ArticlePDF Available

Quantitative Evidence for Direct Effects between Earth-Ionosphere Schumann Resonances and Human Cerebral Cortical Activity


Abstract and Figures

The multiple quantitative similarities of basic frequencies, harmonics, magnetic field intensities, voltages, band widths, and energetic solutions that define the Schumann resonances within the separation between the earth and ionosphere and the activity within the human cerebral cortices suggest the capacity for direct interaction. The recent experimental demonstration of the representations of the Schumann resonances within the spectral densities of normal human quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) activity suggests a casual interaction. Calculations supported by correlations between amplitudes of the global Schumann resonances measured several thousands of km away (which were nearly identical to our local measurements) and the coherence and current densities or these frequency bands between cerebral hemispheres for a large population of human QEEG measures indicate that such interaction occurs. The energies are within the range that would allow information to be exchanged between cerebral and Schumann sources. The near-identical solution for current density from the increasing human population and background vertical electric fields suggests that changes in the former might determine the degree of coherence between the Schumann resonances. Direct comparisons of local Schumann measurements and brain activity exhibited powerful intermittent coherence within the first three harmonics. Implications of the contributions of solar transients, surface temperature, and rapidly developing technologies to modify the ionosphere’s Schumann properties are considered.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Available online at
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy
20(2) (2014) 166-194 ISSN 2299-3843
Quantitative Evidence for Direct Effects Between
Earth-Ionosphere Schumann Resonances and
Human Cerebral Cortical Activity
Kevin S. Sarokaa, Michael A. Persingerb
Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, P32 2C6, Canada
a,bE-mail addresses: ;
The multiple quantitative similarities of basic frequencies, harmonics, magnetic field intensities,
voltages, band widths, and energetic solutions that define the Schumann resonances within the
separation between the earth and ionosphere and the activity within the human cerebral cortices
suggest the capacity for direct interaction. The recent experimental demonstration of the
representations of the Schumann resonances within the spectral densities of normal human quantitative
electroencephalographic (QEEG) activity suggests a casual interaction. Calculations supported by
correlations between amplitudes of the global Schumann resonances measured several thousands of
km away (which were nearly identical to our local measurements) and the coherence and current
densities or these frequency bands between cerebral hemispheres for a large population of human
QEEG measures indicate that such interaction occurs. The energies are within the range that would
allow information to be exchanged between cerebral and Schumann sources. The near-identical
solution for current density from the increasing human population and background vertical electric
fields suggests that changes in the former might determine the degree of coherence between the
Schumann resonances. Direct comparisons of local Schumann measurements and brain activity
exhibited powerful intermittent coherence within the first three harmonics. Implications of the
contributions of solar transients, surface temperature, and rapidly developing technologies to modify
the ionosphere‟s Schumann properties are considered.
Keywords: Schumann harmonics; quantitative electroencephalography; brain-ionosphere similarities;
picoTesla intensities; correlations
When two systems share remarkably similar physical characteristics such as dynamic
amplitudes and intrinsic frequencies the possibility for direct interaction emerges. This
assumes impedances and reluctances match or shared resonance occurs between the
electromagnetic energies. The thin shell between the ionosphere and earth generates
continuous harmonics of frequencies from a fundamental of about 7 to 8 Hz that is caused by
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
global lightning which occurs between 40 to 100 times per second (40 to 100 Hz). These
frequencies are the Schumann resonances.
The bulk velocity of neuronal activity around the human cerebral cortices caused by
discharge of action potentials within this thin shell of tissue generates a resonance with a
fundamental between 7 to 8 Hz. On the bases of the average durations of the travelling waves
over the cerebral cortices the repetition rate and phase velocities are in the order of 40 to 80
times per second (40 to 80 Hz). The current density around the annulus of an axon associated
with a single action potential is equivalent to about 105 A·m-1 or the value associated with a
single lightning discharge [1].
For both cerebral and earth-ionosphere phenomena the average potential difference for
these time-varying processes is in the range of 0.5 mV·m-1. The magnetic field component is
the order of 2 pT (10-12 T). The ratio of this voltage gradient to the magnetic field intensity is
effectively the velocity of light, ~3·108 m·s-1. These general similarities suggest that more
detailed congruence could occur. Here we present quantitative evidence that the electric and
magnetic fields of the Schumann resonances and those equivalent frequencies generated by
the human cerebral cortices can interact and may be in a persistent state of equilibrium.
A recent discussion [2] of the Schumann Resonance characteristics summarizes the
information found within Nickolaenko and Hayakawa [3], König et al [4] and Cherry [5].
Briefly, the harmonics or modes of the Schumann resonances peak around 7.8 Hz, 14.1 Hz,
20.3 Hz, 26.4 Hz, and 32.5 Hz. This serial shift of about 6 Hz is consistent with the relation
[√(n(n+1))] · [(v·(2πr) -1] (1),
where n are serial integers ≥ 1, v is the velocity of light in the medium (which is effectively c)
and r is the radius of the earth. The first component of the relation when “n” is substituted as a
quantum number is also employed to calculate the magnitude of the orbital angular
momentum [6]. When magnetic moments are expressed as Bohr magnetons the electron state
is associated with a magnetic moment equal to √(n(n+1)). Changes in electron states or
different shells are associated with emissions of photons.
The peak values are not precise and can vary by ±0.2 Hz depending upon ionospheric-
earth conditions, time of day, season, influx of protons from solar events, pre-earthquake
conditions, and yet to be identified sources. According to Nickolaenko and Hayakawa [3]
monthly variations in the first mode (7.8 Hz) range between 7.8 and 8.0 Hz. The diurnal
variation in frequency shift has been attributed to drifts in global lightning or alterations in
ionospheric height. Peak frequencies and amplitudes occur in May whereas minima occur in
October-November. The peak to peak modulations are about ±25 % of the median value.
The optimal metaphor is that every lighting strike of the approximately 40 to 100 per
second between the ionosphere and ground is an expanding wave that moves until it
ultimately interfaces with itself on the earth‟s spherical surface. The resulting interface elicits
a return wave that arrives at the original source within about 125 ms after the initiation. The
approximate equivalent frequency is 8 Hz. The attenuation is minimal over megameters.
Resonance amplitudes are remarkably similar even when recorded simultaneously at
observatories separated by large distances and reflect the variations in global thunderstorm
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
activity. The maximum intensities, displayed by the first and second harmonic, are ~3 pT
which diminish to ~1 pT around 20.3 Hz and less than 0.5 pT for the higher harmonics. The
vertical electric (E) field strengths display ranges in the order of 0.3 to 1.0 mV·m-1. The
coherence of the E field strength for the first harmonic is about 0.8 to 0.9 over thousands of
To discern the Schumann spectral densities continuous measurements between 10 and
100 s are required. This is similar to the optimal sampling for clear resolution for spectral
densities of human cerebral activity. With 10 s and 100 s samples the spectral resolutions are
between 0.1 Hz and 0.01 Hz, respectively. For discerning the relationship between phase shift
and frequency at various stations record lengths are about 10 min.
The first or fundamental resonance “splits” into three subfrequencies because of the
different phase velocities and attenuation rates corresponding to standing waves and those
moving in either an east-west or west-east direction. Because the peak width of the
fundamental or base frequency is 2 Hz (7 to 9 Hz) and separation is in the order of a few 0.1
Hz, discrimination has been a technical challenge. A frequency shift between 7 Hz and 9 Hz
with 8 Hz as the reference involves a phase shift between 20° and +20°.
The Schumann resonances are subject to modification by imminent seismological and
thermal energies. Different amplitudes of the fourth harmonic, concurrent with a shift as much
as 1 Hz, can appear approximately one week before an earthquake. The modification remains
for days and can still be present during aftershocks [3]. For every 1 deg C increase in tropical
temperature the magnetic field measured increases by about 3 μA·m-1 or 3.8 pT. Recently
Streltsov et al [7] experimentally doubled the amplitude of the 8 Hz E field of the Schumann
resonance by focusing packets of energy into the cavity that matched the second to third
gyroharmonic electromagnetic wave (MHz range) values of electrons.
The spherical cavity of the earth-ionosphere that “traps the Schumann resonances”
exhibits Eigen values that can be characterized by the first three equivalents of the quantum
numbers: p, n, and m. P indicates how many half-wavelengths can fit the ionospheric height
which reflect the Eigen-values or resonance frequencies. N (zonal number) describes how
many wavelengths fit around the circumference of the earth. M, the azimunthal number,
reflects the numbers of wavelengths along the equator moving from east to west or west to
east [3].
These descriptors are similar to the four quantum numbers that have been employed to
describe the primary dynamic features of the atom that is the electron. These are mentioned
from the perspective of integrating physics, chemistry and astronomy within the
interdisciplinary framework. The similarity may also support the traditional philosophical
concept that microcosm reflects macrocosm.
The human cerebrum (1.35 kg) is an ellipsoid aggregate of matter that occupies about
1.3·10-3 m3. The three-dimensional metrics [8] are: length (155-190 mm), width (131-141
mm), depth (108-117 mm). The cerebral cortices are approximately 1 to 4 mm thick but
occupy almost 40 % of the cerebral volume with an average value of 490 cc [9]. The surface
area of the human brain is not smooth but exhibits convexities (gyri) and concavities (sulci).
Two-thirds of the surface is buried within the sulci. Mathematical modeling indicates
that this topological surface is similar to that of a flat surface “wrinkled” into the third
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
dimension. Secondary extrusions with widths of about 1 mm emerge intermittently along the
trough of the sulci and the apex of the gyri [10].
Figure 1. (Above)Sample power spectra of a classical quantitative EEG of an average person and (B)
Schumann resonance profile associated with the same segment of quantitative
electroencephalographic activity.
The primary source of the electromagnetic activity measured from the scalp emerges
from the cerebral cortices because of the parallel arrangement of the dendrite-soma-axon
orientations perpendicular to the surface for most of the approximately 20 billion neurons.
The resulting steady state potential between the cerebral surface and a relative reference such
as the lateral ventricle ranges between 10 and 20 mV. There is almost a linear correlation
between ontogeny, the emergence of neuronal processes, and the magnitude of that potential.
Superimposed upon the steady potential are fluctuating voltages that define the
electroencephalogram (EEG). Most of the discernable frequencies occur within the ELF
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
(extremely low frequency) range or 1 and 100 Hz. However, fast frequencies up to 300 to 400
Hz, approaching the absolute refractory period of an axon, have been measured in epileptic
brains [11]. An example of a traditional spectral density from an average adult human brain is
shown in Figure 1.
The amplitudes of the scalp EEG range between 10 and 100 μV. In comparison
corticographic discharges exhibit amplitudes between 0.5 and 1.5 mV [12]. The most
prominent dynamic pattern is the alpha rhythm (8 to 13 Hz) which during wakefulness is
more evident over the posterior cerebral space with amplitudes in most (68 %) of the
population between 20 and 60 μV.
