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A revision of the genus Leontodon (Asteraceae) in the Azores based on morphological and molecular evidence

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A revision of the genus Leontodon (Asteraceae) in the Azores based on morphological and molecular evidence

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Two endemic species of Leontodon are currently recognized in the Azores archipelago: Leontodon filii and L. rigens. However, there has been confusion regarding the application of these names and field observations and herbarium studies suggested three morphotypes in the islands. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of the Azorean endemic Leontodon species using morphological characters and new molecular data from the ITS region and from three chloroplast regions: trnQ, trnV and matK. Fifty-one quantitative and qualitative morphological characters were examined that revealed consistent differences between specimens from the western, central and eastern subarchipelagos (where, on the latter, Leontodon is restricted to São Miguel). Molecular analysis revealed two well defined monophyletic groups, one comprising accessions from São Miguel and the second comprising accessions from the western group, while central group accessions were in an unresolved polytomy. Both analyses also indicated the occurrence of hybridization with L. saxatilis, a widespread non-endemic species. Taken together, molecular and morphological data suggest the reinstatement of a third Azorean Leontodon taxon endemic to the western group. A key to the Leontodon of the Azores and descriptions of the endemic taxa are provided.
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Phytotaxa 210 (1): 024–046
www.mapress.com/phytotaxa/
Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press Article PHYTOTAXA
ISSN 1179-3155 (print edition)
ISSN 1179-3163 (online edition)
24 Accepted by Fred Rumsey: 4 Feb. 2015; published:29 May 2015
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.210.1.4
Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
A revision of the genus Leontodon (Asteraceae) in the Azores based on morphological
and molecular evidence
MÓNICA MOURA1, LUÍS SILVA1, ELISABETE F. DIAS1, HANNO SCHAEFER2 & MARK CARINE3
1CIBIO Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, CIBIO-Azores, Department of Biology, University of the Azores, Portugal.
E-mail: moura@uac.pt
2Plant Biodiversity Research, Technische Universität München, D-85354 Freising, Germany.
3Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK.
Abstract
Two endemic species of Leontodon are currently recognized in the Azores archipelago: Leontodon filii and L. rigens. How-
ever, there has been confusion regarding the application of these names and field observations and herbarium studies sug-
gested three morphotypes in the islands. Here, we present a taxonomic revision of the Azorean endemic Leontodon species
using morphological characters and new molecular data from the ITS region and from three chloroplast regions: trnQ, trnV
and matK. Fifty-one quantitative and qualitative morphological characters were examined that revealed consistent differ-
ences between specimens from the western, central and eastern subarchipelagos (where, on the latter, Leontodon is restricted
to São Miguel). Molecular analysis revealed two well defined monophyletic groups, one comprising accessions from São
Miguel and the second comprising accessions from the western group, while central group accessions were in an unresolved
polytomy. Both analyses also indicated the occurrence of hybridization with L. saxatilis, a widespread non-endemic species.
Taken together, molecular and morphological data suggest the reinstatement of a third Azorean Leontodon taxon endemic to
the western group. A key to the Leontodon of the Azores and descriptions of the endemic taxa are provided.
Key words: Leontodon hochstetteri, Asteraceae, phylogeny, morphology, island endemic
Introduction
The genus Leontodon Linnaeus (1753: 798) subg. Leontodon Widder (1931: 146) comprises c. 40 species with a
distribution centred in the Mediterranean area and extending into North Europe and South West Asia (Hand et al.
2013). A molecular phylogenetic study by Samuel et al. (2006) confirmed that the European and Anatolian-Caucasean
L. hispidus Linnaeus (1753:799) group (Meusel and Jäger 1992), and L. kulczinskii Popov & Chrshanovski (1949: 299),
from the East Carpathians, belong to section Leontodon Widder (1975: 26), which is morphologically characterized
by single capitula on simple leafless stems. However, this section is also considered to include the Azorean endemic
Leontodon species, with multiple capitula on bracteate stems (Paiva & Ormonde 1972, 1974; Lack 1981). The
Leontodon species currently listed as endemic to the Azores archipelago (Silva et al. 2010) are L. filii (Hochst. ex Seub.
1844: 34) Paiva & Ormonde (1972: 447), and L. rigens (Dryand. in Aiton 1789: 127) Paiva & Ormonde (1972: 448).
These species were previously considered to belong to Crepis Linnaeus (1753: 805), Microderis DC. (1838: 127) and
Picris Linnaeus (1753: 792), until Paiva & Ormonde (1972; 1974) placed both species in Leontodon, with the degree
of floral stem ramification and the number of capitula the key discriminating traits between the two taxa. The first
molecular phylogenetic analysis including Azorean Leontodon was conducted by Samuel et al. (2006) who confirmed
the inclusion of L. rigens in section Leontodon. Leontodon filii was not included in that study.
The two Azorean Leontodon species have been historically listed as co-habiting the same locations on several of
the Azorean islands, with the exception of Corvo, where only L. rigens was recorded, and Graciosa and Santa Maria,
where both species were considered as absent (Azores Biodiversity Portal 2008). In the most recent checklist for the
Azorean vascular flora (Silva et al. 2010), L. filii was listed as present in Pico, São Jorge, and Terceira, but doubtful
in Faial and São Miguel islands, while L. rigens was considered to occur in São Miguel and doubtful in Pico and
Terceira. Leontodon populations on Flores and Corvo were not listed as L. rigens, because the authors had come to the
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conclusion that they belong to a third distinct morphotype. Furthermore, historical herbarium specimens also pointed
to a third endemic species, Microderis umbellata Hochst. ex Seub. (1844: 33), collected in Flores during an 1838
botanical excursion to the Azores by Karl Hochstetter (Seubert & Hochstetter 1843), and considered by the collector
as specific to that island.
Besides L. rigens and L. filii, Paiva & Ormonde (1972; 1974) also cited a third Leontodon species for the Azores,
namely the cosmopolitan L. saxatilis Lamarck (1778: 115) subsp. saxatilis (= L. saxatilis subsp. rothi Maire 1934:
833 in Jahandiez et al. 1934), listed in Silva et al. (2010) as occurring in all Azorean islands, under the synonym of L.
saxatilis subsp. longirostris (Finch & P. D. Sell 1975: 247–248 in Heywood 1975) P. Silva (Bacelar et al. 1987: 155).
A recent archipelago-wide population genetics study (Dias et al. 2014) using microsatellite data, retrieved two main
genetic groups but also detected complex substructures within populations from Flores and Corvo (treated as L. rigens
in that study).
Considering the conflicting evidence from historical accounts, field observations and molecular population genetics
data, we aim to clarify the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the Azorean Leontodon, using morphological
data in conjunction with sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the
chloroplast regions matK, trnQ and trnV, specifically addressing the following questions: 1) How many endemic
Leontodon taxa exist in the Azores? 2) How are they related phylogenetically? 3) What are their distributions across
the archipelago?
Material and Methods
Study site:—The Azores archipelago, located in the North Atlantic Ocean, comprises nine islands of volcanic origin
which span over 615 km, and are generally divided into three island groups, western (Corvo and Flores), central
(Terceira, Graciosa, São Jorge, Pico and Faial) and eastern group (São Miguel and Santa Maria). The archipelago is
situated 942 km northwest of Madeira, 1,435 km west from mainland Portugal and 3,380 km east from North America
on a WNW-ESE axis between 37−40ºN and 25−31ºW (Fig. 1). The archipelago is relatively young, with the oldest
island being Santa Maria (5−6 Myr, Ávila et al. 2012) and the youngest Pico (0.25 Myr, França et al. 2003).
Plant sampling:—Sampling was conducted archipelago wide, covering the three groups of islands. One to two
representative voucher specimens per population were collected, pressed, mounted and stored at AZB. Depending on leaf
size, one or two leaves per individual were collected and immediately stored in a zip-lock bag with silica gel. After being
completely dry the leaves were vacuum sealed in plastic bags, indexed and stored in folders. The locations of all vouchers
were geo-referenced and a sampling map generated with this data using Quantum GIS Desktop 2.0.1-Dufour (Fig. 1).
DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing:—DNA was extracted using the modified CTAB protocol outlined by
Carine et al. (2004). All amplification reactions were performed in 25 µL containing 10 µmol/L (1 µL) of the respective
primers, and approximately 35 ng of purified DNA (1 µL). The ITS region was amplified for 54 accessions using the
protocol of Carine et al. (2004). Three chloroplast (cp) regions were amplified for 24 accessions using the protocol of
Carine et al. (2007) and the primers of Shaw et al. (2007) for the regions trnQ and trnV, and of Schaefer et al. (2011a)
for matK. Sequencing was done by STABVida (Portugal) and at the Natural History Museum Sequencing Facility
(London).
Alignments and phylogenetic analyses:—Sequence data were assembled, edited and aligned using Geneious
ver. 5.6.6 (Biomatters) and the Geneious alignment algorithm. The alignments were then inspected and manually
optimized in Geneious. Accessions of Leontodon spp. available in GenBank were included in the analysis (see
appendix for accession numbers). Phylogenetic analysis of the combined data set (ITS and cp regions) followed the
same methodology as used for each individual data set, with Reichardia tingitana (Linnaeus 1753: 791) Roth (1787:
35) used as outgroup in the combined analysis and L. saxatilis in the ITS and cp data analysis. Maximum parsimony
(MP) analysis were conducted in PAUP* ver. 4.0b10 (Swofford 2003). The analysis used 100 heuristic searches,
random stepwise addition, and TBR branch swapping. A strict consensus tree was calculated. Branch support values
were assessed by bootstrap analysis, using 1,000 bootstrap replicates each comprising 100 heuristic searches, random
stepwise addition and NNI branch swapping. jModeltest ver. 2.1.3 (Darriba et al. 2012) was used to determine the best-
fitting model of sequence evolution based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). A Maximum Likelihood analysis
(ML) was conducted using RAxML-HPC2 ver. 7.4.4 (Stamatakis et al. 2008) on the CIPRES Science Gateway (Miller
et al. 2010) with 1000 bootstraps and a partitioned dataset for the combined matrix. New sequences were submitted to
GenBank and accessions numbers are listed in the appendix.
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Morphological data:—The morphological characters screened were selected based on descriptions found in
Seubert & Hochstetter (1843), Seubert (1844), Paiva & Ormonde (1974), Lack (1981), Franco (1984) and Hind (2005).
Quantitative characters used pertained to the stem (7), leaf (11), petiole (3), synflorescence (14), capitulum (20), flower
(19) and fruit (8). Additionally, we screened for qualitative differences regarding the leaf shape, type and abundance
of trichomes (leaves, synflorescence and capitula), architecture of the flowering stems, occurrence of paleae, and type
of achenes and pappus setae. A morphometric dataset for Azorean samples was assembled with herbarium specimens
available at AZB. In total, 16 specimens from São Miguel, 35 from the central group and 18 from the western group
were examined. For each specimen, three measures (replicates) for each quantitative trait were taken.
The occurrence of hybrids was investigated using leaf characters and possible changes in the structure of the
achenes. The leaf length:width ratio was measured in 14 putative hybrid specimens from AZB, MO, BM, K and LY, 25
specimens of L. saxatilis from AZ, K, LISE, LY, and MO, and in the Azorean endemic collections deposited at AZB.
Another 13 western group accessions, 31 São Miguel accessions, 51 central group accessions, 43 putative hybrids, and
32 specimens of L. saxatilis stored at AZ, BM, BR, FI, G, K, LISE, LY, M, MANCH, MO, P, TUB, WAG, were also
observed and evaluated qualitatively.
The quantitative morphological matrix, including hybrid leaf ratio data, was analysed with PASW Statistics 18
(SPSS Inc.) using a MANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test. A multivariate approach was also used to evaluate taxon
differentiation globally, namely a discriminant analysis including those traits which had shown significant differences
between at least two groups of accessions. In order to increase chart readability, the scores of each variable were
multiplied by 15 for both canonical functions.
FIGURE 1. Map of the Azores archipelago with the sites of the sampled individuals, estimations of the islands geological ages, and the
location of the Azores relative to other land masses. São Miguel populations are represented by triangles, central group populations by
squares and western group populations by circles. Crosses represent the locations of putative hybrids. Adapted from Dias et al. (2014).
Results
Phylogenetic analyses:—The ITS alignment comprised 29 ingroup accessions and three outgroup accessions, and had
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a length of 881 bp. The cp alignment was composed of 24 ingroup accessions and five outgroup accessions, and had
a length of 2299 bp. Matrix cells scored as gaps or missing data corresponded to 5.4 % of the ITS matrix and to 26.9
% of the cp data matrix.
