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Human Quantitative Electroencephalographic and Schumann Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of Spectral Power Densities: Implications for Interactive Information Processing


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Spectral Power Densities (SPD) within the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEGs) Profiles of 41 men and women displayed repeated transient coherence with the first three modes (7-8 Hz, 13-14 Hz, and 19-20 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance in real time. The duration of the coherence was about 300 ms about twice per min. Topographical map clusters indicated that the domain of maximum coherence was within the right caudal hemisphere near the Parahippocampal gyrus. These clusters, associated with shifts of about 2 μV, became stable about 35 to 45 ms after the onset of the synchronizing event. During the first 10 to 20 ms, the isoelectric lines shifted from clockwise to counterclockwise rotation. The results are consistent with the congruence of the frequency , magnetic field intensity, voltage gradient, and phase shifts that are shared by the human brain and the earth-ionospheric spherical wave guide. Calculations indicated that under certain conditions interactive information processing might occur for brief periods. Natural and technology based variables affecting the Schumann parameters might be reflected in human brain activity , including modifications of cognition and dream-related memory consolidation.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 2015, 6, 153-164
Published Online May 2015 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Persinger, M.A. and Saroka, K.S. (2015) Human Quantitative Electroencephalographic and Schu-
mann Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of Spectral Power Densities: Implications for Interactive Information Processing.
Journal of Signal and Information Processing, 6, 153-164.
Human Quantitative
Electroencephalographic and Schumann
Resonance Exhibit Real-Time Coherence of
Spectral Power Densities: Implications for
Interactive Information Processing
Michael A. Persinger, Kevin S. Saroka
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences, and Human Studies Programs, Sudbury, Canada
Received 29 April 2015; accepted 22 May 2015; published 25 May 2015
Copyright © 2015 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Spectral Power Densities (SPD) within the Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEGs) Profiles
of 41 men and women displayed repeated transient coherence with the first three modes (7 - 8 Hz,
13 - 14 Hz, and 19 - 20 Hz) of the Schumann Resonance in real time. The duration of the coherence
was about 300 ms about twice per min. Topographical map clusters indicated that the domain of
maximum coherence was within the right caudal hemisphere near the Parahippocampal gyrus.
These clusters, associated with shifts of about 2 μV, became stable about 35 to 45 ms after the on-
set of the synchronizing event. During the first 10 to 20 ms, the isoelectric lines shifted from
clockwise to counterclockwise rotation. The results are consistent with the congruence of the fre-
quency, magnetic field intensity, voltage gradient, and phase shifts that are shared by the human
brain and the earth-ionospheric spherical wave guide. Calculations indicated that under certain
conditions interactive information processing might occur for brief periods. Natural and technol-
ogy-based variables affecting the Schumann parameters might be reflected in human brain activi-
ty, including modifications of cognition and dream-related memory consolidation.
Schumann Resonances, Human Brain Activity, Coherence, Memory Consolidation, Pico Tesla
Magnetic Fields, Photon Emissions
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
1. Introduction
One of the most common correlates of signal and information processing is the magnitude compatibility be-
tween the two sources. Intuitively, such congruence facilitates the transfer and transformation of information
between the two loci with minimum distortion that may occur when adjusting transduction to increase fidelity.
Two of the most congruent magnitude (and vector) related sources involve the electromagnetic fields generated
by the human brain as inferred by quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and those produced within the
spherical wave guide between the earth’s surface and ionosphere. The latter has been labeled the Schumann Re-
sonance with a fundamental frequency of between 7.5 and 8 Hz. Here, we present the results of direct measure-
ments of the phase-congruence in quantitative electroencephalographic activity of human brains and real-time
fluctuations in the parameters of the Schumann Resonance that can suggest a condition conducive for the inte-
raction of information.
Prediction of an intrinsic resonance of approximately 7 to 8 Hz (band width about 2 Hz) within the cavity
between the earth’s surface and the ionosphere, based primarily upon the circumference of the earth-ionosphere
shell and the velocity of light, was realized by Schumann, Koenig and their colleagues in the 1950s [1]. Since
that time, the specific parameters of the harmonics of this resonance (which occur in increments of approx-
imately 6 Hz added to the fundamental frequency), the amplitudes of the components of their electric (~mV·m1)
and magnetic fields (~2 pT), and various phase modulations have been reported by several authors [2] [3]. The
recent very thorough analyses and measurements reported by Nickolaenko and Hayakawa [4] have consolidated
details for both the construction of the measurement devices and novel relationships between Schumann fre-
quencies and environmental phenomena. Their comprehensive volume extends the precocious perspective of
Cherry [5] concerning the pervasive role of the Schumann Resonances in human activity. One will expect that
most human activity is determined by brain function and its capacity for intrinsic signaling and information
There is a remarkable congruence between essential dynamic physical properties of the human cerebrum and
the electromagnetic signals within the earth-ionosphere cavity. Spectral analyses of the quantitative electroen-
cephalographic (QEEG) profiles from approximately 100 volunteers recorded over a two-year period indicated
the clear presence of the fundamental frequency as well as the first three harmonics (14 Hz, 20 Hz and 26 Hz)
immersed within the power density of normal brain activity [6]. Even analogous “split” spectra (that was a bi-
modal peak within the 7.5 to 8 Hz band which was a less well known feature of the Schumann fundamental) and
the analogue within the human QEEG data were observed. However, we could only infer that this was a correla-
tion rather than an indicator of causality. Given the presence of the Schumann Resonance during abiogenesis [7]
and the likely contribution of the conditions (lightning discharges) that produced these ringing oscillations to the
formation of amino acids, the essential units of proteins [8], these coincidences” could reflect an unrelated evolu-
tionary artifact rather than a contemporary “moment-to-moment” causality. More direct temporal-quantitative
coherence was required.
The typical intensity of the magnetic field component of the fundamental Schumann Resonance is about 2 pT
while the electric field is approximately 0.3 to 1.0 mV·m1. The directly measured potential differences from the
living human brain are in the order of 2 to 20 μV (per Hz) 101 m (assuming an average diameter of ~10 cm to
accommodate the volume) or ~0.2 mV·m1. The intensity of the dynamic magnetic field associated with the
QEEG has been measured within the pT to femtoTesla per Hz range [9]. However, we [6] have shown by calcu-
lation that diffusivity (m2·s1) is an important component of signal processing between the human brain and the
environment. Assuming the resistivity of the whole brain’s primary constituent (physiological water) is about 2
Ω∙m, then when multiplied by magnetic susceptibility (4π × 107 NA2) the resulting diffusivity is 1.7 × 106
m2·s1. The median potential difference of 2 × 106 V (2μV) divided by 106 m2s1 results in about 1012 T (pT).