The average frequency increases from about 4 Hz in the 4 month old to 10 Hz by 10
years of age. The mean frequency in adults is 10.2 ±0.9 Hz. Within the adult human alpha
frequency slows between 0.3 and 1 Hz after ovulation. Amplitude asymmetry favors the right
hemisphere in normal people [12].
Theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) have been considered “intermediate waves” that are
significantly involved with processes associated with infancy and childhood as well as
drowsiness and specific stages of sleep. The power of theta activity is evident even within the
third decade (25 to 30 years of age) when the EEG parameters asymptote. This inflection is
sometimes considered an index of cerebral maturation.
A transient 6 Hz to 7 Hz rhythm, which disappears by adolescence, is common over the
frontal midline and is enhanced by mental tasks related to memory function. Theta activity is
the prominent frequency band within which most of the power within the hippocampus, the
critical structure for consolidation of “memory”, is displayed. The power or proportion of
voltage within the theta range is associated with hypnogogic (dreamy or “apparitional”
transitions) states particularly in late infancy and childhood.
For adults drowsiness is associated with the disappearance of the alpha rhythm and the
emergence of low voltage 2 to 7 Hz activity intermixed with 15 to 25 Hz bursts. The hall
mark of deep drowsiness is the appearance of vertex waves over the posterior portion of the
supplementary motor area of the frontal lobe along the interhemispheric fissure. These
transients are analogous to Q-bursts recorded from the Schumann cavity [3]. They are
transient events of natural radio pulses with durations between 0.3 and 1.5 s detected globally
due to exclusively powerful lightning discharges. The amplitude of Q-bursts, like vertex
waves, can exceed the background by a factor of 10 and emerge as elevations in the
Schumann harmonics in spectral analyses.
The theta-alpha range occurs within the band of the fundamental Schumann harmonic.
The second harmonic, 14 Hz, also has an equivalent within the EEG that emerges during light
sleep (Stage 2). Sleep spindles or sigma waves are trains or envelopes of synchronous activity
between 12.5 and 15.5 Hz with a peak around 14 Hz. As alpha rhythms dominate the
posterior region of the cerebrum, spindles emerge primarily over the frontal and frontal
The other classical “frequency” bands associated with the human EEG are delta (1-4
Hz), which are the highest amplitude time-variations associated with Stage IV sleep, beta (13-
30 Hz) and gamma (30 to 50 Hz) patterns. The ranges are effectively arbitrary and related to
EEG features associated with particular behaviors or power densities.
Large areas of the cerebral cortices demonstrate integrated spatial and temporal
characteristics. Two that are relevant to Schumann interfaces involve the rostral-caudal
“travelling waves that are recursively (recreated) every 20 to 25 ms with an implicit
frequency of about 40 Hz [13]. The bulk velocity is about 4.5 m·s-1 [14]. Assuming an
average cerebral circumference of 0.6 m the resonance frequency is 7.5 Hz, or within range of
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
the fundamental harmonic of the Schumann Resonance. Llinas and Pare [15] also showed that
there is a phase modulation of the 40 Hz recursive wave that was equivalent to 80 Hz or about
12.5 ms.
The second major organization of human brain activity involves microstates which are
defined by specific configurations of dipoles with isopotential lines over the entire cerebral
cortices [16]. Most of the variance can be accommodated by four microstates whose patterns
are similar across the human population and over ontogeny. According to convention these A,
B, C and D states are characterized by polarity from the right frontal to left occipital region,
left frontal to right occipital region, equally distributed between the frontal and occipital
region, and a dorsal central to caudal arrangement, respectively.
Together each state explains about three-quarters of the variance in EEG voltage
variations. Each microstate‟s duration exits for between 80 and 120 ms. These primarily four
discrete and spatially-temporally bounded organizations could correspond to the “building
blocks” for cognition and may be the basis for the unit “percept” of experience. This is
equivalent to 8.3 to 12.5 Hz, the inclusive band of the alpha range. Assuming these
microstates are the “basic units” for thinking in a manner similar to the digital units (base
pairs) for DNA [17] there would be 410 or about 106 possible different combinations or “serial
patterns” per second.
The magnetic field component of human cerebral function is the same order of
magnitude as the Schumann resonances. Although ~10-12 T divided into ~10-3 V·m-1 results in
a velocity term that, with the appropriate coefficients, is the velocity of light (c), intrinsic
magnetic properties of space can produce this value through spatial diffusion.
Magnetic diffusivity is:
ή = oσ)-1 (2),
where µo is magnetic susceptibility (4π∙10-7 N∙A-2) and σ = electrical conductivity [18].
Assuming the average resistivity of 2 Ω∙m (σ~ 0.5 S·m-1) for extracellular fluid, and the
average potential difference of 3 µV, the resulting estimate for the magnetic field strength is
(3∙10-6 kg∙m2∙A-1·s-3) divided by 1.58∙106 m2∙s-1 or ~1.9∙10-12 T (about 2 picoTeslas, pT).
This is well within the range based upon direct measurement from of action potentials
from isolated frog sciatic nerves at distance of 1 mm [19].
The spatial domain is sufficiently large to have major influence upon the integrated
cerebral field. This magnitude is within a factor of 10 of the transient magnetic oscillatory
response Pantev et al [20] evoked in the human cerebrum (with a peak near 10 Hz and 30-40
Hz) when their measured values for 20 fT∙Hz-1/2 are applied over the full frequency range of
100 Hz.
Although these intensities appear small, experimental application of pT-intensity,
spatial and temporally-patterned magnetic fields have been reported to produce discernable
improvement in some clinical disorders, such as Tourette‟s and multiple sclerosis [21] as well
as some electrical foci associated with partial complex seizures [22].
As shown by Booth et al [23] correlative responses associated with subjects‟
experiences that suggest more input from the right temporal lobe into the left temporal lobe
(the sense of a presence) have been associated with geomagnetic changes in the order of pT·s-
1. The latter occurred when ambient geomagnetic changes displayed progressive increases at
this rate over an approximately 15 min interval.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
In order to compare directly the properties and interactions between human
electroencephalographic activity and Schumann resonances, sensitive equipment is required.
For the brain activity the standard 10-20 sensor array directly connect to a Mitsar 201
Amplifier System. The standard configuration is all sensors are referenced the ears, i.e.,
“monopolar” recording.
The induction coil employed to detect the Schumann frequencies was modeled after a
designed outlined by Hans Michlmayr ( The length
of the coil was designed to be 80 cm with copper wire wrapped around a 5 cm pipe.
Approximately 15 kg of 0.3 mm (AWG 28) copper magnet wire were wound onto the PVC
pipe with an electric power drill as suggested by Michlmayr. Our “Herbert” (after H. L.
König) induction coil magnetometer is shown in Figure 2. The copper wire wrapping
procedure is shown in Figure 3.
Assuming the weight associated with one turn of the pipe was 144 mg, division by the
total weight indicates there were between 96,000 and 97,000 turns. The total resistance of the
coil measured after winding was 3.97 . The induction was 1000 Henrys once 182 cm
insulated welding steel sheets were placed inside of the coil‟s frame. The finished coil was
then housed in a larger PVC pipe for protection.
The preamplifier circuit was modeled after the ICS101 magnetometer designed by
Renato Romero who operates an open-source website for the monitoring of VLF frequencies.
The circuit can be found at For our preamplifier we
omitted the 0-30 Hz low-pass filter. When the magnetometer was connected the pre-amplifier
operated with a gain of 40 db.
The signal was sent to a USB soundcard, recorded and spectral analyzed automatically
by SpectrumLab software designed by Wolfgang Buscher. The free source is located at: The software contains filters (set between 0 and 55
Hz) and a 60 Hz notch filter that removed power-line frequencies before it was encoded into a
Microsoft WAVE file with the sampling rate set at 204 Hz. For calibration purposes as well
as for real-time coherence measurements between human electroencephalographic activity
and the Schumann resonance, the output from the preamplifier was directed to the ECG input
of a Mitsar-201 amplifier.
With the Mitsar interface, we calculated the gain ratio of the signal after amplification
through the preamplifier was 3.85·101. Using this gain ratio we calculated the approximate
magnetic field intensity by integrating Faraday‟s Law of induction or
V = -n·[Δ(BA)Δt-1] (3)
where V is the voltage generated, n is the number of turns of the coil, A is the area of the coil
and ΔB/Δt is the changing magnetic field intensity in Teslas per second. Substituting the
appropriate values for n (96,000 turns) and A (0.125 m2) we obtained a constant by which B
could be solved based upon the raw voltages from the Mistar interface at one of our station
locations (Laurentian University soccer field).
When the signal‟s time series was spectral analyzed the approximate magnetic field
intensity at 7.94 Hz was 1.21 pT2·Hz-1 or 3.09 pT which is with range (Figure 4) reported by
others [3,24].
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Figure 2. Cylinder containing the Schumann device “Herbert” by local Schumann resonances
were measured.
Figure 3. The Schumann (“Herbert”) unit during stages of wrapping the copper wire. There were
between 96,000 to 97,000 turns.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Figure 4. Calibration of the Herbert induction coil magnetometer demonstrating that the peak
intensities at the harmonics were consistent with the measures of other stations. The mean peak values
around 8 Hz is approximately 2 pT, within the range of other measurements.
Figure 5. Log of spectral power density for Schumann resonances as a function of frequency from
our local station. The relative harmonic peaks in arbitrary units (au) are veridical. Sharp spikes at some
harmonic peaks may be actual.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
During fair weather conditions, the power density of the Schumann frequencies near our
laboratory was similar to that reported from other researchers in the U.S.A., Italy, Russia and
An example of the spectral density of the magnetic field component in relative units and
frequency is shown in Figure 5. The peaks are clearly evident at the fundamental and expand
to the 7th harmonic. However, by far the most conspicuous enhancement occurred for the first
four harmonics.
The spectral analyses of the QEEG for our subjects have shown the presence of the
Schumann resonances within cerebral cortices for potentials recorded between the left frontal
and right occipital regions. In general the Schumann resonances are most prominent over the
caudal portion of the cerebral measurements that include the occipito-parieto-temporal
interface. As shown in Figure 6, the representations of the Schumann frequencies which are
often recondite within the “noise” of the QEEG data become evident when filtering occurs.
An example of a single participant‟s „Schumann Resonance Signature‟ is shown in Figure 1.
The primary frequencies that appear within the caudal region were between 7-8 Hz, 13-
14 Hz, and 19-20 Hz. Of the approximately 200 subjects measured under standardized
conditions over the last three years only about 25 % show the representation of the Schumann
resonances within their EEG records.
Because all subjects (records) were treated similarly the likelihood of artifact for this
representation of the Schumann resonances from sampling, filtering, or instrumental
anomalies is minimal.
Figure 6. Spectral density over the caudal region (temporal-T5 T6, occipital O1 O2 and parietal, P3,
P4, Pz) of 34 subjects whose brain activity was measured while sitting in a quiet Faraday chamber.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
The potential information contained within the Schumann frequencies has not been
frequently or systematically pursued. Even a cursory inspection of actual raw data from direct
Schumann resonances suggests that if it were a musical score, it may display the features of a
“fugue”. A fugue is a form of music in which a subject melody (usually only about 5 to 10
notes) is repeated but in combination with different harmonics over time.
