary and intermitting sources.
... Household products that fall under these regulations are required to be assessed for exposure and risk in order to evaluate the health and environmental hazards associated with their use. Exposure and risk assessment involves the systematic scientific characterization of potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations [12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding how indoor-air contaminants affect human health is of critical importance in our developed society. We assessed the combined exposure by inhalation of preschool children and children to household products. A total of 1175 families with 72 infants, 158 toddlers, 230 children, and 239 youths were surveyed to determine the combined respiratory exposure concentrations and amounts associated with 21 substances in eight household product groups. We determined the mean concentrations of these substances in each product, and derived reference toxicity values based on the information gathered in order to identify respiratory health risks. On average, cleaners were used at a rate of 1.0 × 103 g/month, while coating agents and other substances were used at 43 g/month. The combined inhalation exposure concentrations of methanol to infants and toddlers were 5.1 and 4.2 mg/m3 per month, respectively, with values of 2.1 and 1.7 mg/m3 for isopropanol, respectively. Risks to preschool children and children should be assessed on the basis of the toxicity values of combined exposed hazardous substances, as well as their combined concentrations and amounts. This exposure assessment approach can be used to establish improved guidelines for products that may pose inhalation hazards to preschool children and children.
... To determine the health risks, understanding product exposure is very important. Therefore, previous studies have been conducted to identify product usage patterns (e.g., frequency of use, amount of use per application, etc.) of national consumers, which are used as input parameters in exposure assessments [10][11][12][13]. The European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals [14] and the Netherlands National Institute for Public Health [15] developed an exposure assessment tool for consumer products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Public concern regarding the use of products with chemicals has increased in Korea, following reports indicating that hazardous chemicals in products, such as disinfectants, can cause fatal lung disease. Despite the widespread use of car colorant products, little is known regarding their potential health risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential health risks of substances that exist in car colorant products. Thirteen car colorant products were purchased from the Korean market and 15 commonly used chemicals were analyzed. Exposure and risk assessments were conducted in two assessment stages (screening and refined). The analysis showed that all of the examined products contained toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene. The maximum concentration of toluene was 52.5%, with a median concentration of 10.8%. Tier 1 (screening) assessment showed that four chemicals (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and 2-butoxyethanol) may pose health risks, but tier 2 (refined) assessment showed that these chemicals do not pose any risk. However, these chemicals were present in all of the examined products, and government regulations did not control their concentrations in these products. Therefore, we suggest that levels of toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene in car colorant products should be regulated to protect public health.
... In two French studies, > 70% of French women reported to clean their houses at least weekly whatever their age, and were more exposed than men to cleaning products (Le Moual et al., 2012;Bédard et al., 2014). Moreover, cleaning products have specific purposes (detergent, disinfectant), leading to a potential sequential use of several products to do all the cleaning tasks, and potentially to a mixture effect on health (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). Cleaning products are composed of many ingredients which may be airway irritants (bleach, ammonia, solvents, acids) (Vandenplas et al., 2014) or allergens https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106017 ...
Article
Full-text available
An adverse role of frequent domestic use of cleaning agents, especially in spray form, on asthma has been reported. However, sparse studies have investigated respiratory health effects of chronic domestic exposure to irritant cleaning agents. This study aims to investigate associations between weekly use of irritant domestic cleaning products and current allergic and non-allergic asthma in a large cohort of elderly women.We used data from the Asthma-E3N nested case-control study on asthma (n = 19,404 women, response rate: 91%, 2011), in which participants completed standardized questionnaires on asthma and on the use of domestic cleaning products including irritants (bleach, ammonia, solvents and acids). Allergic multimorbidity in asthma was assessed from allergic-related medications recorded in drug refunds database. The association between use of irritants and current asthma was estimated by logistic regression (current vs. never asthma) and multinomial logistic regression (never asthma, non-allergic asthma, allergic asthma) adjusted on age, smoking status and body mass index (BMI).In the 12,758 women included in the analysis (mean age: 70 years, current smokers: 4%, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: 32%, low education: 11%, current asthma: 23%), 47% reported weekly use of at least one irritant cleaning product at home. Weekly use of irritant products was associated with a higher risk of current asthma (adjusted Odds-Ratio: 1.17, 1.07–1.27). A statistically significant dose–response association was reported (p trend
... It has been established that some NMVOCs contained in aerosols products are toxic (Dales et al., 2013) and extensive studies are available in the literature to this effect (Comiskey et al., 2015, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a, Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b, McDonald et al., 2018, Rahman and Kim, 2014, Steinemann, 2016, Trantallidi et al., 2015, Wieck et al., 2018, Wolkoff and Nielsen, 2017, Zota et al., 2017. The concentration measurements of the NMVOCs from aerosols at the indoor interface (Bartzis et al., 2015, Batterman et al., 2012, Pelletier et al., 2017, Wieck et al., 2018 and their outdoor impacts in terms of secondary ozone formation (Atkinson and Arey, 2003, Carter, 1994, Dinh et al., 2015, Li et al., 2020, Niu et al., 2017, Rohr, 2013, Yan et al., 2017 have also been highlighted. ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) from domestic aerosol sprays are emerging pollutants and have substantial negative effects on human health and the environment. This study, for the first time, carried out quantification of the NMVOC emissions from off-the-shelf domestic aerosol sprays, at "source" in the UK. These aerosol sprays contain harmful organic compounds as propellants and products. The results showed that the cosmetic category (i.e. body sprays) have higher concentrations of NMVOCs with 93.7 wt% per can compared to households (i.e. air fresheners) with 62 wt%. Also, water-based products showed less NMVOCs in all analyses compared to solvent-based formulations. Direct replacement of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) propellants from conventional products with 'clean air' (i.e. nitrogen) showed the potential emission reduction of 50%. Hair spray products, however, have the highest ozone forming potential with about 105.1 g of Ozone per litre of the product compared to other domestic aerosol sprays. The level of global warming contribution of the selected aerosol sprays in the UK was measured to be 129.8 ktCO2e in 2018 and globally, this can be projected to be 3154.6 ktCO2e in 2020. Furthermore, NMVOC emissions contribution from the domestic aerosol sprays in the UK was measured as 61.2 kt in 2018 based on annual consumption of 520 million cans. Globally this can equate to 1437.6 kt based on the projected usage of 17.5 billion cans. Therefore, it is vital to expedite replacing LPG propellant with nitrogen in a drive for a 'near-zero' emission in aerosol industry. The results presented in this study can also be used to steer policy makers to the potentially brewing danger from an otherwise passive emission source.
