Article

Finding Balance via Positive Psychological Assessment and Conceptualization

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Abstract

This article provides an integrated review of positive psychological assessment and conceptualization methods and tools currently available to practitioners within the framework of a new assessment model—the Comprehensive Model of Positive Psychological Assessment. Cultural considerations stemming from the Culturally Appropriate Assessment Model were incorporated into the Practice Model of Positive Psychological Assessment to provide a comprehensive positive psychological assessment model. Furthermore, practice recommendations grounded in the positive psychological literature are provided to enhance the implementation of this model at various assessment stages. In addition, specific tools are provided to fill the gaps within the literature and guide clinicians in the formulation of a balanced assessment and conceptualization, including the Comprehensive Model of Positive Psychological Assessment Intake-Adult and Child/Adolescent Forms, the Comprehensive Model of Positive Psychological Assessment Semistructured Clinical Interview, the Comprehensive Model of Positive Psychological Assessment Report Template, and a new diagnostic approach—the Balanced Diagnostic Impressions (DICE-PM) Model.

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... Despite many cited benefits of strength-based and balanced approaches in clinical intervention (e.g., Magyar-Moe et al. 2015a;Owens et al. under review), diagnostic assessment and conceptualization tends to overemphasize or solely focus on human dysfunction and problems (e.g., Owens et al. 2015;Pierce 1988). The way in which students and practitioners are trained commonly aligns with this trend. ...
... The negativity bias is one of the many problematic habits that Meehl (1973) warned corrodes clinical judgments. A variety of theorists (e.g., Maddux 2011;Owens et al. 2015;Pierce 1988;Wright and Lopez 2002) have discussed the insidious and deleterious effects of the negativity bias during the diagnosis and treatment-planning process. Clinicians, like others, are susceptible to an automatic and consistent negativity bias when interacting with client data, and traditional assessment training practices perpetuate this (e.g., Magyar-Moe 2011; Owens et al. 2015). ...
... A variety of theorists (e.g., Maddux 2011;Owens et al. 2015;Pierce 1988;Wright and Lopez 2002) have discussed the insidious and deleterious effects of the negativity bias during the diagnosis and treatment-planning process. Clinicians, like others, are susceptible to an automatic and consistent negativity bias when interacting with client data, and traditional assessment training practices perpetuate this (e.g., Magyar-Moe 2011; Owens et al. 2015). Undue weight on negative factors prevents an accurate or comprehensive view of client functioning, and charts a therapeutic path that fails to incorporate assets and strengths. ...
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People are generally prone to the negativity bias, and subsequently, psychological assessment has historically focused on pathology. Breaking with that tradition, research supports the effectiveness of infusing strengths in clinical practice to provide a more balanced approach. However, little research has examined the outcomes of providing education to students about intentionally using balanced assessment approaches. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of teaching students about and the use of a strengths-based assessment approach—the Balanced Diagnostic Impressions (DICE-PM) Model. Results showed that undergraduate students’ attitudes towards strengths and what they attended to in the assessment process changed after learning about and using the DICE-PM Model compared to the control group. Specifically, students in the intervention group viewed positive psychology theory, strengths assessment, and attention to therapeutic gains as more important than the comparison group. Additionally, after reading a vignette with low pathology and without being prompted to attend to strengths, students from the intervention group indicated they wanted to know more about the client’s external strengths and less about individual weaknesses compared to the control group. Additionally, students in the intervention group experienced increased life satisfaction compared to the control group. Overall, results suggested teaching students strengths-based assessment is valuable. Training students and professionals could serve as a means to proactively address the negativity bias and help improve clinical services.
... Pedrotti (2011) suggested presenting the ADDRESSING model to students, and subsequently asking them to complete the Cultural Strengths Exercise, selecting three facets with which they strongly identify, contemplating the strengths they have derived from these particular cultural facets, and discussing these with their classmates. Owens, Magyar-Moe, and Lopez (2015) provide more extensive details on the ADDRESSING framework in this Special Issue. Pedrotti (2011) further noted the importance of presenting research on strength-based topics conducted with diverse cultures. ...
... This not only promotes reflective practice but also offers experience in assessment and appraisal that can enhance students' abilities to assess others. Applications of positive psychology to assessment are detailed in the latter portion of this article, as well as in Owens, Magyar-Moe, and Lopez (2015). ...
... This system of assessment can be used with the current DSM-5, despite the removal of the axis model from the updated edition. Alternatively, the Diagnosis, Individual strengths and weaknesses, Cultural assets and struggles, Environmental resources and deficits-Physical wellness and health concerns, and Mental health (DICE-PM) Model of Balanced Diagnostic Impressions (see Owens, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015) can be utilized to ensure that clients are viewed from a holistic perspective and that treatment approaches are consistent with the counseling psychology orientation. ...
Article
Strategies for integrating positive psychology theory and practice into the existing counseling psychology training program model within the framework of the Counseling Psychology Core are proposed. The three main clusters (i.e., Foundational, Functional, Organizational) and subcategories of the Counseling Psychology Core Competencies provide the framework for integrating positive psychology approaches into doctoral education. Integrating positive psychology and counseling psychology increases counseling psychologists’ familiarity with positive psychology treatment approaches, and maximizes counseling psychologists’ ability to promote empirically based positive psychology interventions designed to assist individuals, communities, and organizations in achieving positive life outcomes.
... These findings warrant a larger study. Although providers may have reser vations regarding positive psychology measures and approaches (Krentzman & Barker, 2016), Owens et al. (2015) argue that using such approaches enhances conceptualization. This may be especially true for more stigmatized popula tions (Warlick et al., 2018). ...
... As part of routine outcome assessment, counselors should include positive psychology' measures alongside psychopathology measures. Owens et al. (2015) suggest counselors should ensure the positive psychology' measures are psychometrically sound and culturally appropriate. The larger sample associated with routine assessment would be helpful in revealing the relationships among these constructs and treatment outcomes. ...