To discern if there are “higher order” arrangements of Schumann patterns, the a 300
second signal recorded through the Schumann coil was directed to the USB soundcard and
imported into MATLAB where the signal was decomposed into harmonic signals by filtering
the original signal within frequency bands characteristic of Schumann eigenfrequences with
bandwidths of +/-. 5Hz around center frequencies of 7.8, 13.8, 20.2, 33, 39 and 45 Hz. The
most conspicuous result was the detection of spindle-like occurrences primarily within the 14
Hz range, but also apparent in other frequency bands, which was apparent from preliminary
testing with data collection through the Mitsar amplifier. This is the same range (13-15 Hz) as
Stage II spindles measured over the human brain (particularly over the frontal regions) that
has defined the interface between waking and light sleep [11]. The similarity between the
Schumann spindles and the human cerebral spindles that define Stage 2 sleep was discovered
and articulated many times by one of Schumann‟s students H. L. König [4]. An example is
shown in Figure 7 which shows spindle-like activity among various harmonics of the
Schumann resonance.
Figure 7. Pattern of spindle-like activity recorded locally by a Schumann unit after filtration within
each of the Schumann resonance modes. Each line represents a harmonic of the Schumann resonance
starting with the fundamental 7.8 Hz (top line) and ending with the 7th harmonic 45 Hz (bottom line).
Next a Hilbert Transform was applied to discern the envelopes (“spindle amplitudes”)
for each of the signals. The results are shown in Figure 8. The resultant signal, from a
recording that was approximately 2 hours in duration, was then re-filtered between 0 and 2 Hz
to focus primarily on the changes within the envelope over time. These data were entered into
coherence analysis to discern if any “fugal” coupling occurred between each resonance.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Figure 8. Frequency pattern within each envelope or spindle from Figure 6 after Hilbert
The results, in Figure 9, reveal a clear coupling between harmonics of the Schumann
resonance, in this instance between 7 and 45 Hz. This couplet of frequencies, 7 and 45 Hz, is
within the range of the coupling of activity found in the most fundamental activity of the
hippocampus [25]. This brain structure is essential for the formation of the representation of
particularly the spatial features of experiences that define semantic, episodic and
autobiographical memory. The “pacemaker” cells for the two frequencies displayed by the
hippocampus have been attributed to the midline structure between the two lateral ventricles,
the septum.
Figure 9. Demonstration of a type of fugal coupling between the various harmonics of the Schumann
values. This example depicts coupling specifically between the first and seventh Schumann harmonics.
Red and yellow areas indicate cross-frequency coherence intervals.
The intrinsic high amplitude population voltage of ~7 Hz (theta range) within this
mesiobasal structure within the ventral portion of the temporal lobe effectively defines the
dynamic properties of the structure. Superimposed upon this fundamental frequency are much
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
smaller amplitudes or “ripples” that range between 40 to 45 Hz. Several researchers [26] have
proposed that the 45 Hz ripples superimposed upon the theta activity within the hippocampus
allows the interaction between “memory” and “consciousness”.
The structure of the hippocampal formation, the technical definition of the hippocampus
proper and the dentate gyrus [27], is important because they are effectively a small spherical
condenser wrapped and partially interdigitated by a larger spherical condenser. This C-shaped
structure is similar to a toroid with a gap which allows a discrete leakage of magnetic flux.
According to classic electromagnetic theory geometries exhibiting this configuration are
strongly affected by polarization or phase vector [28].
The numbers of neurons within the human hippocampal formation are in the order of 1
to 107. Burke and Persinger [29] have shown quantitatively at least, that this number of
neurons contains the potential to converge with parameters of fundamental constants such as
Planck‟s mass and the hydrogen line.
The emergence of a similar temporal coupling between 7 Hz and 45 Hz patterns in the
Schumann and cerebral domains suggests that occasionally resonance might occur between
the two sources. Because the magnetic field strengths of the first Schumann harmonic and the
human brain are in the order of 2 pT shared energy occurs. The magnetic energy within the
human cerebral volume estimated by:
E = B2·(2μ)-1 m3 (4),
where B is the strength of the field, μ is the magnetic permeability and m3 is volume, results
in 2.1·10-21 J.
The energy lost when 1 bit of information is removed into entropy (or gained if
accessed from this source) according to Landauer is ln2 kT, where k is the Boltzmann
constant (1.38·10-23 J·T-1) and T is the temperature in degrees K for brain temperature is
~4.3·10-21 J. This convergence suggests that the energy shared by both the magnetic field
strength of the first harmonic of the Schumann resonance and the human cerebrum are
equivalent to the threshold where bits of information are dissipated into or acquired from
entropy. At this threshold intercalation of energy sources may not be restricted necessarily by
conventional limits of impedance, masking by thermal agitation, the “weak” strength, or
If the volume of both left and right hemispheric hippocampal formations (6 cc) were
substituted for the total cerebral volume the energy equivalence would be ~9.6 J·10-24 J.
However the power (J·s-1) required to approach the Landauer threshold would require a
frequency equivalent to the duration between 1 and 3 ms, the approximate duration of an
action potential. This value is the shortest interval for inter-hemispheric communication and is
the duration for the expansions of electrons and protons by one Planck‟s length [29]. Thus
from a simplistic resonance approach, the loss or gain of bits of information between the
Schumann sources and the human brain, would require this weak intensity magnetic field and
the fluctuating range of perturbations that are routinely generated by the human brain.
Although 1 bit per second could be considered minimal, within 24 hrs the information
would be within the tens of kilobytes. Within a 15 min period, the time required for the
growth of a new dendritic spine in the hippocampus and cerebral cortices and the spatial
representation of a “memory”, the potential shared information would be in the order of 1
kbit. This would be sufficient to affect the occurrence or non-occurrence of information
during the ephemeral period (about 15 minutes) of memory consolidation which can be
quickly “erased” by excessive electrical stimulation. When the research by Li, Poo and Dan
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
[31] is considered that experimentally demonstrated that the activity of only one neuron can
affect the state of the entire cerebral cortices, such small values are not trivial.
Additional analyses indicated in Figure 9 indicate that incidence rate at which the
couplings occurred between the 7 and 45 Hz Schumann sources. The vertical axis displays the
frequency at which the couplings occur while the horizontal axis reveals the numbers of times
they occur. The value was about 2 to 2.5 times per 1000 s or approximately once every 7
seconds. Hence even if the estimates for direct addition or removal of information is diluted
by a factor or about 10, there would be sufficient intercalation to affect neuronal processes at
the synaptic level.
Figure 9 suggests that these complex analyses of direct measurements of local
Schumann features reveal temporal clusters. If the envelopes of spindles are considered
analogous to “subject melodies” then the frequencies „harmonize” with each other over time.
The second and third order derivatives or “harmonies” could have the potential to interact
with similar changes within the human brain volume. In other words the mode of interaction
between the ionosphere-earth cavity and the cerebral cortices would me mediated through the
fugal patterns rather than the single frequency resonances.
One of the most common comments concerning the “impossibility” of the potential
interaction between or representations of Schumann resonances within human brain activity
as defined by QEEG is the very weak magnitudes of the vertical electric field (about 0.1 to 1
mV·m-2) and the horizontal magnetic field (~2 pT) for both sources. Yet most physical
perspectives one smaller volume (the human cerebrum) immersed within a much larger
volume (the earth-ionospheric shell) should share quantitative values for primary parameters.
This would be expected for organic systems that have been organized, evolved and
maintained this system since abiogenesis [32].
Empirical support for this expected interaction should be apparent considering the
sensitivity of modern QEEG and Schumann technology. There are several processes that
could facilitate interactions. If they occurred and equilibrium (B + E = k) occurred between
the Schumann (E) and brain (B) sources, negative correlations would be expected between the
magnetic field and electric field strengths for the harmonics for the Schumann modes and
corresponding power or distribution of “energy” within specific frequency intervals or
“bands” within the quantitative electroencephalographic activity for the human brain.
If an immersion model were valid it might be tested by the effect of the more expansive
source (the transglobal Schumann field strengths) upon the coherence of the more localized
source (the human brain). Coherence can be defined as the proportion of congruence between
power spectra of one source with that of another. It is typically expressed as a correlation
coefficient or its squared value which is an indicator of shared temporal variance. Hence
coherence values range from 0 to 1.
Coherence is functionally a juxtaposition of two or more or identical complex
temporal patterns that are usually displaced in time with respect to each other. One common
description is “phase-shifted”. If two sources with “identical” complex oscillations are phase
shifted completely by 90 degrees, the average would be a form of cancellation that would
emerge as “random” noise. However if the two patterns from the two sources were shifted to
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
overlap precisely within each other at the same “time”, then the coherence would be
maximum and the average strength of the coherence would be maximum.
Coherence from shifting phases requires, usually, minimal energy because the larger
proportion of energy that constructs the complex patterns is not changed. What is changed is
the energy of the dynamic process that produces the rate of change which will determine
when the patterns will occur in real time within each locus as well as the transposition of axes.
In this situation each locus is each cerebral hemisphere. This is often reflected as a first or
second derivative and is implicitly associated with symmetry of a process moving in a circle.
The immersion model predicts that as the intensity of the primary field (the Schumann
sources) increases, the intercalation between disparate but coupled asymmetrical processes in
a more or less equal volume should increase. For the human brain the two volumes refer to
the left and right hemisphere. On average the volumes of the cortices of the two hemispheres
(right larger) differ by about 10 cc. The effect should be most evident between the maximum
widths of two hemi-ellipsoids which would occur approximately at the level of the temporal
The dynamic asymmetry of the human brain has been attributed to the approximately 10
% greater white-to-grey matter ratios and blood flow in the right hemisphere which is slightly
larger and heavier than the left. The structural component for most interactions between the
two hemispheres, primarily the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, is composed of
numbers of axons that are less than 1 % of the numbers of neurons within the cerebral cortices
of either hemisphere. Hence there should be specific latencies for quantities of information to
be transmitted between the two loci.
Effectively the human cerebrum is two boundaries or loci within which processes
associated with more than 90 % of the neurons in each locus remain and do not interact
directly with the homologous area in the other hemisphere. The differences in morphological
structure between the two cerebral hemispheres have been underestimated. As shown by Van
Essen and Drury [10], only four of the shapes and lengths of the approximately 176 sulci and
gyri that comprise both human cerebral hemispheres are very similar. If structure dictates
function than the two hemispheres should have qualitatively different functions whose
integration or interface is limited by the fidelity and accuracy of interhemispheric
“Awareness” or “consciousness” in the classic “awake” sense involves a dynamic
dominance of more left hemispheric activity information. During this state the temporal
patterns (information) from right hemisphere must be represented within left hemispheric
space. The representation, because of the function of the left hemisphere, would be primarily
the images associated with verbal or symbolic labels.
