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Leveraging Life Cycle Assessment to Evaluate Environmental Impacts of Green Cleaning Products


Abstract and Figures

The green cleaning industry continues to pursue products that reduce or eliminate impacts on human health and the environment; however, these impacts over the life cycle are not well understood. This study assessed environmental impacts of four green cleaning products from Method Products, PBC (all-purpose cleaner, hand wash, dish soap) and Ecover (dish soap). A life cycle assessment from cradle-to-grave was performed using ReCiPe and IPCC GWP methodologies. Results correlated greatest impact contributors to ingredient composition and identified the need to improve data quality. Based on the findings, a prioritized list of actions for green cleaning companies was developed.
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Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000
2212-8271 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientific Committee of the Conference “22nd CIRP conference on Life Cycle Engineering.
The 22nd CIRP conference on Life Cycle Engineering
Leveraging life cycle assessment to evaluate environmental impacts of
green cleaning products
Kathryn G. Van Lieshout a,*, Cindy Bayley a, Sarah O. Akinlabi b, Lisa von Rabenau c, David
Dornfeld a
aDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94709, United States
b Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, United States
c Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-303-917-2761. E-mail address:
The green cleaning industry continues to pursue products that reduce or eliminate impacts on human health and the environment; however,
these impacts over the life cycle are not well understood. This study assessed environmental impacts of four green cleaning products from
Method Products, PBC (all-purpose cleaner, hand wash, dish soap) and Ecover (dish soap). A life cycle assessment from cradle-to-grave was
performed and ReCiPe and IPCC GWP methodologies were applied. Results correlated greatest impact contributors to ingredient composition
and identified the need to improve data quality. Based on the findings, a prioritized list of actions for green cleaning was developed.
© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Peer-review under responsibility of the International Scientific Committee of the Conference “22nd CIRP conference on Life Cycle
Keywords: life cycle assessment; cleaning products; ecological footprint; global warming potential; sustainability
1. Introduction
Among a complex and ever-changing chemical market, the
need to understand the impact cleaning products have on our
health and environment has become increasingly vital. Global
production of chemicals is expected to grow at a rate of 3%
each year, significantly faster than the population growth rate.
Meanwhile, production, price, and performance drive the U.S.
chemical market rather than human health and the
environment (1). To this end, green chemistry aims to
“design... chemical products and processes [that] reduce or
eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances” (2).
The green cleaning industry has grown through demand by
consumers for environmentally friendly products while
maintaining product effectiveness, as well as through pressure
by industry regulations. With over 85% of our lives being
spent indoors in the United States (3), it is important to
address the health hazards of cleaning products. Many
cleaning product companies have begun pursuing greener
chemicals as they foresee not only social and environmental
benefits but economic benefits as well. According to a 2011
report by Pike Research (4), transitioning from petroleum-
based chemicals to green chemicals has the potential to save
industry $65.5 billion by 2020. Additionally, new regulations
soon to be enforced by the European Union require that
cleaning products display their Product Environmental
Footprint (PEF) on packaging labels (5).
2. Background
Many attempts have been made to understand the health
and environmental hazards of green cleaning products, but
very few have examined products over their entire life cycle.
Current practices frequently focus on human toxicity impacts
from using the formulations. To accomplish this, chemicals
are often screened by third party companies such as
McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MDBC), Pharos,
or Green Screen. However these do not encompass the full
extent of impacts over products’ life cycles. Other evaluation
methods include Cradle to Cradle, a certificate program that
2 Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000
rates products in terms of material, energy, water, and social
factors (6). On occasion, companies have developed their own
frameworks, such as Ecover’s “Diamond Model,” by which
they evaluate all of their products across the entire life cycle
(7). Furthermore, some companies have performed life cycle
assessments of their products for internal purposes, but these
assessments are not typically public. While all these methods
aim to quantify environmental impacts, they are limited by
having a narrow scope or by not being standardized.
Comprehensive life cycle assessments (LCA) of chemical
products have been sparse and inconsistent in their
methodologies, and few have focused on cleaning products.
When examining LCA trends in pharmaceutical and chemical
industries, Jiménez-González and Overcash (8) indicated that
inventory data is not available for most chemicals in life cycle
inventory (LCI) databases. Possibly as a result, many groups
have formulated their own methodologies for LCA of
chemical products. Jiménez-González et al. (9) summarized
primary green metrics in areas of resources, materials,
processing, cleaning, life cycle assessment, renewability, and
others. Yu et al. (10) developed an analytic hierarchy process
approach that resulted in a single score environmental metric,
while Saouter et al. (11) used risk quotients (a function of
consumption, removal, sewage flow, dilution).
There are a few existing studies that use LCA to evaluate
the environmental impacts of cleaning products. An existing
comparative LCA study by Kapur et al. (12) demonstrated that
general purpose cleaning products compliant to the Green Seal
Standard for Cleaning Products for Industrial and Institutional
Use, GS-37, had substantially lower environmental impacts
than conventional cleaning products in the market. Kuta et al.
(13) performed a life cycle inventory (LCI) of two hard
surface cleaning products from Procter & Gamble (P&G) in
order to “develop baseline information on the relative
contribution of various ingredients, processes, and consumer
use and disposal to total resource use and emissions.” The
authors of this paper argue that “the true value of LCI is the
realization that a change in one portion of a product’s life
cycle will have some effect (either positive or negative) in
other areas of the product’s life cycle. By applying this ‘life
cycle thinking’ to the product design process, true
improvement opportunities can be identified” (13). Saouter
and van Hoof (14) used SimaPro to construct a LCI database
for examining P&G laundry detergents. With this database
and CML92 methodology, they performed a life cycle impact
assessment (LCIA) from cradle-to-grave of a hypothetical
laundry detergent used in Belgium excluding transportation.
This study maintains that “LCIA is the appropriate tool to help
determine to what extent a particular product, process or
ingredient's emissions may be associated with a particular
impact category” (14).