Article
There is efficacy evidence for dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) and positive psychology interventions. However, there is minimal research examining positive psychology constructs alongside psychopathology measures in clinical populations. Accordingly, this study examined these associations in a DBT intensive outpatient program (IOP). Participants included 39 adults enrolled in a DBT IOP who completed measures of depression, anxiety, stress, emotion regulation, hope, and self-compassion. Results indicated hope and self-compassion were higher in graduates than in dropouts and were negatively associated with psychopathology measures. The relationship between depression and graduation status reached practical significance but not statistical significance. Two self-compassion subscales, mindfulness and common humanity, were significantly related to the number of sessions attended in this brief program. These findings indicate positive psychology measures possess utility within clinical populations. To accurately assess treatment success, counselors should consider measuring both the pathological and the positive.
... This further supports a dual-factor model of mental health (Trompetter et al., 2017), which posits that positive mental health and psychopathology are related, but distinct dimensions worth examining in psychotherapy research. Our results lend evidence and support that the assessment practice of including both measures of positive outcomes as well as psychopathology provides a fuller picture of mental health client conceptualization (Owens et al., 2015). For researchers, this inclusion of positive-psychology measures may be a small advocacy intervention for the traditionally stigmatized populations that are often treated within DBT (Warlick et al., 2018). ...
Article
Standard dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), with its 12-month format, has a documented record of efficacy. While emerging evidence is supportive of DBT adaptations in community mental health settings and brief, intensive formats, many of these studies are limited by sample size of its DBT group, by omission of program completion rates and specific data from program noncompleters, and by focusing solely on symptom-focused measures-which inadvertently omits observing gains associated with well-being. We used a nonexperimental design to assess client outcomes on pathology-focused and positive-psychology measures in a brief DBT intensive-outpatient Community Mental Health Center in the midwestern United States for program graduates and program dropouts who completed at least two surveys (n = 77). This is the shortest average program length (M = 19.01 days) known for a DBT program. Scores on measures of depression (d = 0.41), anxiety (d = 0.5), stress (d = 0.5), and difficulties in emotion regulation (d = 0.51) all decreased from entrance to exit. Scores on measures of mindfulness (d = 0.43), Snyder's hope (d = 0.51), and integrative hope (d = 0.41) increased from entrance to exit. These results provide evidence that pathology decreases and measures associated with well-being increase in this brief, intensive-outpatient community health DBT program. This study provides support for future investigations of brief, intensive community health programs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... As a whole, the field of psychology would benefit from a greater focus on environmental considerations and the intersection of the person and their environment (Neufeld et al. 2006). Whereas the importance of external assets, cultural strengths, and environmental strengths have been addressed in the literature (e.g., Benson et al. 1998;Owens et al. 2015;Owens and Woolgar 2018) and the influence of environmental factors on strengths development have been qualitatively explored , the vast majority of the strengths literature examines individual differences (e.g., how character strengths impact individual well-being). Rather than considering strengths-environmental or individual-discretely, it would be valuable to examine person-in-context considerations. ...
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College presents a number of challenges to new students. Few studies have examined how students’ strengths may positively impact their college experience and what factors may promote or impede their success. This study examined the relationship between strengths use and academic satisfaction, academic meaning, and leadership, as well as the influence of two environmental moderators—strengths barriers and environmental support. Participants included 371 newly matriculated undergraduate students at a large, public university in the United States. Results partially supported our hypotheses and revealed a number of important relations. Specifically, strengths use did not predict academic satisfaction; however, strengths barriers negatively predicted academic satisfaction and environmental support positively predicted academic satisfaction. Further, neither strengths barriers nor environmental support moderated the relationship between strengths use and academic satisfaction. Strengths use and environmental support positively predicted academic meaning, and strengths barriers negatively predicted academic meaning. Moreover, strengths barriers and environmental support did not moderate the relation between strengths use and academic meaning. Finally, strengths use positively predicted leadership, and strengths barriers negatively predicted leadership; however, environmental support did not significantly predict leadership. Strengths barriers, and not environmental support, moderated the relation between strengths use and leadership. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... These types of activities are found to be most effective when performed in the context of having social support, even virtual social support (Bandura, 1986) and can have a multiplier effect, prompting other positive behaviors (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). Content structured in this fashion, over an extended period of time, with an incentive and point system support the healthy balance of mentees striving for LINKING THE MODERN WORKFORCE WITH MODERN ADOLESCENCE 25 goals while also modeling goal setting processes and supporting goal attainment (Owen, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015). ...
Article
Two unprecedented and profound change cycles are currently occurring in the 21st century. The first is that the modern workplace is rapidly changing due to globalization and automation. This change is impacting how humans participate in the future of work. The second is that scientific evidence now supports that the extension of adolescence prolongedly occurs between ages 10 to 26 (Steinberg, 2015). This last formative period of development is marked by increased brain malleability offering the opportunity to hardwire critical knowledge and adaptive life skills (Steinberg, 2015). These two cycles: one driving the global workplace and the other, impacting adolescent development, can be harnessed and linked together to produce transformative results, especially for adolescents from isolated or disadvantaged backgrounds. Developmentally, youth require “access to safe places, challenging experiences and caring people on a daily basis” (Zeldin, Kimball, & Price, 1995). Caring non-parental adults in the form of mentors can provide adolescents with “developmental networks” (Kram & Ragins, 2007). These networks are so potent that they have been called “invisible colleges” offering increased access, exposure and opportunity through informal relationships connections (Cooper, 2010). A daily habit-forming virtual curriculum based on structured positive principles and critical life skills applied with the support of mentors can institutionally transform future workforce outcomes for mentees. Purposeful symbiotic positive change cycles that allow shift in mindsets, acquisition of relevant skills and expansion of networks create self-directed opportunities for adolescents to participate in the future of work rather than be left out or left behind.