The congruence or accuracy between stimuli preferentially affecting the right
hemisphere and the experience should be determined not only by the pattern of reinforcement
history of the individual (in large part determined by culture) but by the proportion of
coherence between the activities of the two hemispheres within millisecond time. Direct
measurements indicate that the shortest interhemispheric time for action potential propagation
from one area to another is in the order of 2 to 3 ms [33].
For the present experiment, the coherence strength between the left (T3) and right (T4)
temporal lobes from routine QEEG measurements from human volunteers were calculated for
those days in which the electric field strength data were also available. The electric field
waveform data for this study were accessed through the Northern California Earthquake Data
Center (NCEDC). The instrument (BQ2) was an electric field dipole situated at Jasper Ridge
Station (JRSC) in Stanford California USA, which recorded the electric field intensity (V/m)
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
40 times per second. Only data between August 2009 and August 2010 was used for this
study because the Schumann resonance 8 and 14Hz peaks were readily visible after spectral
analyses for these data.
As can be seen in Figure 10, there were moderate strength correlations between the
proportion of coherence strength between the left (T3) and right (T4) temporal lobes around
11.6 Hz and the average Schumann electric field strength (in mV· m-2) for its first harmonic (r
= 0.43, rho = 0.53) and second harmonic (r = 0.45, rho = 0.51). This pattern is conspicuous
even by visual inspection. The fact that the brain activity was measured in Sudbury, Ontario,
Canada and the electric field measurements of the Schumann data were recorded in Italy
supports the concept of the global nature of the effect.
Within the 95 % confidence band for the linear regression, the minimum to maximum
change in interhemispheric coherence involved an increase of o.2 mV·m-1 in the global field
strength. The slope was 0.32 and 0.41 respectively indicating that for every 0.1 mV·m-1
increase in the Schumann E field, coherence increased by 0.32 and 0.41 within the potential
range of 0 to 1.
If a similar field strength was induced within the human cerebral cortices, the potential
difference would be 2·10-4 V·m-1 over the cerebral length of 10-1 m or 2·10-5 V. Assuming the
classic resistivity of extracellular fluid within the brain of 2 Ω·m, the current would be 10-5
A·m-1 or, over the averaged length of the cerebrum, 10-6 A.
This current value when divided by 1.6·10-19 (A·s) ·q-1 (unit charge), indicates that the
change would be equivalent to 0.6·1013 q·s-1. Because approximately 106 unit charges are
associated with the membrane potential [34], ~0.6·107 neurons could be involved. The
estimated numbers of soma whose axons compose the corpus callosum and that intercalate the
functions of the left and right hemispheres are about 2 ·108.
On the other hand if only the fibers within the dorsal hippocampal commissure were
considered [35], approximately 0.5 to 0.7·107 neurons would be involved. This is remarkably
similar to the numbers of neurons within the hippocampal formation. Because the dynamic
changes within the parahippocampal gyrus are strongly affected by the hippocampal input and
this gyrus can influence the entire cortical manifold, this small number of neurons could affect
hemispheric coherence.
Thus, a first order estimate indicates that the proportion of neurons affected by a
Schumann-matched voltage shift would be ~1 %. This small percentage is within the range
required to produce the slight shift in discharge frequencies that would allow the population
convergence of activity between the left and right hemispheres. That our results were largest
for the temporal lobes (or a region strongly coupled to it) indicates that his region could be a
preferential locus for the influence from the ambient Schumann intensities or a region
strongly coupled to it.
The strongest correlation between the increased electric field of the first two
Schumann harmonics and the 11.6 Hz bin for coherence between the left and right temporal
lobes could suggest the emergence of a “beat” frequency from the first two harmonics within
brain space.
If the first and second harmonic of the Schumann sources were 7.8 Hz and 14.1 Hz,
the beat would be approximately 11 Hz, assuming equal biases for the intensities. The “11.6”
Hz bin is within the normal variation of the classic peak alpha power in human EEG profiles.
The width of most power curves before attenuation into background variations is between ~7
to 14 Hz.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Figure 10. Correlation between the coherence strength between the left (T3) and right (T4)
temporal lobes for subjects whose QEEGs were measured in Sudbury, Ontario and
the electric field strength of the first two Schumann harmonics in California.
The maximum correlation between Schumann electric field shifts and the coherence
between the left and right temporal lobes compared to other regions should reflect a structural
or dynamic difference compared to other regions of the brain. The ventral portions of the
temporal lobe are unique in that interhemispheric intercalation is primarily determined
through the anterior commissure rather than the corpus callosum only. The hippocampal
formation, the gateway to the representation of experiences (memory), is connected
interhemispherically through the dorsal hippocampal commissure. It occupies the anterior
one third of the splenium of the caudal corpus callosum.
In addition the middle and particularly the inferior temporal gyri are strongly influenced
by the parahippocampal gyrus. This area of the human brain may be essential for the
transduction and transformation of Schumann frequency changes for several reasons. First,
neurons within the two upper layers of the entorhinal cortices that form a significant portion
of the parahippocampal region (and the uncus) display an intrinsic (subthreshold) oscillation
with a peak around 8 Hz. The prominent sub-threshold oscillations ranged between 5.5 Hz
and 14.5 Hz [36] which would include the first and second Schumann harmonics.
This region is unique structurally. Layer II, or the layer of star cells (stratum stellare of
Stephan) exhibits large, dark staining stellar-shaped neurons with spine-covered dendrites
radiating into all three planes of space. The neurons in Layer II are clustered in “islands” or
“bands” which define the characteristics of the entorhinal cortices. These protrusions on the
cortical surface (verrucae gyri hippocampi”) are visible macroscopically. Fibers originating
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
from these cells terminate in the dentate gyrus before the information is propagated to the
hippocampus proper [37].
The mean amplitude of these subthreshold oscillations averaged 2.6 mV. This periodic
increment of potential difference upon a unit charge is equivalent to 4.2·10-21 J of energy
which is within the Landauer limit for the loss or gain of one bit of information into or from
entropy. The access to energy contained within the “random” processes that defines entropy
may reflect a component of the Zero Point Vacuum Fluctuations [38].
These phenomena, especially when Casimir forces are considered, are interconnected
with the transformation of virtual particles into real particles and could alter the limit for
interaction between and information of the “weak” electric and magnetic fields shared by the
Schumann and brain sources. As stated by Bordag et al [39] the creation of particles from a
vacuum requires energy transference from the external field to the virtual particles or vacuum
oscillations. However the boundary conditions must be dynamic or dependent upon time.
Secondly, neurons within the parahippocampal gyrus, particularly the upper two layers
of the entorhinal cortices, are the major pathway to and from the hippocampal formation.
Third, through a cascade of corticocortical projections the entire manifold of the cerebral
cortices converges within the second and third layers of the entorhinal cortices. This allows all
of the activity of the cerebral cortices to be affected by and to affect the entorhinal area. A
specific coupling or resonance between the Schumann fields and this portion of the human
brain could affect the entire cerebral cortical manifold for protracted durations. These
durations are juxtaposed and could certainly exceed the time required to form new synapses
and patterns of neuronal connections that define and determine “memory”. From some
perspectives a person is defined by his or her memories.
The parahippocampal region preferentially relays more spatial information, an essential
component for most memories. It contains dominating reciprocal connections with the
prefrontal cortices, especially the dorsolateral aspect. Consequently changes within the
parahippocampal region could alter the major cerebral region associated with reasoning, self-
monitoring and decision-making. The second major input, from the cingulate, would add the
component of emotion of the type commonly associated with bonding to another human
Fourth, the parahippocampal region is an intermodality integrator where “line codes”
from different sensory modalities such as vision and hearing are transformed to equivalent
and potentially interactive frequencies. E. R. John [40] had shown experimentally several
decades ago that learning through different modalities was transferable in a single trial if the
frequency patterns of the pulses from different modalities were identical. Interactions of input
from different modalities information could be synthesized into experiences.
The intensities of the Schumann resonance E-field 30 min before to 30 min after the
time of 16-s resting eyes-closed QEEG records for 49 subjects measured from August 2009 to
August 2010 were used for this analysis. The e-field data waveform data was accessed from
the NCDEC as previously described. Derivations of the absolute difference in voltages
between the right and left parahippocampal region from 1 to 35 Hz and the amplitude of the
mean activity between 7.8 to 8 Hz were correlated.
Preliminary analyses indicated that there was a conspicuous increase in correlation
strength between the first Schumann harmonic and 9-10Hz activity within the
parahippocampal region. The strength of the Pearson and Spearman correlations were -.50
and -.49, respectively. In other words as shown in Figure 11, as the intensity of the
fundamental 7.8 to 8 Hz Schumann frequency increased the absolute discrepancy between the
right and left parahippocampal regions decreased.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
This would be consistent with an increased coherence between the two hemispheres as
observed between the left and right temporal lobes.
Figure 11. Correlation between the intensity of the contemporary fundamental electric field of the
Schumann resonance in California and the net difference in current density as measured by sLORETA
for the 9 to 10 Hz band between the left and right parahippocampal regions for 49 subjects whose
QEEGs were measured between 2009 and 2010.
It is also evident that an absolute shift in current density ratios between the right and left
parahippocampal region of more than 100 units (1 to 100 μA·mm-2) was associated with a
range change of only about 0.2 mV in the electric field component of the fundamental
Schumann frequency. Approximately 10 μA within a cross-sectional area occupied by the
parahippocampal region convergences with the activity of the numbers of neurons likely to be
involved with intercalation of left and right temporal lobes. This occurred with an increase of
only 0.1 mV·m-1 of the Schumann electric field.
If the amplitude of the fundamental Schumann frequency was in the lower range, the
current density would be 100 times larger. This would indicate the right hemisphere was more
active than the left. Even when general metabolic activity or peak-to-peak voltages of alpha
rhythms are considered the “default” condition is for more energetic utilization or potential
difference within the right hemisphere compared to the left.
If the interaction between the Schumann and cerebral cortical voltages were in the right
hemisphere, then the resonance would facilitate a reduction in current density. The diminished
current density in the right parahippocampal region might be dissipated extracerebrally, that
is, in the direction of the ionospheric-earth resonance cavity.
We have not correlated the relationship between simultaneous electric or magnetic field
components of the Schumann resonance and cerebral power or coherence during REM (rapid
eye movement) or dreaming conditions. These periods occur once every approximately 90 to
120 min for about 5 to 10 minutes during the first episode to 10 to 20 minutes towards the
termination of the sleeping period. During REM there is a marked increased in cerebral blood
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
flow and general cerebral metabolic activity, including the protein synthesis associated with
memory consolidation, as well as cardiac arrhythmia.
An equilibrium model would predict that during this period there should be an increase
in current density within the right parahippocampal region as the Schumann amplitudes
decrease. That would suggest the direction of this metaphoric “Poynting vector” would be
towards the intracerebral locus. The direction of the equilibrium would be from the ubiquitous
Schumann sources into the right hemisphere. Thus over the diurnal period there would be an
oscillation or vectorial property with respect to the direction of the brain-Schumann
Considering the caudal position of the splenium and the dorsal hippocampal
commissure, one would expect a more likely representation of Schumann frequencies within
the caudal portions of the human cerebrum. This predominance has been supported directly
by our QEEG measurements. To discern the relationship in greater detail a data set consisting
of spectral densities (N = 18) from the caudal root-mean-square of the posterior channels (T5,
P3, Pz, T6, O1, O2) as well as the spectral densities for the electric field measured in Italy
were combined and compared. The electric field data was provided courtesy of Mr. Renato
Romero who continuously monitors very-low frequency electric field perturbations with a
Marconi-T antenna.