... determine retail biocidal products and ingredient chemicals (maximum concentration/minimum concentration) in workplaces,3 investigate exposure information including use frequency and use amount, and 4 calculate exposed amount per day of occupational consumers. The lack of a reliable exposure database for biocidal products was a major limitation of the risk assessment study[12,20].The specific pattern of use data requirements for different biocidal products are purpose of product (physical properties, where used, description of tasks, target organisms), use environment (pattern of control, use pattern), loading phase (task, frequency per task, duration of task, quantity used per task), application phase, post-application phase, and others. The essential information of use pattern requires the derivation of exposure scenarios, which are then evaluated to derive quantitative exposure estimates[16,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biocidal active chemicals have potential health risks associated with exposure to retail biocide products such as disinfectants for COVID-19. Reliable exposure assessment was investigated to understand the exposure pattern of biocidal products used by occupational workers in their place of occupation, multi-use facilities, and general facilities. The interview–survey approach was taken to obtain the database about several subcategories of twelve occupational groups, the use pattern, and the exposure information of non-human hygiene disinfectant and insecticide products in workplaces. Furthermore, we investigated valuable exposure factors, e.g., the patterns of use, exposure routes, and quantifying potential hazardous chemical intake, on biocidal active ingredients. We focused on biocidal active-ingredient exposure from products used by twelve occupational worker groups. The 685 non-human hygiene disinfectants and 763 insecticides identified contained 152 and 97 different active-ingredient chemicals, respectively. The toxicity values and clinical health effects of total twelve ingredient chemicals were determined through a brief overview of toxicity studies aimed at estimating human health risks. To estimate actual exposure amounts divided by twelve occupational groups, the time spent to apply the products was investigated from the beginning to end of the product use. This study investigated the exposure assessment of occupational exposure to biocidal products used in workplaces, multi-use facilities, and general facilities. Furthermore, this study provides valuable information on occupational exposure that may be useful to conduct accurate exposure assessment and to manage products used for quarantine in general facilities.
... Several studies on exposure information associated with household products were conducted. A European household product database for domestic use of 15 products was established to provide information that would enable exposure and risk assessment of the chemicals included in common household products (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015a;Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015b;Trantallidi et al., 2015). In the USA, the study of use of products and exposure-related behaviors project provided data on usage patterns for many household products (Bennett et al., 2010). ...
... A European research project found that both acute (high-level, short-term) and chronic (low-level, long-term) exposure to certain VOCs were related to irritative and respiratory health effects 115,116,117 . This includes acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Air pollution is the environmental public health problem of our time. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child sets out clear guidance to protecting the rights of children and young people, including a child's right to the best possible health (Article 24) and the right to a good standard of living. Unicef also consider that clean air is a right for all children. The UK Royal Medical Colleges vigorously advocate for a healthy environment at the population level and in local communities, especially where socio-economic circumstances limit the choice of where people can live, and which school children attend. Despite substantial progress in understanding outdoor air pollution, the potential risk to health, especially that of children and young people, from the indoor air has been largely overlooked, yet in modern times, the indoor environment has never been more important as lockdown with the Covi-19 virus pandemic has shown us. Here we provide an abridged version of the RCPCH/RCP Report The inside story: Health effects of indoor air quality on children and young people but without the section on recommendations. The full Report along with recommendations, released on 28 January 2020, can be accessed at https://www.rcpch.ac.uk/resources/inside-story-health-effects-indoor-air-quality-children-young-people. While we recognise that some aspects of this commentary are UK specific, much of the content has wide implications.