Compared to conventional cleaning products, green
cleaning products already have reduced health and
environmental impacts, yet the impacts over the life cycle
remain to be understood. The purpose of this investigation is
to evaluate life cycle environmental impacts of several green
cleaning products in order to identify opportunities for
improvement within product formulations and across product
life cycles. This study demonstrates how through a
comprehensive analysis, a prioritized list of actions for green
cleaning companies can be developed in order to augment
their current methods of creating environmentally-friendly
3. Methodology
Environmental impacts were determined by means of a life
cycle assessment (LCA), following ISO 14040 guidelines
through the process of: goal and scope definition, inventory
analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation (15). Products
were analyzed from cradle-to-grave, which is defined as
considering the impacts from raw material extraction through
production and use to disposal. Fig. 1 delineates the specific
phases of the life cycle that were included in this analysis.
System Boundary 1 considers the ingredients within each
product formulation and System Boundary 2 assesses impacts
based on life cycle stages (product formulation, use,
transportation, and end-of-life). It is important to note that
packaging was excluded from the analysis, as both companies
have already performed detailed LCAs on their packaging.
Fig. 1. Simplified system boundary diagram for evaluated products.
The analysis was conducted using LCA software SimaPro
8 (16) with the ecoinvent v3 database (17). Analysis
methodologies included IPCC GWP 100a (18) and ReCiPe
Endpoint H (19) to determine global warming potential
(GWP) and categorical environmental impacts, respectively.
The 18 impact categories included in ReCiPe are: climate
change, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater
eutrophication, marine eutrophication, human toxicity,
photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter
formation, terrestrial ecotoxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity,
marine ecotoxicity, ionizing radiation, agricultural land
occupation, urban land occupation, natural land
transformation, water depletion, metal depletion, and fossil
depletion. European E/A normalization factors in ReCiPe
were applied to impact categories to achieve a single score
evaluation represented as ‘millipoints’.
Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000 3
The selected methodologies provide comprehensive
representations of environmental impacts and communicable
results. The ReCiPe methodology provides a “harmonized” set
of modeling principles and the middle-ground, hierarchist (H)
perspective represents “the most common policy principles
with regards to time-frame and other issues” (20). Similarly,
global warming potential as determined by the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) over a
100 year timeframe “the default for the Kyoto protocol and
for carbon footprint studies” (21) provides a metric that is
communicable and trusted among companies.
4. Case Study
Method Products, PBC, a U.S. based company founded in
2001, specializes in high quality and environmentally-friendly
cleaning products made from naturally derived surfactants and
ingredients. Method prides itself in utilizing recycled and, in
most cases, recyclable materials for its product packaging
(22). Ecover, a Belgium based company, also specializes in
green cleaning products and maintains that it uses
environmentally-friendly plant-based ingredients in its product
formulations (23). In September 2012, both companies
merged to form the world’s largest green cleaning product
company (24).
Four products from Method Products, PBC and Ecover
were evaluated in this study: Method all-purpose cleaner
(MAPC), Method dish soap (MDS), Method hand wash
(MHW), and Ecover dish soap (EDS). These products were
chosen as they are representative of the companies’ product
lines. Given the differing applications of the products being
considered, a functional unit of 1 kg of product” was
selected. Product formulation, use of products, and end-of-life
phases were included, as well as transportation in-between life
cycle phases.
4.1. Product Formulation
In performing this analysis, Method provided the quantities
and ingredients for the product formulations of the four
products evaluated. Dyes and fragrances (which make up less
than 0.01% of the products) were not included because their
formulations are considered proprietary information. All other
ingredients were included.
Of the 19 unique chemical ingredients present across all
four products, only six ingredients were directly present in the
SimaPro database. For those not directly available, proxy
chemicals were developed based on the chemical formulation,
molecular weights, and common manufacturing methods.
Sensitivity analyses were performed when multiple options
were possible. For example, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), a
commonly used surfactant, was represented as 60% fatty
alcohol sulfate and 40% sodium carbonate. Eight proxies were
developed for SLS representing four different feedstock
varieties (coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, and
petrochemical). If all proxy choices produced comparable
environmental impacts, an average case was selected, but if
impacts varied significantly, both the high and low case were
modeled. Similarly, cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) was
mapped to 73% esterquat from coconut and palm kernel oil
and 27% chloroacetic acid based on the chemical formulation
and molecular weights. To determine opportunities for
improvements within product formulas, several feedstock
options were evaluated; for example, fatty alcohol sulfate
from coconut, palm kernel, and palm fruit were compared.
4.2. Use
Water consumption during the use phase of dish soap and
hand wash were estimated based on average consumer data.
Approximate soap doses for washing hands and dishes were
measured based on the bottles controlled dispensing
mechanism. With water consumption averages for washing
hands and dishes from the US Geological Survey (USGS) (25)
and estimated dosage amounts, the total mass of water
consumed per kilogram of product was estimated as 1200 kg
and 5200 kg of water for hand wash and dish soap,
respectively. It was assumed that no water is consumed while
using Method’s all-purpose cleaner.
4.3. Transportation
Considering transportation, Method provided information
about its supply chain and the locations of main suppliers and
distributors. This analysis assumed transportation methods and
distances for an average case in Method’s and Ecover’s supply
chain, which included transport from suppliers to a bottling
factory, bottling factory to regional distributor, and regional
distributor to user (Table 1). Method uses a renewable
biodiesel fuel blend for approximately a third of its shipments
and estimates that these trucks produce 20% less carbon and
air pollutants than conventional trucks (26). Since biodiesel
transportation was not included in the database and literature
is sparse, sensitivity analyses were performed around this
transportation segment. Nanaki and Koroneos (27) found
biodiesel transportation to have 60% reduced environmental
impacts compared to diesel transportation in Greece, but this
was for cars, not trucks, and other studies have not verified
this claim. For a sensitivity analysis, we assumed impacts of
biodiesel trucking are equal to 60%, 30%, and 0% of the
impacts of diesel trucking.
Table 1. Summary of average transportation methods and distances.
Transportation Segment
Distance (km)
Suppliers to factory
Factory to regional distributor
Regional distributor to user
4.4. End-of-Life
When cleaning products have reached their end-of-life,
they can exit households through various streams, including
wastewater, municipal solid waste, and evaporation. Based on
the available end-of-life options in SimaPro, we assumed that
all products are disposed entirely as non-durable (soft) goods
in the United States. This non-durable waste scenario includes
products that are either used up entirely after a single use, such
as with cleaning products, or have a lifespan less than three
4 Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000
years (16). It is important to note that the impacts from this
disposal scenario encompass the total municipal waste stream
in the United States, and therefore there is no differentiation
between green cleaning products and other non-durable goods,
such as cosmetics, conventional cleaning products, or
clothing. Packaging disposal was excluded from this analysis.