Canonical correlations between the various frequencies from this cerebral composite
and the spectral densities of the E-field data from the Schumann frequencies indicated that
14.65 Hz or the presence of the second Schumann harmonic within brain activity was a strong
predictor. Both parametric and non-parametric correlations showed consistent negative
correlations. The effect sizes, the square of the correlation coefficient, when graphed as a
function of frequency displayed peaks that were very similar to Schumann resonances with
the strongest effects for the first three harmonics.
Figure 12 shows this association. The effect size was about 0.4, indicating that 40 % of
the variance was shared between the route-mean-square of the posterior brain activity and the
range of the Schumann electric field. The overlap is particularly prevalent for the second and
third harmonic. The second harmonic has been shown mathematically to be a possible
interface between gravitational waves and the earth‟s ionospheric-earth cavity [41].
The increased coherence between left and right temporal lobes by an increase of only
0.1 mV·m-1 may be critical for cosmological interface. A comparable change in potential over
the cerebral cortices, assuming a length of 10-1 m, is 1·10-5 V. The effect on a unit charge of
1.6·10-19 A·s would be 1.6·10-24 J. The quantum frequency, obtained by dividing by Planck‟s
constant (6.626·10-34 J·s) is 2.4·109 Hz which is very proximal to the neutral hydrogen line
that permeates the universe.
When the correlations between cerebral spectral density and the Schumann E fields
were lagged and lead, the associations were still statistically significant within a three day
window. Additional lag/lead analyses indicated that the relationship was no longer
statistically significant for two weeks. This suggests that the temporal interval for direct
coupling between the cerebral and terrestrial sources could be limited. Interesting 10 days was
the first peak in power density for spectral analyses of Schumann intensities that were not
related to solar effects according to Nicolaenko and Hayakawa [3].
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Figure 12. The effect size (correlation coefficient squared) for the association between the caudal 14.7
Hz QEEG activity in Sudbury and Schuman E field spectral density in Italy and the frequency band of
the E field. Note the strongest correlation for the first three harmonics of the Schumann resonance.
If “gravity” waves share a similar source of variance to Zero Point Vacuum Potentials
[37], then the “coincidental” similarities of the threshold Landauer value for information
dissipation into entropy or its emergence from it and the amplitude fluctuations of the ~8 Hz
subthreshold variations could reflect one intercept between human brain activity, the
Schumann frequencies and “gravitational” phenomena.
Although gravitational phenomena are often considered too weak to be of significance
for biological matter, there is quantitative evidence that the energies are within the range of
those relevant to cell membranes [42] and interactions with cerebral-electromagnetic
interactions [43]. The alternative explanation for gravitational phenomena and dark matter
developed by Borowski [44] suggests there are relationships yet to be discerned.
Applications of the calculations by Ahmed et al [45] to bulk cerebral cortical velocities
of 4.5 m·s-1 indicated that the effects of gravity as inferred by weightlessness upon the human
EEG would be about ~3 to 4 parts per 10 million. When divided by the common frequency in
the universe, 1.42 GHz, the emergent duration would be 20 and 30 ms or the recursive
cerebral waves associated with consciousness. This interesting solution suggests that the
subtle effects of gravity or its intrinsic variations [46] could interface with the phase-
modulations of cerebral activity.
Phase-modulation has often been considered the most effective means to propagate the
most information over great distances. One solution is:
t/(v2·c-2) (5),
where, t is the reference time, v is the velocity and c is the velocity of light. Because the
median frequency of the electromagnetic fields associated with lightning, the sources of the
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
Schumann resonance, is between 10 kHz and 100 kHz, the ∆c·c-1 is 0.05 according to Tu et al
[47]. This indicates that the means of the phase shifts for every second would be ~(0.9897)-1
or in the order of 15 to 20 ms. This value is congruent with the phase comparisons of
approximately 10 to 20 ms associated with the ~40 Hz integrated waves that spread over the
entire cerebral cortical mantle. Quantitatively, the conditions are set for resonance interactions
and exchange of information between the cerebrum, the ionospheric-earth cavity,
gravitational waves, and potentially astronomical sources.
Our calculations indicate that only a 0.1 mV per m increase in the electric field of the
global Schumann fundamental frequency is sufficient to increase the coherence from the
lower one-third to the upper one-third of the potential range between the left and right
temporal lobes of the human brain. If this can be generalized then the involvement of 0.6·107
neurons with implicit or active shifts in potential of ~10-20 J per s associated with a given
action potential would be 0.6·10-13 J.
Over the cross-sectional area of the cerebral cortices (~10-2 m2) the 0.6·10-13 J·s-1 would
be equivalent to a flux density of ~0.6·10-11 W·m-2. This value is within range of fluctuation
of measurement error for the increases in photons that emerge from the right hemisphere
when people sitting in hyper-dark chambers engage in imagination of white light compared to
more mundane thoughts [48]. This convergence could suggest that the processes involved
with this light emission from the human brain is coupled to the degree of coherence and
dynamic intercalation between the two hemispheres rather than more direct metabolic activity
of cerebral cortical activity.
In the sample population of approximately 200 brains that were measured by QEEG
within more or less the same conditions (in a quiet, Faraday room, darkened and subject
instructed to close eyes and relax), only 34 subjects exhibited strong Schumann resonances
intensities in the spectral densities of their 10-20 sensor array. Such individual differences
would be expected if this phenomenon were like any other natural phenomenon. If the data
are representative of the human population than about 25 % of the population would exhibit
electroencephalographic power densities that reflect the Schumann harmonics.
The most conspicuous appearance of the Schumann resonances within the brain power
densities occurred for the caudal regions of the cerebrum. This would be consistent with a
particular sensitivity of this region. We suggest that the source of this sensitivity may be to
the influence from the parahippocampal region because the actual locus for the dorsal
hippocampal commissure is located within the anterior one-third of the splenium of the
corpus callosum. The splenium is the primary source of interhemispheric fibers that
intercalate visual, auditory-visual, and visual-spatial information between the left and right
If the primary means by which the effects of the Schumann-related intensities and
information are mediated between the “dreaming” and “unconscious” right hemisphere and
the left hemisphere (associated with awareness and consciousness) is the dorsal hippocampal
commissure within the anterior one-third of the corpus callosum, then “memory” would be
one of the primary areas of influence for the Schumann-cerebrum interaction. It is relevant
that electrical lability or (limbic) epileptic events involving this pathway produce a single,
powerful effect: amnesia [35].
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
A less extreme condition where mass depolarization would not occur but rather the
normal flow of information between the hippocampal structures would only be modulated by
Schumann-sourced electromagnetic fields could modify the memory consolidation. The
retrieval and experience of “a memory” that is different from a fantasy, a dream, or an actual
representation of experience involve the integrity and integrative activity of the right
prefrontal region. The modified “consolidations of experiences” could be experienced as
actual memories.
Although the moderate correlations between the averaged values per day for the
measures of mV·m-1 (vertical) from the Schumann measurements at a distance and QEEG
activity completed in our laboratory strongly supports effects from distal sources, a real time-
coupled demonstration was ultimately required. For this measurement a volunteer lay in
supine position approximately 1 m away from and parallel with the Schumann (Herbert)
system shown in Figure 2. The subject wore the 10-20 sensor cap (Electro-Cap International;
19 AgCl sensors). Thirty (30) minutes of simultaneous data were collected.
The input from the sensory (EEG) cap and the input from the induction coil
magnetometer were directed to the Mitsar 201 amplifier (input range ±500 μV, 16 bit
analogue-digital conversion) system so the raw voltage fluctuations in real time could be
visualized. An example of the results is shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13. Sample (about 5 s) electroencephalographic voltage pattern from the different sensor sites
over the skull (indicated by traditional identifiers) and the voltage fluctuations associated with the
simultaneous recording of the Schumann resonance.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
A sixty (60)-second segment of EEG/EM data for which the Schumann resonance was
readily apparent within the EM signal during initial spectral screening within WinEEG was
exported. Once imported into MATLAB the EEG data were filtered between 1.5 and 40 Hz
and caudal root mean-squared signals were obtained by averaging the square of posterior
sensors (T5, P3, Pz, P4, O1, O2) in accordance with our usual methods. The caudal RMS as
well as the signals from the magnetometer were then consolidated and z-scored. These data
were then entered into Delorme and Makeig‟s [49] EEGLab for the computation of channel
cross coherence.
Figure 14. Sample record (about 10 s) of the composite EEG from the caudal portions of the subjects
cerebrum (EEG) and the Schumann resonance (EM) measured 1 m away. The horizontal axis is real
time in ms while the vertical axis is frequency. The first, second and third harmonic of the Schumann
resonance measured with the magnetometer were coherent with the 8, 13, and 20Hz activity occurring
within the integrated caudal root-mean-square signal. The yellow indicates weak (0.30 coherence
while the red indicates stronger (0.5 to 0.7) coherence. In the first panel (below the raw data) the
coherence durations in the indicated frequencies occurred primarily as brief periods between 0.3 s to
about 2 s. The phase shift is noted in the lower panel. The phase shift for this event at 7.8 Hz with
cerebral activity was equivalent to about 41.9 ms. “Harmonic synchrony” or simultaneous coherence
across two or more harmonics (possibly 4 or 5 with different magnitudes of coherence) is indicated by
the vertical dotted line.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
The results of the coherence analyses are shown in Figure 14. “Harmonic synchrony”
coherence between two or more frequencies at the same time involved four and perhaps 5
bands (if weaker coherence values are included). This synchrony is indicated by the vertical
dotted line. The analyses revealed moderately strong coherence (0.7) between the 8, 13 and
20Hz Schumann frequencies measured from the magnetometer and the power within the
person‟s electroencephalographic activity at 8, 13, and 20 Hz respectively. The durations of
the coherence were transient but consistent and extended between 0.3 s to about 2 s (red). The
weaker coherences (yellow) were more protracted. Less frequent episodes of very brief strong
coherence was evident in the 30 Hz range.
The phase shift (in degrees) of the coherence is shown in the multicolored bottom panel
for this “Harmonic” event. The green indicates no phase shift, that is, a coupling between the
7.8 Hz Schumann fundamental and the various spectral power bands of the EEG.
Qualitatively the periods of no phase shift suggested as irregular vertical patterns across most
frequencies are interspersed with more irregular distributions over scattered frequencies at the
±180° shift. The mean phase shift for this subject was about 42 ms or -118° which indicated
that, for example, the 7.8Hz activity occurring within the earth-ionosphere lead the 7.8 Hz
activity occurring in the caudal regions of the cerebrum.