In other words, the similarity between the intensity of the magnetic field component of the Schumann Reson-
ance and human cerebral cortical activity associated with cognition will be strongly dependent upon the mag-
netic properties of space and the conductivity (or inverse of resistivity) of the aqueous environment in which
neurons and glial cells are immersed.
Multiple subtle and previously not reported classes of congruence occur in several parameters within the
Schumann Resonance and QEEG data. First, the Schumann Resonances are the aggregate phenomena generated
by global lightning discharges [4]. The QEEG is the aggregate phenomena associated with action potentials. In-
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
terestingly, the magnitudes of the electric current densities for the typical lightning stroke and the action poten-
tial [10], when scale is accommodated, are very similar (105 Am2). Second, the duration required for the prop-
agating field from a single lightning discharge to return to the source over the spherical guide is about 20 to 25
ms with a phase shift of 13 ms during the 2 Hz wave band of 7 to 9 Hz [4]. The recurrent 20 to 25 ms [“40 Hz”]
propagating wave that integrates large areas of the cerebral cortices between the rostral and caudal cerebrum has
been considered as a major correlate of consciousness [11]. This particular pattern occurs predominately during
waking and dream sleep [12], but not during slow wave sleep. The phase modulation, as superbly demonstrated
by Llinas and his colleagues [13] years ago, is about 12.5 ms. Third, both cerebral cortical electromagnetic fields
and the Schumann fields display strong trans-spatial correlations in their intensity values over the entire bounda-
ries of their respective surfaces.
The conditions for the two similarities, from a signaling perspective, can be consistent with Lorentz’s Lemma
[14] which relates any two electromagnetic fields if a) they are the same frequency, b) outside of the source, and
c) in a linear isotropic medium. If we assume 1) the two fields are the Schumann Resonance generated between
the surface of the earth and ionosphere by lightning, and, the cerebral resonance generated between the corona
of the cortices and the multiform layer of the cerebrum by action potentials, and 2) the fields are harmonic in
time, then:
( ) ( )
· ·
bs sb
del del×= ×EH EH
where E refers to the electric field vector component, H is the magnetic field (Am1) vector component, and the
subscripts refer to b (brain) and s (Schumann) sources. The aggregate is Watts per meter squared.
There are multiple examples of measurements that the magnetic field of the cognitive correlates of brain func-
tion and of the Schumann Resonance at the fundamental (7 - 8 Hz) is about 1012 T and that the electric field
component is about 0.1 to 1 mV/m. The Lorentz Lemma adds the dimension of radiant flux density. For the hu-
man brain with an average of 1 μV per 10 cm per Hz or 105 Vm1 and current gradient of 1 × 106 V divided 2
Ω·m or 0.5 × 106 Am1, the flux power density would be about 5·1012 W·m2. This convergence of electro-
magnetic amplitudes and radiant power density is within the range of the photon emissions measured from the
right caudal hemisphere of human brains [15]. This creates the condition that one mode of “information” ex-
change between the Schumann and cerebral fields will involve discrete and very small quantities of photons
through non-local processes. There is strong evidence that ultraweak photon emissions among and within cells
can mediate the information that controls the powerful dynamics of cellular activity [16] [17]. Non-local effects
(excess correlations) between two sources of photons that share counterclockwise and rotating magnetic fields
with changing angular velocities have been shown experimentally [18].
Given these convergent similarities between human cerebral electromagnetic activity and the wave guide, the
conditions are present that may permit signal and information processing by the human brain for some compo-
nents of Schumann phenomena as predicted by Cherry [5]. To test this possibility, we reasoned that real-time
coherence should be demonstrable between QEEG spectral profiles from human brain and direct measures of the
Schumann Resonance. In a previous experiment, we [6] [19] had shown brief (less than 1 s) coherence within
the first two or three Schumann harmonics recorded locally by our Schumann Resonance detector and those
same frequencies within the spectra of QEEG. Here we show, with a larger population sample, the more specific
quantitative features of these transient congruence periods and how they can contribute to implicit signaling and
information processing.
2. Methods
2.1. Participants
Participants were 41 males and females who were recruited from a first-year psychology course offered at Lau-
rentian University and after REB approval. All volunteers gave consent and were informed that the nature of the
experiment was simply to collect baseline eyes-open and eyes-closed measurements.
2.2. Data Acquisition
Once admitted into a sound-proof acoustic chamber, all participants were invited to sit on a comfortable chair.
Participants were then outfitted with a cap with 19 sensors (Electro-Cap International). Electro-Gel was applied
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
to form a contact between the scalp and the sensor. Each sensor was arranged to be consistent with the 10 - 20
International Standard of Electrode Placement. The impedance of all sensors was maintained at less than 5 kΩ.
The time-varying voltages measured from the cap were directed into a Mitsar 201 quantitative electroencepha-
lograph. Once amplified the brain activity was then recorded using WinEEG software at a sampling rate of 250
Hz with 16-bit analog-to-digital conversion.
In addition to the 19 channels recording various locations of the brain, ultra-low atmospheric electric-field
perturbations were also recorded simultaneously. The live stream was obtained from Mr. Renato Romero’s open
radio observatory in Cumiana, Italy ( Essentially, the recorded sound files from the Marconi antenna
were streamed directly into the Mistar box using a custom-constructed audio-to-ECG cable. Spectral analysis
performed on this channel verified the presence of the Schumann resonance with peaks at traditional frequencies.
Ping times were measured using MS-DOS with delays from Italy to Canada not exceeding more than 50 milli-
seconds. The current experiment consisted only of the collection of simultaneous EEG/ELF when the subjects
eyes were open and closed (approximately 5-minutes each).
2.3. Data Processing
Sixty (60) seconds of eyes closed 20 channel (19 EEG + 1 ELF) recordings were extracted for periods in which
the Schumann resonance was clearly visible and not obscured by artifacts generated from wind, rain or other in-
clement weather. This was verified by checking the website for current weather condi-
tions within the Cumiana, Italy region. These data were then imported into MATLAB software where the EEG-
Lab toolkit [20] was used in order to re-filter the QEEG data between 1.5 - 40 Hz. Indicators of the caudal cere-
brum were obtained by computing the caudal root-mean-square (T5, P3, Pz, P4, T6, O1 and O2) as has been
employed in previous analyses. These data were then merged with the streamed ULF atmospheric data.
