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Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 2015, 6, 153-164
Published Online May 2015 in SciRes. http://www.scirp.org/journal/jsip
How to cite this paper: Persinger, M.A. and Saroka, K.S. (2015) Human Quantitative Electroencephalographic and Schu-
mann Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of Spectral Power Densities: Implications for Interactive Information Processing.
Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 6, 153-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jsip.2015.62015
Electroencephalographic and Schumann
Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of
Spectral Power Densities: Implications for
Interactive Information Processing
Michael A. Persinger, Kevin S. Saroka
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences, and Human Studies Programs, Sudbury, Canada
Email: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 29 April 2015; accepted 22 May 2015; published 25 May 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Spectral Power Densities (SPD) within the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEGs) Profiles
of 41 men and women displayed repeated transient coherence with the first three modes (7 - 8 Hz,
13 - 14 Hz, and 19 - 20 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance in real time. The duration of the coherence
was about 300 ms about twice per min. Topographical map clusters indicated that the domain of
maximum coherence was within the right caudal hemisphere near the Parahippocampal gyrus.
These clusters, associated with shifts of about 2 μV, became stable about 35 to 45 ms after the on-
set of the synchronizing event. During the first 10 to 20 ms, the isoelectric lines shifted from
clockwise to counterclockwise rotation. The results are consistent with the congruence of the fre-
quency, magnetic field intensity, voltage gradient, and phase shifts that are shared by the human
brain and the earth-ionospheric spherical wave guide. Calculations indicated that under certain
conditions interactive information processing might occur for brief periods. Natural and technol-
ogy-based variables affecting the Schumann parameters might be reflected in human brain activi-
ty, including modifications of cognition and dream-related memory consolidation.
Schumann Resonances, Human Brain Activity, Coherence, Memory Consolidation, Pico Tesla
Magnetic Fields, Photon Emissions
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
One of the most common correlates of signal and information processing is the magnitude compatibility be-
tween the two sources. Intuitively, such congruence facilitates the transfer and transformation of information
between the two loci with minimum distortion that may occur when adjusting transduction to increase fidelity.
Two of the most congruent magnitude (and vector) related sources involve the electromagnetic fields generated
by the human brain as inferred by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and those produced within the
spherical wave guide between the earth’s surface and ionosphere. The latter has been labeled the Schumann Re-
sonance with a fundamental frequency of between 7.5 and 8 Hz. Here, we present the results of direct measure-
ments of the phase-congruence in quantitative electroencephalographic activity of human brains and real-time
fluctuations in the parameters of the Schumann Resonance that can suggest a condition conducive for the inte-
raction of information.
Prediction of an intrinsic resonance of approximately 7 to 8 Hz (band width about 2 Hz) within the cavity
between the earth’s surface and the ionosphere, based primarily upon the circumference of the earth-ionosphere
shell and the velocity of light, was realized by Schumann, Koenig and their colleagues in the 1950s . Since
that time, the specific parameters of the harmonics of this resonance (which occur in increments of approx-
imately 6 Hz added to the fundamental frequency), the amplitudes of the components of their electric (~mV·m−1)
and magnetic fields (~2 pT), and various phase modulations have been reported by several authors  . The
recent very thorough analyses and measurements reported by Nickolaenko and Hayakawa  have consolidated
details for both the construction of the measurement devices and novel relationships between Schumann fre-
quencies and environmental phenomena. Their comprehensive volume extends the precocious perspective of
Cherry  concerning the pervasive role of the Schumann Resonances in human activity. One will expect that
most human activity is determined by brain function and its capacity for intrinsic signaling and information
There is a remarkable congruence between essential dynamic physical properties of the human cerebrum and
the electromagnetic signals within the earth-ionosphere cavity. Spectral analyses of the quantitative electroen-
cephalographic (QEEG) profiles from approximately 100 volunteers recorded over a two-year period indicated
the clear presence of the fundamental frequency as well as the first three harmonics (14 Hz, 20 Hz and 26 Hz)
immersed within the power density of normal brain activity . Even analogous “split” spectra (that was a bi-
modal peak within the 7.5 to 8 Hz band which was a less well known feature of the Schumann fundamental) and
the analogue within the human QEEG data were observed. However, we could only infer that this was a correla-
tion rather than an indicator of causality. Given the presence of the Schumann Resonance during abiogenesis 
and the likely contribution of the conditions (lightning discharges) that produced these ringing oscillations to the
formation of amino acids, the essential units of proteins , these “coincidences” could reflect an unrelated evolu-
tionary artifact rather than a contemporary “moment-to-moment” causality. More direct temporal-quantitative
coherence was required.