To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional and time-coupled
relationship between the areas of the human brain associated with the representation of
Schumann resonances and the actual real-time occurrence of these resonances. The moderate
strength coherence value was similar to what was found for the brain activity of our larger
population and Schuman E field values from Italy and California, based upon daily values.
The present measurement involved effectively continuous 2 ms to 2 ms (500 Hz sampling for
both the Schumann and brain activity) sequences and revealed similar strength concordance.
The fact that the periods of coherence between Schumann resonance and brain activity
within frequencies that matched the Schumann harmonics were brief, ranging from about 0.25
s to about 2 s and irregular temporally is more typical of nature phenomena than of artifact. If
they were related to a shared artifact the coherence would be have been continuous which it
was not.
Although perhaps spurious we think it is interesting that the range of the strength of the
coherence between the Schumann eigenfrequencies and the harmonics within the cerebral
cortical activity of this subject would be consistent with the standard deviations of the
magnetic component for the 7.8 Hz fundamental, about 2 to 3 pT, and the calculated and
inferred strength of the global cerebral cortical of 2 to 3 pT. From this perspective the
inclusion of diffusivity term (Equation 2) for the calculation of the 2 to 3 pT we derived from
the μV variations for the cerebral magnetic field is directly relevant.
If the human cerebral and the Schumann resonances are coupled then a mechanism
implicitly connected to diffusivity through a magnetic medium would be expected if not
required [50]. The involvement of the magnetic diffusivity term in deriving pT fields which
when divided into the range of potential differences generated by Schumann resonances and
cerebral cortical activity (10-3 m-1) approaches a velocity term for photons in a vacuum
might help relate the chemistry, physics and astronomical variables shared by these “micro”
and “macro” spherical wave conductors.
The representation of Schumann resonances within the human EEG profile in context of
the normal power peak of ~10-11 Hz or between the first and second harmonic of the
Schumann series could have had adaptive value. If the cerebral power profile was bimodal or
8 Hz and 14 Hz, the probability of more continuous congruence with the information
contained within the Schumann carriers or wave guide would have increased.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
If our inferences are even partially valid concerning the coupling or equilibrium of the
magnetic field and electric field intensities between the Schumann and human cerebral
cortical sources, then near-continuous earth-ionosphere-brain interaction could dominate brain
activity. It may be relevant that two major populations of human beings sometimes display a
“splitting” power spectrum that drifts upwards toward 14 Hz and downwards towards 7 Hz.
The first is a subpopulation of human beings often diagnosed with terms such as
schizophrenia. The second is the geriatric population, particularly when the cerebral
histological changes emerge that are most frequently correlated with senile dementia.
The physical properties, complexity, and temporal congruence between real-time
Schumann and brain values in our laboratory indicate that these considerations may have
significant implications for the recondite influence of this planetary biofrequency source.
The phenomena of consciousness are often attributed to a relatively wide band of
electrical fluctuations in the order of about 2 μV·Hz-1 within the 40 Hz range. This is
equivalent to about 25 ms which is within the range of the recursive, coherent waves of
electroencephalographic potentials that move in a rostral to caudal direction over the cerebral
hemispheres during the waking and rapid eye movement (REM) or dream states [15].
Assuming the average of 2·10-6 V for this activity through the cerebral cortical tissue for
which the intracellular resistivity is ~2 Ω·m, the current would be 10-6 A·m-1 and when
applied across the averaged linear distance of the cerebrum (~10-1 m), would be 10-7 A per
human brain. For the present population of ~7·109 human brains, the summed current is 7·102
A and when spread over the surface of the earth (5·1014 m2) is about 1.4·10-12 A·m-2. For
comparison the mean of the air-earth current over land is about 2.0 ±0.3 ·10-12 A·m-2 [51].
There are several independent indicators to discern this current density. According to
Hill [52] a typical columnar resistance of 6·1016 Ω·m2 is evident up to 6 km; the total
columnar resistance is ~8·1016 Ω·m2. The fair weather field at an altitude of 6 km is 2.2·105 V
with a slight increase to 2.8·105 V within the domain of the electrosphere. Distributed over the
surface of the earth, the current might be as high as 3.5·10-12 A·m-2.
One increment of magnetic field intensity associated with QEEG activity within the
human cerebrum has been shown to be ~2·10-12 T. The product of magnetic flux density
(kg·A-1·s-2), current density (A·m-2) and magnetic diffusivity (m2·s-1), one potential process
by which brain that share the earth‟s magnetic field or common current density might be
associated, is kg·s-3 or W·m-2. Assuming the value of 10-12 T for either the functional
magnetic field intensity of human cerebral activity or the first harmonic of the Schumann
Resonance, 10-12 A·m-2 current density for either the earth-air value or the average for all of
the brains of the human population, and 106 m2·s-1 (from (μ·ρ)-1 where μ is magnetic
permeability (4π·10-7 N·A-2) and ρ = the inverse of 2·Ω·m or 0.5 S, the radiant flux density
would be ~10-18 W·m-2.
The significance of this relatively small flux density becomes apparent when it is
applied over the cross-sectional area of human cerebrum (cortex), about 10-2 m2. The
resulting value is 10-20 W or J·s-1. This is the unit energy for a single action potential. Energy
is the square root of the product of voltage-squared, the band width, and Coulombs (A·s) 2.
For the typical voltage (2μV) of the QEEG across a band width of 100 Hz (where actual
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
cerebral activity can range over 500 Hz) and unit charge is 1.6·10-19 A·s, the square root of
the E2 of 1·10-40 J2 is about 1·10-20 J [53]. This relates the single energy associated with the
action potential with the unit reflective of the operation of the whole cortices.
In addition the sharing of the solution for a velocity term that approaches c for the
fundamental electric and magnetic fields for both the human brain and the earth-ionosphere
cavity introduces the potential for quantum process coupled with photons emission and
absorption. The time required for a photon with a velocity of c to traverse the plasma cell
membrane (10-8 m) of a neuron is about 10-16 s which is sufficient to converge with a single
orbit of an electron thus allowing information from outside of the brain to influence brain
matter and for brain matter to affect the photons emitted into space.
The quantitative mathematical solutions and data presented here strongly support
previous and pioneering research that there is a direct connection between electromagnetic
properties of the earth-ionosphere cavity and human cerebral activity. Generally speaking, the
correlations observed between human quantitative encephalograms measured within our
laboratory and the Schumann resonance measured here, in California and Italy suggests that
the earth-ionosphere-brain connection is not bounded by local perturbations but exists across
the entirety of the planet. The cerebral representations appear to be mediated through
structures located within the caudal aspect of the brain, especially the temporal lobe.
While we have not systematically assessed structures outside of this general locus,
previous experiments involving correlation and simulated geomagnetic activity suggest a
strong involvement. The simultaneous recording of the Schumann resonances within an
induction magnetometer and brain activity with a QEEG indicates that there are discrete
temporal increments in which the Schumann resonances harmonize with the brain with phase
shifts approaching 40 milliseconds.
This manuscript is dedicated to the late Dr. H.L. König in appreciation for his efforts in confirming the presence
of the Schumann resonance and for his insight into its similarity and possible relevance for the human brain.
Thanks to Mr. John Carscallen and Mr. Renato Romero for their technical expertise during the construction of
the preamplifier for “Herbert”. The first author would personally like to thank Sam and Helen Saroka for their
assistance in Herbert‟s construction.
[1] M. A. Persinger, Frontiers in Neuroscience 6 (2012), article 19.
[2] M. A. Persinger, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 11 (2014)
[3] A. Nickolaeno, M. Hayakawa, Schumann Resonances for Tyros. Springer, Tokyo, 2014.
[4] H. L. König, A. P. Krueger, S, Lang, W. Sonnig, Biologic Effects of Environmental
Electromagnetism. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1981.
[5] N. Cherry, Natural Hazards 26 (2002) 279-331.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
[6] W. Hume-Rothery, Electrons, Atoms, Metals and Alloys 1963 Dover, N.Y.
[7] A. V. Streltsov, T. Guido, B. Tulegenov, J. Labenski, C.-L. Chang, Journal of
Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 119 (2104) 110-115.
[8] S. M. Blinkov, I. I. Glezer, The Human Brain in Figures and Tables: A Quantitative
Handbook. Plenum Press, New York, 1968.
[9] B. Pakkenberg, J. G. Gundersen, The Journal of Comparative Neurology 384 (1997)
[10] D. C. Van Essen, H. A. Drury, The Journal of Neuroscience 17 (1997) 7079-7102.
[11] A. Bragin, C. L. Wilson, R J. Staba, M. Reddick, I. Fried, J. Engel, Annals of Neurology
52 (2002) 407-415.
[12] E. Niedermeyer, F. Lopes Da Silva, Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical
Applications and Related Fields. Urban and Schwartzenbert, Baltimore, 1987.
[13] D. Kahn, H. F. Pace-Schott, J. A. Hobson, Neuroscience 78 (1997) 13-38.
[14] P. L. Nunez, Neocortical Dynamics and Human EEG Rhythms. Oxford University Press,
New York, 1995.
[15] R. R. Llinas, D. Pare, Neuroscience 44 (1991) 521-535.
[16] T. Koenig, L. Prichep, L. Lehmann, D. V. Sosa, E. Braker, H. Kleinlogel, R. Ishehart, E.
R. John, NeuroImage 16 (2002) 41-48.
[17] D. Lehmann, W. K. Strik, B. Henggeler, T. Koenig, M. Koukkou, International Journal
of Psychophysiology 29 (1998) 1-11.
[18] G. Ryskin, New Journal of Physics 11 (1995) 0603015.
[19] J. P. Wilswo, J. P. Barach, J. A. Freeman, Science 208 (1980) 53-55.
[20] C. Pantev, S. Makeig, M. Joke, R. Galambos, S. Hampson, C. Gallen, Proceedings for
the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A. 88 (1991) 8996-9000.
[21] R. Sandyk, Journal of Alternative and Complimentary Medicine 3 (1997) 365-386.
[22] P. A. Anninos, N. Tsagas, R. Sandyk, K. Derpapas, International Journal of
Neuroscience 60 (1991) 141-171.
[23] J. C. Booth, S. A. Koren, M. A. Persinger, International Journal of Neuroscience 115
(2005) 1039-1065.
[24] D.D. Sentman, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics Vol I, H. Volland (Editor).
CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1995.
[25] G. Buzaski, Neuron 33 (2002) 325-340.
[26] M. F. Bear, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 93 (1996)
[27] D. G. Amaral, R. Insausti, in G. Paxinos (Ed) The Human Nervous System, Academic
Press, New York, 1990, pp. 711-754.
[28] D. R. Corson, D. Lorrain, Introduction to Electromagnetism and Waves. W. H. Freeman,
San Francisco, 1962.
International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 20(2) (2014) 166-194
[29] R. C. Burke, M. A. Persinger, NeuroQuantology 11 (2013) 1-7.
[30] M. A. Persinger, S. A. Koren, International Journal of Neuroscience 117 (2007)
[31] C-Y. T. Li, M-m. Poo, Y. Dan, Science 324(2009) 643-645.