For the ITS region, MP analyses resulted in 85 best trees, 107 steps long, a consistency index (CI) of 0.901 and a
retention (RI) index of 0.939 (Fig. 2A). MP analyses of the cp data resulted in 194 best trees, 32 steps long, with a CI of
1.000 and a RI of 1.000 (Fig. 2B). The best fitting model selected by AIC was GTR+I. Since addition of the invariable
site parameter “I” is not advised for RAxML as it is already incorporated in the standard algorithm (Stamatakis et al.
2008), the analysis were conducted without this parameter. Separate analysis of both cp and ITS datasets produced
similar results and thus combined analyses were also performed including also all sequences obtained by Samuel et
al. (2006) for the genus Leontodon stored at GenBank. The combined MP analyses recovered 180 best trees, 550 steps
long, with a CI of 0.758 and a RI of 0.916 (Fig. 3).
FIGURE 2. Maximum parsimony 50% majority-rule consensus tree obtained from nuclear ITS sequence data (A) and from the
combined chloroplast sequence data (B). Values above branches show MP bootstrap support; values below are the corresponding ML
bootstrap support. Only values above 50% in at least one of the analysis criteria are shown.
The nuclear and chloroplast analysis of section Leontodon (Fig. 2A and 2B) as well as the combined analysis for
the genus Leontodon (Fig. 3) returned similar MP and ML trees with two highly supported clades (84−100% bootstrap
in the combined tree) grouping separately the São Miguel and western group accessions. A subset of the central group
accessions formed a third clade in the nuclear and cp analysis of section Leontodon. Relationships between the three
groups of Azorean accessions were poorly resolved and, in the ITS tree, the L. hispidus-L. kulcziznskii clade formed an
unresolved polytomy with the Azorean taxa.
Two accessions of putative L. filii sampled on Flores (FLBU01 and 2) turned out to be genetically identical to
all L. rigens accessions from Flores and Corvo. The accession of L. filii sampled in São Miguel (SMPV01) clustered
differently in the nuclear and chloroplast trees, grouping with the remaining São Miguel accessions in the ITS tree (Fig.
2A), and with the L. saxatilis accessions in the cp tree (2B).
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FIGURE 3. Maximum parsimony 50% majority-rule consensus tree obtained from combined nuclear and chloroplast data. Values above
branches show MP bootstrap support; values below are the corresponding ML bootstrap support. Only values above 50% in at least one
of the analysis criteria are shown.
Morphological data:—The MANOVA and Tukey HSD test (Table 1) revealed that, for the vast majority of the
traits analysed, the central group accessions were significantly different from specimens of the western group and
São Miguel. Furthermore, significant differences between accessions from the three groups of islands were found in
the number of synflorescence ramifications and pappus length. São Miguel accessions were significantly taller, while
achenes (length and width) were significantly smaller in the western group (Table 1).
Results of the discriminant analysis based on quantitative synflorescence, flower, and fruit traits for Leontodon
endemic taxa in the Azores islands grouped accessions into three clusters, according to their geographical location
within the archipelago, with the exception of the putative L. filii specimens sampled on São Miguel and Flores, which
clustered with the central group accessions (Fig. 4). The first two canonical analysis functions explained 67.7%
(function 1) and 32.3% (function 2) of the total variance, respectively.
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TABLE 1. Average variability in quantitative characters found between specimens of Leontodon rigens and L. filii from the western, and central group and São Miguel.
Western Central São Miguel ANOVA Post-hoc
Characters N Mean SD SE N Mean SD SE N Mean SD SE df F p Group
Plant height 18 33.72 11.09 2.61 31 36.79 7.10 1.28 15 45.38 8.79 2.27 2 61 7.76 0.0010 a a b
Leaf number 18 2.83 3.09 0.73 32 3.97 2.69 0.48 16 5.88 3.32 0.83 2 63 4.54 0.0143 a ab b
Leaf length 18 15.20 5.67 1.34 32 12.34 5.40 0.95 16 17.92 9.62 2.41 2 63 3.84 0.0267 ab a b
Leaf width 17 7.81 4.50 1.09 32 5.44 2.43 0.43 16 7.10 1.77 0.44 2 62 3.97 0.0239 b a ab
Lamina length 18 5.18 5.71 1.35 32 3.19 2.58 0.46 16 4.99 5.32 1.33 2 63 1.60 0.2106 NS
Petiole length 18 7.64 3.52 0.83 32 9.87 4.75 0.84 16 8.15 3.14 0.79 2 63 2.02 0.1412 NS
Petiole width 18 1.44 0.94 0.22 32 0.67 0.26 0.05 16 1.20 0.70 0.17 2 63 9.96 0.0002 b a b
Synflorescence ramifications 18 2.89 0.76 0.18 32 1.59 0.87 0.15 16 4.44 1.26 0.32 2 63 48.60 0.0000 b a c
Pedicel 18 1.20 0.51 0.12 28 5.42 3.67 0.69 16 3.58 1.01 0.25 2 59 15.08 0.0000 a b b
Pedicel bract length 17 3.98 0.92 0.22 32 4.20 0.95 0.17 16 3.80 0.75 0.19 2 62 1.14 0.3269 NS
Pedicel bract width 17 0.21 0.27 0.07 32 0.14 0.24 0.04 16 0.17 0.19 0.05 2 62 0.50 0.6065 NS
Capitula number 18 58.00 34.50 8.13 32 6.13 4.15 0.73 16 59.00 25.36 6.34 2 63 46.78 0.0000 b a b
Capitulum flowers 18 43.44 11.21 2.64 32 81.47 20.20 3.57 15 37.33 7.96 2.06 2 62 54.13 0.0000 a b a
Capitulum diameter 18 1.09 0.27 0.06 32 2.30 0.72 0.13 15 1.37 0.23 0.06 2 62 33.89 0.0000 a b a
External bract length 18 2.77 0.46 0.11 31 3.81 0.73 0.13 16 2.55 0.33 0.08 2 62 31.49 0.0000 a b a
External bract width 18 0.49 0.12 0.03 31 0.56 0.10 0.02 16 0.43 0.06 0.02 2 62 10.15 0.0002 ab b a
Internal bract length 18 7.18 1.38 0.33 31 11.29 1.55 0.28 16 7.64 1.12 0.28 2 62 62.34 0.0000 a b a
Internal bract width 18 0.77 0.17 0.04 31 1.10 0.21 0.04 16 0.87 0.21 0.05 2 62 16.97 0.0000 a b a
Corolla length 18 9.03 1.45 0.34 29 13.26 2.79 0.52 15 9.99 1.12 0.29 2 59 24.95 0.0000 a b a
Corolla tube length 18 2.61 0.48 0.11 29 3.94 0.86 0.16 15 3.00 0.39 0.10 2 59 23.69 0.0000 a b a
Ligule width 18 1.36 1.15 0.27 29 1.02 0.29 0.05 15 0.79 0.15 0.04 2 59 3.28 0.0446 b ab a
Anther length 18 3.59 0.41 0.10 29 4.48 0.60 0.11 15 3.77 0.53 0.14 2 59 18.11 0.0000 a b a
Style length 18 5.05 0.51 0.12 29 5.95 0.89 0.16 15 5.22 0.62 0.16 2 59 10.00 0.0002 a b a
Style width 18 0.30 0.09 0.02 29 0.33 0.07 0.01 15 0.23 0.07 0.02 2 59 8.31 0.0007 b a b
Style arm length 18 1.15 0.28 0.07 30 1.14 0.35 0.06 15 0.95 0.27 0.07 2 60 2.27 0.1118 NS
Achene length 18 1.18 0.48 0.11 31 2.99 2.14 0.38 16 3.20 1.55 0.39 2 62 8.10 0.0007 a b b
Achene width 18 0.30 0.07 0.02 31 0.43 0.12 0.02 16 0.39 0.17 0.04 2 62 6.31 0.0032 a b b
Pappus length 18 5.26 0.74 0.17 31 7.24 0.84 0.15 16 5.91 0.46 0.11 2 62 45.04 0.0000 a c b
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The qualitative characters screened revealed that the specimens from the three groups of islands can be distinguished
by the shape of the synflorescence, while other characters are not significantly different. Leaves are generally more
densely pubescent on both surfaces in the central group, while in São Miguel and western group plants, the lower
surface is often more densely covered than the upper surface. Trichomes are more often found in the upper portion of
the synflorescence and on the phyllaries in central group plants than in the rest of the archipelago; moreover, 2-4-fid
trichomes are also more commonly found in the central group, while in the remaining islands single or 2-fid trichomes
are more frequent. The synflorescence ranges from very lax in the central group with a few branches and a somewhat
lower level of apical ramification, to more densely ramified both in São Miguel and the western group. The relatively
smaller pedicels in the western group and an extreme level of apical ramification make the synflorescence much denser
than in São Miguel. Another important difference is the presence of paleae in the capitula of western group and São
Miguel plants that are absent in those from the central group. A slight difference might also be found in the pappus
setae, which are generally more clearly plumose in central group plants than in the other islands, where the pappus
setae are more often subplumose, with setae rachis coarsely barbellate.
The morphology of putative L. filii specimens sampled on São Miguel and Flores follows the structure of central
group plants with the exception of leaf shape which is lanceolate to oblanceolate (the leaf length:width ratio was largest
in those specimens) and the leaf margin which is generally dentate instead of serrate. Dimorphic achenes where also
found: pappus setae are generally plumose or subplumose but some of the achenes located at the margin the capitulum
show a pappus of scales or scales with a few hairs. More rarely, in São Miguel, some of the specimens showed
paleaceous capitula.
A ANOVA applied to the leaf length:width ratio resulted in three significantly different groups of accessions (F =
12.39; df = 6; P < 0.0001), with L. saxatilis showing the highest ratio (12.39; group a), the putative L. filii specimens
collected for this study in São Miguel (SMPV; 7.82) and Flores (FLBU; 7.17), together with putative L. filii herbarium
specimens from São Miguel (5.99), showed an intermediate ratio (group b), and the endemic taxa (group c), the lowest,
with 2.45 for the eastern accessions, 2.30 for the central and 2.08 for the western accessions.
Discussion
Taxon circumscription and distribution of Azorean Leontodon:—Considering both morphological and molecular
results, two well defined groups stand out, one composed of accessions from São Miguel and the other by accessions
from the western group (Flores and Corvo). Previous revisions (Paiva and Ormonde 1972, 1974; Lack 1981) grouped
these populations under the name L. rigens, however our results indicate that they merit recognition as different
species, namely L. rigens (endemic to São Miguel) and L. hochstetteri (a necessary new name for the plants endemic
to Flores and Corvo).
Central group accessions are referable to a third endemic Azorean species, namely Leontodon filii. This taxon
formed the least distinct of the Azorean Leontodon based on the molecular analysis results although notably Terceira
accessions clustered together with low (61−63%; MP) to high (84−95%; ML) support in the nuclear and cp trees,
highlighting the distinctiveness of plants from the island, a pattern also found in other angiosperm groups (Schaefer
et al. 2011b; Silva et al. 2011). In the discriminant morphological analysis, the central group accessions formed a
separate group, and the ANOVA indicated that the central group accessions were significantly different for most of
the analysed traits. Further distinctiveness was observed in morphological qualitative traits, which clearly separated
all L. filii accessions from those belonging to L. rigens and L. hochstetteri. Particularly, the presence of paleae in the
capitula of L. rigens and L. hochstetteri is an interesting difference since capitula in Leontodon species in general are
not paleaceous (Tutin et al. 1976). Considering all morphological and molecular evidence gathered we thus conclude
that L. filii should be recognized as a distinct species.
Leontodon filii has been reported from São Miguel by various authors (see Lack 1981). In the extensive sampling
conducted archipelago-wide for the population genetics study of Dias et al. (2014), only two specimens with an L.
filii phenotype were found in São Miguel at “Pico da Vara” mountain. We included one of these specimens, SMPV01,
in our molecular analysis, which grouped with L. saxatilis in the cp tree, but shared the L. rigens ribotype. Although
having a L. filii type synflorescence, leaves of the Pico da Vara specimens were lanceolate to oblanceolate with larger
length:width ratios than in L. filii from the central group islands. Furthermore, the margins are coarsely dentate. Both of
these traits are characteristic of L. saxatilis. When we measured historic specimens of putative L. filii (collected mostly
by Bruno Tavares Carreiro and Thomas Hunt in São Miguel), similar ratios and margins were observed.