2.4. Identification of Occurrence, Duration and Topographical Properties Associated
with Harmonic Synchrony
Cross-channel coherence between cRMS-ELF activities was completed for 41 participants in 30-second time
bins. Selection criteria for harmonic synchronyincluded simultaneous coherence across the 7.8 - 8 Hz, 13.7 -
14.3 Hz and 19 - 20 Hz frequency bands. Any occurrences that did not meet the criteria were not extracted. The
onset and offset times, as indicated by the cross-channel spectrograms, of each of the occurrences was then rec-
orded and extraction of only these time-periods was performed. Mean occurrence and duration were calculated.
For each occurrence, 4 topographical maps were produced based upon the 19 channels of time-varying vol-
tages associated with the 200 milliseconds before and after onset of harmonic synchrony separately using a k-
means clustering algorithm within SPSS. The resultant 4 topographical maps for each baseline and onset condi-
tions were then saved and entered into a secondary clustering procedure (N = 228 per condition) for each condi-
tion separately, again using the k-means clustering algorithm. The resultant cluster centers were then saved and
interpolated onto 2-D scalp maps based upon the locations of the channels using the topoplot. m function within
EEGLab software.
To compare directly the differences between averaged topographies associated with baseline and harmonic
synchronyoccurrences, within-topography z-scores for each of the 8 clusters that characterized baseline (4) and
harmonic synchronies (4) were computed. Because of the high degree of similarity between the two cluster sets,
similar topographies from both conditions were simply subtracted from each other.
To explore the average topological time-course associated with the onset of a harmonic synchrony event, an
integrated 19-channel dataset was produced by computing the average across all events and for all participants.
This dataset was then imported into MapWin software where topographical maps were produced within the time
interval of 120 msec < t < 160 msec in 8-millisecond intervals.
3. Results
The 41 individuals whose caudal (root mean squared) cerebral activities were monitored and compared simulta-
neously with the recording of Schumann values in Italy displayed conspicuous phase coherence at 7.8 Hz, 14 Hz
and 20 Hz. Of the 41 cases analyzed, 33 (80%) displayed at least one occurrence of a harmonic synchronous
event within a 60-second interval for a total of 61 harmonic synchrony events. The means and standard devia-
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
tions for the occurrence and durations of these harmonic synchronies were 1.72 (SD = 0.97) occurrences per
minute and 349 ms (SD = 75), respectively. In other words the transient coherence between the Schumann and
brain values in real time occurred once (on average) every 30 s for about one-third of a second. This is equiva-
lent to about 3 to 5 microstates about twice per minute. An example of the 30-second coherence plot from which
the averages were obtained is shown in Figure 1.
K-means clustering analysis revealed four topographies consistent between the two baseline and harmonic
synchrony conditions. They were characterized by 1) bilateral prefrontal, 2) inferior temporo-posterior, 3) bila-
teral caudal and 4) rostral-caudal orientations (Figure 2(a)). Evident is the appearance of a polarity shift for
cluster 2. One-way analyses analysis of variance for both cluster sets (baseline and event) on the averaged
channel voltage across 19-channels indicated that the cluster models explained 63 and 65 percent of the variance
Figure 1. Example of a 30-second (horizontal axis) cross-coherence plot from which harmonic synchronous
events were identified and extracted. Note the occurrence of increased coherence (red areas) between the brain
and ELF frequencies (vertical axis) measured in Italy within ~8, 14, and 20 Hz. The simultaneous occurrence is
most evident at about 6 seconds.
Figure 2. (a) Topographical maps of clusters before (top line) and during (middle line) the onset of harmonic
synchronous events. NC refers to the numbers of clusters contributing to the grand mean cluster; (b) Standar-
dized differences between the two conditions.
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
in classification. To ensure that the clusters were consistent between conditions (baseline versus harmonic syn-
chrony), Spearman rank-order correlations were completed between the arrays of cluster mean centers. The re-
sults indicated significant relationships for each cluster between conditions with respective correlation coeffi-
cients of 1) Rho = 0.59, p < 0.05, 2) 0.85 (p < 0.05), 3) Rho = 0.54 (p < 0.05) and 4) Rho = 0.77 (p < 0.05), re-
To directly compare differences in topographical orientations between baseline conditions (200 milliseconds
before the event) and during the occurrence of harmonic synchrony, each map was z-scored separately. The z-
scores of topographies were then simply subtracted from each other. The results (Figure 2(b)) indicated that
only the second cluster, characterized by the right inferior temporo-parietal focus, displayed z-score differences
greater than 3, and are most likely the result of the polarity shift observed between conditions. This profile was
similar to the one completed between the specific 8 Hz range in the QEEG profile and the “atmospheric noise”
at 8 Hz measured in Italy in real time for about 10 subjects in a previous experiment [19]. Here, positive
z-scores (red) indicated that the standardized voltage for the synchronous event was greater than baseline while
negative z-scores (blue) indicated the opposite. This topography was associated with a 10 μV difference among
To discern the latency for the real-time coherence to occur between the Schumann fluctuations and the QEEG
activity the results of 61 harmonic synchrony events from 41 different participants were mapped. The results
showed that the right temporo-parieto-occipital topography became stable approximately 35 to 45 ms after the
onset of the synchronizing event.
The onset of the averaged synchronizing event was associated with the ±2 μV transient emergence of a ro-
stral-caudal dipole with the centroids located approximately over the anterior and posterior cingulate regions.
Reconstruction of the isoelectric field lines in real time strongly suggested that during the approximately 10 to
20 ms of the onset the rotational component of the progressive dipole microstates reversed from clockwise (from
the top of the brain) to counterclockwise rotations. These results are shown in Figure 3.
4. Discussion
To our knowledge this is the first detailed, quantitative demonstration that there is real time coherence between
the specific frequency bands reliably measured within human electroencephalographic activity and comparable
fluctuations in electromagnetic characteristics within the earth-ionospheric spherical wave guide. Both sources
share similar fundamental frequencies, harmonics, magnetic and electric field strengths, and phase-shifts. Here,
we demonstrated that the quantifications of these changes can be strongly although transiently congruent. If the
Lorentz Lemma [14] is applicable, then the special condition for interactive information processing between the
two sources would be at least intermittently possible. Considering the strong coherence of Schumann parameters
over tens of thousands of kilometers and the fact that the brain measurements in Sudbury were powerfully cor-
related with spherical wave guide values measured in Italy [19], the possibility exits that similar human brain-
Schumann Resonance interactions could occur anywhere on the earth’s surface for individual brains or large ag-
gregates of brains. The involvement of diffusivity coupled to magnetic permeability of the medium comple-
ments this suggestion [21].