[32] E. R. Graf, F. E. Cole in M. A. Persinger (ed) ELF and VLF Electromagnetic Field
Effects, Plenum Press, N.Y., 1974.
[33] F. Aboitz, A. B. Scheibel, R. S. Fisher, E. Zaidel, Brain Research 2 (1992) 143-153.
[34] M. A. Persinger, Current Medicinal Chemistry 17 (2010) 3094-3098.
[35] P. Gloor, V. Salanova, A. Olivier, L. F. Quesney, Brain 116 (1993) 1249-1273.
[36] A. Alonso, R. Klink, Journal of Neurophysiology 70 (1993) 128-143.
[37] P. Gloor, The Temporal Lobe and Limbic System. Oxford, N.Y., 1997.
[38] H. E. Puthoff, Physical Review A General Physics 39 (1989) 2333-2342.
[39] M. Bordag, U. Mohideen, V. M. Mostepanenko, Physics Reports 353 (2001) 1-205.
[40] E. R. John, Mechanisms of Memory. New York: Academic Press, 1967.
[41] A. A. Minakov, A. P. Nikolaenko, L. M. Rabinovich, Radiofizika 35 (1992) 488-497.
[42] M. A. Persinger, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 2 (2014)
[43] M. A. Persinger, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 19 (2014)
[44] Tomasz Borowski, International Letters of Chemistry, Physics and Astronomy 11 (2013)
[45] S. N. Ahmed, S. A. Kamal, K. A. Siddiqui, S. A. Husain, M. Naeem, Kar University
Journal of Science 5 (1997) 19024.
[46] M. A. Persinger, L. S. St-Pierre, International Journal of Geosciences 5 (2014) 450-452.
[47] L. C. Tu, J. Luo, G. T. Gilles, Reports on Progress in Physics 68 (2005) 1-110.
[48] B. T. Dotta, K. S. Saroka, M. A. Persinger, Neuroscience Letters 513 (2012) 72-80.
[49] A. Delorme, S. MaKeig, Journal of Neuroscience Methods 134 (2004) 9-21.
[50] M. A. Persinger, The Open Biology Journal 6 (2013) 8-13.
[51] H. Volland, Handbook of Atmospherics Volume I, CRC Press, Boca Baton (Fla), 1982,
pp. 66.
[52] R. Hill, Pure and Applied Geophysics 84 (1971) 67-74.
[53] M. A. Persinger, C. F. Lavallee, Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (2012) 128-153.
( Received 18 September 2014; accepted 01 October 2014 )
... Their data suggests that a transfer of information takes place between the Earth's magnetic fields and human brains. Many of the SR frequencies can be clearly seen in the EEG profiles of most human brain activity [37,97] and the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic fields in human EEG activity are similar to those of the SR (1 to 2 picotesla). In addition, the spectral power within the profiles of men and women displayed repeated transient periods of coherence (synchronization) with the first three resonant frequencies of the SR (7 to 8 hertz, 13 to 14 hertz, and 19 to 20 hertz) in real time. ...
... Persinger has conducted numerous studies examining the effects of magnetic fields, with the same magnitude as the geomagnetic field, on brain functions and information transfer [37,97]. He too suggests that the earth's magnetic field can act as a carrier of information between individuals' neural networks [36]. ...
Full-text available
The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, international effort that conducts research on interactions between humans and the Earth's magnetic field environment as well as collective intention on promoting peace, and harmony. In order to carry out one aspect of the interconnectedness research, GCI has created a Global Coherence Monitoring System (GCMS), which is comprised of a network of six magnetometers specifically designed to measure geomagnetic and resonant frequencies in Earth's magnetic fields, such as Schumann resonances, Alven waves and other field-line resonances. The finding from this line of research suggests that global collective behaviors and numerous human physiological rhythms are affected by and in some cases synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity. Additionally, we discuss why the majority of research conducted thus far has focused on how disruptions in the earth's magnetic fields are associated with adverse effects on health and behaviors. However, it is important to note, that solar and geomagnetic activity can also have a positive impact on human physiology and health. Furthermore, we believe there is an even more fundamental and important aspect of the earth's magnetic fields that can be utilized to help lift human consciousness. We propose that the earth's magnetic fields provide a plausible mechanism that interconnects and non-locally distributes information to all living systems on our planet. We review several independent lines of research that support the hypothesis that the earth's magnetic fields can act as a carrier of and encoded by physiologically patterned and relevant information. The four primary hypotheses of the GCI are articulated and the existing theoretical and experimental support for each hypothesis is discussed.
... In a study conducted by K. S. Saroka it was confirmed that there is a direct relationship between the Earth's ionosphere electromagnetic vibration properties (measured by Schuman frequencies) and human brain activity (electroencephalogram, i.e., Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, Gamma wave ranges). The study found that particularly pronounced interactions were observed with the temporal brain sections [11]. Rusov and others have investigated the positive impact of Earth's magnetic field on the stability of human brain biorhythms, mainly in the Delta and Theta frequency range [12]. ...
... At the beginning of the week in the morning significant negative correlations were observed in GMF in SAlpha [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Hz band and QRS duration ( (21) = -0.538; = 0.012), similar correlations were found between GMF in SBeta [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] Hz band and QRS duration ( (21) = -0.570; ...
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to identify the interactions between Earth's local time varying magnetic field and cardiovascular system parameters in women, performing sedentary work, during their workweek. The tasks of research: 1. To examine the relationship between the Earth's local magnetic field and the electrocardiographic parameters of women performing sedentary work, during the workweek. 2. To examine the relationship between the Earth's local magnetic field and arterial blood pressure of women performing sedentary work, during the work week. The methods used: electrocardiographic monitoring and arterial blood pressure measurement. The Earth's magnetic field data was obtained using a magnetometer located in the town of Baisogala. Every female was assessed four times: before and after work on Monday, before and after work on Friday of the same week. Participants of the research: the research group consisted of 21 females who perform sedentary work (average age ± SD – 50.1±9.5 years). Conclusions of the research: 1. The most significant correlations between local GMF and ECG and arterial blood pressure parameters were found with the low frequency field, the most often in SDelta [0-3.5] Hz and STheta [3.5-7] Hz bands. 2. The correlations between ECG parameters (RR, JT and QRS intervals ant ST amplitude) during the workweek changed from negative to positive, which appears to be associated with fatigue influence on person sensitivity to local GMF. 3. Systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure changed in different ways. The correlations between local GMF and diastolic arterial blood pressure were especially pronounced. 4. All ECG and arterial blood pressure parameters showed great variability in correlation with local GMF. It can be associated with changing human sensitivity to GMF due to increasing fatigue.
... The highest correlations between the SRs and brain rhythms occurred when the magnetic activity was increased. Persinger et al. have also studied SR and EEG activity the in real-time and have shown that many of the SR frequencies can be observed in the power spectrums of most human brain activity 83,84 . They have also shown that the spectral profiles within the EEG activity displayed recurrent transient segments of real-time coherence (synchronization) with the first three resonant frequencies of the SRs (7-8 Hz, [13][14][19][20]. ...
... Also supporting a beneficial effect of enhanced SRP is a study that found reduced systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure during times of higher SRP 99 . Persinger and colleagues have conducted a number of studies showing that not only are the base rhythms of the brain similar, but real-time coherence between Schumann resonances and brainwaves can occur in participants globally, and that the intensity of the Schumann resonance is linearly related to the amount of coherence 83,100 . They also have proposed that information transfer can occur between human brains and the Schumann resonances 84 . ...
Full-text available
This long-term study examined relationships between solar and magnetic factors and the time course and lags of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded for 72 consecutive hours each week over a five-month period in 16 participants in order to examine ANS responses during normal background environmental periods. HRV measures were correlated with solar and geomagnetic variables using multivariate linear regression analysis with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons after removing circadian influences from both datasets. Overall, the study confirms that daily ANS activity responds to changes in geomagnetic and solar activity during periods of normal undisturbed activity and it is initiated at different times after the changes in the various environmental factors and persist over varying time periods. Increase in solar wind intensity was correlated with increases in heart rate, which we interpret as a biological stress response. Increase in cosmic rays, solar radio flux, and Schumann resonance power was all associated with increased HRV and parasympathetic activity. The findings support the hypothesis that energetic environmental phenomena affect psychophysical processes that can affect people in different ways depending on their sensitivity, health status and capacity for self-regulation.
... Pobachenko et al. [61] monitored the SRs and EEGs of 15 individuals over a six week period, and found that variations in the EEG were correlated with changes in the SR across the daily cycle, and the largest correlations between the EEGs and SRs were during periods of higher magnetic activity. Persinger et al. have also studied EEG activity and the SR in real-time, and demonstrated that several of the SR frequencies are clearly found in the spectral profiles of human brain activity [62,63]. In their studies, they found that the power within the EEG spectral profiles had repeated periods of coherence with the first three SR resonance frequencies (7)(8)(13)(14)(19)(20) in real-time. ...
... This suggests a beneficial effect of increased SRP, which was also supported by findings of reduced diastolic, systolic, and mean blood pressure during periods of higher SRP [79]. In addition, Persinger has conducted studies showing that the primary frequencies of the human brain are similar to SRs, and that real-time coherence between human brainwaves and the SRs can occur globally, with the power of the SRs being related to the degree of coherence [62,80]. The weak and negative correlations found in this study are likely due to several factors. ...
Full-text available
A coupling between geomagnetic activity and the human nervous system’s function was identified by virtue of continuous monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) and the time-varying geomagnetic field over a 31-day period in a group of 10 individuals who went about their normal day-to-day lives. A time series correlation analysis identified a response of the group’s autonomic nervous systems to various dynamic changes in the solar, cosmic ray, and ambient magnetic field. Correlation coefficients and p values were calculated between the HRV variables and environmental measures during three distinct time periods of environmental activity. There were significant correlations between the group’s HRV and solar wind speed, Kp, Ap, solar radio flux, cosmic ray counts, Schumann resonance power, and the total variations in the magnetic field. In addition, the time series data were time synchronized and normalized, after which all circadian rhythms were removed. It was found that the participants’ HRV rhythms synchronized across the 31-day period at a period of approximately 2.5 days, even though all participants were in separate locations. Overall, this suggests that daily autonomic nervous system activity not only responds to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity, but is synchronized with the time-varying magnetic fields associated with geomagnetic field-line resonances and Schumann resonances.
... These Schumann Resonance fields are in the order of 10 -12 T and a few tens of mV per meter.In other words the average magnetic and electric field strengths within the harmonics of ~8 Hz, 14 Hz, and potentially 20 Hz, and 26 Hz peaks are within the same order of magnitude as those within the cerebral volume of the human brain. Recently Saroka and Persinger [53] demonstrated that the Schumann Resonance frequencies within the QEEG data of dozens of subjects were correlated with those generated within the earthionospheric waveguide. The power densities of both were coherent in real time. ...