... In Level 1, microenvironmental modelling was performed using the CONC_CPM model to simulate the indoor air 'target' pollutant concentrations in home MEs (living room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom) resulting from single product use (one product used in one ME). The model was applied in the four European geographical regions (N, W, S, E), having as inputs the following parameters: (i) emission rates from chamber testing, according to the developed scenarios described in Dimitroulopoulou et al. (2015-in this issue); (ii) room volumes for each ME, derived from data across EU countries, as reported by Dol and Haffner (2010) (see Section 3.1); and (iii) ventilation data derived from the literature review of ventilation rates in European dwellings, carried out within the framework of EPHECT (Dimitroulopoulou, 2012) (see Section 3.2). ...
Article
Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Numerous studies and reviews have reconfirmed that adverse respiratory effects are associated with the use of spray cleaning products in cleaners, as observed by Nielsen and Bach (1999) two decades ago. A household survey study of consumer product uses and user patterns among home-based population groups in four EU regions within the EPHECT project (Emission, Exposure Patterns, and Health Effects of Consumer Products) showed that use of spray products was substantial (Dimitroulopoulou et al., 2015). The products included all-purpose cleaners, bathroom cleaning products, kitchen cleaning products, and glass, window, and furniture cleaners. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spray cleaning and disinfection products have been associated with adverse respiratory effects in professional cleaners and among residents doing domestic cleaning. This review combines information about use of spray products from epidemiological and clinical studies, in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies of cleaning chemicals, as well as human and field exposure studies. The most frequent chemicals in spray cleaning and disinfection products were compiled, based on registrations in the Danish Product Registry. The chemicals were divided into acids, bases, disinfectants, fragrances, organic solvents, propellants, and tensides. In addition, an assessment of selected cleaning and disinfectant chemicals in spray products was carried out. Chemicals of concern regarding respiratory effects (e.g. asthma) are corrosive chemicals such as strong acids and bases (including ammonia and hypochlorite) and quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs). However, the evidence for respiratory effects after inhalation of QACs is ambiguous. Common fragrances are generally not considered to be of concern following inhalation. Solvents including glycols and glycol ethers as well as propellants are generally weak airway irritants and not expected to induce sensitization in the airways. Mixing of certain cleaning products can produce corrosive airborne chemicals. We discuss different hypotheses for the mechanisms behind the development of respiratory effects of inhalation of chemicals in cleaning agents. An integrative assessment is needed to understand how these chemicals can cause the various respiratory effects.
Article
Essential-oils have attracted increasing interest due to their performance as inhibitors of the metabolic functions of microorganisms. They are widely promoted as easy-to-use compounds to improve indoor air quality and are associated with purifying actions. This study aims to assess the emissions of molecules contained in essential-oils in confined environments by employing different diffusion mechanisms under realistic conditions. Terpenes and carbonyl compounds are the typical identified and quantified compounds emitted from the tea tree essential-oil. Contrasted concentration levels and kinetic parameters are evidenced depending on the mechanism of diffusion, and the concentration levels can exceed the recommended critical exposure level by one order of magnitude. Additionally, the relative contributions of individual terpenes in the gas phase vary throughout the diffusion process for all the investigated diffusers. To assess the duration of the impact of essential-oil diffusion on indoor air quality, the mass emission rates of individual terpenes are estimated. This study shows that, depending on the diffusion mechanism, the impact of essential-oil diffusion in confined environments varies from 5 h to 60 days. The proposed experimental approach and the results provided offer the first insights into the definition of risk scenarios and human exposure to essential-oils in indoor environments.
Article
Ingredient chemicals like fragrances may cause adverse health effects. Frequent health risk assessments and stringent management of consumer products are of paramount importance to reduce these serious occurrences. In this study, the respiratory and dermal health effects were assessed in relation to air fresheners. Twenty six fragrance ingredients, thirty four biocidal ingredients, and sixteen hazardous ingredients were analyzed and assessed according to their risk to human health on five groups by application type in eighty two air fresheners. For hazard characterization of ingredients, toxicological information on the intrinsic properties of the ingredients was collected, and reference values were determined as chronic NOAEL. Exposure assessment was performed in two steps. The 95th exposure factor values were used to estimate exposure to assume the worst-case scenario and the maximum concentration determined by the product purpose and application type was used type in tiered 1 assessment. The values input into the exposure algorithms were developed via the exposure route. In the tiered 2 assessment, the 75th exposure factor values were used to estimate the assumed reasonable exposure to ingredients. Six ingredients for the inhalation and twelve ingredients for the dermal route were conducted for tiered 2 assessment. This study showed that the assessed ingredients have no health risks at their maximum concentrations in air fresheners. The approach should be used to establish improved guidelines for specific ingredients that may pose inhalation and dermal hazard.
Article
Air care products are widely used in German households. Some of their ingredients e.g. fragrances are known to provoke allergies. This article gives an overview about the use of air care products in German households. Data have been generated for exposure assessments in a representative consumer survey about the use of air care products. The consumer survey was carried out by a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATO. 1,002 persons from representatively selected households were interviewed by telephone. The results show that these products are used by a high percentage of the German population. The products used have different fragrances among other substances as ingredients. This wide use of air care products should be taken into account in exposure assessments of such products.