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FIGURE 4. Analysis of characters by groups of islands. Biplot resulting from a discriminant analysis, representing individuals and variables based on two canonical functions. Scores of all variables
were multiplied by 15 to increase plot legibility.
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FIGURE 5. Field photographs of: A) Leontodon hochstetteri, Flores Island (J. Martins); B) Leontodon filii, Terceira Island (H.
Schaefer); C) Leontodon rigens, São Miguel Island (M. Moura); and D) Leontodon × carreiroi (= L. saxatilis × L. rigens), São Miguel
Island (H. Schaefer).
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Considering that the leaf of L. saxatilis is long and oblanceolate with coarsely dentate margins it is thus possible
that a hybrid expression of leaf characters may have resulted in narrower leaves than those of L. rigens and in a leaf
margin similar to that of L. saxatilis. This combination of characters suggests a hybrid origin for the plants in question.
Specimens from Flores resembling central group L. filii were genetically identical to L. hochstetteri but displayed a
similar leaf shape to the Pico da Vara hybrid specimens, suggesting a possible hybrid origin for those plants also.
Putative hybrids on both Flores and São Miguel consistently show dimorphic achenes; a situation probably
inherited from L. saxatilis and previously described in Leontodon × vegetus Finch & P. D. Sell in Sell & Murrell (2006:
531), a hybrid lineage between L. saxatilis and L. hispidus. In a few cases, we have also found putative hybrids from
São Miguel Island, with the above mentioned differences in leaf shape, and also with paleae in the capitula. Thus, the
morphologies arising from such hybridization events might be varied.
It is noteworthy that Gandoger (1918) described two new species of Thrincia Roth (1797: 97) for the Azores,
namely, T. subglabra Gandoger (1918: 53–54) and T. carreiroi Gandoger (1918: 53), with types collected from Lagoa,
São Miguel, and one subspecies (T. nudicaulis Lowe (1831: 28) subsp. azorica Gandoger (1888: 334)), with the type
collected in Faial Island. Later, the Azorean Thrincia designated by Gandoger was considered by Paiva & Ormonde
(1974) as belonging to L. filii. Our revision of the Carreiro material on which Gandoger based T. subglabra and T.
carreiroi, grouped them with the L. saxatilis hybrids molecularly identified in this study, due to similar leaf shapes
and larger length:width leaf ratios, and to the presence of dimorphic achenes. Based on leaf morphology, T. nudicaulis
subsp. azorica, seems to belong to L. filii.
In summary, our study indicates the occurrence of three endemic Leontodon taxa, namely L. rigens in São Miguel,
L. filii in the central group, and L. hochstetteri in the western group (Fig. 5A–C). Furthermore, our molecular and
morphological results provide evidence of hybridization between L. rigens and L. saxatilis in São Miguel (Fig. 5D),
and between L. hochstetteri and L. saxatilis in Flores.
Relationships and speciation patterns of the Azorean Leontodon:—Our molecular data did not permit direct
inferences on the relationships between the three Azorean taxa, although they do confirm their placement in section
Leontodon (Samuel et al. 2006) as a monophyletic group. A close relationship with the L. hispidus-L. kulczinskii clade
was also confirmed. Dias et al. (2014), in a population study with SSR, highlighted the higher number of alleles in
populations from São Miguel as an indication that initial colonization took place in that island, with a later dispersal
from east to west within the archipelago. Our results do not conflict with this hypothesis as both L. rigens and L.
hochstetteri show high levels of specific differentiation, which might reflect a comparatively ancient colonization
event, resulting in the evolution of L. rigens by anagenetic speciation and a later appearance of a distinct western form
due to the founder effect within the archipelago. The closeness of those two species, revealed by the SSR data (Dias
et al. 2014) and by our morphometric discriminant analysis, further supports the notion of an initial anagenetic event
leading to an increase in capitula numbers, a feature confined to the Azorean species within section Leontodon, with
its highest expression in L. hochstetteri. However, although having a significantly higher number of capitula, L. rigens
and L. hochstetteri both display a significantly lower number of flowers per capitulum and smaller capitula size, as
well as a smaller corolla, which could indicate the possibility of self-compatibility. In contrast, L. filii has larger and
more attractive flowers, which might indicate self-incompatibility (Ortiz et al. 2006).
Whilst morphologically the most distinctive of the three Azorean species, the L. filii accessions did not group
together in our genetic analysis. High levels of phenotypic distinctiveness coupled with weak molecular resolution
suggestive of recent speciation, has been described for other Azorean taxa, namely the endemic Platanthera orchids
(Bateman et al. 2014) and has been referred to as a ‘genetic divergence lag’ (Bateman et al. 2012). The hypothesis that
L. filii resulted from a later speciation event in one of the oldest islands of the central group followed by dispersal to the
remaining islands of the group and the establishment as the dominant form in those islands was suggested by Dias et
al. (2014) when discussing the within-archipelago population genetic structure obtained for the Azorean Leontodon.
Implications for conservation:—The finding that there are three local endemic Leontodon species in the Azores,
including a single island endemic in São Miguel, underscores the conservation guidelines already suggested by Dias
et al. (2014), which included the need to avoid ad-hoc translocation of diaspores or plants between different parts of
the archipelago. Confirmation of the occurrence of hybrids in this study, previously suggested by Dias et al. (2014),
also strengthens their recommendation of molecular screening of populations before use as diaspore sources for
conservation measures. Furthermore, population size estimates and management plans need to be adapted to account
for three instead of two species.
MOURA LS ED HS MC
34 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
FIGURE 6. Holotype of Leontodon × friasi (= L. saxatilis × L. hochstetteri) (AZB).
A REVISION OF THE GENUS LEONTODON Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 35
Taxonomic Treatment
Below, we provide a key to all Leontodon taxa in the Azores and descriptions of the endemic taxa, including two new notho-
species described here. In order to clarify misidentifications of Azorean Leontodon in herbaria, we also include an extensive
list of examined sheets.
Key
1. - Flowering stipes ramified into a dense corymbose or umbellate panicle ....................................................................................... 2
- Flowering stipes not ramified or ramified into a lax panicle ...........................................................................................................3
2. - Panicle corymbose with pedicels (1.2–) 3.6 (–7.0) cm long ................................................................................. Leontodon rigens
- Panicle umbellate with pedicels (0.3–) 1.2 (–3.6) cm long ...........................................................................Leontodon hochstetteri
3. - Synflorescence a lax panicle; capitula without paleae; achenes isomorphic; leaves elliptic to ovate, or obovate ...........Leontodon
filii
- Synflorescence a lax panicle or flowering stipes not ramified; capitula sometimes paleaeceous; achenes mostly dimorphic; leaves
lanceolate, oblanceolate or oblong .....................................................................................................................................................4
4. - Flowering stipes not ramified; capitula borne singly; corollas greyish yellow on the outer faces; capitula without paleae .............
.............................................................................................................................................................................. Leontodon saxatilis
- Flowering stipes mostly ramified, sometimes not ramified; capitula borne in clusters or singly; corollas yellow on the outer faces;
capitula sometimes paleaeceous .................................................................................. Leontodon × carreiroi / Leontodon × friasi *
* Leontodon × carreiroi naturally occurs in São Miguel, sympatric with Leontodon rigens; Leontodon × friasi naturally
occurs in Flores, sympatric with Leontodon hochstetteri.
Leontodon hochstetteri M. Moura & L. Silva nom. nov.
Microderis umbellata Hochstetter ex Seubert (1844: 33).
Holotype:—AZORES. “in dumetis montis ‘Pic de Pico’ supra Villa Magdalena”: 1838, C. Hochstetter s.n. (TUB!, isotype: P!).
Picris hochstetteri C. H. Schultz Bipontinus nom. non rite public.
Acaulous rosettiform rhizomatous perennial herb; white latex present. Rootstock usually stout, sometimes a long
napiform root. Leaves few to several (1–11), petiolate; petiole (2.0–) 7.6 (–20.3) cm long × (0.4-) 1.4 (-4.0) cm wide,
grooved, often narrowly winged; petiole trichomes often simple; leaf (7.3-) 15.2 (-34.8) cm long × (2.5-) 7.8 (-19.2)
cm wide; elliptic to ovate or obovate, attenuate at base onto apex of petiole; usually sparsely pubescent above and
densely pubescent beneath, hairs about 1 mm long or longer and attenuate, apices simple and straight, curved or
appearing almost uncinate or often bifid; venation pinnate, usually paler than lamina, midrib prominent beneath, with
many hairs, grooved above; margins flat to coarsely undulate, serrate, coarsely serrate or sometimes deeply lobed at
base, lobes simple or sometimes bifid; lamina apices acute, obtuse or rounded. One or two flowering stipes up to (17-)
34 (-60) cm tall; ramification generally initially dichotomous at the middle, with 2–5 proximal ramifications and with
multiple distal ramifications; dense umbellate panicle, barely aphyllous, stipe striate, moderately hispid pubescent
at the base but almost glabrous at peduncles and pedicels, usually with one leaf-like bract beneath main branches
and scale-like bracteoles beneath upper branches; stipe trichomes simple to bifid; pedicels (0.3-) 1.2 (-3.6) cm long,
usually thickening below involucre, bracteolate, bracteoles scale like, (1-) 4 (-12) mm long; the pedicel bracteoles
sometimes also found at the base of the capitulum forming an incomplete, unequal calyculus around 2–3 mm long.
Capitula ligulate, (0.4-) 1.1 (-2.5) cm in diameter, (12-) 58 (-134) per synflorescence; involucre cylindrical in bud and
scarcely widening in flower at apex, base becoming slightly inflated postanthesis and in fruit; phyllaries biseriate,
external bracts (1.0-) 2.8 (-5.4), internal bracts (3.1-) 7.2 (11.0) mm long x (0.3-) 0.8 (2.2) mm wide, margins glabrous
below and sparsely ciliate towards apex, tissue papillate and usually blackish; receptacle flat, paleaceous, paleae c.
3.9–9.8 mm long × 0.1–0.7 mm wide, linear, usually dark, apices attenuate/long-acute, sparsely to moderately ciliate,
cilia long uniseriate and eglandular. Florets (21-) 43 (-56) ligulate, hermaphrodite, fertile, corollas yellow to orange
but becoming brown postanthesis, eventually deciduous; corolla tube (0.8-) 2.6 (-5.1) mm long, glabrous, pale yellow,
ligule (5.6-) 9.0 (17.2) mm long × (0.4-) 1.4 (-5.1) mm wide, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent outside just above
sinus with eglandular hairs, ligule apex with five distinct teeth, teeth apices thickened, glabrous; anther cylinder yellow
(2.3-) 3.6 (-5.2) mm long, apical anther appendages obtuse to broadly rounded, slightly longer than wide, basal anther
appendages sagittate; styles (2.5-) 5.0 (-6.7) mm long, style arms (0.8-) 1.2 (-1.6) mm long, ascending or divergent,
MOURA LS ED HS MC
36 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
very short pubescent outside throughout. Achenes (0.4-) 1.2 (-3.2) mm long × (0.1-) 0.3 (-0.6) mm wide, narrowly
fusiform, narrowing slightly upwards to a distinct apical callus, body striate, lightly rugose across striae; pappus setae
(3.1-) 5.3 (-7.3) mm long, setae at first coarsely scabrid, and about as long as corolla tube, maturing to plumose or
subplumose, with setae rachis coarsely barbellate. Molecularly differs from all other Azorean Leontodon in 5 positions
of the ITS region, in the motifs CCGCTGGCG (C replaced by T), GTCAAGCTG (G replaced by A), CTGTTGCGG
(C replaced by T), CCCTTCAGC (C replaced by T) and GTTTGAGGA (T/C replaced by G); in one position of the
matK region, in the motif AAGAGAGCC (A replaced by G); and in a deletion in the trnV region, in the motif TTTT-
AGTT (T deletion).
Notes:—Seubert & Hochstetter (1843) used the name Microderis umbellata to refer to this taxon, the type of
which, collected by Karl Hochstetter, is at TUB. The name cannot be used due to the existence of L. umbellatum
Schrank (1789: 334). Another Karl Hochstetter specimen is at P and was labelled “Picris hochstetteri C. H. Schultz
Bip. 29/360” by C. H. Schultz-Bipontinus. There is no evidence of this name ever being validly published and the
replacement name L. hochstetteri is proposed here. Although the types of Microderis umbellata are labelled as collected
at Pico, we believe this was a labelling error because the species is mentioned twice in Seubert & Hochstetter (1843)
as specific to Flores Island. The holotype at TUB matches the drawing and protologue in Seubert (1844).