5. Results
Products were analyzed from cradle-to-gate (System
Boundary 1) and from cradle-to-grave (System Boundary 2).
System Boundary 1 analysis indicated sodium lauryl sulfate
(SLS) contributes most of the environmental impacts in the
hand wash and dish soaps, while lauryl glucoside and decyl
glucoside contribute 64% of the impacts in the all-purpose
cleaner (Fig. 2). These ingredients are also present in high
quantities in the formulation, which increases their likelihood
of dominating environmental impacts. Within SLS
formulation, the majority of the impacts are attributed to the
fatty alcohol sulfate feedstock. For SLS, fatty alcohol sulfate
from coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, and petrochemical
sources were tested, and no significant impact reductions were
discovered across feedstock types.
Fig. 2. ReCiPe Endpoint H impacts by ingredient (System Boundary 1).
Other* includes ingredients that contribute less than 5% to product impacts.
MAPC = Method all-purpose cleaner, MHW = Method hand wash, MDS =
Method dish soap, EDS = Ecover dish soap, SLS = sodium lauryl sulfate,
CAPB = cocamidopropyl betaine, CAP-HS = cocamidopropyl
Environmental impacts with respect to life cycle stage were
quantified with ReCiPe Endpoint H (Fig. 3). For Method all-
purpose cleaner, 49% of the impacts come from disposal at
end-of-life. For Method hand wash, 46% and 28% of the
impacts come from the product formulation and water during
use, respectively. For Method dish soap and Ecover dish soap,
48% and 42% of the impacts come from water during use,
Fig. 3. ReCiPe Endpoint H impacts by life cycle stage (System Boundary 2).
MAPC = Method all-purpose cleaner, MHW = Method hand wash, MDS =
Method dish soap, EDS = Ecover dish soap.
In addition to examining impacts across life cycle stages,
impacts were also broken down by impact category. After
applying European E/A weighting factors, the top five impact
categories were identified: climate change human health,
fossil depletion, climate change ecosystems, natural land
transformation, and human toxicity (Fig. 4). Global warming
potential as determined by IPCC 100-year methodology was
also evaluated for all products in System Boundary 2. This
assessment indicated that Method all-purpose cleaner, Method
hand wash, Method dish soap, and Ecover dish soap have a
GWP of 0.85, 1.9, 4.5, and 4.2 kg CO2-eq, respectively.
Fig. 4. ReCiPe Endpoint H impacts by impact category (System Boundary 2).
Other* includes impact categories that contribute less than 10% to overall
impacts. MAPC = Method all-purpose cleaner, MHW = Method hand wash,
MDS = Method dish soap, EDS = Ecover dish soap.
Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000 5
6. Discussion
In this study, a cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment of four
green cleaning products from Method Products, PBC and
Ecover was performed and found that both dish soaps have
higher impact potential per kilogram of product than the all-
purpose cleaner and hand wash. However, comparisons across
product types are limited because the intended functions vary
significantly. For these green cleaning products, the top three
dominant impact categories were identified as climate change
human health, fossil depletion, and climate change
ecosystems. Further investigation into product formulations
revealed that the fatty alcohol sulfate in sodium lauryl sulfate
contributes most significantly to environmental impacts,
indicating a need to focus on this ingredient.
Improvements can and should be made within product
formulas, but the greatest potential for reducing environmental
impact lies downstream from manufacturing. For all-purpose
cleaner, this analysis indicated that most impacts come from
disposal, and impacts from transportation are double the
impacts from the product itself. For hand wash, it is important
to focus on water consumption as well as the product
formulation. For dish soap, a 50% decrease in water consumed
during use could reduce overall impacts by approximately
20%. With these considerations, green cleaning product
companies and users can direct their efforts towards solutions
that are capable of producing the greatest improvements.
Possible comparisons to literature are limited due to the
absence of published data, but this LCA study generally
reinforces other evaluations. Taking a surface level
perspective, results can be compared to certificate program
evaluations such as Cradle to Cradle, but this comparison is
limited due to the lesser scope and resolution of certificate
ratings. For example, Method all-purpose cleaner, Method
hand wash, and Method dish soap received Cradle to Cradle
ratings of Gold, Silver, and Silver, respectively (28), which
agree with trends found here. Van Hoof et al. (29) used
SimaPro 7.3.3 to conduct a cradle-to-grave LCA case study on
a hand dishwashing product developed by P&G, and they also
identified climate change and fossil depletion as the most
relevant indicators. Saouter and van Hoof (14) found that from
a life cycle perspective, the product use phase is significant for
environmental impacts of laundry detergents, and impacts are
also variable due to consumer habits. More specifically, the
energy used to heat the water led to most of the emissions
generated (14). Future work for this study could include
adjusting the system boundary to include the impacts from
energy consumed to heat water. Finally, Koehler and Wildbolz
(30) conducted LCAs of nine home-care and personal-hygiene
products and also confirm the influence of consumer behavior
on environmental performance yet a lack of public
information on consumer actual-use patterns. These studies
and the one presented in this paper demonstrate how LCA can
be used to rank life cycle phases according to their
contributions to certain emissions or impact categories.
Uncertainty for this analysis was assumed to be ±10% for
all total impact scores, as can be seen through the error bars in
Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Data used in LCA can have uncertainty for
many reasons, including the acquisition method, independence
of data suppliers, representativeness, temporal correlation,
geographical correlation, and further technological correlation
(31). Uncertainty for this analysis resulted primarily due to
geographical correlation (global and national data was used)
and further technological correlation (data was from processes
and materials under study, but not from Method and Ecover
specifically). As a result, data quality for green cleaning
products in general was strong, but it was poor for evaluating
Method Products, PBC and Ecover specifically. In order to
effectively leverage LCA for evaluating cleaning products
from specific companies, great strides need to be made in
improving chemical inventory data.
Several limitations to this assessment should be considered.