Article
Full-text available
Formaldehyde has been discussed as a typical indoor pollutant for decades. To evaluate the current state-of-the-art in formaldehyde research and to identify the plethora of regulated and unregulated formaldehyde sources in indoor and outdoor spaces, an extensive literature search was carried out. The acquired data were analyzed with the aid of Monte-Carlo methods to calculate realistic formaldehyde concentration profiles and exposure scenarios under consideration of aging, source/sink behavior and diffusion effects. Average concentrations of formaldehyde are within 20-30 µg/m³ for European households under residential-typical conditions. The assumption of an average air exchange rate of 0.5 h-1 is also plausible. Formaldehyde emission rates of materials and products for indoor use are widely spread and range from non-detectable to > 1000 µg/h. However, processes like combustion, cleaning activities, operation of air purifiers and indoor chemistry were identified as temporary but relevant formaldehyde sources, which might cause high peak concentrations.
Thesis
Essential oils, as natural fragances, are frequently used in green marketed housecleaning products and air fresheners. Nonetheless, they contain volatile and reactive chemical species. This thesis investigates the emissions of essential-oil-based household products under real consumer use patterns to assess their impacts on indoor air quality. The experimental approach allows an integrated assessment of the estimation of the terpene emissions from 10 selected essential-oil-based household products in experimental chambers at different scales ; from micro-chamber to the 40m3 experimental room. Regarding essential-oil-based cleaning products, contrasted concentration levels are evidenced for terpenes species related to the application process and use purpose of these products. Morover, long-term increase of formaldehyde concentrations are noticed after the application of these products that might be related to secondary sources. Concerning the indoor diffusion of tea tree oil, contrasted concentration levels and kinetics are evidenced depending on the mechanism of diffusion used. Concentrations can exceed by more than one order of magnitude the recommanded Critical Exposure Level (CEL). It is noticed that the relative contribtions of individual terpenes is the gas phase vary all along the diffusion process, for any investigated diffusion device. Finally, essential-oil-based household products have to be seriously envisaged as versatile anfdsignificant sources of VOCs since they might induce indoor concentrations of terpenes exceeding exposure limits established by the European Union and the United States.
Article
Accurately measuring the usage patterns of consumer products (CPs) is important to conduct realistic exposure assessments. We determined the exposure factors for 18 consumer products: household bleach, mold stain remover, all-purpose cleaner, washing machine cleaner, air conditioner cleaner, glass cleaner, drain cleaner, adhesive remover, liquid snow chain, tire shine spray, wheel cleaner, rain repellent, car wax spray, leather polish, furniture polish, anti-fog product, fabric waterproofing spray, and rust inhibitor. Field survey staff visited homes and collected product use information via face-to-face interviews. In total, 10,000 participants (5010 men and 4990 women) aged 15 years and older completed the questionnaire. Household bleach had the highest use rate of 47.4% and use rates for the other products ranged from 0.8 to 21.7%. The use rates of many CPs differed by age group and gender. Many household cleaning products were used regularly, but some products, such as air conditioner cleaner and liquid snow chain, were used in specific seasons or for specific purposes; therefore, they were used less frequently compared to cleaning products. These exposure factor data will be useful as input data for exposure and risk assessments and setting safety guidelines.
Article
Full-text available
Air fresheners are pervasive within indoor built environments, such as workplaces, schools, housing, transportation, hotels, hospitals, care facilities, and a range of private and public buildings. Air fresheners are designed to impart an aroma to the air environment or to mask odors, with the intent of creating a pleasing indoor space. However, despite the intent, air fresheners can emit and generate a range of potentially hazardous air pollutants that can impair air quality. Even so-called green and organic air fresheners can emit hazardous air pollutants. Air freshener ingredients are largely unknown and undisclosed, owing to regulatory protections on consumer product ingredients and on fragrance formulations. In studies, fewer than ten percent of all volatile ingredients are typically disclosed on air freshener labels or material safety data sheets. From an indoor air quality perspective, air fresheners have been indicated as a primary source of volatile organic compounds within buildings. From a health perspective, air fresheners have been associated with adverse effects, such as migraine headaches, asthma attacks, mucosal symptoms, infant illness, and breathing difficulties. This article investigates the seeming paradox that products designed to improve the indoor environment can pose unintended and unknown risks. It examines the science, health, and policy perspectives, and provides recommendations and research directions.
Article
Noncombustible air fresheners are indoor air emission sources of concern. The associated health risks should be better understood. Based on 15 products (4 sprays, 6 passive diffusers, and 5 active diffusers), the health risk assessment (HRA) approach was applied to a national use survey in France and to concentrations measured in an experimental house. The targeted substances included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbonyls, and fine particles (PM2.5). Mean-use and reasonable worst-case generic scenarios were designed. No situation of concern occurred regarding chronic exposure associated with the mean use. Under the reasonable worst-case scenarios, the chronic risk could exceed selected health reference standards, mainly for acrolein (average inhaled concentration (AIC) up to 3.5 µg/m³), benzene (AIC up to 4 µg/m³), and limonene (AIC up to 8 mg/m³). The acute exposure, defined as a 1-h exposure, could exceed selected health standards, primarily for acrolein (up to 23 µg/m³) and formaldehyde (up to approximately 370 µg/m³). Furthermore, the 1-h average PM2.5 concentration, including ultrafine particles, could exceed 100 µg/m³, typically for sprays. These results suggest that the highest exposures should be reduced and, as such, that the emissions of the highest-emissivity products should be lowered.