The typical intensity of the magnetic field component of the fundamental Schumann Resonance is about 2 pT
while the electric field is approximately 0.3 to 1.0 mV·m−1. The directly measured potential differences from the
living human brain are in the order of 2 to 20 μV (per Hz) 10−1 m (assuming an average diameter of ~10 cm to
accommodate the volume) or ~0.2 mV·m−1. The intensity of the dynamic magnetic field associated with the
QEEG has been measured within the pT to femtoTesla per Hz range . However, we  have shown by calcu-
lation that diffusivity (m2·s−1) is an important component of signal processing between the human brain and the
environment. Assuming the resistivity of the whole brain’s primary constituent (physiological water) is about 2
Ω∙m, then when multiplied by magnetic susceptibility (4π × 10−7 N∙A−2) the resulting diffusivity is 1.7 × 106
m2·s−1. The median potential difference of 2 × 10−6 V (2μV) divided by 106 m2∙s−1 results in about 10−12 T (pT).
In other words, the similarity between the intensity of the magnetic field component of the Schumann Reson-
ance and human cerebral cortical activity associated with cognition will be strongly dependent upon the mag-
netic properties of space and the conductivity (or inverse of resistivity) of the aqueous environment in which
neurons and glial cells are immersed.
Multiple subtle and previously not reported classes of congruence occur in several parameters within the
Schumann Resonance and QEEG data. First, the Schumann Resonances are the aggregate phenomena generated
by global lightning discharges . The QEEG is the aggregate phenomena associated with action potentials. In-
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
terestingly, the magnitudes of the electric current densities for the typical lightning stroke and the action poten-
tial , when scale is accommodated, are very similar (105 A∙m−2). Second, the duration required for the prop-
agating field from a single lightning discharge to return to the source over the spherical guide is about 20 to 25
ms with a phase shift of 13 ms during the 2 Hz wave band of 7 to 9 Hz . The recurrent 20 to 25 ms [“40 Hz”]
propagating wave that integrates large areas of the cerebral cortices between the rostral and caudal cerebrum has
been considered as a major correlate of consciousness . This particular pattern occurs predominately during
waking and dream sleep , but not during slow wave sleep. The phase modulation, as superbly demonstrated
by Llinas and his colleagues  years ago, is about 12.5 ms. Third, both cerebral cortical electromagnetic fields
and the Schumann fields display strong trans-spatial correlations in their intensity values over the entire bounda-
ries of their respective surfaces.
The conditions for the two similarities, from a signaling perspective, can be consistent with Lorentz’s Lemma
 which relates any two electromagnetic fields if a) they are the same frequency, b) outside of the source, and
c) in a linear isotropic medium. If we assume 1) the two fields are the Schumann Resonance generated between
the surface of the earth and ionosphere by lightning, and, the cerebral resonance generated between the corona
of the cortices and the multiform layer of the cerebrum by action potentials, and 2) the fields are harmonic in
( ) ( )
del del×= ×EH EH
where E refers to the electric field vector component, H is the magnetic field (A∙m−1) vector component, and the
subscripts refer to b (brain) and s (Schumann) sources. The aggregate is Watts per meter squared.