First, proxy chemicals were developed for ingredients not
included in the database, which may cause impacts to be
falsely represented. While the ecoinvent v3 database largely
expanded its chemical inventory from its predecessor, the
present chemicals significantly underrepresent the complexity
and size of the chemical industry. Through sensitivity
analyses, it was determined that several proxy options did not
alter results significantly; however, inventory that better
encompasses the industry would improve the validity of
results and encourage further analyses. Second, the average
inventory present in the ecoinvent database do not well
represent companies’ specific supply chains, particularly when
it comes to green chemicals. Method Products, PBC aims to
source their ingredients from sustainably managed practices,
which presumably have reduced impact potential compared to
industry averages. Third, water consumption values are highly
dependent on user habits and faucet technology. Compared to
old faucets, newer faucets in the United States use
approximately 50-75% less water per minute (25). However,
how usage patterns change as a result of new faucet
technology is not well understood. Fourth, end-of-life was
determined to be a considerable part of the overall impact, yet
its representation as disposal of non-durable (soft) goods is
inexact. This general waste scenario does include cleaning
products in its description, but additional efforts should be
made towards improving waste/disposal inventory data in the
U.S. in order to better represent the variability in product
waste streams. Finally, only products from Method Products,
PBC and Ecover were studied, and results may not generalize
to other green cleaning products and companies due to
variations in product formulations and function.
These results can be used to focus attention when using or
designing green cleaning products. For consumers, how
products are used and how much water is consumed during
use play a significant role that should not be ignored. For
green cleaning companies, it is important to recognize impacts
after products leave their factory gate in addition to continue
improving their product formulations. From this analysis, a
prioritized list of actions for green cleaning companies to
reduce their environmental impacts was developed:
1. Focus on non-water ingredients present in high quantities
in the formulation, such as SLS
2. Encourage reduced water consumption during product use
3. Investigate feedstocks and suppliers with strong land-
management and environmental practices
6 Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000
7. Conclusion & Future Work
The results of this LCA contribute to an understanding of
the environmental impacts of green cleaning products. This
analysis quantified environmental impacts of average green
cleaning products, but an adequate assessment for company-
specific impacts was not possible due to limitations in data.
SLS was identified as an opportunity for reformulation in
hand wash and dish soap given its high percentage in the
formula and therefore significant contribution to the products’
environmental impacts. Taking a life cycle perspective of the
products, it was determined that the impacts due to water
consumption during the use phase and end-of-life contribute
significantly to the environmental impacts of dish soap and
all-purpose cleaner, respectively. For hand wash, the
environmental impacts from water consumption and product
formulation are comparable. The results of this work can be
used to identify opportunities for choosing alternatives in
product formulation that can reduce environmental impact.
Future work includes comparing these findings to traditional,
non-green cleaning products in order to better understand the
advantage that these green cleaning products present, as well
as assessing impacts specific to product supply chains to
account for market variations.
Saskia Van Gendt of Method Products, PBC served as an
advisor for this project. The authors thank her for her
guidance and collaboration. The authors would also like to
acknowledge Megan Schwarzman and Martin Mulvihill of the
Berkeley Center for Green Chemistry for their expertise in
green chemistry and assistance in identifying appropriate
proxies. Many thanks also to Jeremy Faludi for his advice
concerning life cycle assessment. The Laboratory for
Manufacturing and Sustainability (LMAS also provided assistance with this project.
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! From File menu click on save as type .docx option
3. Comments added in the margin in Word master templates:
There are instances where author raising queries on what to do with key information lines such as “volume, page numbers”,
“Conference title per issue” and “Copyright entity, year, copyright company Elsevier Ltd./B.V./Inc. and Organizer Name” in the
copyright statement and for these concerns the comments have been inserted in the Word template to guide Author/JM about the
information to be inserted by them in these fields.
Comments removal from Print: In Word 2007 and 2010 the comments present in a document get printed by default. If the
authors do not want to get the comments appearing in print, the authors must remove the comments from the Word template
before printing by changing the Print markup setting of word using the following steps:
! Click the File tab
! Click Print
! Under Settings, click the arrow next to Print All Pages
! Click Print Markup to clear the check mark
Instructions to Authors pages to be excluded from Print:
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! Click Print
! Under Setting, Type page numbers and/or page ranges separated by commas counting from the start of the document or
the section. For example, type 1, 3, 1-5
4. PDF creation from Word master template:
8 Author name / Procedia CIRP 00 (2015) 000000
While creating PDF from Word template the below given steps should be followed to avoid difference in trim size and
margins and to avoid decrease in resolution and size of the figure images of the Word template and the PDF created.
Steps in Word 2007 and 2010:
! Click the File tab
! Click Print
! Under Printer tab, select Adobe PDF
! Click Printer Properties link
! Under Adobe PDF Settings tab, click on Edit button
! Click on Images folder under Standard
! Make Downsample and Compression fields under Color Images and Grayscale Images "Off". And in Monochrome
Images field make only Downsample "Off'
! Then click on OK and given name of the setting in File name tab and click on save
! Then again Under Adobe PDF Settings tab, click on Edit button
! Then click on Color folder
! Choose Leave Color Unchanged option under Color Management Policies tab then click on OK
! Lastly click on OK in Adobe PDF Settings tab
! Click Save As
! Under Save as type, click the arrow next to PDF (*.pdf)
! Click Save
In Word 2003 the PDF can be created by using “Convert to Adobe PDF” symbol in tool bar or the required paper size can be
adjusted in the Adobe PDF settings given in the Properties tab on the Print option. Please follow the above steps to avoid
decrease in resolution and size of the figure images.
5. Reference styles used in Procedia master templates:
Title Reference style
AASPRO 2 Harvard
AASRI Procedia 3 Vancouver Numbered
APCBEE Procedia 3 Vancouver Numbered
EGYPRO 3 Vancouver Numbered
FINE 2 Harvard
IERI Procedia 3 Vancouver Numbered
MATPR 1a Numbered without article titles
MSPRO 2 Harvard
PHPRO 2 Harvard
PIUTAM 3a Embellished Vancouver
Procedia CIRP 3 Vancouver Numbered
PROCHE 3a Embellished Vancouver
PROCS 3a Embellished Vancouver
PROENG 1 Numbered
PROENV 3a Embellished Vancouver
PROEPS 3a Embellished Vancouver
PROFOO 3a Embellished Vancouver
PROMFG 1a Numbered without article titles
PROTCY 3 Vancouver Numbered
PROVAC 3a Embellished Vancouver
SEPRO 3a Embellished Vancouver
AQPRO 2 Harvard
... We compared the foams studied previously with SDS (reference system) with foams produced with APGs [9,11]. It is important to notice that for the LCA analysis, we chose the fatty alcohol sulfate from renewable resources and not from petrochemical sources to reduce the possible impact of SDS [25]. In this study, for foams produced by both surfactants (SDS and APG), the contribution of the process parameters (water consumption for surfactant solution preparation, pump energy consumption, and compressed air consumption) contributed mainly to the impact of the process in the same way. ...