... 2. Balance formal assessments of psychopathology and hegemonic masculine socialization (e.g., gender role conflict) with measures of positive change (hope, personal growth initiative) following the Comprehensive Model of Positive Psychological Assessment (Owens, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015). When masculinity is relevant to therapy outcomes, practitioners might consider using a battery of assessments that both measure the possible negative personal and intrapersonal outcomes of masculine role socialization as well as assessments that underscore personal and environmental strengths of the individual. ...
... to engage in intentional change (Snyder, Lopez, Shorey, Rand, & Feldman, 2003). This model of hope is dominant within psychology (See Owen, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015), and research has generally supported the applicability of the theory to other cultures (Lian, 2004;Ling, Huebner, Fu, Zeng, & He, 2016;Rand & Cheavens, 2009;Shi & Tian, 2009), where it has served as a protective factor against suicide (Luo, Wang, Wang, & Cai, 2010), bereavement (Chow, 2010), and has demonstrated its relationship with vocational outcomes (Luthans, Avolio, Walumbwa, & Li, 2005). ...
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Recently, the Integrative Hope Scale (HIS) was developed and validated in several Western cultures. Because of its multidimensional structure and its relational components, we wondered if IHS could be a useful instrument for assessing hope in non-Western cultures. The current study translated and validated the IHS in a large sample of Chinese college students. Validity and reliability evidence for the IHS in Chinese culture was obtained by conducting Item Factor Analysis (IFA) across four different measurement models (e.g. a single factor model, a four-factor oblique model, a higher order factor model and a bi-factor model). Evidence of convergent and divergent validity was also gathered through correlation with measures of psychological well-being. Results indicate that the IHS is a valid measure of hope in Chinese college students. Discussions of specific aspects of the IHS and their applicability in the Chinese culture are provided. Implications for research and interpretation with the IHS are discussed.
... As occupational engagement implies a process of exploration and enrichment leading to career adaptability and improved knowledge of oneself and the world, we explored the relationship between occupational engagement and life-oriented positive aspects, including several positive psychological measures such as satisfaction with life, one's desire to grow as a person, one's beliefs regarding career, and hope. These measures were included in the practice recommendations for positive psychological assessment outlined by Owens, Magyar-Moe, and Lopez (2015), which emphasize the importance of culturally appropriate instruments. ...
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This study assessed occupational engagement and its relationship to positive psychological measures in two collectivistic cultures. Undergraduate students in China (n = 230) and Paraguay (n = 231) completed the Occupational Engagement Scale for Students (OES-S), a one-factor, 9-item scale to measure occupational engagement, the Vocational Identity Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Adult Hope Scale, and the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II. Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses with OES-S scores were held for partial strong measurement invariance. OES-S scores correlated with scores on positive psychological measures. While the OES-S has room for improvement, occupational engagement seems to be a viable cross-cultural construct applicable to collectivistic cultures.
... It may also be useful to continue examining alternative approaches for eliciting self-affirmation processes online. Potential methods may include using strength-based assessments with positive feedback (Owens, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015) or playing games that allow a person to succeed and temporarily bolster his or her self-integrity (Ryan, Rigby, & Przybylski, 2006). ...
Article
This research was an examination of the effects of two types of self-affirmation interventions in reducing threat responses associated with receiving help-seeking information. Help-seeking information can be threatening to one’s positive self-perceptions and people may avoid seeking such information to protect themselves. There is evidence that reflecting on personal values (values affirmation) may bolster self-integrity and mitigate this avoidance, and it is possible that reflecting on safe, close social relationships (social affirmation) could exhibit similar effects. To experimentally examine this theoretical idea, we applied a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design in the present study on 384 participants and experimentally manipulated their values affirmations (values affirmation vs. no values affirmation) and social affirmations (social affirmation vs. no social affirmation). In addition, because there is no consensus as to the most effective presentation of help-seeking information, the type of help-seeking information presented to potential help-seekers was also manipulated (reassuring help-seeking information vs. nonreassuring help-seeking information). Results indicated that values affirmation and reassuring information were linked to lower threat responses, but social affirmation was not. Values affirmation and reassuring information might be effective strategies for reducing threat responses associated with the presentation of psychological help-seeking information.
... Counseling psychologists therefore need to consider the implicit assumptions that come with adopting a particular EI orientation that addresses either emotion-based personality structures or an array of emotion-related abilities. Owens, Magyar-Moe and Lopez (2015) advise that clinicians, in positive psychology assessments, examine their constructions of implicit theories of client functioning. ...
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Help-seeking and coping behaviors for emotional distress in Asian Americans were examined with Asian values, perceived emotional intelligence, and optimism as predictors. Participants were 160 self-identified Asian American college students. Out of 6 identified coping methods, disengagement and meditation/exercise were reported to be the more predominant help-seeking strategies. Asian values and the perceived ability to manage others' emotions predicted the reported use of family supports. The perceived ability to manage one's own emotions predicted reported use of meditation/exercise and substance use as coping methods; however, this predictor strongly overlapped with optimism. Utilization of professional supports, such as psychologists and other mental health professionals, were predicted by past use of counseling services. Management of one's emotions and optimism distinguished those who had used counseling services from those who had not. Implications are made for adapting professional services to be culturally sensitive, in order to better address mental and emotional health needs in the Asian American community. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Hammer, Mogensen, & Hall, 2009;Kortte, Stevenson, Hosey, Castillo, & Wegener, 2012). While psychology has generally relied on the approach to measuring hope proposed by Snyder and colleagues (1991) with little exception (for example, see Owens, Magyar-Moe, & Lopez, 2015), other definitions of this construct exist. There remain additional aspects of hope measures which have been suggested as additional components of Snyder's hope theory. ...