There are multiple examples of measurements that the magnetic field of the cognitive correlates of brain func-
tion and of the Schumann Resonance at the fundamental (7 - 8 Hz) is about 10−12 T and that the electric field
component is about 0.1 to 1 mV/m. The Lorentz Lemma adds the dimension of radiant flux density. For the hu-
man brain with an average of 1 μV per 10 cm per Hz or 10−5 V∙m−1 and current gradient of 1 × 10−6 V divided 2
Ω·m or 0.5 × 10−6 A∙m−1, the flux power density would be about 5·10−12 W·m−2. This convergence of electro-
magnetic amplitudes and radiant power density is within the range of the photon emissions measured from the
right caudal hemisphere of human brains . This creates the condition that one mode of “information” ex-
change between the Schumann and cerebral fields will involve discrete and very small quantities of photons
through non-local processes. There is strong evidence that ultraweak photon emissions among and within cells
can mediate the information that controls the powerful dynamics of cellular activity  . Non-local effects
(excess correlations) between two sources of photons that share counterclockwise and rotating magnetic fields
with changing angular velocities have been shown experimentally .
Given these convergent similarities between human cerebral electromagnetic activity and the wave guide, the
conditions are present that may permit signal and information processing by the human brain for some compo-
nents of Schumann phenomena as predicted by Cherry . To test this possibility, we reasoned that real-time
coherence should be demonstrable between QEEG spectral profiles from human brain and direct measures of the
Schumann Resonance. In a previous experiment, we   had shown brief (less than 1 s) coherence within
the first two or three Schumann harmonics recorded locally by our Schumann Resonance detector and those
same frequencies within the spectra of QEEG. Here we show, with a larger population sample, the more specific
quantitative features of these transient congruence periods and how they can contribute to implicit signaling and
Participants were 41 males and females who were recruited from a first-year psychology course offered at Lau-
rentian University and after REB approval. All volunteers gave consent and were informed that the nature of the
experiment was simply to collect baseline eyes-open and eyes-closed measurements.
2.2. Data Acquisition
Once admitted into a sound-proof acoustic chamber, all participants were invited to sit on a comfortable chair.
Participants were then outfitted with a cap with 19 sensors (Electro-Cap International). Electro-Gel was applied
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
to form a contact between the scalp and the sensor. Each sensor was arranged to be consistent with the 10 - 20
International Standard of Electrode Placement. The impedance of all sensors was maintained at less than 5 kΩ.
The time-varying voltages measured from the cap were directed into a Mitsar 201 quantitative electroencepha-
lograph. Once amplified the brain activity was then recorded using WinEEG software at a sampling rate of 250
Hz with 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion.
In addition to the 19 channels recording various locations of the brain, ultra-low atmospheric electric-field
perturbations were also recorded simultaneously. The live stream was obtained from Mr. Renato Romero’s open
radio observatory in Cumiana, Italy (www.vlf.it). Essentially, the recorded sound files from the Marconi antenna
were streamed directly into the Mistar box using a custom-constructed audio-to-ECG cable. Spectral analysis
performed on this channel verified the presence of the Schumann resonance with peaks at traditional frequencies.
Ping times were measured using MS-DOS with delays from Italy to Canada not exceeding more than 50 milli-
seconds. The current experiment consisted only of the collection of simultaneous EEG/ELF when the subjects’
eyes were open and closed (approximately 5-minutes each).
2.3. Data Processing
Sixty (60) seconds of eyes closed 20 channel (19 EEG + 1 ELF) recordings were extracted for periods in which
the Schumann resonance was clearly visible and not obscured by artifacts generated from wind, rain or other in-
clement weather. This was verified by checking the website www.accuweather.com for current weather condi-
tions within the Cumiana, Italy region. These data were then imported into MATLAB software where the EEG-
Lab toolkit  was used in order to re-filter the QEEG data between 1.5 - 40 Hz. Indicators of the caudal cere-
brum were obtained by computing the caudal root-mean-square (T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1 and O2) as has been
employed in previous analyses. These data were then merged with the streamed ULF atmospheric data.
2.4. Identification of Occurrence, Duration and Topographical Properties Associated
with Harmonic Synchrony
Cross-channel coherence between cRMS-ELF activities was completed for 41 participants in 30-second time
bins. Selection criteria for “harmonic synchrony” included simultaneous coherence across the 7.8 - 8 Hz, 13.7 -
14.3 Hz and 19 - 20 Hz frequency bands. Any occurrences that did not meet the criteria were not extracted. The
onset and offset times, as indicated by the cross-channel spectrograms, of each of the occurrences was then rec-
orded and extraction of only these time-periods was performed. Mean occurrence and duration were calculated.