The duration of the coherence was about 300 ms or approximately the period of a protracted percept [22], the
just noticeable difference in the “stream of consciousness” that defines the boundaries between successive im-
ages and experiences. The most typical descriptions of subjective experiences when perceptual information ex-
ists for such limited durations is “a flash” or “intuition” or sudden “insight” that can be considered to be signifi-
cant. This duration if it occurred once every approximately 30 s would not be sufficient to affect the “stream of
consciousness” or disrupt ongoing cognition. However it could affect the direction of the thematic components
of the cognition. Individuals [23] who exhibit microstates that are intrinsically much briefer, would more likely
be affected by the coherence because of the resultant protraction.
The synchronization of cerebral activity within the Schumann range and the actual Schumann values required
about 35 to 45 ms to become stable. This is within the range of approximately two recurrent phases of the ap-
proximately 25 ms rostral-caudal recurrent waves that are generated over the cortical manifold. As aptly articu-
lated by Nunez [24], with a bulk velocity of about 4.5 m·s1 and a cerebral circumference of 60 cm, the cortical
standing wave is about 7.5 Hz. The time required for this wave to move across the rostral-caudal curvature
would be about 20 to 25 ms. Thus, the information from the ionospheric-brain interaction might be expected to
occur between the transition of any two successive recurrences of these “40 Hz” fields.
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
Figure 3. Averaged time course of a synchronous event for 61 occurrences of harmonic synchrony. The topographies follow
the progression from 120 milliseconds before onset and 160 milliseconds after onset in 8 millisecond intervals. Colour bar
denotes microvolt polarity.
The apparent reversal of the direction of the isoelectric lines during the phase coupling between real-time
Schumann values and cerebral activity for about 10 to 20 ms, the phase-shift duration noted by Llinas et al. [13],
is both novel and very relevant to the mechanisms by which signaling and information processing could occur.
The specific duration of this transience is precisely the value we [18] have found to be most effective to produce
non-local (excess correlations) interactions between chemoluminescent reactions separated by as far as 3 km
(the furthest tested). Dotta and Persinger [18] showed that the superposition of the two loci (as indicated by
doubling of photon emissions) only occurred with changes in counterclockwise angular velocities of magnetic
fields with base rates of 20 ms.
That photons could be a major candidate for the atmospheric-brain interaction is supported quantitatively.
Flux densities of ~1012 W·m2 have been measured from the right caudal hemisphere of human volunteers [15]
while they engaged in imaginative tasks while sitting in hyperdark conditions. This magnitude is almost identic-
al to the values measured from slices of hippocampal tissue [25]. This brain structure is the major correlate of
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
information processing and is central to the initial stages of the representation of experience (memory). We have
speculated that this narrow range of radiant flux power density is necessary for optimal transmission of informa-
tion without significant distortion from extraneous sources within the body volume and is primarily the func-
tional reason for the encapsulation of the brain by the skull. Because of this maintained “hyperdarkness” within
the skull the potential for non-local interaction between Schumann and cerebral sources could be maintained.
During local night and in very dark habitats during dream sleep when intracerebral photon emissions are most
likely to increase the coupling might be enhanced.
In a series of original and innovative publications Bokkon [26] and his colleagues [27] [28] have pursued the
hypothesis that imagery is the experience of fields of photons within the cerebral volume. Whereas traditional
interpretations suggest that imagery is a subjective state generated by configurations of action potentials mod-
ulated by syncytiums of glial cells, Bokkon’s concept is that the visual experiences are fields of photons. His
calculations [28] for the numbers of photons and their densities within cells are commensurate with potential
sources from known biochemical changes within plasma cell membranes. Dotta et al. [29] demonstrated that
photon emissions from a variety of cells primarily originate from the changes in small potential differences as-
sociated with the cell membrane dynamics.
The potential for “excess correlation” involving photons between earth-ionospheric wave guide and brain
sources may be determined by the shared intensity of the magnetic fields for both, i.e., 2 pT. The energy asso-
ciated with a fluctuating 2 pT magnetic field within the human cerebral volume can be estimated by:
where μ is the magnetic permeability, B is the strength of the field and m3 is the volume. Assuming the human
cerebral volume of 1.3 × 103 m3 and the transient, combined intensity from the Schumann and brain sources to
be 4 × 1012 T, the energy would be 8.3 × 1021 J. Within the approximately half of a second involved with the
interface measured here, the net quantity is very proximal to the Landauer limit. This is the energy, defined by
ln2·kT (where k is Boltzmann’s constant and T is temperature in Kelvin), where a bit of information is dissi-
pated into energy or the energy is converted to a bit of information from entropy [30].
The shift in polarity localized to the right inferior temporo-parietal region before and after onset of a harmonic
synchronous event could also be a revealing characteristic of these events with respect to mechanism. It is well
known that a static magnet accelerating into or out of a coil induces a voltage with a respective polarity. Moving
the magnet out of the coil induces negative voltage across the coil terminals while moving inwards produces a
positive voltage. If this principle is applicable to the observed topographical orientations and a reflective process
is pursued, the data might suggest that 200 milliseconds prior to brain-atmosphere synchrony the direction of the
magnetic flux is from the head to the atmosphere, while 200 milliseconds during the event the direction is from
the atmosphere to the head. In information technology, this would be classified as a ‘ping’.
The magnetic field strengths associated with the change in polarity measured directly by QEEG would be
consistent with this model. If the ping reached the lower E-layer of the atmosphere and was reflected back to-
wards the human brain, the total distance travelled would be about 200 km. If the ping time was 400 millise-
conds to complete one full cycle, the quantum of information would be travelling at a velocity of about 5 × 105
m∙s1. The absolute potential difference between the two conditions within the right inferior temporoparietal fo-
cus was about 10 μV. Dividing 1 × 105 V by 5 × 105 ms1 results in 20 pico Tesla·metres. In radio science,
bursts of megahertz frequencies are sent into the ionosphere and reflect back to a sensor in order to infer ionos-
pheric ion density. For the E layer, frequencies that reflect back to the earth are between 1 and 5 MHz. If the
ping associated with harmonic synchrony were a 3 MHz burst superimposed upon the Schumann waveguide, the
wavelength would be about 100 meters and can be obtained by dividing c, the speed of light, by 3 × 106 Hz. Di-
viding 20 pico Tesla·metres by 100 m reveals a magnetic field magnitude of 0.2 pT and is within the operating
intensity of the magnetic field of the brain and the approximate intensity of the Schumann resonance.