Article
The Integrated Hope Scale (IHS) provides a multi-dimensional evaluation of factors common across measures of hope, examining social relationships, trust and confidence, perspectives of the future, and a lack of hopefulness. Despite promise for the instrument’s utility, research on the IHS is sparse has been limited to non-English-speaking populations, requiring translated items, and the cross-cultural transportability of hope constructs has previously been raised. Predominant theories of hope used in American populations have been criticized for not measuring important aspects that are included within the IHS. Using confirmatory factor analysis and latent class analysis, this study explored the IHS’s structural integrity and interpretive potential using a regionally and racially diverse sample of American college students. Results suggest that the IHS offers a valid global assessment of hope as well as for targeted measurement of discrete areas identified by instrument factor scores. The IHS also shows promise in differentiating individuals according to their level of hopefulness.
... Counseling psychologists therefore need to consider the implicit assumptions that come with adopting a particular EI orientation that addresses either emotion-based personality structures or an array of emotion-related abilities. Owens, Magyar-Moe and Lopez (2015) advise that clinicians, in positive psychology assessments, examine their constructions of implicit theories of client functioning. ...
Article
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The increased application of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in psychology warrants clarification of conceptualization and measurement approaches. Two predominant measures of EI, the Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQi), were compared with bivariate and factor analysis techniques. The absence of common factor structures, pattern of low subtest correlations, and distinct relations to cognitive reasoning suggest that the instruments measure significantly different constructs. It would be erroneous to assume that EI is one unified concept. Implications are that counseling psychologists be aware of the distinct models of EI in order to coordinate effective assessment and interventions.
Chapter
This chapter describes the Strengths-Based Inclusive Theory of Psychotherapy (S-BIT of Psychotherapy), a novel counseling theory/orientation that emphasizes evidenced-based positive psychological approaches and cultural considerations. The S-BIT of Psychotherapy is appropriate for individuals across the lifespan but was designed with children and adolescents specifically in mind. In this chapter, the S-BIT of Psychotherapy will be discussed, including its core assumptions and theoretical propositions. In addition, the therapeutic process, assessment approach, and prevention and intervention strategies that align with the S-BIT of Psychotherapy will be described. Lastly, a case example will be provided to highlight the S-BIT of Psychotherapy in practice.
Article
Background While abnormal psychology courses have traditionally focused on psychopathology, there are several benefits to adopting a strengths-based approach. Objective This study examined the teaching of a strengths-based assessment approach (the DICE-PM Model), compared to teaching as usual, in an undergraduate abnormal psychology course. Method Two sections of an abnormal psychology course were taught a strengths-based assessment approach while two sections were taught as usual. All participants completed measures of knowledge of psychological disorders and mental illness stigma at the beginning and end of the semester. Results Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge of disorders and a significant decrease in mental illness stigma with the exception of one category assessed (recovery), generally with small effect sizes. Those in the strengths group, compared to the control, showed a significantly greater decrease in mental illness stigma involving anxiety related to others with mental illness, though also with a small effect. Conclusion Findings suggest strengths-based assessment education does not compromise the instruction of psychological disorders and is equivalent to a traditional abnormal psychology course in reducing mental illness stigma. Teaching Implications Such an approach may be beneficial early in students’ education to reduce mental illness stigma and promote comprehensive assessment practices.
Article
This paper reviews school-based (n = 212) and clinically-based (n = 68) positive psychological interventions (PPIs) for children and adolescents. A new 3 × 3 classification of PPIs was developed based on the processes and content of the PPI and the outcomes measured. This classification involves 9 different types of interventions depending on whether the intervention focuses on positive, remedial, or both positive and remedial processes and content, and whether the intervention aims to evade or address challenges, deficits, or disorders or improve or elicit positive outcomes. Positive content-balanced outcomes interventions were the most common type used in schools (38%) and clinical settings (63%). Mindfulness was the most common approach used (49% in schools and 71% in clinical settings). Surprisingly, relatively few studies focused on well-established positive psychological constructs, such as strengths, hope, and gratitude. Overall, the results suggest strong support for the use of PPIs in school and clinical contexts.
Article
This paper describes a new vocational theory—the strengths-based inclusive theory of work (S-BIT of Work). This theory addresses the ever-changing, dynamic nature of the world of work and integrates counseling psychology’s core values of emphasizing vocational psychology, strengths-based perspectives, multiculturalism, and social justice. We aim to provide a holistic vocational theory to inform career and work counseling practice by increasing clinicians’ cultural responsivity, promoting clients’ strengths and optimal functioning, and addressing a variety of vocational challenges across developmental stages. This first article in the Major Contribution includes a discussion of the S-BIT of Work’s core assumptions and theoretical propositions, research supporting the development of the S-BIT of Work, as well as future directions. The second and third articles in this Major Contribution discuss a model of fulfulling work, and the infusion of positive psychology and cultural responsivity in work counseling practice, respectively.
Chapter
This chapter outlines how positive psychological practices can enhance cultural competence in a clinical context. Specifically, the chapter aims to highlight how positive psychological assessments and interventions help clients offset the effects of discrimination in building a culturally informed sense of resilience and well-being. Few traditional forms of treatment offer guidelines to help clinicians acknowledge and address discrimination experiences in a manner honoring a client’s worldview, incorporating a client’s healing traditions, and restoring a client’s sense of cultural dignity. If left unaddressed or inadequately addressed, discrimination experiences may serve as a significant barrier to the therapeutic process. Given the importance of strength-building as a mechanism to encourage and maintain cultural competence, this chapter will offer a set of guidelines, informed by empirically supported positive psychological practices, to appropriately acknowledge and address discrimination experiences in treatment. Initially, we focus on defining multicultural competence with special attention to efforts aimed at reducing the effects of discrimination within a sociocultural framework. Next, we consider different positive psychological practices and how they promote strength and resilience in the face of cultural stressors. In particular, we will focus on positive psychological assessments and how they can be used early in the treatment process to set a foundation for culturally informed strength. We will supplement this discussion by highlighting how narrative and storytelling interventions empower clients to capitalize on their strengths to face cultural stress. Finally, the chapter concludes with a call to action; we encourage mental health professionals to approach challenging discrimination experiences with a mind toward sensitive, holistic, and transformative practices. Overall, the chapter offers a strength-based process whereby clinicians can demonstrate greater multicultural competence in working with the unique identities, needs, and values of their clients.