Distribution:Leontodon hochstetteri is known only from the islands of Flores and Corvo.
Habitat:—Steep slopes, ravines, craters, rocks, coastal cliffs and waterfalls. From almost sea level up to above
900 m. More frequent above 300 m. In the margin and in the openings of native forest (Laurus azorica, Juniperus
brevifolia) and woodland (Juniperus brevifolia). In Corvo it is rare due to strong grazing pressure by feral goats
and sheep, but survives inside the island’s central crater “Caldeirão” in rock outcrops covered by low stature native
vegetation and in the steep coastal cliffs of the western and northern part of the island.
Phenology:—All three Azorean endemic Leontodon species have similar flowering times, starting from the end
of June until November; flowering specimens have been observed during the month of December, in years with mild
winter conditions. Overlapping phenological states are common during the summer months with a mix of vegetative,
flowering and fruiting plants in the same population. Within the populations screened for the present study and that of
Dias et al. (2014), we observed that neighbouring plants with similar size do not flower synchronously and only ca.
60% of a population’s individuals develop flowers yearly.
Conservation Status:—The number of endemic Leontodon individuals estimated by Schaefer (2005) for Flores
was 4,000–5,000. However, L. hochstetteri is rare in Corvo, where <1,000 individuals are estimated to survive in
inaccessible places. On Flores it is strongly grazed by rabbits, wherever they can reach it; on Corvo rabbits are so
far absent but the presence of grazing cattle inside the Caldeirão crater and rim (considered as a Biosphere Reserve
in 2007 by UNESCO) as well as feral goats and sheep, which can enter the island cliffs, constitutes a severe threat
to the survival of L. hochstetteri as well as to several other Azorean endangered endemic plants, and should thus be
regulated. According to the IUCN classification, and based on the estimated number of plants, L. hochstetteri would
be considered as Vulnerable (V) B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i).
Leontodon filii (Hochstetter ex Seubert) Paiva & Ormonde (1973: 447)
Microderis filii Hochstetter ex Seubert (1844: 34) ≡ Picris filii (Hochstetter ex Seubert) Bentham & Hooker f. (1873: 512).
Lectotype designated by Lack 1981:—AZORES. “In praeruptis humidis montis Pico alt. 3000–4000’”: July 1838, C. Hochstetter 97
(TUB!, isolectotypes: BM! FI-W! G! K! P! TUB! W!).
Thrincia nudicaulis subsp. azorica Gandoger (1918: 54).
Holotype:—AZORES. Faial: Caldeira, 24 July 1878, Thiébaut 812 (LY!).
Acaulous rosettiform rhizomatous perennial herb; white latex present. Rootstock usually stout, woody, sometimes a
long napiform root. Leaves few to several (1–10), petiolate; petiole (3.0-) 9.9 (-23.8) cm long × (0.2-) 0.7 (-1.8) cm
wide, grooved, often narrowly winged; petiole trichomes often 2–3-fid; leaf (4.0-) 12.3 (-34.5) cm long × (1.1-) 5.4
(-11.7) cm wide; elliptic to ovate, or obovate, attenuate at base onto apex of petiole; usually densely pubescent above
and beneath, hairs about 1 mm long or longer and attenuate, curved or appearing almost uncinate, apices more often
2–3-fid up to 4-fid; venation pinnate, usually paler than lamina, midrib prominent beneath with many hairs, usually
grooved above; margins flat to coarsely undulate, serrate, coarsely serrate or sometimes deeply lobed at base, lobes
simple or sometimes bifid, lamina apices acute or acuminate. Two to three flowering stipes up to (20-) 37 (-52) cm tall;
erect rarely ascending; ramification generally initially dichotomous at the base, with 1–4 proximal ramifications; lax
panicle, usually aphyllous, internodes long, stipe striate, densely pubescent at base, peduncles and pedicels, usually
A REVISION OF THE GENUS LEONTODON Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 37
with scale-like bracteoles beneath upper branches; stipe trichomes usually 2–3-fid up to 4-fid; pedicels (0.4-) 6.2 (-
32.2) cm long, usually thickening below involucre, bracteolate, bracteoles scale like, (2-) 4 (-10) mm long, also with
hairs, narrow triangular, entire; the pedicel bracteoles often also found at the base of the capitulum forming a more
or less incomplete, unequal calyculus around 2–4 mm long. Capitula ligulate, (0.5-) 2.2 (-4.4) cm in diameter, (1-) 6
(-17) per synflorescence; involucre cylindrical in bud and scarcely widening in flower at apex, base becoming slightly
inflated postanthesis and in fruit; phyllaries biseriate, triangular to oblong, external bracts (0.9-) 3.8 (-7.7) mm long,
internal bracts (6.7-) 11.3 (18.6) mm long × (0.1-) 1.1 (2.1) mm wide, margins glabrous below and sparsely ciliate
towards apex, tissue papillate and usually blackish; bract trichomes usually 2-fid; receptacle flat, alveolated, ciliated.
Florets (33-) 82 (-122) ligulate, hermaphrodite, fertile, corollas yellow to orange but becoming brown postanthesis,
eventually deciduous; corolla tube (1.0-) 3.9 (-7.3) mm long, yellow, ligule (7.3-) 13.3 (-26.5) mm long x (0.1-) 1.1
(-2.1) mm wide, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent outside just above sinus with eglandular hairs, ligule apex with
five distinct teeth, teeth apices thickened, glabrous; anther cylinder yellow (2.3-) 4.5 (-7.1) mm long, apical anther
appendages acute to obtuse, slightly longer than wide, basal anther appendages sagittate; styles (3.5-) 6.0 (12.5) mm
long; style arms (0.1-) 1.2 (-3.2) mm long, ascending or divergent, very short pubescent outside throughout. Achenes
pale brown, (0.6-) 3.0 (-9.2) mm long × (0.1-) 0.4 (-1.1) mm wide, narrowly fusiform, narrowing slightly upwards to a
distinct apical callus, body striate, lightly rugose across striae; pappus setae (4.4-) 7.2 (-12.6) mm long, plumose. The
ITS region differs from all other Azorean Leontodon in the motif GTTTTAGGA (C/G replaced by T).
Notes:—The lectotype of L. filii is at TUB and was designated by Lack (1981) based on the protologue and
drawing depicted in Flora Azorica (Seubert 1844). The sheet has a typed label indicating that it was collected by Karl
Hochstetter in Pico mountain. However, a second sheet, with a smaller specimen, also illustrated in Seubert (1844) as
representing “Microderis filii”, bears what appears to be an original label handwritten by Karl Hochstetter, indicating
that the species occurs on the islands of Terceira, Pico, Faial (central group) and Flores (western group). In Seubert &
Hochstetter (1843), although L. filii is listed, there is no reference to its distribution within the archipelago and only
L. hochstetteri is mentioned as specific to Flores. In our sampling of Flores, two specimens showed a typical L. filii
phenotype, however, in the molecular analysis turned out to belong to L. hochstetteri and they are considered here to be
L. hochstetteri x L. saxatilis hybrids (see below). It is unclear whether Hochstetter also encountered hybrids in Flores;
we have not seen specimens to support this idea.
Distribution:—Leontodon filii is distributed to the islands of Terceira, São Jorge, Pico and Faial.
Habitat:—From almost sea level up to 1450 m. More frequent above 500 m. In wet habitats, with a more or
less continuous water supply. Steep slopes, ravines and craters, rarely near coastal waterfalls. In open grassland and
around lakes, especially on rather protruding hummocks. In crevices on vertical cliffs and on dense humus layers or
Sphagnum spp. carpet on slopes in ravines and craters. In forests dominated by Juniperus brevifolia and Erica azorica,
also associated with Festuca francoi.
Phenology:—See L. hochstetteri.
Conservation Status:—Although being the most widespread of the three Azorean Leontodon species, the
estimated population numbers are 5,000–10,000 individuals (Schaefer 2005) and it was previously classified as rare
(Schaefer 2003), a top priority species for conservation (Silva et al. 2009) and Endangered [B2ab (i, ii, iii); Corvelo
2010]. Leontodon filii occupies fragmented areas of native vegetation in the central group and is threatened by grazing
rabbits, sheep, goats and cows and the increasing expansion of invasive plants and transformation of natural vegetation
into pastures. Thus, according to the IUCN classification, and based on the estimated number of plants, L. filli would
be considered as Vulnerable (V) B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i).
Leontodon rigens (Dryander in Aiton) Paiva & Ormonde (1973: 448)
Crepis rigens Dryander in Aiton (1789: 127) ≡ Microderis rigens (Dryander in Aiton) DC (1838: 128) Picris rigens (Dryander in
Aiton) Benth & Hooker f. (1873: 512) ≡ Hieracioides rigens (Aiton) Kuntze (1891: 346).
Holotype:—AZORES. “Nat. of the Azores, Mr. Francis Masson. Introd. 1778” (BM!).
Hypochaeris strigosa Solander ex Lowe (1868: 537) nom. non rite public.
Acaulous rosettiform rhizomatous perennial herb; white latex present. Rootstock usually stout, woody, sometimes a
long napiform root. Leaves few to several (1–14), petiolate. Petiole (1-) 8 (-17) cm long × (0.2-) 1.2 (-3.5) cm wide,
grooved, often narrowly winged; petiole trichomes often simple. Leaf (5-) 18 (50) cm long × (3-) 7 (-12) cm wide;
elliptic to ovate, sometimes lanceolate or almost obovate, attenuate at base onto apex of petiole; usually sparsely to
densely pubescent above and densely pubescent beneath, hairs about 1 mm long or longer and attenuate, apices simple
MOURA LS ED HS MC
38 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
and straight, curved or appearing almost uncinate or often bifid; venation pinnate, usually paler than lamina, midrib
prominent beneath with many hairs, grooved above; margins flat to coarsely undulate, serrate, coarsely serrate, tooth
acuminate, or sometimes deeply lobed at base, lobes simple or sometimes bifid; lamina apices acute, obtuse or rounded.
One or two flowering stipes up to (32-) 45 (-69) cm tall, erect; ramification generally initially dichotomous at the base,
with 2–7 proximal ramifications and with multiple distal ramifications; corymbose panicle, barely aphyllous, stipe
striate, moderately hispid pubescent at the base but almost glabrous at peduncles and pedicels, usually with one leaf-
like bract beneath each main branch and scale-like bracteoles beneath upper branches; stipe trichomes simple to bifid;
pedicels (1.2-) 3.6 (-7.0) cm long, usually thickening below involucre, bracteolate, bracteoles scale like, (1.5-) 3 (-8.2)
mm long, narrow triangular entire; the pedicel bracteoles sometimes also found at the base of the capitulum forming
an incomplete, unequal calyculus around 2–3 mm long. Capitula ligulate, (0.6-) 1.4 (-2.4) cm in diameter, (14-) 59 (-
114) per synflorescence; involucre cylindrical in bud and scarcely widening in flower at apex, base becoming slightly
inflated postanthesis and in fruit; phyllaries biseriate, external bracts (0.9-) 2.6 (-4.6) mm long, internal bracts (3.99-)
7.7 (-11.4) mm long × (0.3-) 0.9 (-1.9) mm wide, margins glabrous below and sparsely ciliate towards apex, tissue
papillate and usually blackish; receptacle flat, paleaceous, paleae 4.4–14,0 mm long × 0.1–0.7 mm wide, linear, usually
with dark margins, apices attenuate/long-acute, sparsely to moderately ciliate, cilia long uniseriate and eglandular.