... The negative impact of SDS for these two parameters came from the fatty alcohol sulfate used to produce SDS. This result was not surprising, as the fatty alcohol sulfate was reported to be a harmful contributor to most environmental impact indicators in previous LCA studies comparing different surfactants formulations for cleaning [25]. For marine ecotoxicity, human toxicity, fossil depletion, and climate change, the use of APG reduced them by around 11, 10, 8, and 5%, respectively. ...
... The electricity consumption to compress the air was already taken into account in the compressed air data supplied by the Ecoinvent v3.0 database. Given the lack of data (in Ecoinvent) concerning the SDS and the APG, these substances were modeled (created) by using 40% sodium carbonate and 60% fatty alcohol sulfate for the SDS [11,25], and 59.7% potato starch and 40.3% fatty alcohol for the APG [29]. This study did not take into account transportation and electricity consumption for surfactant production. ...
Full-text available
In the food industry, the surfaces of processing equipment are considered to be major factors in the risk of food contamination. The cleaning process of solid surfaces is essential, but it requires a significant amount of water and chemicals. Herein, we report the use of foam flows based on alkyl polyglucosides (APGs) to remove spores of Bacillus subtilis on stainless-steel surfaces as the model-contaminated surface. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also studied as an anionic surfactant. Foams were characterized during flows by measuring the foam stability and the bubble size. The efficiency of spores’ removal was assessed by enumerations. We showed that foams based on APGs could remove efficiently the spores from the surfaces, but slightly less than foams based on SDS due to an effect of SDS itself on spores removal. The destabilization of the foams at the end of the process and the recovery of surfactant solutions were also evaluated by using filtration. Following a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, we evaluated the impact of the foam flow on the global environmental footprint of the process. We showed significant environmental impact benefits with a reduction in water and energy consumption for foam cleaning. APGs are a good choice as surfactants as they decrease further the environmental impacts.
... In addition, environmental impacts can also be associated to these arrangements due to asset consumption from both vegetable and petrochemical origin and emissions. This scenario has motivated the emergence of industry regulations and initiatives based on Cleaner Production (CP) principles, aiming for the implementation of preventive environmental strategies to industrial processes, while still maintaining product effectiveness (Van Lieshout et al., 2015). ...
... In this context, a prioritized list of actions to be considered during the development of cleaning products with better environmental performance should preferably (i) focus on the active ingredients (i.e. others than water): with higher percentage contributions in product formulations; (ii) encourage reduced water consumption during product usage; and (iii) investigate alternative feedstocks and suppliers with strong agricultural land use management and environmental practices (Van Lieshout et al., 2015). ...
... The potential solutions for improving environmental performance were outlined from the identification of the main contributions in terms of environmental impacts for SLES 3EO processing. The propositions derive from the prioritized list of environmentally cleaner production actions suggested by Van Lieshout et al. (2015) and the increasing trend outlined by Secchi et al. (2016) and Marcon et al. (2017) regarding the substitution of fossil-based inputs for bio-based alternatives. Yang et al. (2018) also discuss the effects of using biomass as energy source. ...
Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate is an important surfactant used by the Specialty Chemical Industry. However, little quantitative information regarding its environmental impacts in a systemic perspective is available. Therefore, this study assessed the environmental performance of 1.0 ton of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate containing 3 mol of ethylene oxide (SLES 3EO), by means of a ‘cradle-to-gate’ Life Cycle Assessment. Environmental impacts were quantified in terms of Global Warming Potential and Primary Energy Demand (PED). Carbon Footprint was also estimated according to ISO 14067 guidelines. The Global Warming indicator was calculated as 1.87 t CO2eq/t for the baseline scenario, while PED was estimated as 71.7 GJ/t. Based on the main sources of impact, four individual alternatives aiming at environmental performance improvement were proposed, based on the Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production philosophy: S1) production using palm kernel oil from Brazil; S2) production from synthetic lauryl alcohol; S3) generation of thermal energy from biomass; S4) SLES 3EO synthesis using ethylene oxide obtained from sugarcane. Possible synergies deriving from the combinations of these propositions were also assessed, considering seven additional scenarios (S5 e S11). It was observed that lauryl alcohol performance was very influential and decisive for the results. Moreover, thermal energy from biomass was beneficial in terms of Global Warming, while increasing the renewable fraction of the PED indicator. On the other hand, ethylene oxide production from sugarcane ethanol was not an advantageous alternative, due to high fuel and thermal energy demands throughout its production chain. The Carbon Footprint assessment according to the ISO 14067 standard indicates a beneficial change in the impact profiles between the scenarios presenting renewable source assets participating in their life cycle, with a strong reduction in relation to the results obtained by applying the IPCC approach. Synergy among cleaner production propositions was observed and highly influenced by the amount of biomass incorporated to SLES 3EO life cycle. This can be considered an innovative approach regarding the Brazilian context. As a pioneer initiative, it is expected that the outcomes from this investigation would contribute to future initiatives investigating detergent formulation from an environmental perspective.
... Considering the various inputs (both of vegetable origin and petrochemical sources) consumed for detergents production, their production chain presents great complexity, associated with the consumption of natural resources and potential adverse impacts due to emissions. This has motivated the emergence of industry regulations as well as initiatives demanding more efficient industrial processes, while maintaining product effectiveness [5]. ...
... On the other hand, Van Lieshout et al. [5] as well as Secchi et al. [10] consider that cleaner production propositions often involve trade-offs deriving from environmental impacts of supply chains. Therefore, the authors support that these actions should be assessed from a systemic perspective, such as that of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique. ...
... By coupling the LCA and Cleaner Production approaches in the evaluation of cleaning products, Van Lieshout et al. [5] identified a prioritized list of actions to be considered during the development of alternatives with better environmental performance. In this case, companies should preferably: (a) focus on active ingredients (i.e. ...