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the benefits of well&;#x02010;being at work, and the case for well&;#x02010;being assessments and the use of positive psychological assessment measures is made. It discusses current workplace well&;#x02010;being assessment practices, drawing on various related literature. The chapter outlines a new framework for conceptually evaluating organizational well&;#x02010;being research, which is also a practically useful framework when obtaining commitment for workplace well&;#x02010;being programs (WWPs) and implementing them within organizations. Workplace stress is a chronic and pressing issue for organizations. To maximize the potential of positive psychological assessment for workplace well&;#x02010;being and health promotion, various avenues of research are suggested. More research is needed in order to fully understand the scale and scope of current well&;#x02010;being assessments in organizations and to establish firmer baseline usage and characteristics as a basis for change. The chapter ends with some suggestions for further research and conclusions.
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Counseling psychologists are in a prime position to claim preeminence in the field of applied positive psychology. A number of misunderstandings or misconceptions of positive psychology seem to interfere, however, with the focus (or lack thereof) that has been placed upon training counseling psychologists to utilize and contribute to positive psychological scholarship and applications. In this article, the most commonly reported misconceptions are addressed, and foundational information regarding positive psychological constructs, theories, and processes most relevant to the applied work of counseling psychologists is reviewed. Counseling psychologists are encouraged to claim positive psychology as the logical extension of our humanistic roots and to consider how to both utilize and contribute to the growing body of positive psychological scholarship.
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Two studies were conducted to investigate the Inventory of Therapist Work With Client Assets and Strengths (IT-WAS), a new measure constructed to assess the importance therapists place on incorporating strength-based approaches in their therapeutic work. In the first study, a combined sample (N = 225), comprising therapists in independent practice, graduate students and faculty in counseling-related fields, and counseling center staff at a large mid-Atlantic university was gathered to conduct an exploratory factor analysis. Results yielded three factors (Theory of Intervention, Assessment of Strengths, and Supporting Progress). The data also provided evidence for the IT-WAS's internal consistency and validity, the latter being supported by correlations with measures of theoretically relevant constructs. In the second study, data from 31 counseling and clinical doctoral students provided evidence for the IT-WAS's test-retest reliability over a 2-week period. Implications for clinical training and practice are discussed, and areas of future research are provided.
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This study reports on the development of the Spiritual Transcendence Scale, a measure designed to capture aspects of the individual that are independent of the qualities contained in the Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). Using 2 separate samples of undergraduate students including both self-report ( Ns = 379 and 356) and observer data ( N = 279), it was shown that Spiritual Transcendence: (a) was independent of measures of the FFM; (b) evidenced good cross-observer convergence; and (c) predicted a wide range of psychologically salient outcomes, even after controlling for the predictive effects of personality. Given the long theoretical pedigree of Transcendence in the psychological literature, it was argued that Spiritual Transcendence represents a broad-based motivational domain of comparable breadth to those constructs contained in the FFM and ought to be considered a potential sixth major dimension of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Occupational Engagement Scale-Student (OES-S)a 9-item measure of occupational engagement in college studentswas developed and initial validity evidence is presented. Using two samples of college students, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported the measure's unidimensionality. Criterion validity was supported via the OES-S predicting (a) vocational identity, (b) academic major satisfaction, (c) gains in personal development, (d) gains in vocational competence, and (e) gains in general education. Implications for practice, theory, and future research are discussed.
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Gelso and Woodhouse highlight a lack of empirical efforts to bring a core identity of counseling psychology, the use of client strengths, into therapy. Additionally, the positive psychology movement is devoid of a system of positive therapeutic processes designed to help clients toward optimal human functioning. This investigation sought to explicitly identify positive processes thought to regularly occur in mainstream therapies by interviewing therapists. Interviews produced 266 significant statements leading to five themes: (a) amplification of strengths, (b) contextual considerations, (c) strength-oriented processes, (d) strength-oriented outcomes, and (e) positive meaning-making. Therapists reported using client strengths to broaden client perspectives and create hope and motivation, to create positive meanings through reframing and metaphors, to identify strengths through the interpersonal therapeutic process, to match client contexts through strengths, and to amplify strengths through encouragement and exception finding. Identified themes are recommended as a taxonomy of positive processes for future research.
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The Major Contribution aims to provide interrelated articles that examine how counseling psychology's past and the complex world we live and work in bear on our professional understanding of human strengths and positive life outcomes. In this article, the authors examine the historical underpinnings of the positive in psychology, analyze the focus on the positive in counseling psychology scholarship through the decades (via a content analysis), and review scholarship that has shaped the strength-based work of professionals throughout applied psychology. The content analysis of a random selection of 20% (N = 1,135) of the articles published in the Journal of Counseling Psychology (JCP), The Counseling Psychologist (TCP), theJournal of Career Assessment (JCA), and theJournal of Multicultural Counseling and Development (JMCD) revealed that about 29% have a positive focus. This article calls attention to the positive in counseling psychology, and the authors encourage its members to reaffirm its unique positive focus by focusing more on strength in practice and research.