Florets (26-) 37 (-56) ligulate, hermaphrodite, fertile, corollas yellow to orange, but becoming pale brown postanthesis,
eventually deciduous; corolla tube (1.2-) 3.0 (-5.8) mm long, glabrous, pale yellow, ligule (5.6-) 10.0 (-19.1) mm long
× (0.3-) 0.8 (-1.6) mm wide, glabrous inside, sparsely pubescent outside just above sinus with eglandular hairs, ligule
apex with five distinct teeth, teeth apices thickened, glabrous; anther cylinder yellow (1.4-) 3.8 (-9.0) mm long, apical
anther appendages obtuse to broadly rounded, slightly longer than wide, basal anther appendages sagittate; styles
(3.2-) 5.2 (-11.5) mm long, style arms (0.2-) 1.0 (-2.4) mm long, ascending or divergent, very short pubescent outside
throughout. Achenes pale brown, (0.6-) 3.2 (-6.3) mm long × (0.1-) 0.4 (-1.1) mm wide, narrowly fusiform, narrowing
slightly upwards to a distinct apical callus, body striate, lightly rugose across striae; pappus setae (3.6-) 5.9 (-8.0) mm
long, setae at first coarsely scabrid, and about as long as corolla tube, maturing to plumose or subplumose, with setae
rachis coarsely barbellate. Molecularly differs from all other Azorean Leontodon in 4 positions of the ITS region, in
the motifs GATGTGGAG (G replaced by T), CCCTGCCGG (C replaced by G), TAGGAAAGC (G replaced by A) and
GTTTCAGGA (T/G replaced by C); and in one position of the trnQ region, in the motif ACAAAAAAA (T replaced
by A).
Distribution:—Leontodon rigens is an endemic of São Miguel Island.
Habitat:—Generally not below 300 m. In moist habitats on steep slopes, roadsides, in the margins or in the
openings of the native scrubland (Calluna vulgaris) and of the native forest (Laurus azorica, Ilex perado subsp.
azorica, Juniperus brevifolia). Also in open grassland, on cuttings through sandy deposits and on cliffs. In crevices on
vertical cliffs and on dense humus layers or Sphagnum spp. carpet on slopes in ravines and craters, also associated with
Festuca francoi or Deschampsia foliosa.
Phenology:—See L. hochstetteri.
Conservation Status:—Previous attempts to classify L. rigens according to IUCN criteria led Corvelo (2010)
to list it as Endangered [B2ab (i, ii, iii)]. It was also considered a top priority species by Silva et al. (2009). However,
these estimations also included the western Leontodon species. Population numbers were estimated by Schaefer (2005)
(as “Leontodon spec. nov. ined.”) to be <1,000. During the extensive sampling conducted for this study and by Dias et
al. (2014), 14 populations of L. rigens were identified in fragmented native vegetation patches in the central part and
the eastern and western extremes of São Miguel, with an estimated total number of <4,000 individuals. In several of
these locations (e.g. Lagoa do Fogo and Sete Cidades waterbasin locations), goats can be found grazing, although the
areas are part of the São Miguel Natural Park. Furthermore, wild rabbits are also known to feed on the plants. Thus,
according to the IUCN classification, and based on the estimated number of plants, L. rigens would be considered as
Vulnerable (V) B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); C2a(i).
Leontodon saxatilis × Leontodon hochstetteri = Leontodon × friasi M. Moura & L. Silva nothosp. nov.
Holotype:—AZORES. Flores: Burreiro, 18 July 2010, Silva LF-FLBU-001 (AZB1349!, isotype: BM!).
Leontodon filii sensu Paiva & Ormonde (1973: 447) pro parte quoad plantarum ex Flores.
Acaulous rosettiform rhizomatous perennial herb; white latex present. Rootstock usually stout, woody, sometimes
a long napiform root. Leaves few to several (9–10), petiolate; petiole 6–14 cm long × 0.3–0.9 cm wide, grooved,
often narrowly winged; petiole trichomes often 2-fid, less frequently simple or 3-fid; lamina 7–15 cm long × 1.1–3.5
A REVISION OF THE GENUS LEONTODON Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 39
cm wide; lanceolate to oblanceolate, attenuate at base onto apex of petiole; usually densely pubescent above and
densely pubescent beneath, hairs about 1 mm long or longer and attenuate, curved or appearing almost uncinate,
apices more often 2-fid up to 3-fid; venation pinnate, usually paler than lamina, midrib prominent beneath with many
hairs, usually grooved above; margins flat to coarsely undulate, coarsely dentate, lamina apices acute or acuminate,
sometimes almost round. Two to three flowering stipes up 34–38 cm tall; erect or ascending; ramification generally
absent or dichotomous, with 2 ramifications; internodes very long, stipe striate, more densely pubescent at base,
scarcely pubescent or almost glabrous at peduncles and pedicels, usually with scale-like bracteoles beneath capitula;
stipe trichomes usually 2-fid up to 3-fid; pedicels 8–32 cm long, usually thickening below involucre, bracteolate,
bracteoles scale like, linear, entire 2–5 mm long, also with hairs; the pedicel bracteoles sometimes also found at the
base of the capitulum forming an incomplete, unequal calyculus around 2–3 mm long. Capitula ligulate, 1.8–3.0 cm in
diameter, 4 per synflorescence; involucre cylindrical in bud and scarcely widening in flower at apex, base becoming
slightly inflated postanthesis and in fruit; phyllaries biseriate, triangular to oblong, external bracts 1.8–4.6 mm long,
internal bracts 8.5–11.2 mm long × 0.3–1.5 mm wide, margins glabrous below and sparsely ciliate towards apex,
tissue papillate and usually blackish; bract trichomes usually 1 to 2-fid. Florets 55–73 ligulate, hermaphrodite, corollas
yellow to orange but becoming brown post-anthesis, eventually deciduous; corolla tube 1.8–3.4 mm long, yellow,
ligule 7.3–11.3 mm long × 0.4–1.0 mm wide, glabrous inside, sparsely to densely pubescent outside just above sinus
and also above that area with eglandular hairs, ligule apex with five distinct teeth, teeth apices thickened, glabrous;
anther cylinder yellow 2.5–4.9 mm long, apical anther appendages acute to obtuse; styles 3.5–5.7 mm long; style
arms 0.5–1.3 mm long, very short pubescent outside throughout. Achenes pale brown, 3.9–8.1 mm long × 0.3–0.6
mm wide, narrowly fusiform, narrowing slightly upwards to a distinct apical callus, body striate, lightly rugose across
striae; pappus setae 5–8 mm long, plumose or subplumose; some of the achenes in the margin with a pappus of scales
or scales and a few hairs.
Note:—The name Leontodon × friasi is here proposed in honour of Professor António Manuel de Frias Martins,
Azorean naturalist, malacologist and evolutionary biologist. Professor “Frias”, as generally known by his colleagues
and students, is one of the pioneers in the diffusion of the knowledge about Azorean biodiversity.
Distribution:—So far known only from Burreiro in Flores; but may also occur more widely on the island and on
Corvo where the two parental species also co-occur.
Habitat and abundance:—Found on a road margin. Apparently rare. No existing herbarium specimens were
found during this study.
Leontodon saxatilis × Leontodon rigens = Leontodon × carreiroi (Gandoger) M. Moura & L. Silva nothosp. & comb.
nov.
= Thrincia carreiroi Gandoger (1918: 53).
Lectotype designated by Lack 1981:—AZORES. São Miguel: Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro 902B (LY!, isolectotypes:
LY!, AZ1768-1772!).
= Thrincia subglabra Gandoger (1918: 53–54).
Holotype:—AZORES. São Miguel: Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro 980 (LY!, isotypes: AZ1764-1765!).
Leontodon filii sensu Paiva & Ormonde (1973: 447) pro parte quoad plantarum ex São Miguel.
Acaulous rosettiform rhizomatous perennial herb; white latex present. Rootstock usually stout, woody, sometimes a
long napiform root. Leaves few to several (5–7), petiolate; petiole 4–10 cm long × 0.3–0.8 cm wide, grooved, often
narrowly winged; petiole trichomes often 2-fid, less frequently simple or 3-fid; lamina 4–17 cm long × 1.6–5 cm
wide; lanceolate to oblanceolate, attenuate at base onto apex of petiole; usually sparsely pubescent above and densely
pubescent beneath, hairs about 1 mm long or longer and attenuate, curved or appearing almost uncinate, apices more
often 2-fid up to 3-fid; venation pinnate, usually paler than lamina, midrib prominent beneath with many hairs, usually
grooved above; margins flat to coarsely undulate, coarsely dentate, rarely serrated, lamina apices acute or acuminate.
Two to three flowering stipes up 44 cm tall; erect or ascending; some or all the stipes not ramified; ramification
generally absent or initially dichotomous at the base, with 2 proximal ramifications; very lax panicle, with a leaf-like
bract at the main branches, internodes very long, stipe striate, densely pubescent at base, less pubescent or almost
glabrous at peduncles and pedicels, usually with scale-like bracteoles beneath capitula; stipe trichomes usually 2-fid
up to 3-fid; pedicels (3-) 6–36 cm long, or longer if there is only the peduncle, usually thickening below involucre,
bracteolate, bracteoles scale like, linear, entire 3–5 mm long; the pedicel bracteoles sometimes also found at the base
of the capitulum forming an incomplete, unequal calyculus around 2–3 mm long. Capitula ligulate, 0.7–2.5 cm in
MOURA LS ED HS MC
40 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
diameter, 5 per synflorescence; involucre cylindrical in bud and scarcely widening in flower at apex, base becoming
slightly inflated postanthesis and in fruit; phyllaries biseriate, triangular to oblong, external bracts 1–3 mm long,
internal bracts 8–10 mm long × 0.5–1 mm wide, margins glabrous below and sparsely ciliate towards apex, tissue
papillate and usually blackish; bract trichomes usually 1 to 2-fid. Florets 33–58 ligulate, hermaphrodite, corollas
yellow to orange but becoming brown postanthesis, eventually deciduous; corolla tube 2–4 mm long, yellow, ligule
9–15 mm long × 0.5–0.9 mm wide, glabrous inside, sparsely to densely pubescent outside just above sinus and also
above that area with eglandular hairs, ligule apex with five distinct teeth, teeth apices thickened, glabrous; anther
cylinder yellow 4 mm long, apical anther appendages acute to obtuse; styles 4–5 mm long; style arms 0.3–0.9 mm
long, very short pubescent outside throughout. In some plants the capitula are paleaceous, paleae 9–11,5 mm long ×
0.14–0.21 mm wide, linear, usually with dark margins, apices attenuate/long-acute, sparsely to moderately ciliate,
cilia long uniseriate and eglandular. Achenes pale brown, 0.9–1.4 mm long × 0.1–0.3 mm wide, narrowly fusiform,
narrowing slightly upwards to a distinct apical callus, body striate, lightly rugose across striae; pappus setae 5–10 mm
long, plumose or subplumose; some of the achenes in the margin with a pappus of scales or scales and a few hairs.
Distribution:—Known from Lagoa, Sete Cidades and Nordeste in São Miguel.
Habitat and abundance:—Found on a roadside slope. Apparently rare although several herbarium specimens
exist from the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Specimens Examined
Leontodon hochstetteri:—AZORES. Flores: Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine,
Rumsey LR-FLLS-001 (AZB301!); Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-
FLLS-003 (AZB303!); Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-004
(AZB304!); Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-005 (AZB305!);
Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-006 (AZB306!); Borda da
Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-007 (AZB307!); Borda da Lagoa Seca,
4 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-008 (AZB308!); Borda da Lagoa Seca, 4 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLLS-009 (AZB309!); Estrada do Morro Alto, 5 July 2008, Maciel,
Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLMA-001 (AZB314!); Estrada do Morro Alto, 5 July 2008, Maciel, Martins,
Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLMA-002 (AZB315!); Estrada do Morro Alto, 5 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LR-FLMA-003 (AZB316!); Estrada do Morro Alto, 5 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine,
Rumsey LR-FLMA-004 (AZB317!); Alto da Fajãzinha, 22 September 1971, Gonçalves 3720 (BM!); s. loc., 27 July
1894, Trelease 487 (BM!, K!); Ribeira da Cruz, 27 July 1894, Trelease 487 (AZ11!, MO5421227!); s. loc., July 1842,
Watson 183 (K1867 (2 specimens)!, MANCH (2 specimens)!. Corvo: Fonte das Poças, 8 June 1971, Gonçalves 2577
(BM!); Road from Caldeira (1km from rim) towards Corvo village, 12 August 1985, Parry 124 (BM!). Doubtful location
[see notes for L. hochstetteri in the Taxonomic Treatment section]: [Pico, on the way from Vila Madalena to Pico
mountain], July 1838, Hochstetter s. n. (TUB3367!); [At the foot of Pico mountain], Hochstetter s. n. (P00417745!).