For each occurrence, 4 topographical maps were produced based upon the 19 channels of time-varying vol-
tages associated with the 200 milliseconds before and after onset of harmonic synchrony separately using a k-
means clustering algorithm within SPSS. The resultant 4 topographical maps for each baseline and onset condi-
tions were then saved and entered into a secondary clustering procedure (N = 228 per condition) for each condi-
tion separately, again using the k-means clustering algorithm. The resultant cluster centers were then saved and
interpolated onto 2-D scalp maps based upon the locations of the channels using the topoplot. m function within
To compare directly the differences between averaged topographies associated with baseline and “harmonic
synchrony” occurrences, within-topography z-scores for each of the 8 clusters that characterized baseline (4) and
harmonic synchronies (4) were computed. Because of the high degree of similarity between the two cluster sets,
similar topographies from both conditions were simply subtracted from each other.
To explore the average topological time-course associated with the onset of a harmonic synchrony event, an
integrated 19-channel dataset was produced by computing the average across all events and for all participants.
This dataset was then imported into MapWin software where topographical maps were produced within the time
interval of −120 msec < t < 160 msec in 8-millisecond intervals.
The 41 individuals whose caudal (root mean squared) cerebral activities were monitored and compared simulta-
neously with the recording of Schumann values in Italy displayed conspicuous phase coherence at 7.8 Hz, 14 Hz
and 20 Hz. Of the 41 cases analyzed, 33 (80%) displayed at least one occurrence of a harmonic synchronous
event within a 60-second interval for a total of 61 harmonic synchrony events. The means and standard devia-
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
tions for the occurrence and durations of these harmonic synchronies were 1.72 (SD = 0.97) occurrences per
minute and 349 ms (SD = 75), respectively. In other words the transient coherence between the Schumann and
brain values in real time occurred once (on average) every 30 s for about one-third of a second. This is equiva-
lent to about 3 to 5 microstates about twice per minute. An example of the 30-second coherence plot from which
the averages were obtained is shown in Figure 1.
K-means clustering analysis revealed four topographies consistent between the two baseline and harmonic
synchrony conditions. They were characterized by 1) bilateral prefrontal, 2) inferior temporo-posterior, 3) bila-
teral caudal and 4) rostral-caudal orientations (Figure 2(a)). Evident is the appearance of a polarity shift for
cluster 2. One-way analyses analysis of variance for both cluster sets (baseline and event) on the averaged
channel voltage across 19-channels indicated that the cluster models explained 63 and 65 percent of the variance
Figure 1. Example of a 30-second (horizontal axis) cross-coherence plot from which harmonic synchronous
events were identified and extracted. Note the occurrence of increased coherence (red areas) between the brain
and ELF frequencies (vertical axis) measured in Italy within ~8, 14, and 20 Hz. The simultaneous occurrence is
most evident at about 6 seconds.
Figure 2. (a) Topographical maps of clusters before (top line) and during (middle line) the onset of harmonic
synchronous events. NC refers to the numbers of clusters contributing to the grand mean cluster; (b) Standar-
dized differences between the two conditions.
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
in classification. To ensure that the clusters were consistent between conditions (baseline versus harmonic syn-
chrony), Spearman rank-order correlations were completed between the arrays of cluster mean centers. The re-
sults indicated significant relationships for each cluster between conditions with respective correlation coeffi-
cients of 1) Rho = 0.59, p < 0.05, 2) −0.85 (p < 0.05), 3) Rho = 0.54 (p < 0.05) and 4) Rho = 0.77 (p < 0.05), re-
To directly compare differences in topographical orientations between baseline conditions (200 milliseconds
before the event) and during the occurrence of harmonic synchrony, each map was z-scored separately. The z-
scores of topographies were then simply subtracted from each other. The results (Figure 2(b)) indicated that
only the second cluster, characterized by the right inferior temporo-parietal focus, displayed z-score differences
greater than 3, and are most likely the result of the polarity shift observed between conditions. This profile was
similar to the one completed between the specific 8 Hz range in the QEEG profile and the “atmospheric noise”
at 8 Hz measured in Italy in real time for about 10 subjects in a previous experiment . Here, positive
z-scores (red) indicated that the standardized voltage for the synchronous event was greater than baseline while
negative z-scores (blue) indicated the opposite. This topography was associated with a 10 μV difference among
To discern the latency for the real-time coherence to occur between the Schumann fluctuations and the QEEG
activity the results of 61 harmonic synchrony events from 41 different participants were mapped. The results
showed that the right temporo-parieto-occipital topography became stable approximately 35 to 45 ms after the
onset of the synchronizing event.