Conference Paper
Despite the importance of Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate (SLES) for the Specialty Chemical Industry, few quantitative information regarding its environmental impacts on a systemic perspective is available. Therefore, this study assessed the environmental performance of 1.0 ton SLES, by means of a 'cradle-to-gate' Life Cycle Assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this can be considered an innovative approach considering the Brazilian context. Environmental impacts were quantified in terms of Climate Change (CC) and Fossil Depletion (FD). Carbon Footprint was also estimated according to ISO TS14067 guidelines. CC indicator resulted in 1.86 t CO2eq/t for the baseline scenario, while FD was of 600 kg oil-eq/t. Based on the main sources of impacts, three alternatives aiming at environmental performance improvement of SLES were proposed based on the Resource Efficient and Cleaner Production philosophy: S1) production from synthetic lauryl alcohol; S2) generation of thermal energy from biomass; S3) synthesis of SLES using ethylene oxide obtained from sugarcane. S1 can be beneficial in terms of CC (23% reduction) while increasing FD by 83%. S2 entails in the reduction of CC and FD (17% and 23%, respectively). In contrast, S3 did not incur any advantage regarding environmental performance. As a pioneer initiative in Brazil, it is expected that the outcomes from this investigation would contribute for future initiatives investigating the formulation of detergents produced in this country.
... However, the SDS surfactant was not included in the database. Therefore, it was defined as 40 % sodium carbonate and 60 % fatty alcohol sulfate as reported in a recent LCA study (Van Lieshout et al., 2015). ...
... This result is not surprising, since the fatty alcohol sulfate contained in the SDS contributes significantly to these impacts. In LCA studies on green cleaning products (Kapur et al., 2012;Van Lieshout et al., 2015), most of the environmental impacts of SDS are attributed to the fatty alcohol sulfate raw material. The authors indicated the need to focus on this ingredient. ...
This work investigates the capacity of a foam flow to clean stainless-steel surfaces contaminated by bacterial biofilms. Three bacterial strains ( Escherichia coli SS2, Bacillus cereus 98/4, and Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf1) were grown for 24 h in a horizontal position. Wet foam (liquid fraction of 0.5) using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) at 0.15% W/W circulated through square stainless-steel ducts at different flow rates. By increasing the wall shear stress, a cleaning efficiency was observed of up to a 2.1 and 1.4 log reduction in the surface contamination for both of the two highly adherent biofilms tested, namely B. cereus and P. fluorescens compared to E. coli biofilms being totally removed. Whatever the bacterial strain and the flow condition, foam flow was more efficient in detaching biofilm than the related SDS solution without foam. A Life Cycle Assessment study was performed to investigate the environmental impacts of the foam cleaning. Significant environmental impact benefits were observed, with a drastic reduction in water and energy consumption when compared to different no-foam in place cleaning conditions (SDS or NaOH at 60°C).
... De Soete et al. 2014), cleaning products (e.g. Van Lieshout et al. 2015) and pesticide formulations (e.g. Geisler et al. 2005) as examples of products where chemicals provide the main product functions. ...
... • Cradle to grave • Stages A-F ( Fig. 31.3) • Focus on chemicals consumption and emissions • Cleaning products ( Van Lieshout et al. 2015) • Textiles ( ) What are the environmental profiles of the production of different chemicals? • Cradle to (factory or consumer) gate • Stages A-D or a subset of these stages ( Fig. 31.3) ...
This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life. LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts including risk assessment, green and sustainable chemistry, and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share of potential environmental impacts occurs during the early product life cycle stages, potential impacts related to chemicals that are found as ingredients or residues directly in products can be dominated by the product use stage. Finally, methodological challenges in LCA studies in relation to chemicals are discussed including the choice of functional unit, defining the system boundaries, quantifying emissions for many thousands of marketed chemicals, characterising emissions in terms of toxicity and other impacts, and finally interpreting LCA results. The chapter is relevant for LCA students and practitioners who wish to gain basic understanding of LCA studies of products or processes with chemicals as a key aspect.
... A recent LCA study found that the use of isopropanol-based hand sanitizers is more environmentally friendly than hand washing with soap [35]. Another LCA analysis revealed that the potential to reduce the environmental impact of green cleaning products such as handwashing soaps may lie in the product formulas and ingredients [36]. In the case of S2, the sludge treatment process (e.g., incineration) results in a significant burden in terms of the freshwater aquatic eco-toxicity potential, contributing 33% of the total impact. ...
Full-text available
Sensitive and remote areas have come under pressure from growing populations and tourism, often resulting in improper wastewater management. Efficiency, durability, the use of renewable construction materials, and the minimization of environmental impacts must be conformed to a sustainable paradigm. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to compare three different decentralized wastewater treatment systems built at tourist facilities: a source separation sanitation system with a hybrid constructed wetland (S1), a sequential batch reactor (SBR) with a hybrid constructed wetland (S2), and a solar-powered composting toilet (S3). Benchmarking showed that S1 was preferred over S2. The differences were up to a factor of two, except for eutrophication, which was significantly higher for S2 (10×). S3 had the lowest environmental impact, but S3 treated only the blackwater fraction, i.e., urine, faeces, and toilet paper, and excluded greywater treatment, i.e., handwashing and/or kitchen wastewater. The scenario analysis showed that the environmental performance could be improved by installing solar panels, but this would increase the impact on the abiotic depletion of elements by 83% for S2. The LCA indicated the advantages, disadvantages, flexibility, and potential for design improvements to meet the environmental sustainability and market demands for system diversity.
... This stage significantly involved in water consumption which was estimated at 5200 kg. per kilogram of product. It was considered a higher impact on the environment than other phases (Lieshout et al., 2015). When the liquid exits the kitchen accounted for last phase. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current industries continue to pursue products that reduce impacts on the environment and human health called eco-friendly products. Eco-design is used as a tool in the manufacturing and service sectors to improve the sustainability of products by combining environmental facet into the design process where the product impacts are defined. This study explored the dishwashing liquid which is widely used in Thailand considered as a household product. Dishwashing liquid generated monthly waste from bottle packaging. Thus, those bottles are the one causes of the plastic waste in the world that can't be disregarded as other single-use products. Additionally, Conventional Dishwashing liquid released into environment is harmful to nature, animals and human health. The research aims to understand customer insights, needs, and opportunities to improve the dishwashing liquid that less impact on the environment. Online questionnaire and focus group interview are the methodology for gathering data which undertaken in Thailand. Furthermore, this study summarizes the main current approached and practical tools including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), MET matrix, and Lifecycle Design Strategies (LiDS) Wheel for implementing eco-design strategies. Ingredients of detergent and packaging materials are the main factors affecting the environment such as natural land transformation, natural resource depletion, landfill, air pollution, toxic ash, groundwater pollutions, and waste. The finding results emphasize a high customer value with less environmental impact along a product life cycle. When focusing attention on designing eco-friendly dishwashing detergent. The designer should give important continue developing the product formulations, non-water ingredients and improving packaging to reduce the environmental impact of conventional dishwashing liquid. Most users face the problems of skin drying and irritation. Besides, texture, foaming, and scent are essential to decide the alternative ingredients to satisfy user needs.