Leontodon filii:—AZORES. Terceira: Furna do Enxofre, 9 July 1894, Trelease 489 (AZ1732!, K!, MO5421231!);
Caldeira de Santa Bárbara, 19 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TESB-013 (AZB1002!); Rocha
do Chambre, 19 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-011 (AZB987!); Rocha do Chambre,
19 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-008 (AZB984!); Rocha do Chambre, 19 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-007 (AZB983!); Descida para a Rocha do Chambre, 19 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-003 (AZB979!); Descida para a Rocha do Chambre, 19 July
2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-002 (AZB978!); Descida para a Rocha do Chambre, 19
July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-001 (AZB977!); São Miguel Arcanjo, 9 August 1971,
Gonçalves 3397 (BM!); Bagacina, 12 July 1971, Goncalves 3268 (BM!); Algar do Carvão, Ormonde 852 (LISE75870!);
Pico da Bagacina, estrada Angra-Pico da Bagacina, 25 August 1966, Ormonde 150 (LISE75869!). São Jorge: Ribeira da
Areia e Lagoa do Brenho, 07/08, Carreiro 978B (AZ1727-1729 (3 specimens)!); Línguas de Fogo, 07/03, Carreiro 978
(AZ1730-1731!); Norte Pequeno, 07/08, Carreiro 478A (AZ1724-1726 (3 specimens)!); Pico do Areeiro, 15 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJPA-001 (AZB794!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins,
Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-001 (AZB780!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine,
Rumsey LF-SJMP-002 (AZB781!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-
003 (AZB782!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-004 (AZB783!);
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Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-005 (AZB784!); Morro Pelado, 15
July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-006 (AZB785!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel,
Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-007 (AZB786!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-008 (AZB787!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey
LF-SJMP-009 (AZB788!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-010
(AZB789!); Morro Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-011 (AZB790!); Morro
Pelado, 15 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-014 (AZB793!); Pico da Esperança, 15
July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJPE-001 (AZB812!); Chão das Lagoinhas, 5 September
1971, Goncalves 3494 (BM!); São Jorge, July 1903, Carreiro 978 (feuille nº 1) (LY!); São Jorge, July 1903, Carreiro
978 (feuille nº 2) (LY!); s. loc., July 1908, Carreiro 978B (MO5421229!). Pico: Caldeirão da Ribeirinha, 14 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRB-002 (AZB1051!); Caldeirão da Ribeirinha, 14 July 2008, Maciel,
Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRB-002 (AZB1052!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins,
Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-003 (AZB614!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-002 (AZB613!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine,
Rumsey LF-PICM-006 (AZB617!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-
PICM-004 (AZB615!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-001
(AZB612!); Cabeço dos Mistérios, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-007 (AZB618!);
Ribeira Funda, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-001 (AZB619!); Ribeira Funda, 13
July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-007 (AZB625!); Ribeira Funda, 13-07-2008, Maciel,
Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-002 (AZB620!); Ribeira Funda, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-005 (AZB623!); Ribeira Funda, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey
LF-PIRF-003 (AZB621!); Ribeira Funda, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-004
(AZB622!); Ribeira Funda, 13 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PIRF-006 (AZB624!); s. loc.,
July 1838, Hochstetter 97 (BM!, FI108353!, K000252019!, M0030715!, MO4675235!, P00417737- P00417739 (3
specimens)!, TUB3366 (2 specimens)!, WAG0003536!); s. loc., July 1838, Hochstetter s. n. (BR532950!, G00300311-
G00300314 (4 specimens)!); São Roque do Pico, near Lagoa do Capitão, 15 June 1964, Dansereau, Pinto da Silva,
Rainha 689 (LISE70537!). Faial: Parque de Estacionamento da Caldeira, 12 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-FAEC-001 (AZB570!); Parque de Estacionamento da Caldeira, 12 July 2008, Maciel, Martins,
Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FAEC-002 (AZB571!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-007 (AZB565!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey
LF-FATR-005 (AZB563!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-006
(AZB564!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-004 (AZB562!);
Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-002 (AZB560!); Cabeço do
Trinta, 11 July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-003 (AZB561!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11
July 2008, Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-008 (AZB566!); Cabeço do Trinta, 11 July 2008,
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-009 (AZB567!); Cedros, Levada, 10 October 1963, Goncalves
751 (BM!); Along path leading down crater, 27 August 1985, Parry 221 (BM!); s. loc., B. do Castello de Paiva 862
(K!); Above Cedros, 1961, Pickering 700 (K (2 specimens)!); Cedros, near Caldeira, 5 October 1961, Gonçalves s.n.
(K!); Cedros near Cancela, 8 June 1964, Dansereau, Pinto da Silva, Rainha 467 (LISE70332!); Caldeira, valley to
NW of Pedra do Altar, 10 June 1964, Dansereau, Pinto da Silva, Rainha 514 (LISE70373!); Caldeira, 24 July 1878,
Thiébaut 812 (LY!); s. loc., 26 July 1894, Brown 158 (MO5421230!). Uncertain island [see notes for L. filii in the
Taxonomic Treatment section]: s. loc., 1868, Drouet s. n. (BM (2 specimens)!); “Faial (?)”, s. loc., September 1842,
Watson s. n. (MANCH!); “Terceira, Faial, Pico, Flores”, s. loc., July 1838, Hochstetter 97 (TUB3366!).
Leontodon rigens:—AZORES. São Miguel: Pico do Carvão, August 1898, Carreiro 363 (AZ1713!); Sete Cidades,
August 1908, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1714!); Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1715!); Lombadas,
August 1897, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1716!); Bretanha, August 1899, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1717!); Lagoa, Junqueiras, September
1904, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1718-1719!); Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1720!); Sete Cidades,
August 1900, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1721!); Pico do Carvão, August 1898, Carreiro 363 (AZ1722!); Feteiras, Abril 1891,
Carreiro s. n. (AZ1723!); Road to Outeiro da Lomba, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMOL-001 (AZB1378!); Road
to Pico da Cruz, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPI-001 (AZB1379!); Lagoa do Canário, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B.
Silva LR-SMLC-006 (AZB1380!); Road to Lagoa do Canário, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMEC-001 (AZB1382!);
Caldeira do Alferes, 7 August 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMAL-001 (AZB1386!); Lomba do Pico, 7 August 2010,
Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLP-001 (AZB1387!); Lagoas Empadadas, 8 August 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMEM-001
(AZB1388!); Pico do Carvão, 21 August 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPR-001 (AZB1397!); Vista do Rei, 21 August
MOURA LS ED HS MC
42 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMVR-001 (AZB1396!); Planalto dos Graminhais, 17 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-
SMPG-001 (AZB1407!); Planalto dos Graminhais, 17 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPG-027 (AZB1408!);
Planalto dos Graminhais, 17 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPG-030 (AZB1409!); Planalto dos Graminhais,
17 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPG-039 (AZB1410!); Planalto dos Graminhais, 17 September 2010, Dias,
L.B. Silva LR-SMPG-042 (AZB1411!); Tronqueira, 17 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMTR-006 (AZB1412!);
Monte Escuro, 18 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMME-006 (AZB1413!); Lombadas, 18 September 2010, Dias,
L.B. Silva LR-SMLO-001 (AZB1414!); Tronqueira, 9 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMTR-064 (AZB1443!);
Pico Bartolomeu, 9 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPB-001 (AZB1444!); Lagoa do Fogo, 19 September
2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLF-044 (AZB1447!); Lagoa do Fogo, 23 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLF-
020 (AZB1448!); Lagoa do Fogo, 23 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLF-038 (AZB1449!); Lagoa do Areeiro,
24 September 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLA-003 (AZB1450!); Lagoa do Canário, 13 September, 2008, Moura LR-
SMLC-002 (AZB1079!); Lagoa do Canário, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLC-005 (AZB1382!); Monte Escuro,
13 September 2008, Moura LR-SMME-004 (AZB1086!); Monte Escuro, 13 September 2008, Moura LR-SMME-003
(AZB1085!); Monte Escuro, 13, September 2008, Moura LR-SMME-001 (AZB1083!); Monte Escuro, 13 September
2008, Moura LR-SMME-005 (AZB1087!); Tronqueira, 14 September 2008, Moura LR-SMTR-003 (AZB1090!); Lagoa
do Canário, 13 September 2008, Moura LR-SMLC-006 (AZB1562!); Lagoa do Canário, 13 September 2008, Moura
LR-SMLC-005 (AZB1082!); Lagoa do Canário, 13 September 2008, Moura LR-SMLC-003 (AZB1080!); Lagoa do
Canário, 13 September 2008, Moura LR-SMLC-001 (AZB1078!); Lagoas Empadadas, 7 August 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva
s. n. (AZB1387!); Lagoa do Canário, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLC-021 (AZB1381!); Road to Pico da Cruz,
31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMPI-001 (AZB1379!); Road to Outeiro da Lomba, 31 July 2010, Dias, L.B. Silva
LR-SMOL-001 (AZB1378!); Muro das 9 Janelas, 27 July 1968, Botelho Gonçalves 2441 (BM!); Roadside between
Furnas and Nordeste, August 1956, Pickering 140, sheet 1 (BM!); Seara, Sete Cidades, 30 July 1970, Dolman 372
(BM!); Lagoa do Fogo, 20 July 1987, Wieringa 161 (K!); between Furnas and Nordeste, 12 September 1954, Pickering
s. n. (K!); s. loc., 1847, Hunt s. n. (K!, MANCH (2 specimens)!); s. loc., 1865, Godman s. n. (K!).; s. loc., 1844, Hunt s.
n. (MANCH!); s. loc., s. d., Hunt s. n. (MANCH!); Lagoa do Fogo, 20 July 1987, Wieringa s. n. (MO5049847!); Pico
do Carvão, 22 August 1894, Trelease 488 (MO5421228!). Uncertain island: Cultivated at Kew from Azorean material
(“said in Hort. Kew to be from the Azores”), s. d., s. col. s. n. (BM!); s. loc., 1847, Hunt 153 (BM!); s. loc., August
1956, Pickering 140, sheet 2 (BM!); s. loc., s. d., Hunt s. n. (K (2 specimens!).
Leontodon × friasi:—AZORES. Flores: Burreiro, 18 July 2010, Silva LF-FLBU-001 (AZB1349!); Burreiro, 18
July 2010, Silva LF-FLBU-002 (BM!).
Leontodon × carreiroi:—AZORES. São Miguel: Sete Cidades, Cumeeira, August 1900, Carreiro 902 (AZ1794–
1795 (2 specimens)!, LY!, MO5421237!); Sete Cidades, Grota do Cerrado das Freiras, September 1903, Carreiro 902A
(AZ6638–6640, AZ1792–1793 (5 specimens)!, LY (2 specimens)!); Lagoa, Junqueiras, September 1904, Carreiro s. n.
(AZ1761–1762 (2 specimens)!); Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro 980 (AZ1764–1765 (2 specimens)!,
LY!); Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1766–1767 (2 specimens)!); Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno,
August 1903, Carreiro 902B (AZ1768–1772 (5 specimens)!, LY (2 specimens)!); Nordeste, Pico da Vara, 14 October
2010, Dias LF-SMPV-001 (AZB1445!); Nordeste, Pico da Vara, 14 October 2010, Dias LF-SMPV-002 (AZB1446!);
s. loc., 1845, Hunt s. n. (FI108353!, K (4 specimens)!, MANCH (5 specimens)!, OXF!, P02664559–02664560 (2
specimens)!; Lagoa, August 1903, Carreiro s. n. (LY!); Sete Cidades, 30 August 1894, Trelease 491 (MO2682472!);
Sete Cidades, September 1903, Carreiro s. n. (OXF!); s. loc., 1847, Hunt 175 (OXF!). Uncertain island: s. loc., s. d.,
Hunt s.n. (K!).
Leontodon saxatilis:AZORES. Santa Maria: s. loc., 25 June 1896, Trelease 499B (AZ1774!); s. loc., 30 June
1896, Trelease 499C (MO5421238!). São Miguel: Lagoa, Janelas do Inferno, August 1903, Carreiro 831A (AZ1783–
1784 (2 specimens)!, LY (3 specimens)!); Caldeiras, August 1902, Carreiro 943 (AZ1780–1782 (3 specimens)!, LY
(4 specimens)!); Caldeiras, June 1899, Carreiro 831 (AZ1785–1786 (2 specimens)!); Muro das Nove Janelas, May
1891, Carreiro s. n. (1787 AZ!); Rocha, March 1895, Carreiro 103 (AZ1788–1789 (2 specimens)!); Muro do Carvão,
March 1895, Carreiro 185 (AZ1790–1791!); s. loc., 1846, Hunt 175 (K000252013!); s. loc., 1845, Hunt “175?” (K!);
s. loc., 1845, Hunt 175 (K!); s. loc., 1847, Hunt “175*” (K!); s. loc., 1865, Godman s. n. (K000252009 (2 specimens)!,
K000252016 !); Pico da Cruz, November 1881, Arruda Furtado s. n. (K!); Calhetas, s. d., Ormonde 825 (LISE75867
(2 specimens)!); Muro do Carvão, March 1895, Carreiro s. n. (LY (3 specimens)!); Rocha, March 1895, Carreiro s. n.