The current measurements as well as those reported [15] [31] earlier emphasized the importance of the right
Parahippocampal gyrus as one central focus of coherence between the human brain and the earth-ionosphere
waveguide. Neurons within the Parahippocampal gyrus show unique properties that could facilitate this cohe-
rence. The stratum stellare of Stephan (Layer II) of the entorhinal cortices of the human Parahippocampal gyrus
contains star-shaped cells that are organized into small elevations (verrucae gyri hippocampi) on the cortical
surface that can be recognized visually [32]. These cells exhibit intrinsic oscillations of a few mV within the 8
Hz range [33]. The energies are almost unity with the quantum for the loss or gain (Lindauer Threshold) of 1 bit
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
of information to or from entropy. The sensitivity of the right hemisphere was demonstrated during whole body
exposure to experimentally-generated, weak (~20 nT) 7 to 8 Hz magnetic fields [34]. The second order magnetic
field, induced by the currents within extracellular fluid from the changes in electric field associated with these
applied fields, is within the pT range [35].
The hippocampal formation, the area involved with the representation of experiences (memory), receives its
primary input from second layer neurons within the entorhinal cortices of the Parahippocampal gyrus. If there is
about 1 bit of information per second associated with coherence between the ionospheric waveguide and the
brain per 300 ms and about 107 neurons [32] within the human hippocampus, then there would be the potential
for exchange of about one million bytes or 1 MByte once every approximately 30 s. During a 24-hr day, the
cumulative maximum information processing could be as high as 3 GBytes. This would suggest that the accu-
mulation of information would occur as successive “packets” of information, analogous to processes utilized by
information transmission through the NET, that remain within a cerebral buffer until further integration into the
complete “transmission” is completed. We suggest the buffer is the (right) parahippocampal region where the
information remains until subsequent REM (dream) episodes during the same or following night.
The typical values associated with transmission of packets of information within modern communication
networks are instructive. For point-to-point Ethernet connections the information might contain 1.49 k Bytes for
a G Byte connection. For one second there would be the potential of about one to two thousand packets each
with durations similar to the peak of an action potential. For about 1 M Byte per second system parameters re-
sult in 168 Bytes per packet and 0.8 ms transmission latency. For every 13 to 14 ms out of every 50 ms the serv-
er transmits at about 1120 packets per second. Interestingly, inter-packet intervals are within the range of 50 ms.
Because the parahippocampal area is considered the interface for cross-(sensory) modal integration of the en-
tire cerebrum and receives and sends information through the cerebrum these discrete intervals could affect the
entire brain function over time. This would include the patterns of proteins that are synthesized and hence the
intrinsic neural pathways from which “memories” are later reconstructed. Whether or not these changes can
contribute to “induced” or pseudo memories, which have been shown to be enhanced by weak, transcerebral
magnetic fields [36] [37] must still be evaluated. Stimulation for about 1 s once every 30 s is within the temporal
parameters, such as kindling or even long-term potentiation, that produce the shifts in microstructure that are the
spatial equivalents of “memories”. Some authors have suggested that the neurons within the parahippocampal
region contain the central “transform”, independent of the “line codes” of sensory pathways, which integrates
neuronal information into the aggregates that comprise experiences.
The data measured in the present study suggests that the interface between the ionospheric Schumann sources
and the brain’s complimentary patterns occurs within the region of the right Parahippocampal gyrus. This re-
gion has been implicated in other experiments [38] and by other authors [39] as a potential site through which
subtle changes in geomagnetic activity could be mediated. If classical principles of brain organization are appli-
cable, the predominant visual “field” to which experiences would be attributed would be the upper left peripher-
al visual field.
If activity within the right hemisphere is particularly sensitive to the Schumann frequencies, then the influ-
ence should be greater when the human brain’s hemispheric bias shifts towards this direction. This occurs pri-
marily during REM or dream sleep. This state is associated with significant increases in protein synthesis and
has been attributed to the “consolidation” of experiences, as memories, acquired during the previous 24 to 48 hr.
The durations of this state, whose electroencephalographic pattern and 20 ms recurrent shifts are remarkably
similar to the waking state [12] [13], range from about 5 min at the beginning of the sleeper’s night to about 15
to 20 min during the last dream episode. The latter is more likely to occur just before the person awakens for the
day. The contents of those dreams are more likely to be remembered and can affect the person’s disposition for
the remainder of the day.
The equivalent power density for the Schumann frequency would be 0.3 × 103 V per m multiplied by 106 A
per m (1 μA per m = 0.4πpT) or about 3 × 1010 W·m2. This radiant power density would be equivalent to about
1020 J per second per cross-sectional area of a neuronal soma. This is an important value [40] because it consti-
tutes the energy associated with an action potential, the binding energies between many ligands and receptors,
and the quantity that emerges from the normal electrical forces between separations of potassium ions that are
attributed to the resting membrane potential. It is also likely to be a fundamental value intrinsic to space and to
physical processes that contribute to non-local effects and excess correlation or “entanglement” [41].
For the equity in the Lorentz Lemma equation to occur according to the values indicated in the last paragraph,
M. A. Persinger, K. S. Saroka
there should be (at least transient) increases in either the H or E component of the cerebrum by a factor of about
100. On the other hand equity would occur between the cerebral power levels at a distance of between 400 and
850 km above the earth’s surface where the voltages of the first peak of the Schumann Resonance are about 0.25
μV∙m1 √Hz1. For a 7 Hz oscillation the power density would be congruent with that we have measured from
the right hemisphere. Estimated values about 100 km above the earth’s surface would be in the order of 2 μV
which is typical of the values obtained within the 40 Hz (about the 6th Schumann harmonic) range for human
brain activity [4].
If the coupling occurs, through non-local mechanisms or by the special conditions of Maxwell’s equations as
applied through the Lorentz Lemma, then one would predict even the slightest perturbation at that altitude
should be quantitatively evident in cerebral activity spectra. About five decades ago while pursuing lunar tidal
forces within the upper atmosphere, Palumbo [42] had suggested that that there must be a phase reversal be-
tween the pressure tide at ground level and that required in the dynamo region of the ionosphere. He identified
this reversal, as inferred by data from photographic meteors, to occur between altitudes of 85 and 110 km. If this
relationship is directly applicable, then changes in atmospheric density variations following lunar transits should
display significant increases in brain-Schumann coherence. At ground level the enhancement should occur about
30 min after lunar transit. According to Palumbo’s data the peak should occur about 3 hr after transit.