... If the applied field to every electron is the "averaged" cerebral magnetic field of ~3 pT [53], the change in magnetic moment is in the order of 10 -41 A·m 2 . This aggregate is the same as Joules per Tesla.The matter of the human brain like all matter within the planet and solar system are immersed with galactic magnetic fields with intensities in the order of 10 -11 T [86]. ...
... Similarities of basic frequencies, harmonics, magnetic field intensities, voltages, band widths, and energetic solutions between the Schumann resonances in the space between earth and ionosphere and the activity within the human cerebral cortices suggest the capacity for direct interaction [93]. Every cell in our body is bathed in an internal and external environment of fluctuating invisible magnetic forces that can affect virtually every cell and circuit in biological systems [94]. ...
Full-text available
Human Consciousness is one of most elusive issues in the scientific history. Its nature created major historical debate started thousands of years ago and still ongoing. Despite the explosive developments in the last 6 decades to explore its nature, the knowledge about it is still deficient. The important advances in the twentieth and 21st centuries in understanding cerebral cortex dynamics fortified by the dominant materialistic philosophical approach of the era dictated its impact on consciousness science, which is understood as sole human brain function. This chapter is a call for holistic perception of human consciousness incorporating the ancient wisdom of the human civilizations with the massive current advances in different disciplines of applied sciences. The description of René Descartes in the 17th century of the Cartesian dualism is timely to revisit with new holistic perspective, in view of the major advances of our understanding of heart brain communications, astrophysical resonances with, human heart and central nervous system frequencies, and signaling between humans and their large environment. Neural and psychological correlates of human consciousness which dominate the consciousness research nowadays should undergo revolutionary conceptual understanding to perceive consciousness as a massive universal event expanding from human genes to galaxies with cerebral cortex as major player.
... It is complicated to compare data from different studies due to precisely this variety of parameters. We use 120Hz because this value is a multiple of one of the Schumann's resonances, which in the scientific literature has been found to be essential for human's health [17,18], an example of application is the reference [5]. ...
Full-text available
We analyze the effects of an Electromagnetic Field of 120 Hz, on the frequency total of T Lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+) in chronic ulcers, provoked on rats, and judging their effect with respect to the known immunomodulators as Transfer Factor ad Interferon-β. We employed an animal model based on the use of Wistar type rats. The frequency of T lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+) was measured and the evolution of the ulcers was observed through analyzes of tissue’s biopsies, calculating the ratio (CD4+)/(CD8+) as a monitor variable concerning the immunological impact. Comparing with the negative control, the frequency of T lymphocytes CD4+ presented significant increment (P<0.05) starting from the third day of treatment. Lymphocytes CD8+ diminished significantly (P<0.05). The ulcers from the negative control group in 120 h and with Interferon-β in 96 h, were recovered. Otherwise, with Transfer factor and 120 Hz Electromagnetic field, the ulcer’s time recovery was of 72 h. The results in the latest groups suggest that the total frequency of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+) present tendencies toward normal levels. Furthermore, the treatment with 120 Hz Electromagnetic fields show less damage in the ill tissue, analyzing the cellularity with electronic sweep microscopy, implicating less chronic immune activation.
... Recent measurements by Saroka and Persinger (2014) indicated that several of the power fluctuations within the lower harmonics of the Schumann resonances are coupled in real time with electroencephalographic power of human brains. The concurrence is about 150 to 300 msec, which is equivalent to about 2 or 3 microstates of consciousness (Koenig et al, 2002) on average about once every 30 s. ...
Full-text available
The interactions between the brain of the participant and the temporal flow of events within computer games could reflect a new type of consciousness-machine interface that could reveal novel options for biological-electronic evolution. The flow state which is defined as an inclusive, immersed affect state can be considered a component of and contribution to the interface computer (machine) simulations of real life events. Complex analyses during interactive gaming revealed two parent clusters of topographical quantitative electroencephalographic activity (QEEG) that emphasized the two cerebral hemispheres. A conspicuous peak around 40 Hz (25 ms) occurred upon the declining power gradient of cerebral output. The interactive flow state was more involved with right caudal hemispheric activations within relatively narrow frequency bands that overlapped with the earth-ionospheric Schumann resonances which are also found with normal spectral densities of QEEGs. Independent Component Analyses and Linear Discriminant Analyses for components of QEEG during reward and skill segments of computer game involvement verified the importance of the duration of a percept (around 130 ms). The results were consistent with the possibility that two successive percepts, one of them preceding awareness, might be influenced by extracerebral factors strongly correlated with Schumann Resonance properties. When two experienced or non-experienced gamers shared the same circumcerebral magnetic fields with 20 to 25 ms phase modulations as a second derivative, evidence of excessive correlation, the basis of entanglement, was evident. Application of these results and integration with a biological theory developed by Teilhard de Chardin that the next stage of evolution involve the “noosphere” within which collective experiences would direct subsequent developments in life suggest the feasibility is much greater than previously anticipated.
Full-text available
BACKGROUND For over 50 years, experiments have been demonstrating an interaction between the dynamics of the human heart and the dynamics of the earth’s magnetic field. In these experiments, specific frequency components in the variability of the geomagnetic field (GMF), involving micropulsations, are shown to significantly interact with specific frequency components in human heart rate variability (HRV). A significant difference was found in the HRV ratio of VLF/HF, on days of low geomagnetic variability (L gmf) compared with days of high geomagnetic field variability (H gmf) (P = 0.0001, n = 24, effect size 1.014). METHODS Experiments were conducted prospectively, over a period of 3 years, on one 70 year old, healthy female subject, using a 24 hour holter electrocardiogram (ECG) machine, and the results were analysed for the HRV frequency spectral components. The local geomagnetic field was simultaneously monitored over 24 hour periods, using a 3-axis fluxgate magnetometer, and the frequency spectra were analysed for the various spectral power components. Statistical analysis was performed using XLSTAT software. RESULTS It was shown that there was a correspondence in the power spectra of the high (HF) and very low (VLF) frequency components in HRV and GMF variability. It was shown that there was a significant difference in the ratio of the VLF and HF frequency band power of the HRV between the ECGs recorded during days of lower geomagnetic variability, and days of higher geomagnetic variability. CONCLUSION These findings support the hypothesis of a homeostatic response of the human heart to the earth’s magnetic field. This may have implications for prognosis and management of heart disease, during times of significant environmental change.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Multiple lines of evidence support the concept that we are at a transformational turning point or metanoia in the evolution of consciousness and may be able to evolve into a more coherent, interconnected system on the planet (McCraty & Deyhle, 2015). This continuing process of development is dominated by the concept of physis. A generalized creative “force of nature, which eternally strives to make things grow and to make growing things more perfect” (Berne, 1968, p.89). Berne used physis to describe the driving force behind cures, personal aspirations, and collective evolution (Clarkson, 1992). This presentation began with explaining all three components of the topic through the presenter's personal experience, then moved to a new graphic model that depicted the "Physis in Action" developmental process. And finally, the concept was explored from the perspective of different academic disciplines, including quantum physics, consciousness, biology, neurology, Schumann resonance, philosophy, psychology, heart intelligence as well as ancient wisdom. The presenter concluded the discussion by proposing ways to facilitate how to evolve and grow collectively to make our planet a secure place to live for all creatures, including human beings. KEYWORDS: Transformational turning point, Evolution of consciousness, Metanoia, Physis, Force of nature, Driving force, Physis in Action, Physis in Action, Schumann resonance, Heart Intelligence, Developmental process
Full-text available
The implications for adaptation when billions of human cerebrums are considered weak conductors immersed within the same medium, the geomagnetic field, are examined. Quantitative solutions indicated that the intensity of the "transcerebral" field produced from all human brains within the geomagnetic field is the same order of magnitude as the values associated with cognitive processes and altered expressions of proteins within the individual brain. This convergence could meet one of the criteria for a holographic-like phenomenon. The transition from 6 to 8 billion brains would be associated with shared energies within individual cerebral space whose frequencies increase across the visible electromagnetic wavelength from infrared to ultraviolet. Magnetic diffusivity indicates all brains could be influenced within about 10 minutes. Implications for induced ubiquitous genetic changes, shared modifications in protein sequences associated with memory during dream sleep, and limitations upon the proliferation of the species are discussed.
Full-text available
We provide a review of both new experimental and theoretical developments in the Casimir effect. The Casimir effect results from the alteration by the boundaries of the zero-point electromagnetic energy. Unique to the Casimir force is its strong dependence on shape, switching from attractive to repulsive as function of the size, geometry and topology of the boundary. Thus, the Casimir force is a direct manifestation of the boundary dependence of quantum vacuum. We discuss in depth the general structure of the infinities in the field theory which are removed by a combination of zeta-functional regularization and heat kernel expansion. Different representations for the regularized vacuum energy are given. The Casimir energies and forces in a number of configurations of interest to applications are calculated. We stress the development of the Casimir force for real media including effects of nonzero temperature, finite conductivity of the boundary metal and surface roughness. Also, the combined effect of these important factors is investigated in detail on the basis of condensed matter physics and quantum field theory at nonzero temperature. The experiments on measuring the Casimir force are also reviewed, starting first with the older measurements and finishing with a detailed presentation of modern precision experiments. The latter are accurately compared with the theoretical results for real media. At the end of the review we provide the most recent constraints on the corrections to Newtonian gravitational law and other hypothetical long-range interactions at submillimeter range obtained from the Casimir force measurements.
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies
A large number of studies have identified significant physical, biological and health effects associated with changes in Solar and Geomagnetic Activity (S-GMA). Variations in solar activity, geomagnetic activity and ionospheric ion/electron concentrations are all mutually highly correlated and strongly linked by geophysical processes. A key scientific question is, what factor is it in the natural environment that causes the observed biological and physical effects? The effects include altered blood pressure and melatonin, increased cancer, reproductive, cardiac and neurological disease and death. Many occupational studies have found that exposure to ELF fields between 16.7 Hz and 50/60 Hz significantly reduces melatonin levels. They are also associated with the same and very similar health effects as the S-GMA effects. The cell membrane has an electric field of the order of 105 V/cm. The ELF brain waves operate at about 10-1 V/cm. Fish, birds, animalsand people have been shown to respond to ELF signals that produce tissue electric gradients of ULF/ELF oscillating signals at a threshold of 10-7 to 10-8 V/cm.This involves non-linear resonant absorption of ULF/ELF oscillating signals into systems that use natural ion oscillation signals in the same frequency range. A long-lived, globally available natural ULF/ELF signal, the Schumann Resonance signal, was investigated as the possible plausible biophysical mechanism for the observedS-GMA effects. It is found that the Schumann Resonance signal is extremely highly correlated with S-GMA indices of sunspot number and the Kp index. The physical mechanism is the ionospheric D-region ion/electron density that varies with S-GMA and forms the upper boundary of the resonant cavity in which the Schumann Resonance signal is formed. This provides strong support for identifying the Schumann Resonance signals as the S-GMA biophysical mechanism, primarily through a melatonin mechanism. It strongly supports the classification of S-GMA as a natural hazard.
Abstract not available. ©1996 American Institute of Physics
Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings from AIP Publishing and AIP Member Societies