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Many people desire work that is meaningful. However, research in this area has attracted diverse ideas about meaningful work (MW), accompanied by an equally disparate collection of ways of assessing MW. To further advance study in this area, the authors propose a multidimensional model of work as a subjectively meaningful experience consisting of experiencing positive meaning in work, sensing that work is a key avenue for making meaning, and perceiving one’s work to benefit some greater good. The development of a scale to measure these dimensions is described, an initial appraisal of the reliability and construct validity of the instrument’s scores is reported using a sample of university employees (N = 370) representing diverse occupations. MW scores correlated in predicted ways with work-related and general well-being indices, and accounted for unique variance beyond common predictors of job satisfaction, days reported absent from work, and life satisfaction. The authors discuss ways in which this conceptual model provides advantages to scholars, counselors, and organizations interested in fostering MW.
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Positive psychology offers a needed corrective to deficiencies in mainstream psychology. However, there have been relatively few attempts to systematically analyze and assess this movement. This special issue examines the conceptual underpinnings and guiding ideals of positive psychology. Generally, these articles conclude that positive psychologists have not dealt adequately with the challenge of rendering credible and illuminating accounts of human flourishing in a post-positivist era and in a pluralistic society. The authors suggest ways we might better meet this challenge, allowing us to discuss questions of human agency, character, and the good life despite quite different views of them across historical eras and cultures. We hope this will help fulfill some of the aims of positive psychology.
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Assuming that children are goal-oriented, it is suggested that their thoughts are related to two components-agency and pathways. Agency thoughts reflect the erception that children can initiate and sustain action toward a desired goal; pathways thoughts reflect the children's perceived capability to produce routes to those goals. Hope reflects the combination of agentic and pathways thinking toward goals. A six-item dispositional self-report index called the Children's ope Scale is introduced and validated for use with children ages 8-16. Results suggest that the scale evidences internal consistency, and is relatively stable over retesting. Additionally, the scale exhibits convergent, discriminant, and incremental alidity. Limitations and uses of the scale are discussed.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article describes the development of a brief research instrument to measure global life satisfaction in children, the Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS). A preliminary version of the SLSS was administered to a sample of 254 children age 7-14 from the Midwestern United States. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and a unidimensional factor structure. Satisfaction scores did not differ as a function of age, grade or gender. Analyses of individual items as well as total scale scores indicated a high degree of overall life satisfaction, which is consistent with findings reported for adults. A cross-validation study with a more heterogeneous sample of 329 children age 8-14 from the Midwest yielded similar results, including adequate temporal stability. A revised version correlated predictably with criterion measures. The revised SLSS appears useful for research purposes with students as early as age 8. Implications for future research are discussed.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Book
Positive psychology - essentially the scientific study of the strengths that enable individuals and communities to thrive - is a relatively new discipline that has experienced substantial growth in the last 5-10 years. Research suggests that the principles and theories from this area of study are highly relevant to the practice of counseling and psychotherapy, and positive psychology presents clinicians and patients with a much needed balance to the more traditional focus on pathology and the disease model of mental health. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the best-researched positive psychological interventions. It emphasizes clinical application, providing a detailed view of how the research can be applied to patients. Covering the broaden-and-build theory, strengths-based therapy, mentoring modalities and more, the volume will provide numerous assessment tools, exercises and worksheets for use throughout the counseling and psychotherapy process. - Summarizes the applications of research from positive psychology to the practice of counseling and psychotherapy - Provides clinician a variety of assessments, worksheets, handouts, and take home and in-session exercises to utilize in the process of conducting therapy from a positive psychological perspective - Provides general treatment planning guidelines for the appropriate use of such assessments, worksheets, handouts, and exercises - Bibliography of positive psychology references to compliment the information provided in this book.
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The role of community in child and adolescent development is emerging as a significant area of theoretical inquiry, research, and application. This article describes the development and utilization of a comprehensive community change effort designed to increase the attention of all community members toward strengthening core developmental processes for children and adolescents. It describes the development of 2 theoretical constructs, that of developmental assets and of asset-building communities. It presents a conceptual overview of both constructs, a descriptive account of the developmental assets within a large aggregate sample of approximately 99,000 sixth to twelfth graders, and a summary of change strategies shaping asset-building movements in over 200 communities.
Book
The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
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Defining hope as a cognitive set comprising agency (belief in one's capacity to initiate and sustain actions) and pathways( belief in one's capacity to generate routes) to reach goals, the Hope Scale was developed and validated previously as a dispositional self-report measure of hope (Snyder et al., 1991). The present 4 studies were designed to develop and validate a measure of state hope. The 6-item State Hope Scale is internally consistent and reflects the theorized agency and pathways components. The relationships of the State Hope Scale to other measures demonstrate concurrent and discriminant validity; moreover, the scale is responsive to events in the lives of people as evidenced by data gathered through both correlational and causal designs. The State Hope Scale offers a brief, internally consistent, and valid self-report measure of ongoing goal-directed thinking that may be useful to researchers and applied professionals.
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In positive psychology, we must challenge a common error of professional psychology, today: making diagnostic, treatment, and policy decisions primarily on deficiencies of the person instead of giving serious consideration to "deficits" and "strengths" of both person and environment. This mission may seem disheartening in that it requires greater rather than less cognitive complexity. Yet this multifaceted focus is crucial if two system concepts-whole person and behavior as a function of person in interaction with environment-are to betaken seriously (Lewin, 1935). Practice and research that fall short of attending to this person-environment interaction does a disservice to remedial possibilities and personal integrity. We have divided this chapter into two parts. In the first part, we present enlightening concepts together with supporting research. In the second part, we apply the insights gained to professional practice and research and make specific recommendations regarding each of the issues raised.