There should be solar-geomagnetic interactions that might be discerned within QEEG data as well. On-
draskova et al. [43] reported a decrease in Schumann Resonance frequencies during the 2008-2009 solar cycle
minimum. There are also infrequent “peculiar” events such as the overlapping transients in the vertical electric
field over western Slovakia during May and June 2006 [44]. They were associated with juxtaposed transients
whose onsets were separated by 130 to 150 ms. Decreases of the fundamental by about 0.15 Hz during peaks in
proton penetrations concurrent with a diminished amplitude of about 0.2 pT and a decrease in resonance band-
width (about 0.2 Hz) have also been reported [45]. Heating the ionosphere with high frequency electromagnetic
waves from specialized equipment at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Alaska
[46] initiated larger amplitude (by a factor of 2 or 3) enhancements for every 0.2 Hz between 7.4 Hz to 8.0 Hz.
This was accomplished maximally when the HAARP-transmitted waves were 3.04 and 4.57 MHz.
5. Conclusion
The consistency and congruence of the fundamental, harmonics, magnetic field intensities, electric field poten-
tials, and phase shifts between the earth-ionosphere spherical waveguide (the Schumann Resonance) and quan-
titative human cerebral cortical activity indicate the potential for information interaction. Direct real-time mea-
surement verified a reliable and intermittent coherence with durations in the order of a “perception” or a brain
microstate once every 30 second, the decay time for short-term memory, between Schumann and cerebral re-
sonances. The latency required to establish the peak coherence and the transient reversal of the cerebral rotation
of isoelectric lines within the 20 ms range reflect the processes associated with consciousness. The specific
quantities of energy associated with both sources are sufficient to allow significant interaction of information. If
the estimated radiant flux densities for ultraweak photon emissions for both sources converge, then excess cor-
relations or non-locality could occur intermittently.
We thank Dr. Blake T. Dotta for his contribution. This manuscript is dedicated to the memory of Dr. H. L. Koe-
nig. The technical advice of Viger M. Persinger is appreciated.
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... The following hypotheses guide our ongoing collaborative research: Evidence suggests that, biologically patterned information can be communicated non locally between people at a subconscious level, via magnetic fields, including the Earths fields [20,[35][36][37]. This is in effect linking all living systems and it influences collective consciousness [28]. ...
... There is growing evidence suggesting that magnetic fields, in addition to serving as a protective shield, also help to synchronize, energize and non-locally interconnect living systems. The evidence suggests these fields act as carriers of biologically relevant and patterned information, which is embedded in the same field and is distributed to all other living system [35,37,47]. This implies that our attitudes, emotions and intentions are not limited to the space inside our bodies, but that they also can affect the mental and emotional states (consciousness) of others [48,49]. ...
... Their data suggests that a transfer of information takes place between the Earth's magnetic fields and human brains. Many of the SR frequencies can be clearly seen in the EEG profiles of most human brain activity [37,97] and the amplitudes of the electric and magnetic fields in human EEG activity are similar to those of the SR (1 to 2 picotesla). In addition, the spectral power within the profiles of men and women displayed repeated transient periods of coherence (synchronization) with the first three resonant frequencies of the SR (7 to 8 hertz, 13 to 14 hertz, and 19 to 20 hertz) in real time. ...
Full-text available
The Global Coherence Initiative (GCI) is a science-based, international effort that conducts research on interactions between humans and the Earth's magnetic field environment as well as collective intention on promoting peace, and harmony. In order to carry out one aspect of the interconnectedness research, GCI has created a Global Coherence Monitoring System (GCMS), which is comprised of a network of six magnetometers specifically designed to measure geomagnetic and resonant frequencies in Earth's magnetic fields, such as Schumann resonances, Alven waves and other field-line resonances. The finding from this line of research suggests that global collective behaviors and numerous human physiological rhythms are affected by and in some cases synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity. Additionally, we discuss why the majority of research conducted thus far has focused on how disruptions in the earth's magnetic fields are associated with adverse effects on health and behaviors. However, it is important to note, that solar and geomagnetic activity can also have a positive impact on human physiology and health. Furthermore, we believe there is an even more fundamental and important aspect of the earth's magnetic fields that can be utilized to help lift human consciousness. We propose that the earth's magnetic fields provide a plausible mechanism that interconnects and non-locally distributes information to all living systems on our planet. We review several independent lines of research that support the hypothesis that the earth's magnetic fields can act as a carrier of and encoded by physiologically patterned and relevant information. The four primary hypotheses of the GCI are articulated and the existing theoretical and experimental support for each hypothesis is discussed.
... There are two solutions that could lead to a convergence of the cellular and Schumann Resonance-human cerebral cortical activities discoveries that have been measured recently [27,28]. If this effect can be generalized then a potential connection between specific resonances of weak electromagnetic fields generated over the earth surface (the spherical wave guide) and the cerebral activity might be considered. ...
... If this effect can be generalized then a potential connection between specific resonances of weak electromagnetic fields generated over the earth surface (the spherical wave guide) and the cerebral activity might be considered. This is particularly relevant because the shared intensities and properties of the two source fields (earth-ionosphere, cerebral cortices) meet the criteria of the Lorentz Lemma [27]. Both involve variants of the A vector of the Aharonov-Bohm effect which involves the phase shift in an electron even when shielded from a magnetic field. ...
... When transformed to wavelengths this increment of energy is equivalent to the phase shift of a 410 to 400 nm photon wavelength. This is the range within which the peak shift in photon wavelength occurred during our [27] experimental studies when thixotropic conditions were produced while physiologically-simulated (spring) water was exposed to phasefrequency modulating weak magnetic fields. ...
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Quantitative convergence for solutions involving electron drift velocity, the magnetic A vector and phase shifts reveal an increment of energy in the range of 10-20 J that could relate the Aharanov-Bohm phase modulation of the orbital frequency of a Bohr atom to the electron’s Compton wavelength. The universal persistence of 10-12 W per m2 whose energy applied the square of the hydrogen wavelength solves for the energy equivalence of the rest mass of an electron could set the conditions for excess correlations between electronic systems that produce magnetic fields through optocouplers. Experimental evidence and quantitative solutions indicate variations of the Lorentz Lemma and circularly rotating magnetic fields whose phase and group velocities are uncoupled could create the conditions for excess correlations. Modification of Basharov’s operator of resonance interaction for decoherence and entanglement in the radioactive decay of a diatomic system and Das and Misra’s estimates for the fractal charge of a photon strongly suggests that the efficacy for optocoupler circuits to generate non-local magnetic field effects in living and non-living aqueous systems originates from a single photon wave across the circuit’s p-n junctions. A review of the concepts and data indicate that excess correlations involving photons under optimal conditions are measureable within macrosystems
... The highest correlations between the SRs and brain rhythms occurred when the magnetic activity was increased. Persinger et al. have also studied SR and EEG activity the in real-time and have shown that many of the SR frequencies can be observed in the power spectrums of most human brain activity 83,84 . They have also shown that the spectral profiles within the EEG activity displayed recurrent transient segments of real-time coherence (synchronization) with the first three resonant frequencies of the SRs (7-8 Hz, [13][14][19][20]. ...