The onset of the averaged synchronizing event was associated with the ±2 μV transient emergence of a ro-
stral-caudal dipole with the centroids located approximately over the anterior and posterior cingulate regions.
Reconstruction of the isoelectric field lines in real time strongly suggested that during the approximately 10 to
20 ms of the onset the rotational component of the progressive dipole microstates reversed from clockwise (from
the top of the brain) to counterclockwise rotations. These results are shown in Figure 3.
To our knowledge this is the first detailed, quantitative demonstration that there is real time coherence between
the specific frequency bands reliably measured within human electroencephalographic activity and comparable
fluctuations in electromagnetic characteristics within the earth-ionospheric spherical wave guide. Both sources
share similar fundamental frequencies, harmonics, magnetic and electric field strengths, and phase-shifts. Here,
we demonstrated that the quantifications of these changes can be strongly although transiently congruent. If the
Lorentz Lemma  is applicable, then the special condition for interactive information processing between the
two sources would be at least intermittently possible. Considering the strong coherence of Schumann parameters
over tens of thousands of kilometers and the fact that the brain measurements in Sudbury were powerfully cor-
related with spherical wave guide values measured in Italy , the possibility exits that similar human brain-
Schumann Resonance interactions could occur anywhere on the earth’s surface for individual brains or large ag-
gregates of brains. The involvement of diffusivity coupled to magnetic permeability of the medium comple-
ments this suggestion .
The duration of the coherence was about 300 ms or approximately the period of a protracted percept , the
just noticeable difference in the “stream of consciousness” that defines the boundaries between successive im-
ages and experiences. The most typical descriptions of subjective experiences when perceptual information ex-
ists for such limited durations is “a flash” or “intuition” or sudden “insight” that can be considered to be signifi-
cant. This duration if it occurred once every approximately 30 s would not be sufficient to affect the “stream of
consciousness” or disrupt ongoing cognition. However it could affect the direction of the thematic components
of the cognition. Individuals  who exhibit microstates that are intrinsically much briefer, would more likely
be affected by the coherence because of the resultant protraction.
The synchronization of cerebral activity within the Schumann range and the actual Schumann values required
about 35 to 45 ms to become stable. This is within the range of approximately two recurrent phases of the ap-
proximately 25 ms rostral-caudal recurrent waves that are generated over the cortical manifold. As aptly articu-
lated by Nunez , with a bulk velocity of about 4.5 m·s−1 and a cerebral circumference of 60 cm, the cortical
standing wave is about 7.5 Hz. The time required for this wave to move across the rostral-caudal curvature
would be about 20 to 25 ms. Thus, the information from the ionospheric-brain interaction might be expected to
occur between the transition of any two successive recurrences of these “40 Hz” fields.
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
Figure 3. Averaged time course of a synchronous event for 61 occurrences of harmonic synchrony. The topographies follow
the progression from 120 milliseconds before onset and 160 milliseconds after onset in 8 millisecond intervals. Colour bar
denotes microvolt polarity.
The apparent reversal of the direction of the isoelectric lines during the phase coupling between real-time
Schumann values and cerebral activity for about 10 to 20 ms, the phase-shift duration noted by Llinas et al. ,
is both novel and very relevant to the mechanisms by which signaling and information processing could occur.
The specific duration of this transience is precisely the value we  have found to be most effective to produce
non-local (excess correlations) interactions between chemoluminescent reactions separated by as far as 3 km
(the furthest tested). Dotta and Persinger  showed that the superposition of the two loci (as indicated by
doubling of photon emissions) only occurred with changes in counterclockwise angular velocities of magnetic
fields with base rates of 20 ms.
That photons could be a major candidate for the atmospheric-brain interaction is supported quantitatively.