Article
Cleaning products are among the most widely used consumer products. The associated risks should be better understood. The health risk assessment (HRA) approach was applied to household uses of cleaning products, with nineteen products of various types and formats tested under typical indoor environmental parameters in an experimental house. The targeted substances included volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The generic “Common Use” and “Reasonable Worst-Case” scenarios under consideration were based on full cleaning sessions. These sessions were elaborated from data available in the technical and scientific literature, combined with stakeholder participation. The Common Use scenario included a 1 1/2-h cleaning session once per week, followed by manual ventilation; the Reasonable Worst-Case scenario included a 4-h session twice per week without manual ventilation. No situation of concern was found regarding chronic inhalation exposures associated with Common Use. For the Reasonable Worst-Case scenario, the assessed chronic inhalation risks were low. Assessed acute inhalation exposures (1-h exposures) could exceed the selected health values, mainly for acrolein (exposures up to 12 μg/m³) and formaldehyde (exposures up to ∼140 μg/m³). Associated first observed effects could include nasal, throat, and eye irritation. These results suggest that the highest exposures should be reduced and, to this end, that the emissions of the most emissive products should be reduced. Since the identified priority substances of concern are not specific to cleaning product emissions, multisource cumulative exposures are expected with the use of other consumer products, e.g., paints, incense, scented candles, furniture, and fragrance diffusers.
Technical Report
Full-text available
INTRODUCTION Each human activity is related to emissions of chemicals into the air. In an industrialized society, the majority of the population spends more than 90% of the time indoors. Indoor air pollution may be becoming worse due to certain recent initiatives to conserve energy. One common method is to make buildings more energy-efficient to "weatherize" them by sealing them off, as tightly as possible. Preliminary research suggests that concentrations of at least some indoor air pollutants vary proportionately with the ventilation rate; thus, decreasing the ventilation rate by a factor of five may increase concentrations of indoor air pollutants by the same factor. Given these increased concentrations, the current trend towards sealing off homes in order to conserve energy, may have serious health consequences. Even this estimate is subject to significant variations based on the chosen lifestyle of the population groups, climatologically determined constrictions, and, most importantly, the age and health status of the individuals. Elderly with poor health and very young children spend virtually most of their time indoors. In some cases, a further complicating factor is that they may live in certain restricted localities within the dwelling more than the healthy persons do. The sources of indoor contaminants that may affect human health could be divided into three general categories which, in turn, could be further subdivided. The general source categories are: (1) infiltration of outdoor air (2) indoor human activities, and (3) building materials and furnishing. Regarding category (2), contaminants emitted by human activities, include many classes of consumer products used for personal care, cleaning, deodorizing, pest management, building maintenance and office work. Furthermore, devices, such as gas stoves, furnaces and fireplaces, commonly present in residents, are known as emitters of air pollutants, such as VOCs, CO and NOx [COSI, 2005]. To assess the population exposure to indoor sources, additional information is needed, such as duration of daily use of a product, duration of contact-time, frequency of use, and percentage of prevalence [COSI, 2005]. Generally, exposure assessment for consumers aims at two groups: - those who use these products and experience the highest exposure and - those who are exposed after application (e.g. children and especially the youngest ones may be relatively high exposed, due to their specific time-activity pattern like crawling on treated surfaces, hand-to-mouth contact, and relatively low body weight). The ability of organic chemicals to cause health effects varies greatly, from those that are highly toxic (e.g. benzene and formaldehyde), to those with no known health effects. As with other pollutants, the extent and nature of the health effects will depend on many factors including level of exposure and length of exposure duration. There are indications that the reaction products of organic pollutants (e.g. terpenes) may have an impact on comfort and health, but the magnitude of these effects and their frequency need to be elucidated (ECA, 2007). In addition, a number of studies in indoor environments suggest that such oxidative reactions may be associated with adverse health effects (Weschler et al., 2006; Wolkoff et al., 2006). The sensory irritation (eyes and airways) and inflammation potential of the ozonolysis products has been studied using a mouse bioassay (Clausen et al., 2001; Rohr et al., 2002; Wilkins et al., 2001; Wolkoff et al., 1999) and a human eye exposure model (Nøjgaard et al., 2005). This report aims at the formulation of an inventory of the necessary scientific basis on the main consumer product categories, needed to make an estimate of the exposure risks for the consumer due to using products. https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/
Technical Report
Full-text available