... Due to the inconsistent methodologies chosen for LCA of chemical products, LCI data is generally not available for most of the chemicals (Van Lieshout et al., 2015). Table 2 shows the LCI input and output demands of resources and emissions of 1 kg textile launderings. ...
The textile sector is growing, so does the technical aspects of it. This has resulted in more chemical consumption. Recently, technical textiles, with attributional substances received attention due to sustainability factor in terms of their raw material production and manufacturing. Studies are present using life cycle assessment (LCA) results to justify the environmental preference of technical textiles over conventional textiles by environmental parity method. Technical textiles like antibacterial ones are expected for less washing due to low prevalence of odor-causing germs, therefore pose lower environmental impacts than conventional textiles in a long run. At the end-of-life (EOL), waste generated from technical and conventional textiles, are treated as the same - municipal solid waste (MSW), whether they go for landfill or incineration. In reality, environmental impacts of technical and conventional textiles waste cannot be the same regardless of their differences in phases like raw material, production, use and especially EOL phase. LCA “gate-to-grave” approach was employed to study two technical textiles with the same weight but different functionalities, one is flame retardant (FR) treated wool and the other is silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) treated polyester. They are scrutinized in order to have better understanding of environmental parity, especially in their use phase and at the EOL phase. Ten-midpoint categories were used to analyze the environmental impacts during the use phase and EOL phase of the two technical textiles. Results indicate that in use phase, life cycle impact of technical textiles is upfront and alters with the change in number of washes, the types of applied attributional substances and their release rates. At EOL phase, it was found that there is no correlation between the two types of technical textiles in terms of environmental impacts. They are nonreciprocal to MSW or even conventional textile waste.
Purpose This paper aims to assess a measurement model of green cleaning for green buildings in Malaysia. Being one of the contributors to the indoor environmental quality performance, green cleaning has become one of the significant aspects that need to be considered for the well-being and performance of a building, particularly in a green building's operations and maintenance performance. Green buildings without green cleaning practices would hinder the benefits that should be rendered economically, socially and environmentally. However, the absence of clear green cleaning components and requirements in Malaysia has become a motivation to undertake this research. Design/methodology/approach A questionnaire survey involving cleaning service providers and green building index (GBI) facilitators was carried out, and the data was then analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling. However, this paper will only be focusing on the measurement model assessment. Findings Most of the green cleaning components and requirements are acceptable in the model except integrated pest management (in the cleaning procedure component) and hand soaps (in the product and materials component) due to lower factor loadings. Therefore, these two requirements were removed from the measurement model. Research limitations/implications Due to a paucity of professionals in the field of green cleaning, the researchers have selected GBI facilitators and cleaning service providers as respondents for this research. The researchers assumed that GBI facilitators are aware of acceptable products and materials for green buildings; meanwhile, cleaning service providers know what is the best cleaning technique and process that helps in achieving cost and resource efficiency. This research also assumed that the green cleaning components identified can be applied to any type of green building, regardless of the differences in needs in each type of building. Practical implications This discovery will give the industry, particularly cleaning service providers and green building management teams, a first look at the green cleaning components and requirements. Originality/value This paper fulfills the need to study how green cleaning helps in achieving the benefits rendered by green buildings.
Full-text available
Healthcare and pharmaceutical products are used widely but their environmental impacts are still largely unknown. This paper provides an insight into the influence of product design and consumer behaviour on the environmental impacts of the use and end-of-life of some healthcare and pharmaceutical products, with the aim of identifying improvement opportunities. The influence of product design is assessed through two types of asthma inhaler: hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) and dry-powder devices. Consumer behaviour is examined by considering the use of toothpaste and consumption of nutritional drinks. The results indicate that the use and end-of-life stages contribute significantly (∼90%) to the carbon footprint of HFA inhalers, estimated at 26.9 kg CO2/100 doses. The carbon footprint of dry-powder inhalers is 10 times smaller (2.7 kg CO2/100 doses). Product design innovations to eliminate HFA propellants could save over 13 Mt CO2 eq./y globally. The use stage is also the main hotspot for most other environmental impacts across the products considered in the study. The contribution of end-of-life stage is significant for eutrophication and some toxicity-related impacts for inhalers and toothpaste. The impacts of toothpaste and nutritional drinks are highly influenced by consumer behaviour during the use stage. For example, using cold instead of warm water for teeth brushing and a tumbler instead of leaving the tap running would reduce the carbon footprint from the use of toothpaste by 57 times and water consumption by 20 times. These findings highlight that both design innovations and changes in consumer behaviour play a significant role in addressing global environmental challenges. Therefore, in addition to environmental improvements through product development and supply change management, healthcare companies should also focus on providing consumer guidance to help lower the environmental impacts of their products.