Flux densities of ~10−12 W·m−2 have been measured from the right caudal hemisphere of human volunteers 
while they engaged in imaginative tasks while sitting in hyperdark conditions. This magnitude is almost identic-
al to the values measured from slices of hippocampal tissue . This brain structure is the major correlate of
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
information processing and is central to the initial stages of the representation of experience (memory). We have
speculated that this narrow range of radiant flux power density is necessary for optimal transmission of informa-
tion without significant distortion from extraneous sources within the body volume and is primarily the func-
tional reason for the encapsulation of the brain by the skull. Because of this maintained “hyperdarkness” within
the skull the potential for non-local interaction between Schumann and cerebral sources could be maintained.
During local night and in very dark habitats during dream sleep when intracerebral photon emissions are most
likely to increase the coupling might be enhanced.
In a series of original and innovative publications Bokkon  and his colleagues   have pursued the
hypothesis that imagery is the experience of fields of photons within the cerebral volume. Whereas traditional
interpretations suggest that imagery is a subjective state generated by configurations of action potentials mod-
ulated by syncytiums of glial cells, Bokkon’s concept is that the visual experiences are fields of photons. His
calculations  for the numbers of photons and their densities within cells are commensurate with potential
sources from known biochemical changes within plasma cell membranes. Dotta et al.  demonstrated that
photon emissions from a variety of cells primarily originate from the changes in small potential differences as-
sociated with the cell membrane dynamics.
The potential for “excess correlation” involving photons between earth-ionospheric wave guide and brain
sources may be determined by the shared intensity of the magnetic fields for both, i.e., 2 pT. The energy asso-
ciated with a fluctuating 2 pT magnetic field within the human cerebral volume can be estimated by:
where μ is the magnetic permeability, B is the strength of the field and m3 is the volume. Assuming the human
cerebral volume of 1.3 × 10−3 m3 and the transient, combined intensity from the Schumann and brain sources to
be 4 × 10−12 T, the energy would be 8.3 × 10−21 J. Within the approximately half of a second involved with the
interface measured here, the net quantity is very proximal to the Landauer limit. This is the energy, defined by
ln2·kT (where k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is temperature in Kelvin), where a bit of information is dissi-
pated into energy or the energy is converted to a bit of information from entropy .
The shift in polarity localized to the right inferior temporo-parietal region before and after onset of a harmonic
synchronous event could also be a revealing characteristic of these events with respect to mechanism. It is well
known that a static magnet accelerating into or out of a coil induces a voltage with a respective polarity. Moving
the magnet out of the coil induces negative voltage across the coil terminals while moving inwards produces a
positive voltage. If this principle is applicable to the observed topographical orientations and a reflective process
is pursued, the data might suggest that 200 milliseconds prior to brain-atmosphere synchrony the direction of the
magnetic flux is from the head to the atmosphere, while 200 milliseconds during the event the direction is from
the atmosphere to the head. In information technology, this would be classified as a ‘ping’.
The magnetic field strengths associated with the change in polarity measured directly by QEEG would be
consistent with this model. If the ping reached the lower E-layer of the atmosphere and was reflected back to-
wards the human brain, the total distance travelled would be about 200 km. If the ping time was 400 millise-
conds to complete one full cycle, the quantum of information would be travelling at a velocity of about 5 × 105
m∙s−1. The absolute potential difference between the two conditions within the right inferior temporoparietal fo-
cus was about 10 μV. Dividing 1 × 10−5 V by 5 × 105 m∙s−1 results in 20 pico Tesla·metres. In radio science,
bursts of megahertz frequencies are sent into the ionosphere and reflect back to a sensor in order to infer ionos-
pheric ion density. For the E layer, frequencies that reflect back to the earth are between 1 and 5 MHz. If the
ping associated with harmonic synchrony were a 3 MHz burst superimposed upon the Schumann waveguide, the
wavelength would be about 100 meters and can be obtained by dividing c, the speed of light, by 3 × 106 Hz. Di-
viding 20 pico Tesla·metres by 100 m reveals a magnetic field magnitude of 0.2 pT and is within the operating
intensity of the magnetic field of the brain and the approximate intensity of the Schumann resonance.