CHAPTER 1 Product testing strategy 1.1. Structure of the report “Part II product testing experiments” 1.2. Test chamber experiments of the 15 product classes CHAPTER 2 Assessment of the composition of selected consumer products (TUM) 2.1 Information on product composition 2.1.1 Information on product label 2.1.2 Information directly by company 2.1.3 Information available online 2.1.4 Consumer product composition analysis in EPHECT 2.1.5 Sample and compound selection for (TUM) laboratory studies 2.1.6 Sample preparation and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method 2.1.7 Analytical method 2.1.8 Terpenoid and Aromate Determination 2.1.9 Open access data on consumer product composition versus analysis CHAPTER 3 consumer product emission testing 3.1 Emission testing at VITO 3.1.1 Laboratory facilities 3.1.2 Test Conditions 3.1.3 Use scenario simulations 3.2 Emission testing at NRCWE 3.2.1 Laboratory facilities 3.2.2 Use scenario simulations 3.3 Emission testing at IDMEC 3.3.1 Laboratory facilities 3.3.2 Test conditions 3.3.3 Use scenario simulations 3.4 Emission testing at UOWM 3.4.1 Laboratory facilities 3.4.2 Test conditions 3.4.3 Use scenario simulations CHAPTER 4 Intercomparison experiment and QA/QC in EPHECT 4.1 Intercomparison of the consumer product emission tests 4.1.1 Introduction 4.1.2 Experimental test conditions 4.1.3 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations 4.1.4 Emissions behaviour in the intercomparison studies (first preliminary report – UOWM) 4.2 Quality assurance and quality control in EPHECT 4.2.1 Introduction 4.2.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase, Autumn 2011 3.4.1 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes– 1st Phase 3.4.2 Quality Control of the analytical system of VOCs and aldehydes – 2nd phase CHAPTER 5 EPHECT consumer product emission tests 5.1 Calculating the SER of the tested consumer products 5.2 Consumer product emissions, beyond EHPECT key compounds CHAPTER 6 Conclusion quantification of product emissions by laboratory testing References Annex 1 Source strength determination (NRCWE) 87 Annex 2 Specific emission rate calculations based on test chamber concentrations (VITO) Annex 3 Specific emission rate calculations of EPHECT consumer products, based on test chamber concentrations Annex 4 Comparison of the A.I.S.E. candle emission test protocol (in 0.913 m³) with the EPHECT candle emission test at VITO (0.913 m³), at IDMEC (0.05 m³) https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
Technical Report
Full-text available
EPHECT work package 6 (WP6) involves 4 different laboratories that will perform lab testing experiments in product test chambers of different dimensions. The main aim of this document is to tune the laboratory activities of these research institutes for obtaining meaningful emission data. Several aspects of the laboratory work are addressed and described in this document. These include: The formulation of consumer product test protocols (chapter 2) The assessment of priority compounds, studied in WP6 and further WPs (chapter 3) The detailed description of analytical methods, used by the different involved laboratories (chapter 4) The QA/QC strategy, applied in the EPHECT lab testing activities (chapter 5) The EPHECT plan of work (Chapter 6) Secondly this document may contribute to the definition and formulation of a general consumer product test protocol, to assess emissions related to the use and typical use scenarios of consumer and personal care products in households. It can be considered as a first step to obtain harmonized lab testing experiments of consumer products. Since different laboratories are involved, using emission test chambers of various dimensions, attention is also put to analyse products in more than one lab. The latter experiments will provide valuable information concerning the error of emission rates from consumer products, which are calculated based on this consumer product test protocol presented in this document. This document addresses a strategy to assess product emissions, related to the household use of consumer products. This is based on available open literature and on pre-screening experiments, performed by the laboratories involved in WP6. The strategy presented in this document is optimized, updated and fine-tuned, based on the results of the EPHECT lab experiments that are organised based on this protocol. The strategy presented here, more specifically applies to the 15 EPHECT product classes that comply with the 6 EPHECT criteria, defined in the EPHECT project proposal. These selection criteria are the following: - The product is used in households - The use of the product causes an exposure related to the use - The product emits key or emerging pollutants - The product has a considerable indicative household use frequency - The product mainly causes inhalation exposure - The use causes a health end point https://esites.vito.be/sites/ephect/Pages/documents.aspx
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to toxic chemicals in the home is a growing concern. This report presents an overview of the recruitment, methods for data collection, instruments used to collect data, and participant demographics for a study examining behaviors that influence exposure to environmental toxins in the home environment, also known as SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors). The methods involved three different platforms: telephone interviews, internet-based surveys, and home-based monitoring. The purposes of SUPERB were: first, to compare data collection platforms with regard to feasibility, acceptability and reliability; and second, to provide longitudinal population-based data characterizing seasonal and long-term changes in exposure-related behaviors including food consumption, temporal-spatial activity, and household product use. Two cohorts of households were enrolled: families (one parent and one child) from northern California and older individuals (age 55+) from central California. Parents (n = 499) in Northern California families were on average 36 years of age, 47.1% were Latino or nonwhite, and 10.2% took the survey in Spanish. Most of the children enrolled (n = 566) were under 6 years (82.7%). The older adults enrolled (n = 156) were, on average, 66 years of age and 23.7% were Latino or nonwhite, but only 2.6% completed the survey in Spanish. We found that oversampling was successful in improving recruitment of under-represented subgroups, such as those with low education, thereby increasing diversity of our study sample. Protocols that minimize participant time, e.g., use of bar scanners and scales rather than questionnaires regarding use of household products, and the implementation of these protocols by staff who built relationships of trust, resulted in high retention over a longitudinal data collection scheme. A relatively small fraction of those who volunteer for longitudinal internet surveys are consistent in filling them out. Future reports will provide critical information on cross-sectional, seasonal and longitudinal patterns of exposure related behaviors in young children, parents of young children, and older adults.