(LY!); Serra Gorda, 21 August 1894, Trelease 499 (MO5421240!). Terceira: s. loc., 1862, B. do Castello de Paiva s.
n. (K00252014!); Caminho de Cima, 1 April 1899, Sampaio s. n. (AZ1777!); Furna do Enxofre, s. d., Ormonde 736
(LISE75868 (3 specimens)!); s. loc., 27 June 1894, Trelease 502 (MO5421242!). Graciosa: s. loc., July 1903, Carreiro
831C (AZ1778!); Folga, 18 August 1894, Trelease 500 (AZ1775!, MO5421241!). São Jorge: Línguas de Fogo, July
A REVISION OF THE GENUS LEONTODON Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press 43
1903, Carreiro 831B (AZ1776!, AZ1779!, LY (2 specimens)!); s. loc., July 1908, Carreiro s. n. (AZ1775!); Calheta,
23 June 1894, Trelease 490 (MO5421243!). Pico: Candelária, near porto de Ana Clara, 6 June 1864, Dansereau, Pinto
da Silva & Rainha 418 (LISE70286 (2 specimens)!). Faial: Lugar dos Quinhões, Feteira, 4 June 1947, R. Silva 17
(LISE21317 (2 specimens)!); s. loc., 17 July 1894, Brown 159 (MO5421239!). Flores: Lajes, Boca da Baleia, 6 August
1963, Botelho Gonçalves 1401 (LISE68256!).
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to Graciete Belo Maciel, José Martins, Lurdes Silva, Fred Rumsey and Orlanda Moreira for collecting
some of the samples. We are also grateful to the curators of the herbaria of Museu Carlos Machado (AZ), of the Royal
Botanic Gardens (K), of Estação Agronómica Nacional (LISE), of Université Claude Bernard (LY) and of Herbarium
Tubingense (TUB) at Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, as well as to Katy Jones for providing images or label
information, and to the staff of the molecular laboratories at the Natural History Museum, London. This study was part
of Project VERONICA, financed by DRCT (Direcção Regional da Ciência e Tecnologia) and also received support
from the SYNTHESYS Project http://www.synthesys.info/ which is financed by European Community Research
Infrastructure Action under the FP6 “Structuring the European Research Area” programme.
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Appendix
List of taxa used in the molecular analysis, voucher information, and GenBank accession numbers. All samples of L.
hochstetteri, L. filii, L. rigens and hybrid specimens are stored at the DNA Bank of Azorean Flora, which is part of
AZB.
Leontodon hochstetteri:—Flores (Estrada do Morro Alto) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLMA-
008 (ITS KM589258, trnQ KM589301, trnV KM589318, matK KM589347); Flores (Estrada do Morro Alto)
Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLMA-010 (ITS KM589276, trnQ KM589287, trnV KM589324,
matK KM589336); Flores (Alagoa) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLAL-001 (ITS KM589256);
Flores (Alagoa) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-FLAL-002 (ITS KM589272, trnQ KM589282, trnV
KM589325, matK KM589328); Corvo (Caldeirão, Ponta do Marco road) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey
LR-COMC-007 (ITS KM589267, trnQ KM589303, trnV KM589306, matK KM589338); Corvo (Caldeirão, Ponta
do Marco road) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LR-COMC-011 (ITS KM589274, trnQ KM589285, trnV
KM589307, matK KM589341).
Leontodon filii:—Terceira (Rocha do Chambre) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-001 (ITS
KM589277); Terceira (Rocha do Chambre) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-TERC-003 (ITS KM589273,
trnQ KM589281, trnV KM589322, matK KM589329); Terceira (Caldeira de Santa Bárbara) Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-TESB-006 (ITS KM589259); Terceira (Caldeira de Santa Bárbara) Maciel, Martins, Moreira,
Carine, Rumsey LF-TESB-013 (ITS KM589260, trnQ KM589295, trnV KM589310, matK KM589333); São Jorge
(Morro Pelado) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-SJMP-005 (ITS KM589268, trnQ KM589298, trnV
589312, matK KM589344); Pico (Cabeço dos Mistérios) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-001
(ITS KM589279, trnQ KM589300, trnV KM589304, matK KM589332); Pico (Cabeço dos Mistérios) Maciel, Martins,
MOURA LS ED HS MC
46 Phytotaxa 210 (1) © 2015 Magnolia Press
Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-PICM-006 (ITS KM589269, trnQ KM589283, trnV KM589321, matK KM589335);
Faial (Cabeço do Trinta) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-002 (ITS KM589271, trnQ KM589293,
trnV KM589309, matK KM589340); Faial (Cabeço do Trinta) Maciel, Martins, Moreira, Carine, Rumsey LF-FATR-
006 (ITS KM589264, trnQ KM589284, trnV KM589311, matK KM589346).
Leontodon rigens:—São Miguel (Lagoa do Canário) Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLC-002 (ITS KM589261, trnQ
KM589297, trnV KM589323, matK KM589330); São Miguel (Lagoa do Canário) Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMLC-004
(ITS KM589266, trnQ KM589292, trnV KM589319, matK KM589337); São Miguel (Monte Escuro) Dias, L.B. Silva
LR-SMME-001 (ITS KM589265, trnQ KM589291, trnV KM589313, matK KM589343); São Miguel (Monte Escuro)
Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMME-005 (ITS KM589275, trnQ KM589302, trnV KM589317, matK KM589339); São Miguel
(Tronqueira) Moura, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMTR-001 (ITS KM589278, trnQ KM589294, trnV KM589315, matK
KM589345); São Miguel (Tronqueira) Moura, Dias, L.B. Silva LR-SMTR-005 (ITS KM589263, trnQ KM589288,
trnV KM589308, matK KM589334).
Leontodon × friasi:—Flores (Burreiro), Silva LF-FLBU-001 (ITS KM589257, trnQ KM589289, trnV KM589320,
matK KM589342); Flores (Burreiro), Silva LR-FLBU-002 (ITS KM589270).
Leontodon × carreiroi:—São Miguel (Pico da Vara) Dias LR-SMPV-001 (ITS KM589262, trnQ KM589296, trnV
KM589316, matK KM589331).
GenBank accessions:—Leontodon hispidus L. – Stuessy 15537 (ITS DQ451769). Leontodon hispidus L. – Hörandl
et al. 5389 (ITS DQ451770, matK DQ451707). Leontodon hispidus L. – Hörandl 1495 (ITS DQ451771). Leontodon
kulczinskii Popov & Chrshan. – Dobner & Zidorn 98-00113 (ITS DQ451773, matK DQ451721). Leontodon saxatilis
Lam. Stuessy et al. 15453B (ITS AF528489, matK DQ451725). Leontodon saxatilis Lam. Hörandl & Hadacek
7076 (ITS DQ451794). Leontodon anomalus Ball – Schratt & Gutermann 17067 (ITS DQ451753, matK DQ451691).
Leontodon asperrimus (Willd.) Ball – Schneeweiß et al. 8182 (ITS DQ451754, matK DQ451692). Leontodon crispus
Vill. – Gutermann 35682 (ITS AF528488, matK AF528430). Leontodon graecus Boiss. & Heldr. – Tremetsberger
s. n. (ITS DQ451765, matK DQ451702). Leontodon berinii Reichb. – Kuhns & Zidorn 970624h (ITS DQ451756,
matK DQ451696). Leontodon incanus Schrank Gutermann 37630 (ITS DQ451772, matK DQ451709). Leontodon
farinosus Merino & Pau – Alamillo et al. s. n. (ITS DQ451764, matK DQ451701). Leontodon boryi Boiss. – Rico s.
n. (ITS DQ451757, matK DQ451695). Leontodon rosani Ten. – Spitaler & Zidorn CZ-20040413B-1 (ITS DQ451792,
matK DQ451729). Leontodon longirostris (Finch & P.D. Sell) – Gutermann 37111 (ITS DQ451777, matK DQ451710).
Leontodon tingitanus (Boiss. & Reut.) Ball – Gutermann 37432 (ITS DQ45179, matK DQ451727). Leontodon
maroccanus (Pers.) Ball – Spitaler & Zidorn CZ-20030421B-1 (ITS DQ451778, matK DQ451715). Leontodon
tuberosus L. – Tremetsberger s. n. (ITS AF528487, matK DQ451728). Leontodon autumnalis L. – Stuessy 15541 (ITS
AF528486, matK DQ451694). Leontodon carpetanus Lange Ladero & Gonzalez-Iglesias s. n. (ITS DQ451759,
matK DQ451699). Leontodon duboisii Sennen – Bosc s. n. (ITS DQ451763, matK DQ451700). Leontodon muelleri
(Sch. Bip.) Fiori Ortiz & Tremetsberger 7/04 (ITS DQ451783, matK DQ451716). Leontodon laciniatus (Bertol.)
Widder Ehrendorfer s. n. (ITS DQ451774). Leontodon palisiae Izuzq. – Guerra 1412 (ITS DQ451787, matK
DQ451718). Leontodon montanus Lam. Hörandl 1498 (ITS DQ451782, matK DQ451713). Leontodon cantabricus
Widder – Alamillo et al. s. n. (ITS DQ451758, matK DQ451720). Leontodon helveticus Mérat – Hörandl 1494 (ITS
DQ451766, matK DQ451704). Leontodon pyrenaicus Gouan Schneeweiß & Schönswetter 8829 (ITS DQ451788,
matK DQ451719). Leontodon microcephalus Boiss. Rico s. n. (matK DQ451711). Leontodon cichoriaceus Boiss.
– Gutermann 35155 (ITS DQ451760, matK DQ451698. Leontodon croceus Haenke – Hörandl 2695 (ITS DQ451762,
matK DQ451697. Leontodon rilaensis Hayek Dobner & Zidorn 98-00084 (ITS DQ451791, matK DQ451722.
Leontodon montaniformis Widder – Hörandl et al. 4615 (ITS DQ451780, matK DQ451714. Reichardia tingitana (L.)
Roth – GAT-bg44 (ITS AJ633303). Reichardia tingitana (L.) Roth – KEW 223-70-02 090 (matK DQ507979).
... ex Seub.) Paiva & Ormonde, Leontodon hochstetteri M.Moura & L.Silva, and Leontodon rigens (Aiton) Paiva & Ormonde (Moura et al., 2015). Moreover, two hybrids between two of these species and L. saxatilis have been discovered: Leontodon × carreiroi M.Moura & L.Silva (L. ...
... saxatilis × L. rigens) and L. × friasi M.Moura & L.Silva (L. saxatilis × L. hochstetteri) (Moura et al., 2015). Recently, an additional hybrid of cultivated L. hochstetteri and L. hispidus L., L. × grassiorum Zidorn, has been described from Austria (Gemeinholzer et al., 2017). ...
... According to Dias et al. (2014) the highest SSR allelic diversity found in São Miguel populations might indicate an initial colonization of that island, and later dispersal within the archipelago. Results obtained by Moura et al. (2015) revealed that both L. rigens and L. hochstetteri had higher specific differentiation, which is in accordance with the evolution of L. rigens by anagenetic speciation and a later appearance of a distinct western form due to the founder effect within the archipelago. L. filii, L. hochstetteri, and L. rigens all contain epoxy-hydroxyhypocretenolides 17 and 18, while these compounds were not detected in the closely related L. hispidus. ...