The current measurements as well as those reported   earlier emphasized the importance of the right
Parahippocampal gyrus as one central focus of coherence between the human brain and the earth-ionosphere
waveguide. Neurons within the Parahippocampal gyrus show unique properties that could facilitate this cohe-
rence. The stratum stellare of Stephan (Layer II) of the entorhinal cortices of the human Parahippocampal gyrus
contains star-shaped cells that are organized into small elevations (verrucae gyri hippocampi) on the cortical
surface that can be recognized visually . These cells exhibit intrinsic oscillations of a few mV within the 8
Hz range . The energies are almost unity with the quantum for the loss or gain (Lindauer Threshold) of 1 bit
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
of information to or from entropy. The sensitivity of the right hemisphere was demonstrated during whole body
exposure to experimentally-generated, weak (~20 nT) 7 to 8 Hz magnetic fields . The second order magnetic
field, induced by the currents within extracellular fluid from the changes in electric field associated with these
applied fields, is within the pT range .
The hippocampal formation, the area involved with the representation of experiences (memory), receives its
primary input from second layer neurons within the entorhinal cortices of the Parahippocampal gyrus. If there is
about 1 bit of information per second associated with coherence between the ionospheric waveguide and the
brain per 300 ms and about 107 neurons  within the human hippocampus, then there would be the potential
for exchange of about one million bytes or 1 MByte once every approximately 30 s. During a 24-hr day, the
cumulative maximum information processing could be as high as 3 GBytes. This would suggest that the accu-
mulation of information would occur as successive “packets” of information, analogous to processes utilized by
information transmission through the NET, that remain within a cerebral buffer until further integration into the
complete “transmission” is completed. We suggest the buffer is the (right) parahippocampal region where the
information remains until subsequent REM (dream) episodes during the same or following night.
The typical values associated with transmission of packets of information within modern communication
networks are instructive. For point-to-point Ethernet connections the information might contain 1.49 k Bytes for
a G Byte connection. For one second there would be the potential of about one to two thousand packets each
with durations similar to the peak of an action potential. For about 1 M Byte per second system parameters re-
sult in 168 Bytes per packet and 0.8 ms transmission latency. For every 13 to 14 ms out of every 50 ms the serv-
er transmits at about 1120 packets per second. Interestingly, inter-packet intervals are within the range of 50 ms.
Because the parahippocampal area is considered the interface for cross-(sensory) modal integration of the en-
tire cerebrum and receives and sends information through the cerebrum these discrete intervals could affect the
entire brain function over time. This would include the patterns of proteins that are synthesized and hence the
intrinsic neural pathways from which “memories” are later reconstructed. Whether or not these changes can
contribute to “induced” or pseudo memories, which have been shown to be enhanced by weak, transcerebral
magnetic fields   must still be evaluated. Stimulation for about 1 s once every 30 s is within the temporal
parameters, such as kindling or even long-term potentiation, that produce the shifts in microstructure that are the
spatial equivalents of “memories”. Some authors have suggested that the neurons within the parahippocampal
region contain the central “transform”, independent of the “line codes” of sensory pathways, which integrates
neuronal information into the aggregates that comprise experiences.
The data measured in the present study suggests that the interface between the ionospheric Schumann sources
and the brain’s complimentary patterns occurs within the region of the right Parahippocampal gyrus. This re-
gion has been implicated in other experiments  and by other authors  as a potential site through which
subtle changes in geomagnetic activity could be mediated. If classical principles of brain organization are appli-
cable, the predominant visual “field” to which experiences would be attributed would be the upper left peripher-
al visual field.
If activity within the right hemisphere is particularly sensitive to the Schumann frequencies, then the influ-
ence should be greater when the human brain’s hemispheric bias shifts towards this direction. This occurs pri-
marily during REM or dream sleep. This state is associated with significant increases in protein synthesis and
has been attributed to the “consolidation” of experiences, as memories, acquired during the previous 24 to 48 hr.
The durations of this state, whose electroencephalographic pattern and 20 ms recurrent shifts are remarkably
similar to the waking state  , range from about 5 min at the beginning of the sleeper’s night to about 15
to 20 min during the last dream episode. The latter is more likely to occur just before the person awakens for the
day. The contents of those dreams are more likely to be remembered and can affect the person’s disposition for
the remainder of the day.