Article
Full-text available
Exposure scenarios (ES) under REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorisation of Chemicals; new EU legislation) aim to describe safe conditions of product and substance use. Both operational conditions and risk management measures (RMMs) are part of the ES. For consumer use of chemicals, one of the challenges will be to identify all of the consumer uses of a given chemical and then quantify the exposure derived from each of them. Product use categories can be established to identify in a systematic fashion how products are used. These product categories comprise products that are used similarly (e.g. paints, adhesives). They deliver information about product use characteristics, and provide an easy-to-handle tool for exchanging standardised information. For practical reasons, broad ES will have to be developed, which cover a wide range of products and use. The challenge will be to define them broadly, but not in a way that they provide such an overestimation of exposure that a next iteration or a more complex model is always needed. Tiered and targeted approaches for estimation of exposure at the right level of detail may offer the best solution. RMMs relevant for consumers include those inherent to product design (controllable) and those that are communicated to consumers as directions for use (non-controllable). Quantification of the effect of non-controllable RMMs on consumer exposure can prove to be difficult. REACH requires aggregation of exposure from all relevant identified sources. Development of appropriate methodology for realistic aggregation of exposure will be no small challenge and will likely require probabilistic approaches and comprehensive databases on populations' habits, practices and behaviours. REACH regulation aims at controlling the use of chemicals so that exposure to every chemical can be demonstrated to be safe for consumers, workers, and the environment when considered separately, but also when considered in an integrated way. This integration will be another substantial challenge for the future.
Article
In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios specifically constructed for the present study, following a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' approach for exposure and health risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible and directly applicable to real situations. The present work attempts partly to address this question by comparison of selected VOC emissions in specific consumer products tested in chambers of various dimensions. The measurements were performed in three test chambers of different volumes (0.26-20m(3)). The analytic performance of the laboratories was rigorously assessed prior to chamber testing. The results show emission variation for major VOC (terpenes); however, it remains in general, within the same order of magnitude for all tests. This variability does not seem to correlate with the chamber volume. It rather depends on the overall testing conditions. The present work is undertaken in the frame of EPHECT European Project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
The use of household cleaning products and air fresheners exposes people to a variety of chemicals, including some that have been shown to be irritants, potential carcinogens and endocrine disrupting compounds. In addition, some react with ambient ozone infiltrating to the indoor environment to form potentially toxic secondary pollutants. Although realistic estimates of usage patterns are necessary for modeling potential exposures in risk assessments, few studies have documented cleaning habits and product usage to characterize how they vary between households and over time. In addition, understanding within-household temporal variability of use is important to assess the reliability of exposure questionnaires used in epidemiological surveys and improve the cost-efficiency of data collection. In the SUPERB (Study of Use of Products and Exposure-Related Behavior) study, frequencies of use of eight types of household cleaning products and air fresheners and the performance of different types of cleaning tasks are collected in three annual telephone and six quarterly web-based surveys. All-purpose and glass cleaners were the products most frequently used among all products surveyed. Use frequencies differed by demographic and other household characteristics for some products. Product usage was internally consistent, with over 75% of pairwise cross-sectional correlations between product types statistically significantly different from zero. In addition, each product type was correlated with at least one cleaning habit. Frequency of cleaning product use and performing cleaning tasks did not vary by season. An examination of intra-household variability showed moderately to highly consistent usage patterns over time, with lower temporal consistency observed among products used more frequently, such as all-purpose cleaners. Frequency of household care product usage was consistent enough that in epidemiologic studies, participants can be classified, for example, into three categories on the basis of a single assessment, with only minimal misclassification.
Article
Complete information regarding the use of personal care products (PCPs) by consumers is scarce, but such information is crucial for realistic consumer exposure assessment. To fill this gap, we created a database with person-oriented information regarding usage patterns and circumstances of use for 32 different PCPs. Out of 2700 potential participants in the Netherlands, 516 men and women completed a digital questionnaire. The prevalence of use varied by gender, age, level of education and skin type. We observed a high frequency of use for some products (e.g. lip care products), while toothpaste, deodorant and day cream were generally used once or twice a day. The frequency of use for other PCPs varied over a wide range. The amounts of use varied largely between and within different product groups. Body lotion, sunscreen and after sun lotion were often applied on adjacent body parts. The majority of PCPs were applied in the morning, but some products, such as night cream and after sun, were predominantly applied in the evening or night. As expected, the participants used several PCPs simultaneously. The database yields important personalized exposure factors which can be used in aggregate consumer exposure assessment for substances that are components of PCPs.
Article
Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1) and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413 individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer products.