... They have also shown that the spectral profiles within the EEG activity displayed recurrent transient segments of real-time coherence (synchronization) with the first three resonant frequencies of the SRs (7-8 Hz, [13][14][19][20]. This suggests that under certain conditions, variables affecting the Schumann parameters (such as solar wind) may affect brain activity, such as modifications of perception and dream-related memory consolidation 84 . Altered EEG rhythms in response to changing magnetic fields have also been observed by Belov et al., with low frequency magnetic oscillations (around 3 Hz) having a sedative effect 85 . ...
... Persinger and colleagues have conducted a number of studies showing that not only are the base rhythms of the brain similar, but real-time coherence between Schumann resonances and brainwaves can occur in participants globally, and that the intensity of the Schumann resonance is linearly related to the amount of coherence 83,100 . They also have proposed that information transfer can occur between human brains and the Schumann resonances 84 . ...
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This long-term study examined relationships between solar and magnetic factors and the time course and lags of autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity. Heart rate variability (HRV) was recorded for 72 consecutive hours each week over a five-month period in 16 participants in order to examine ANS responses during normal background environmental periods. HRV measures were correlated with solar and geomagnetic variables using multivariate linear regression analysis with Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons after removing circadian influences from both datasets. Overall, the study confirms that daily ANS activity responds to changes in geomagnetic and solar activity during periods of normal undisturbed activity and it is initiated at different times after the changes in the various environmental factors and persist over varying time periods. Increase in solar wind intensity was correlated with increases in heart rate, which we interpret as a biological stress response. Increase in cosmic rays, solar radio flux, and Schumann resonance power was all associated with increased HRV and parasympathetic activity. The findings support the hypothesis that energetic environmental phenomena affect psychophysical processes that can affect people in different ways depending on their sensitivity, health status and capacity for self-regulation.
... Its vector is primarily in a rostral-caudal direction. Recently we have shown that recondite spectral power densities occur within normal quantitative electroencephalographic records that reflect a far greater translational capacity of the human cerebrum [5,6]. ...
... The electrical component is ~1 mV per m and the magnetic field is ~1 pT (10 -12 T). These values are the same orders of magnitude generated by cerebral cortical activity [5,6]. ...
... Over the last five years we have collected an extensive database of QEEG data under standardized conditions for 237 healthy individuals. The data were collected through the Mitsar-201 system employing a 19 channel EEG cap as described previously [5,6]. The full database (NED) has been published elsewhere [5] and can be accessed from the following web link: ...
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Rostral-caudal standing resonance waves over the human cerebrum have been hypothesized and demonstrated. Here we demonstrate the emergence of resonant current density profiles when the measures from the right and left lingual gyrus and right and left anterior cingulate were spectral analyzed for QEEG records from 237 normal volunteers. The first three peak frequencies of 7-8 Hz, 13-14 Hz and 19-20 Hz which are the same as the first three harmonics of the Schumann Resonances were evident for both cerebral regions. At higher harmonics the discrepancies between the anterior cingulates showed Δfs of 3 Hz rather than 6 Hz. The estimated right-left current discrepancies of the trough-to-peak spectral measures for the peaks were in the order of 10-8 A • mm-1 for the lingual regions and would be consistent with intrinsic magnetic field strengths in the pT range. These results indicate translational brain rhythmicity may emerge between hemispheres as " interference " or " beat frequencies " that are remarkably similar in harmonics and magnetic field intensity to the Schumann fields that are generated between the earth-ionospheric cavity.
... The most well known are SR. The frequencies of SR are approximately 7.83 Hz, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, and 45 Hz, which closely correspond with human brainwaves (alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and gamma (30-100 Hz) [28]. Persinger et al. has found that the power within EEG spectral profiles has repeated periods of coherence with the first three SR resonance frequencies (7)(8)(13)(14)(19)(20) in real-time and suggests that fluctuations in the SRs can affect brain activity, including modulations in cognition [29]. ...
... The frequencies of SR are approximately 7.83 Hz, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, and 45 Hz, which closely correspond with human brainwaves (alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), beta (12)(13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30), and gamma (30-100 Hz) [28]. Persinger et al. has found that the power within EEG spectral profiles has repeated periods of coherence with the first three SR resonance frequencies (7)(8)(13)(14)(19)(20) in real-time and suggests that fluctuations in the SRs can affect brain activity, including modulations in cognition [29]. Substantially less research has examined the effects of ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves on physiological functions. ...
Full-text available
Changes in geomagnetic conditions have been shown to affect the rhythms produced by the brain and heart and that human autonomic nervous system activity reflected in heart rate variability (HRV) over longer time periods can synchronize to changes in the amplitude of resonant frequencies produced by geomagnetic field-line and Schumann resonances. During a 15-day period, 104 participants located in California, Lithuania, Saudi Arabia, New Zealand, and England underwent continuous ambulatory HRV monitoring. The local time varying magnetic field (LMF) intensity was obtained using a time synchronized and calibrated network of magnetometers located at five monitoring sites in the same geographical locations as the participant groups. This paper focuses on the results of an experiment conducted within the larger study where all of the participants simultaneously did a heart-focused meditation called a Heart Lock-In (HLI) for a 15-min period. The participant’s level of HRV coherence and HRV synchronization to each other before, during and after the HLI and the synchronization between participants’ HRV and local time varying magnetic field power during each 24-h period were computed for each participant and group with near-optimal chaotic attractor embedding techniques. In analysis of the participants HRV coherence before, during and after the HLI, most of the groups showed significantly increased coherence during the HLI period. The pairwise heart rhythm synchronization between participants’ in each group was assessed by determining the Euclidean distance of the optimal time lag vectors of each participant to all other participants in their group. The group member’s heart rhythms were significantly more synchronized with each other during the HLI period in all the groups. The participants’ daily LMF-HRV-synchronization was calculated for each day over an 11-day period, which provided a 5-day period before, the day of and 5-days after the HLI day. The only day where all the groups HRV was positively correlated with the LMF was on the day of the HLI and the synchronization between the HRV and LMF for all the groups was significantly higher than most of the other days.
... Pobachenko et al. [61] monitored the SRs and EEGs of 15 individuals over a six week period, and found that variations in the EEG were correlated with changes in the SR across the daily cycle, and the largest correlations between the EEGs and SRs were during periods of higher magnetic activity. Persinger et al. have also studied EEG activity and the SR in real-time, and demonstrated that several of the SR frequencies are clearly found in the spectral profiles of human brain activity [62,63]. In their studies, they found that the power within the EEG spectral profiles had repeated periods of coherence with the first three SR resonance frequencies (7)(8)(13)(14)(19)(20) in real-time. ...