The equivalent power density for the Schumann frequency would be 0.3 × 10−3 V per m multiplied by 10−6 A
per m (1 μA per m = 0.4πpT) or about 3 × 10−10 W·m−2. This radiant power density would be equivalent to about
10−20 J per second per cross-sectional area of a neuronal soma. This is an important value  because it consti-
tutes the energy associated with an action potential, the binding energies between many ligands and receptors,
and the quantity that emerges from the normal electrical forces between separations of potassium ions that are
attributed to the resting membrane potential. It is also likely to be a fundamental value intrinsic to space and to
physical processes that contribute to non-local effects and excess correlation or “entanglement” .
For the equity in the Lorentz Lemma equation to occur according to the values indicated in the last paragraph,
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
there should be (at least transient) increases in either the H or E component of the cerebrum by a factor of about
100. On the other hand equity would occur between the cerebral power levels at a distance of between 400 and
850 km above the earth’s surface where the voltages of the first peak of the Schumann Resonance are about 0.25
μV∙m−1 √Hz−1. For a 7 Hz oscillation the power density would be congruent with that we have measured from
the right hemisphere. Estimated values about 100 km above the earth’s surface would be in the order of 2 μV
which is typical of the values obtained within the 40 Hz (about the 6th Schumann harmonic) range for human
brain activity .
If the coupling occurs, through non-local mechanisms or by the special conditions of Maxwell’s equations as
applied through the Lorentz Lemma, then one would predict even the slightest perturbation at that altitude
should be quantitatively evident in cerebral activity spectra. About five decades ago while pursuing lunar tidal
forces within the upper atmosphere, Palumbo  had suggested that that there must be a phase reversal be-
tween the pressure tide at ground level and that required in the dynamo region of the ionosphere. He identified
this reversal, as inferred by data from photographic meteors, to occur between altitudes of 85 and 110 km. If this
relationship is directly applicable, then changes in atmospheric density variations following lunar transits should
display significant increases in brain-Schumann coherence. At ground level the enhancement should occur about
30 min after lunar transit. According to Palumbo’s data the peak should occur about 3 hr after transit.
There should be solar-geomagnetic interactions that might be discerned within QEEG data as well. On-
draskova et al.  reported a decrease in Schumann Resonance frequencies during the 2008-2009 solar cycle
minimum. There are also infrequent “peculiar” events such as the overlapping transients in the vertical electric
field over western Slovakia during May and June 2006 . They were associated with juxtaposed transients
whose onsets were separated by 130 to 150 ms. Decreases of the fundamental by about 0.15 Hz during peaks in
proton penetrations concurrent with a diminished amplitude of about 0.2 pT and a decrease in resonance band-
width (about 0.2 Hz) have also been reported . Heating the ionosphere with high frequency electromagnetic
waves from specialized equipment at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Alaska
 initiated larger amplitude (by a factor of 2 or 3) enhancements for every 0.2 Hz between 7.4 Hz to 8.0 Hz.
This was accomplished maximally when the HAARP-transmitted waves were 3.04 and 4.57 MHz.
The consistency and congruence of the fundamental, harmonics, magnetic field intensities, electric field poten-
tials, and phase shifts between the earth-ionosphere spherical waveguide (the Schumann Resonance) and quan-
titative human cerebral cortical activity indicate the potential for information interaction. Direct real-time mea-
surement verified a reliable and intermittent coherence with durations in the order of a “perception” or a brain
microstate once every 30 second, the decay time for short-term memory, between Schumann and cerebral re-
sonances. The latency required to establish the peak coherence and the transient reversal of the cerebral rotation
of isoelectric lines within the 20 ms range reflect the processes associated with consciousness. The specific
quantities of energy associated with both sources are sufficient to allow significant interaction of information. If
the estimated radiant flux densities for ultraweak photon emissions for both sources converge, then excess cor-
relations or non-locality could occur intermittently.
We thank Dr. Blake T. Dotta for his contribution. This manuscript is dedicated to the memory of Dr. H. L. Koe-
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