Chapter
Positive psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning, the goals of which are to better understand and apply those factors that help individuals and communities to thrive and flourish. Perusal of the literature on positive psychology reveals many potential applications of the emerging research for a diversity of people within a wide variety of settings. There seems to be no better fit, however, for positive psychology than within the therapy room. Indeed, research to date supports the notion that client conceptualizations and the incorporation of exercises informed by positive psychology can provide lasting positive outcomes for therapy clients. In this text, this chapter provides strategies and exercises that therapists can use to begin incorporating positive psychology into their work with clients.
Chapter
Publisher Summary The chapter explores the process of development of a system of intervention techniques derived specifically from the hope theory. The review of hope-related literature suggests that hope enhancing may be best achieved by integrating solution-focused, narrative, and cognitive-behavioral interventions, and hope reminding should incorporate abbreviated versions of these techniques. Thus, hope therapy is designed to help clients in conceptualizing clearer goals, producing numerous pathways to attainment, summoning mental energy to maintain goal pursuit, and reframing insurmountable obstacles as challenges to be overcome. A hopeful therapeutic relationship facilitates these hope components. The change in hope does not occur at the surface or behavioral level; rather, a person's deeper self-perceptions of being capable of agentic and goal-directed thought must be enhanced. Therapists typically have assumed that the reduction of negative symptoms leads to improved mental health and effective functioning. This assumption may not be entirely accurate. In emerging research, for example, investigators are suggesting that the sole attention to the reduction of negative thinking does not necessarily lead to optimal functioning. Research programs, in recent years, have demonstrated the importance of positive thinking and hope in relation to improved physical and psychological well being.
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This article defines the construct of self-compassion and describes the development of the Self-Compassion Scale. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one's experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Evidence for the validity and reliability of the scale is presented in a series of studies. Results indicate that self-compassion is significantly correlated with positive mental health outcomes such as less depression and anxiety and greater life satisfaction. Evidence is also provided for the discriminant validity of the scale, including with regard to self-esteem measures.
Article
A distinctive feature and unifying theme of the work of counseling psychologists is a focus on client strengths, assets, and potentialities regardless of the degree of psychopathology. As such, positive psychology appears to have a natural home within counseling psychology. Evidence from content analyses of flagship journals of the field as well as from surveys of Members and Student Affiliates from the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of the American Psychological Association suggests, however, that a distinctive disconnect exists between the philosophical stance taken by many counseling psychologists toward strength-based approaches and knowledge and use of specific positive psychology theories and practices. The goals for the creation of this special issue are reported, and the articles that comprise the special issue are introduced.
Article
Counseling psychologists are in a prime position to claim preeminence in the field of applied positive psychology. A number of misunderstandings or misconceptions of positive psychology seem to interfere, however, with the focus (or lack thereof) that has been placed upon training counseling psychologists to utilize and contribute to positive psychological scholarship and applications. In this article, the most commonly reported misconceptions are addressed, and foundational information regarding positive psychological constructs, theories, and processes most relevant to the applied work of counseling psychologists is reviewed. Counseling psychologists are encouraged to claim positive psychology as the logical extension of our humanistic roots and to consider how to both utilize and contribute to the growing body of positive psychological scholarship.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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This article proposes a strength-based model for counseling at-risk youth. The author presents the assumptions, basic concepts, and values of the strength perspective in counseling and offers strength categories as a conceptual model for viewing clients’ behavior. Propositions leading toward a theory of strength-based counseling and stages of this model are given, representative strength-based counseling techniques are examined, and a case study is used to illustrate risk factors, protective factors, and strength assessment. Ethical, research, and training implications of the strength-based model of counseling are discussed.
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We propose a prototype for a scientist-practitioner model of psychological assessment that is a reformulation of the Pepinskys's model of the counselor-as-scientist. We integrate with the Pepinskys's model theory and research on human inference, judgment, and decision making, research on threats to accurate clinical prediction (e.g., confirmatory hypothesis testing), and findings about counselor characteristics associated with effective judgment processes (e.g., cognitive complexity). Issues related to counseling psychologists' application of research findings and use of scientific reasoning in counseling practice are explored, including implications for training, research, and practice.
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This article begins with a brief overview of the theories underlying the development of the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale (CDMSE; Taylor & Betz, 1983), specifically Bandura's self-efficacy (1977, 1986) theory and Crites's career maturity theory (1978). Research on the correlates and consequences of career decision- making self-efficacy is reviewed, especially that showing the strong relationships of career self-efficacy to career indecision and other indices of problems in career decision-making. This article also reviews the uses of the CDMSE in the design and evaluation of educational and counseling interventions designed to increase perceptions of self-efficacy in relationship to the process of career decision-making.
Article
This article describes the development of a brief research instrument to measure global life satisfaction in children, the Student's Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS). A preliminary version of the SLSS was administered to a sample of 254 children age 7-14 from the Midwestern United States. The scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency and a unidimensional factor structure. Satisfaction scores did not differ as a function of age, grade or gender. Analyses of individual items as well as total scale scores indicated a high degree of overall life satisfaction, which is consistent with findings reported for adults. A cross-validation study with a more heterogeneous sample of 329 children age 8-14 from the Midwest yielded similar results, including adequate temporal stability. A revised version correlated predictably with criterion measures. The revised SLSS appears useful for research purposes with students as early as age 8. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
ack in the 1930s some young Catholic nuns were asked to write short, personal essays about their lives. They described edifying events in their childhood, the schools they attended, their religious experiences and the in- fluences that led them to the convent. Although the essays may have been initially used to assess each nun's ca- reer path, the documents were eventu- ally archived and largely forgotten. More than 60 years later the nuns' writ- ings surfaced again when three psy- chologists at the University of Ken- tucky reviewed the essays as part of a larger study on aging and Alzheimer's disease. Deborah Danner, David Snow- don and Wallace Friesen read the nun's biographical sketches and scored them for positive emotional content, record- ing instances of happiness, interest, love and hope. What they found was remarkable: The nuns who expressed the most positive emotions lived up to 10 years longer than those who ex- pressed the fewest. This gain in life ex- pectancy is considerably larger than the gain achieved by those who quit smoking.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A new self-report instrument, the Perceived Competence Scale for Children, is described. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of a child's sense of competence across different domains, instead of viewing perceived competence as a unitary construct. 3 domains of competence, each constituting a separate subscale, were identified: (a) cognitive, (b) social, and (c) physical. A fourth subscale, general self-worth, independent of any particular skill domain, was included. A new question format was devised which provides a broader range of responses and reduces the tendency to give socially desirable responses. The psychometric properties of the scale are presented for third through ninth grades. Emphasis is placed on its factorial validity. Each subscale defines a separate factor, indicating that children make clear differentiations among these domains. The factor structure is extremely stable across this grade range. The scale is viewed as an alternative to those existing self-concept measures of questionable validity and reliability.