Full-text available
Purpose With an ever increasing list of indicators available, life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners face the challenge of effectively communicating results to decision makers. Simplification of LCA is often limited to an arbitrary selection of indicators, use of single scores by using weighted values or single attribute indicators. These solutions are less attractive to decision makers, since value judgments are introduced or multi-indicator information is lost. Normalization could be a means to narrow the list of indicators by ranking indicators vs. a reference system. This paper shows three different normalization approaches that produce very different ranking of indicators. It is explained how normalization helps maintain a multi-indicator approach while keeping the most relevant indicators, allowing effective decision making. Methods The approaches are illustrated on a hand dishwashing case study, using ReCiPe as the impact assessment method and taking the European population (year 2000) as the reference situation. Indicators are ranked using midpoint normalization factors, and compared to the ranking from endpoint normalization broken down by midpoint contribution. Results and discussion Endpoint normalization shows Resources as the most relevant area of protection for this case, closely followed by Human Health and Ecosystem. Broken down by their key driving midpoints, fossil depletion, climate change and, to a lesser extent, particulate matter formation and metal depletion, are most relevant. Midpoint normalization, however, indicates Freshwater Eutrophication, Natural Land Transformation and Toxicity indicators (marine and freshwater ecotoxicity and human toxicity) are most relevant. Conclusions A three-step approach based on endpoint normalization is recommended to present only the most relevant indicators, allowing more effective decision making instead of communicating all LCA indicators. The selection process breaks out the normalized endpoint results into the most contributing midpoints (relevant indicators) and reports results with midpoint level units. Bias due to lack of data completeness is less of an issue in the endpoint normalization process (compared to midpoint normalization), while midpoint results are less subject to uncertainty (compared to endpoint results). Focusing on the relevant indicators and key contributing unit processes has proven to be effective for non-LCA expert decision makers to understand, use, and communicate complex LCA results.
Full-text available
Purpose: The goal of this study was to use life cycle assessment methodology to assess the environmental impacts of industrial and institutional cleaning products that are compliant with the Green Seal standard, GS-37, and conventional products (non-GS-37-compliant) products. Methods: The scope of the study was “cradle-to-grave,” to encompass the energy and material resources required for the production of raw material and packaging components to use and final disposal of the cleaning product. The generic functional unit for this study was annual cleaning of 100,000 sq ft of office space. The ReCiPe 2008 Midpoint (hierarchist perspective) impact assessment methodology was used including the following impact categories: climate change, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, human toxicity, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, agricultural land occupation, natural land transformation, water depletion, and fossil depletion. General-purpose, glass, and restroom cleaning products were included in the study. Model products of GS-37-compliant, conventional concentrate, and conventional ready-to-use versions of each cleaning product were evaluated in the study. Results and Discussion: The conventional ready-to-use industrial and institutional cleaning product had the highest environmental impact in all product types and most impact categories analyzed. The GS-37-compliant products were lower than the conventional products in most impact categories studied. Further, normalization of the results showed that the impact categories of marine ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and freshwater ecotoxicity were dominant with the conventional products leading these impact categories. The packaging and distribution stages were dominant for the conventional products, whereas the product formula (i.e., chemicals used in the product) contributed significantly to overall impacts for GS-37-compliant products. The GS-37 standard addresses packaging and distribution, but could potentially further address the formula issues. Conclusions: The comparative life cycle assessment performed in this study showed that the Green Seal Standard for Industrial and Institutional Cleaners, GS-37, identifies products with notably lower environmental impact compared to typical alternatives in the market. This reduced impact was a result of the requirements in the Green Seal standard that addressed the leading sources of the impacts (namely packaging, transportation) and are not included in any other standard or recognition program in North America
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Regular (1988) and compact granular (1992, 1998) laundry detergents were compared on the basis of two distinct, complementary approaches: Environmental Risk Assessment and Life-Cycle Assessment. The results are presented in this paper and an accompanying paper in this volume (Part II: Life-Cycle Assessment). Exposure data from The Netherlands and Sweden were used for this retrospective analysis. The time period studied (1988–1998) spans many innovations in laundry detergents, one of which was the introduction of compact detergents. The aquatic risk assessment resulted in risk quotients below 1 for all detergent ingredients in both countries over the period studied. Furthermore, it showed that risk quotients decrease two to five-fold between 1988 and 1998 in each country due to the introduction of compact detergents. Slightly lower risk quotients were observed in Sweden, when compared to The Netherlands, attributable to the lower water hardness resulting in lower detergent usage per wash cycle in that country. If water hardnesses were equal, the outcome of the product risk assessments would also be the same in the two countries.
This paper provides a broad strokes perspective on the evolution for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) within the pharmaceutical and chemical industries. This focus is mainly on the challenges faced to produce the needed inventory data and using the resulting LCA output in decision making, which are the backbone of any LCA estimation and practical application in industry. It also provides some of the insights the authors have derived over the last two decades of work in this area, and proposes a series of development needs within life cycle assessment as it becomes more integrated into decision-making in industry.
Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references).
This paper quantifies the significant environmental aspects of a new high-end office building over 50 years of service life. A comprehensive environmental life-cycle assessment-including data quality assessment-was conducted to provide detailed information for establishing the causal connection between the different life-cycle elements and potential environmental impacts. The results show that most of the impacts are associated with electricity use and building materials manufacturing-in particular, electricity used in lighting, HVAC systems, and outlets; heat conduction through the structures; manufacturing and maintenance of steel; manufacturing of concrete and paint; water use and wastewater generation; and office waste management. Construction and demolition were found to have relatively insignificant impacts. The identified most significant aspects are quite predominant; 7% of all counted aspects cover over 50% of the life-cycle impacts. Practical applications of the study's results could be in the environmentally conscious design and management of office buildings.
The energy fuels used for in the Greek transport sector are made up of gasoline consumed by automobiles, diesel oil consumed by taxis, trucks, maritime transport and railroads, and jet fuel used in the aircrafts. All these fuels are hydrocarbons that emit great amounts of CO2 which has a major impact in the global warming phenomenon. The issues relating to climate change, the soaring energy prices, and the uncertainty of future oil supplies, have created a strong interest in alternative transportation fuels. During the past decade biofuels in the form of blended gasoline and biodiesel have begun to find place in energy economy. The Greek car market shows a remarkably low rate in the penetration of biodiesel compared to the average European Union market. This work compares the environmental impacts of the use of gasoline, diesel and biodiesel in Greece using as a tool for the comparison the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The environmental impacts taken into consideration include: organic respiratory effects, inorganic respiratory effects, fossil fuels, acidification – eutrophication, greenhouse effect, ecotoxicity and carginogenic effects. From the environmental point of view, biodiesel appears attractive since its use results in significant reductions of GHG emissions in comparison to gasoline and diesel. It also has lower well-to-wheel emissions of methane. However, the use of biodiesel as transportation fuel increases emissions of PM10, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx) as well as nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous; the latter are the main agents for eutrophication. This study can be considered as an opportunity for further research and evaluate the available options for a sustainable transportation system planning in Greece.