Article
Little information is available on product use by consumers, which severely hampers exposure estimation for consumer products. This article describes actual contact with several consumer products, specifically dishwashing detergents, cleaning products, and hair styling products. How and where products are handled, as well as the duration, frequency, and amount of use were studied by means of diaries, in-home observations, and measurements. This study addressed the question, "To what extent are frequency, duration, and amount of use associated?" Findings showed that there was a large intra- as well as interindividual variation in frequency, duration, and amount of use, with the interindividual variation being considerably larger. At the same time, results showed that, for a given activity, users tended to follow their own routine. Few relations were found among frequency, duration, and amount of use. It was concluded that among persons, frequency, duration, and amount of product act in practice as independent parameters. Diaries appear to be quite suitable for gaining insight into frequently used products. Observations of usage, recorded on video, were indispensable for obtaining particular information on product use. In addition, home visits enabled the collection of specific measurements. Although diaries and home visits are time-consuming, the combination provided insight into variation as well as relations among frequency, duration, and amount of use.
Article
Accurate exposure information for cosmetic products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of cosmetic product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. The study included three widely used cosmetic product types: lipstick, body lotion, and face cream. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at ten different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of 300 completes per product type. Subjects were provided with prototype test products, and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted to derive summary distribution of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three products was: face cream, 1.22 g and 0.84 g; lipstick, 10 mg and 5 mg; and body lotion, 4.42 g and 3.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three products was: face cream, 2.05 g and 1.53 g; lipstick, 24 mg and 13 mg; and body lotion, 8.70 g and 7.63 g. The mean number of applications per day for face cream and lipstick was 1.77 and 2.35, respectively. For body lotion, the mean number of applications per day was dependent on body area, and was 2.12, 1.52, 1.11, 0.95, 0.43, 0.26, and 0.40 for hands, arms, legs, feet, neck and throat, back, and other body areas, respectively. The effect of product preference on use practices was also investigated. This study provides current cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.
Article
Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, studies to assess consumer use practices were undertaken. Six widely used personal care product types were included in the studies. Five of the products were cosmetics (spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash) and one product was a cosmetic/over-the-counter drug product (solid antiperspirant). Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at 10 different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of three hundred completed responses per product type. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The geometric mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.33 g and 0.23 g; hairspray, 2.58 g and 1.83 g (aerosol); 3.64 g and 2.66 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.54 g and 0.36 g; shampoo, 11.76 g and 9.56 g; body wash, 11.3g and 9.5 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.61 g and 0.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the six product types were: spray perfume, 0.53 g and 0.34 g; hairspray, 3.57 g and 2.71 g (aerosol); 5.18 g and 3.74 g (pump); liquid foundation, 0.67 g and 0.45 g; shampoo, 12.80 g and 10.75 g; body wash, 14.5 g and 12.9 g; and solid antiperspirant, 0.79 g and 0.59 g. The mean number of applications per day for spray perfume, hairspray, liquid foundation, shampoo, body wash, and solid antiperspirant was 1.67, 1.49 (aerosol) and 1.51 (pump), 1.24, 1.11, 1.37, and 1.3, respectively. This study provides current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.
Article
Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.
Article
Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.
tbsp HK-S: (12 am–6 pm)/bathroom/1 tbsp RET-S: (6 am–12 am)/kitchen/2 tbsp HK-E: (6 am–12 am)/kitchen/2 tbsp RET-E: (6 am–12 am
  • Hk-S Tbsp
tbsp HK-S: (12 am–6 pm)/kitchen/1 tbsp HK-S: (12 am–6 pm)/bathroom/1 tbsp RET-S: (6 am–12 am)/kitchen/2 tbsp HK-E: (6 am–12 am)/kitchen/2 tbsp RET-E: (6 am–12 am)/kitchen/3 tbsp HK-E: (6 am–12 am)/bathroom/2 tbsp RET-E: (6 am–12 am)/bathroom/2
Table 5 Mass of measure units used in simulations, as provided by experimental studies
Table 5 Mass of measure units used in simulations, as provided by experimental studies. Stranger et al. (2013).
The impact of using household cleaning products by individuals and professionals on indoor pollution (De impact van het gebruik van huishoudproducten door particulieren en professionelen op binnenhuisvervuiling)
  • S Vandenbroucke
Vandenbroucke, S., 2010. The impact of using household cleaning products by individuals and professionals on indoor pollution (De impact van het gebruik van huishoudproducten door particulieren en professionelen op binnenhuisvervuiling).
Purchase behavior and use patterns of air fresheners (Analyse van het aankoop-en gebruiksgedrag van luchtverfrissers). IPSOS Report (in Dutch), for the Federal public service for health, food chain safety and the environment
  • J P Wanquet
Wanquet, J.P., 2006. Purchase behavior and use patterns of air fresheners (Analyse van het aankoop-en gebruiksgedrag van luchtverfrissers). IPSOS Report (in Dutch), for the Federal public service for health, food chain safety and the environment.
The development of an applied research strategy to estimate health risks related to the use of detergents in private dwellings in Belgium
  • M Stranger
  • L Geerts
  • E Goelen
  • R Torfs
  • J Theunis
  • S Vandenbroucke
Stranger, M., Geerts, L., Goelen, E., Torfs, R., Theunis, J., Vandenbroucke, S., 2009. The development of an applied research strategy to estimate health risks related to the use of detergents in private dwellings in Belgium. Report 2009/MRG/R/032 for the Federal public service for health, food chain safety and the environment.