Article
Although the literature includes growing reference to the strengths perspective paradigm, there is continued emphasis on pathology and deficit in actual clinical practice. While there are various reasons for this gap, the focus on pathology is particularly prevalent and damaging in work with culturally diverse groups. The core elements of the strengths perspective and of brief treatment are both discussed in this paper. The components of both cross cultural and strengths perspective approaches are discussed and contrasted with the pathologizing of culturally diverse populations. Two cases of African-American clients are then presented which demonstrate clinical use of the strengths perspective within the brief treatment paradigm where the workers focus on strengths rather than pathology with positive treatment outcomes.
Article
People somehow summon enough mental energy to set the goal of seeking a therapist or other healer. Likewise, they identify pathways to the desired helper and muster the requisite energy to build a working alliance with their newfound agent of change. In essence, self-referred clients already have demonstrated hope in their pursuit of therapeutic support by the time they reach their therapist. In turn, therapists can help clients to name and to nurture the hope that they already possess. In this chapter, we identify formal strategies for accentuating the hope that people possess. We discuss the effectiveness data, where available, associated with these strategies. Given that most therapists are eclectic, we also describe informal strategies that could be implemented within any therapeutic framework; moreover, we address common strategies that can be assigned to clients as homework. We begin by outlining hope theory and discuss hope's role as an active ingredient in psychological change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
M. Seligman (1999) has called for the development of a positive psychology that explores and cultivates human strengths and virtues. It is argued here that virtue represents an important and challenging construct with the potential to integrative numerous areas of positive psychology science and practice. The construct of virtue will be defined by engaging the moral philosophy of virtue ethics, and contemporary literatures on virtue in psychology will be briefly reviewed. Affirmative postmodern contributions and challenges to a positive psychology of virtue will be discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines cognitive, philosophical, emotional, and interpersonal frameworks that can be used to understand and foster healthy functioning. The authors also discuss a diversity of specific coping approaches. This critical review of literature places positive psychology in a multicultural context and identifies the diverse psychological strengths of individuals and cultural groups. The aim of positive psychology is to catalyze change in psychology from a preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building the best qualities in life. The field of positive psychology at the subjective level is about positive subjective experience: well-being and satisfaction (past); flow, joy, the sensual pleasures, and happiness (present); and constructive cognitions about the future--optimism, hope, and faith. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This handbook is a primer for practitioners and researchers striving to incorporate the assessment of human strengths, resources, and fulfillment into their work. Contributors aptly examine the scientific underpinnings and practical applications of measures of hope, optimism, self-efficacy, problem solving, locus of control, creativity, wisdom, courage, positive emotion, self-esteem, emotional intelligence, empathy, attachment, forgiveness, humor, gratitude, faith, morality, and quality of life. Vocational and multicultural applications of positive psychological assessment are also discussed, as is the measurement of contextual variables that may facilitate the development or enhancement of human strength. The variety of perspectives offered will be immensely helpful to readers who wish to incorporate balance into their assessments and research through the integration of theoretically grounded positive measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this book, we contend that the psychologist who engages in counseling can be both practitioner and scientist-that he can contribute to knowledge while helping clients. Admittedly, few counselors are theorists in the strict sense of the term, but inevitably every counselor will bring to his work with clients certain assumptions. He will have some underlying rationale (vague and implicit though it may be) for what he does, some hunches about what different clients will do in different situations, and some general ideas about the counseling procedures that are apt to be effective. If he is to make claims for the efficacy of his practice, he must be willing to subject these ideas to empirical test. Only then can he begin to find out whether what he has done works and how it works. Only as the counselor makes communicable what he does can his knowledge be imparted to others. This book begins with our argument for reconciling the dual roles of practicing counselor and researcher and proceeds to a short "guided tour" of current empirical and theoretical approaches to counseling. We do not insist upon the adoption of any particular approach to counseling. But we do urge the practicing counselor to make explicit his own assumptions and to use them in making verifiable predictions about the observable behavior of clients and counselor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The evolution of positive psychological science is predicated on sound measurement of strengths, healthy processes, and fulfillments. The vital balance in research can be achieved by developing diverse means of measuring positive aspects of the human experience. In this introductory chapter, we will briefly address conceptual issues related to identifying the human strengths that are considered the building blocks of positive psychology. We argue that such human strengths are "real" and that detecting these strengths is an important part of good science and practice. We also will identify the shortcomings in common assessment procedures and provide a new model of assessment and how-to information for addressing these shortcomings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A child version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson et al, see record 1988-31508-001), the PANAS-C, was developed using students in Grades 4–8 ( N = 707). Item selection was based on psychometric and theoretical grounds. The resulting Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with existing self-report measures of childhood anxiety and depression; the PANAS-C performed much like its adult namesake. Overall, the PANAS-C, like the adult PANAS, is a brief, useful measure that can be used to differentiate anxiety from depression in youngsters. As such, this instrument addresses the shortcomings of existing measures of childhood anxiety and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)