Article
The genera Leontodon s.str. and Hedypnois are so far the only known sources of hydroxyhypocretenolides, a rare subclass of guaianolide type sesquiterpene lactones. In this study the three endemic species from the Azorean Archipelago, L. filii, L. hochstetteri, and L. rigens, were analyzed together with L. hispidus and L. × grassiorum, a hybrid originating from L. hispidus and L. hochstetteri. Flowering heads were analyzed by UHPLC-DAD-MS with regards to their phenolics' profiles, establishing qualitatively identical profiles for all taxa. The following phenolics were detected in flowering heads of all investigated taxa: caffeoyltartaric acid, cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, luteolin, luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4′-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and luteolin 7-O-β-d-glucuronide. In UHPLC-DAD-MS analyses of the rhizomes, no flavonoids were detected. In rhizomes, caffeoyltartaric acid was only detected in L. hispidus. However, in addition to caffeoylquinic acid derivatives already found in the flowering heads, 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were detected in rhizomes of all investigated taxa. The chemophenetically most interesting group of hydroxyhypocretenolides was detected in rhizomes of all investigated taxa. 11,13β-Dihydro-14-dihydroxyhypocretenolide was detected in L. filii and L. hochstetteri, while 11,13β-dihydro-14-hydroxyhypocretenolide-β-d-glucopyranoside was present in all Azorean taxa. 1,10-Epoxy-14-hydroxyhypocretenolide-β-d-glucopyranoside and 1,10-epoxy-14-hydroxyhypocretenolide-β-d-glucopyranoside-6′-O-p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid ester were restricted to the Azorean taxa and the hybrid L. × grassiorum, while the dimeric sesquiterpenoid 14-hydroxyhypocretenolide-β-d-glucopyranoside-4′,14″-hydroxyhypocretenoate ester was restricted to L. hispidus and L. × grassiorum.
... Connor et al. (2013) also questioned whether high levels of cryptic endemism in the Azorean flora, as suggested by Schaefer et al. (2011), might be related to the broad elevational range of endemic plants in the archipelago. Meanwhile, growing evidence for a Linnean shortfall in the Azorean flora has been amassed in several taxonomic groups, including Asteraceae (Moura et al., 2015a;Schafer et al., 2015), Orchidaceae (Bateman, Rudall & Moura, 2013;Bateman et al., 2014) and Cupressaceae (Elias & Dias, 2014). In these groups, new endemic taxa have recently been described or native taxa have been re-circumscribed as endemics (Moura, Carine & Menezes de Sequeira, 2015b;Mort et al., 2015). ...
Article
Population genetic structure and diversity and phylogeographical dispersal routes were assessed for the Azorean endemic grass Deschampsia foliosa using AFLP markers. This species occurs on seven islands in the archipelago and a sampling of populations from the three main geographical groups of islands was used, covering its known distribution. Principal coordinates analyses (PCoAs), Bayesian analyses and phylogenetic networks revealed different degrees of admixture for the central group (C) populations and a clear differentiation for the western group (W) and São Miguel island (in the eastern group, E) populations. The best K values corresponded to nine and 11 genetic groups, which were also confirmed by analysis of molecular variance. A low but significant correlation between genetic data and geography was observed, with most relevant barriers to gene flow generally placed between sub-archipelagos. We suggest a west-to-east isolation by distance dispersal model across an island age continuum with Flores–Corvo (W) and Pico (C) at the extremes of the dispersal path. An alternative scenario, also supported by the genetic data, implies an initial colonization of São Jorge (C), dispersal within C and following bidirectional dispersal to the W and E. The phylogeographical framework detected might be related to island age and to highly destructive volcanic events, and it supports the occurrence of cryptic diversity within D. foliosa. Genetic diversity estimators were highest for Pico island populations (C), lowest for São Miguel (E) and Flores (W) populations, and more divergent for the Corvo population (W). Conservation measures should be taken to preserve the genetic structure found across sub-archipelagos and islands.
... Atendiendo a tales criterios y a los aportados por Gallo (2017), la sistemática y nomenclatura de las plantas del grupo que crecen en el Principado de Asturias es la siguiente: En lo que se refiere a los otros géneros propuestos por Grulich (1984), los resultados del trabajo de Nikulina et al. (2016) (2017) proponen discriminar Thrincia de Leontodon. Tal postura sistemática la apoyan en criterios morfológicos, además de en los resultados de análisis de secuencias del ADN nuclear y cloroplástico (Enke et al., 2012;Moura et al., 2015). ...
... Atendiendo a tales criterios y a los aportados por Gallo (2017), la sistemática y nomenclatura de las plantas del grupo que crecen en el Principado de Asturias es la siguiente: En lo que se refiere a los otros géneros propuestos por Grulich (1984), los resultados del trabajo de Nikulina et al. (2016) (2017) proponen discriminar Thrincia de Leontodon. Tal postura sistemática la apoyan en criterios morfológicos, además de en los resultados de análisis de secuencias del ADN nuclear y cloroplástico (Enke et al., 2012;Moura et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
Recientemente se ha detectado la presencia de las citadas plantas en Vegadeo, en un terreno aislado por canales en la margen derecha de la desemboca-dura del río Suarón, donde parecen estar naturaliza-das, sin que se hayan encontrado en otras áreas limítrofes.
... Atendiendo a tales criterios y a los aportados por Gallo (2017), la sistemática y nomenclatura de las plantas del grupo que crecen en el Principado de Asturias es la siguiente: En lo que se refiere a los otros géneros propuestos por Grulich (1984), los resultados del trabajo de Nikulina et al. (2016) (2017) proponen discriminar Thrincia de Leontodon. Tal postura sistemática la apoyan en criterios morfológicos, además de en los resultados de análisis de secuencias del ADN nuclear y cloroplástico (Enke et al., 2012;Moura et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
En Asturias, del género Lemna L. se conocen hasta ahora dos especies: L. gibba L. y L. minor L. (Fernández Prieto et al., 2014a). En el verano del pasado año se localizó en la Charca de Arnao (Castropol, Asturias) otra lenteja de agua de hojas muy pequeñas que ha sido identificada como Lem-na minuta Kunth, in Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 372 (1816), siguiendo las diagnosis morfológicas presentadas por Galán (2007), Tison & de Foucault (2014), Landolt (1993+) y Sánchez Gullón & Galán de Mera (2014).
... Atendiendo a tales criterios y a los aportados por Gallo (2017), la sistemática y nomenclatura de las plantas del grupo que crecen en el Principado de Asturias es la siguiente: En lo que se refiere a los otros géneros propuestos por Grulich (1984), los resultados del trabajo de Nikulina et al. (2016) (2017) proponen discriminar Thrincia de Leontodon. Tal postura sistemática la apoyan en criterios morfológicos, además de en los resultados de análisis de secuencias del ADN nuclear y cloroplástico (Enke et al., 2012;Moura et al., 2015). ...
Chapter
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A la vista de la información disponible sobre la diver-sidad de los alisos en el ámbito atlántico ibérico, se recogieron muestras de aliso en la mayoría de las cuencas del citado territorio que están siendo estu-diadas por nuestro grupo de trabajo. Un primer aná-lisis de las secuencias de los espaciadores intergéni-cos del ADN cloroplásticos usados por Havrdová et al. (2015) confirman las líneas generales de la distri-bución de Alnus glutinosa y A. lusitanica en la penín-sula Ibérica salvo una excepción muy notable
... Atendiendo a tales criterios y a los aportados por Gallo (2017), la sistemática y nomenclatura de las plantas del grupo que crecen en el Principado de Asturias es la siguiente: En lo que se refiere a los otros géneros propuestos por Grulich (1984), los resultados del trabajo de Nikulina et al. (2016) (2017) proponen discriminar Thrincia de Leontodon. Tal postura sistemática la apoyan en criterios morfológicos, además de en los resultados de análisis de secuencias del ADN nuclear y cloroplástico (Enke et al., 2012;Moura et al., 2015). ...
... One potential cause of the perceived lower number of Azorean endemics is the lack of detailed, multifaceted studies of morphological variation and/or gene flow within and among different Azorean lineages. Morphological and molecular studies of several genera (e.g., Bateman et al. 2013;Schaefer 2015;Moura et al. 2015) have suggested that more species should be recognized than were included in the most recent floristic review of the Azores (Schaefer 2005), and also more than given in a more recent list (Silva et al. 2010). Crawford and Stuessy (2016) provide a discussion of cryptic plant diversity in oceanic islands and cite studies where additional investigations are to be desired in judging whether additional taxa should be recognized in the Macaronesian archipelagos (e.g., Jaén-Molina et al. 2015;Jones et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Asteraceae have the most endemic species of any flowering plant family in oceanic archipelagos, and these insular endemics display a higher frequency of self-compatibility (SC) compared to mainland composites. However, little attention has focused on the evolution of selfing in situ in islands. The genus Tolpis (Asteraceae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos consists predominantly of self-incompatible (SI) or pseudo-self-compatible plants, with one documented occurrence of the origin of self-compatibility (SC) in the Canary Islands. This study reports SC in two small populations of T. succulenta on Graciosa Island in the Azores. Progeny from the two populations exhibit high self-seed set. Segregation in F2 hybrids between SC and SI T. succulenta indicates that one major factor is associated with breeding system, with SC recessive to SI. Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that SC T. succulenta is sister to SI T. succulenta in the Azores, suggesting that SC originated from SI T. succulenta in the Azores. Plants on Graciosa are morphologically distinct from SI populations of T. succulenta on other islands in the Azorean archipelago, with smaller capitula and lower pollen-ovule ratios, both indicative of the selfing syndrome. The factors that may have favored selfing in these populations are discussed, as are the conservation implications of SC. Finally, the issue of whether the two SC populations are cryptic species worthy of taxonomic recognition is discussed.
... Furthermore, the Azorean archipelago is geologically recent (0.27-4.01 Mya; Ávila et al. 2016;Ramalho et al. 2017), thus several endemic lineages may not be reproductively isolated yet. Naturallyoccurring events of hybridization were detected between the Azorean endemic Leontodon and other species of this genus (Moura et al. 2015c;Gemeinholzer et al. 2017), while artificial crosses were possible between several Macaronesian Tolpis Adans. species . ...
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In the Azores Islands, two Euphrasia L. (Orobanchaceae) endemic species are recognized: Euphrasia azorica H.C.Watson, an annual herb, in Flores and Corvo, and Euphrasia grandiflora Hochst. ex Seub., a semi-shrub, in Pico, São Jorge and Terceira. Both species are highly endangered and protected by the Bern Convention and Habitats Directive. A population genetics study was conducted with new microsatellite primer pairs in 159 individuals of E. azorica and E. grandifolia, sampled from populations in Flores, Corvo, Pico and São Jorge. Allele sizing suggested that E. azorica is a diploid while E. grandiflora is a tetraploid. Euphrasia grandiflora revealed higher genetic diversity then E. azorica. The E. grandiflora population of Morro Pelado in São Jorge, displayed higher genetic diversity when compared with all others, while the E. azorica population of Madeira Seca in Corvo, showed the lowest. Private and less common bands were also overall higher in E. grandiflora populations. Population genetic structure analysis confirmed a distinctiveness between the two Azorean endemic Euphrasia, in addition to island-specific genetic patterns in E. azorica. The genetic structure obtained for E. grandiflora was complex with the populations of Cabeço do Mistério in Pico Island and of Pico da Esperança in São Jorge sharing the same genetic group, while a putative spatial barrier to gene flow was still retrieved between both islands. Although some populations of both species might benefit from propagation actions, studies are needed on plant host species and translocations between islands or between some populations of a same island should be avoided, due to the occurrence of putative ESUs. Eradication of invasive species and control of grazing will be fundamental to promote in situ restauration.
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The phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of two relatively rare Macaronesian Lactuca species, Lactuca watsoniana (Azores) and L. palmensis (Canary Islands), were, until this date, unclear. Karyological information of the Azorean species was also unknown. For this study, a chromosome count was performed and L. watsoniana showed 2n = 34. A phylogenetic approach was used to clarify the relationships of the Azorean endemic L. watsoniana and the La Palma endemic L. palmensis within the subtribe Lactucinae. Maximum parsimony, Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of a combined molecular dataset (ITS and four chloroplast DNA regions) and molecular clock analyses were performed with the Macaronesian Lactuca species, as well as a TCS haplotype network. The analyses revealed that L. watsoniana and L. palmensis belong to different subclades of the Lactuca clade. Lactuca watsoniana showed a strongly supported phylogenetic relationship with North American species, while L. palmensis was closely related to L. tenerrima and L. inermis, from Europe and Africa. Lactuca watsoniana showed four single-island haplotypes. A divergence time estimation of the Macaronesian lineages was used to examine island colonization pathways. Results obtained with BEAST suggest a divergence of L. palmensis and L. watsoniana clades c. 11 million years ago, L. watsoniana diverged from its North American sister species c. 3.8 million years ago and L. palmensis diverged from its sister L. tenerrima, c. 1.3 million years ago, probably originating from an African ancestral lineage which colonized the Canary Islands. Divergence analyses with *BEAST indicate a more recent divergence of the L. watsoniana crown, c. 0.9 million years ago. In the Azores colonization, in a stepping stone, east-to-west dispersal pattern, associated with geological events might explain the current distribution range of L. watsoniana.