... In their studies, they found that the power within the EEG spectral profiles had repeated periods of coherence with the first three SR resonance frequencies (7)(8)(13)(14)(19)(20) in real-time. This suggests that changes in the SR parameters are related to changes in the solar wind, and that solar radiation can affect brain activity, including modulations in cognition and memory consolidation [63]. ...
Full-text available
A coupling between geomagnetic activity and the human nervous system’s function was identified by virtue of continuous monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV) and the time-varying geomagnetic field over a 31-day period in a group of 10 individuals who went about their normal day-to-day lives. A time series correlation analysis identified a response of the group’s autonomic nervous systems to various dynamic changes in the solar, cosmic ray, and ambient magnetic field. Correlation coefficients and p values were calculated between the HRV variables and environmental measures during three distinct time periods of environmental activity. There were significant correlations between the group’s HRV and solar wind speed, Kp, Ap, solar radio flux, cosmic ray counts, Schumann resonance power, and the total variations in the magnetic field. In addition, the time series data were time synchronized and normalized, after which all circadian rhythms were removed. It was found that the participants’ HRV rhythms synchronized across the 31-day period at a period of approximately 2.5 days, even though all participants were in separate locations. Overall, this suggests that daily autonomic nervous system activity not only responds to changes in solar and geomagnetic activity, but is synchronized with the time-varying magnetic fields associated with geomagnetic field-line resonances and Schumann resonances.
... The essence of what interdisciplinarity demands of new adherents has already been utilized hundredfold times, and is innate to any serious academicor any human being in fact. The hunter-gatherers were integrating and synthesizing; they must have been, if our brains naturally integrate environmental stimuli in order to make temporal predictions about regularities and patterns, as empirical evidence would suggest (Assaneo & Poeppel, 2017;Maniscalco et al., 2018;Persinger & Saroka, 2015). As Benson aptly stated, "There is nothing special about this import/export business across disciplinary lines; and it has not occurred to anyone to call this process integrative or interdisciplinary [prior to interdisciplinarians]" (Benson & Miller, 1982). ...
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There is an increasing drive towards interdisciplinarity in all fields of knowledge. The general schema is a necessary and ultimately useful one in generating new ideas and "big picture" conceptualizations of knowledge, yet an impediment to its large-scale adaptation by universities and the Academy is sometimes found within interdisciplinarians themselves. In this manuscript I outline several problems at the core of the "discipline of interdisciplinarity," many of the questionable arguments used by some proponents of the field to justify their identification and determination of what is interdisciplinary, outline numerous examples of historical interdisciplinarity, and finally propose a New Argument that seeks to encompass all fields of research-disciplinary or otherwise-in a generalized fashion. The New Argument summarized is that if human endeavours are analysable into disciplines, then so too are disciplines into their fundamental components. Observing the parallels between disciplines, they are: 1) the subject, 2) the measure, 3) the method, and 4) the cause. The work draws heavily upon Aristotle, and hopes to clarify the muddied waters of interdisciplinarian debate.
... Such vector similarities, from the perspective of signaling, are consistent with the Lorentz Lemma [36] which relates any two electromagnetic fields if: 1) they are the same frequency, 2) occur outside the source, and 3) occupy an isotropic medium. The relation is formalized as: ...
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I S S N 2 3 4 7-3487 V o l u m e 1 1 , N u m b e r 1 0 J o u r n a l o f A d v a n c e s i n P h y s i c s 4058 | P a g e c o u n c i l f o r I n n o v a t i v e R e s e a r c h J u n e 2016 w w w. c i r w o r l d. c o m ABSTRACT Translation of four dimensional axes anywhere within the spatial and temporal boundaries of the universe would require quantitative values from convergence between parameters that reflect these limits. The presence of entanglement and volumetric velocities indicates that the initiating energy for displacement and transposition of axes would be within the upper limit of the rest mass of a single photon which is the same order of magnitude as a macroscopic Hamiltonian of the modified Schrödinger wave function. The representative metaphor is that any local 4-D geometry, rather than displaying restricted movement through Minkowskian space, would instead expand to the total universal space-time volume before re-converging into another location where it would be subject to cause-effect. Within this transient context the contributions from the anisotropic features of entropy and the laws of thermodynamics would be minimal. The central operation of a fundamental unit of 10-20 J, the hydrogen line frequency, and the Bohr orbital time for ground state electrons would be required for the relocalized manifestation. Similar quantified convergence occurs for the ~10 12 parallel states within space per Planck's time which solve for phase-shift increments where Casimir and magnetic forces intersect. Experimental support for these interpretations and potential applications is considered. The multiple, convergent solutions of basic universal quantities suggest that translations of spatial axes into adjacent spatial states and the transposition of four dimensional configurations any where and any time within the universe may be accessed but would require alternative perspectives and technologies.
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Objectives: The study purpose was to conduct a four-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial on adults with insomnia symptoms to examine the effectiveness of Natural Frequency Technology(®) (NFT), found in Philip Stein Sleep Bracelets, on sleep quality, anxiety/stress levels, and mood. Methods: Adults (N = 44, M age = 41.9 years) were randomized to the Placebo Bracelet (PB) or NFT Sleep Bracelet (SB) for two weeks and then the alternative bracelet for two weeks. Self-reported mood, anxiety/stress, and sleep quality were completed at Day 0 (PRE) and following each condition; POST PB and POST SB). Results: When the participants wore the SB, compared to the PB, they had improved sleep quality (i.e., Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), anxiety/perceived stress, and mood, p's < .05. Discussion: The SB may be simple, noninvasive, and non-pharmacological intervention to improve sleep quality and daytime mood.
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The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity. Patterns similar to the living condition were elicited by chemical and electrical probes within coronal and sagittal sections of human temporal lobe structures that had been maintained in ethanol-formalin-acetic acid. This was inferred by a reliable modulation of frequency-dependent microvolt fluctuations. These weak microvolt fluctuations were enhanced by receptor-specific agonists and their precursors (i.e., nicotine, 5-HTP, and L-glutamic acid) as well as attenuated by receptor-antagonists (i.e., ketamine). Surface injections of 10 nM nicotine enhanced theta power within the right parahippocampal gyrus without any effect upon the ipsilateral hippocampus. Glutamate-induced high-frequency power densities within the left parahippocampal gyrus were correlated with increased photon counts over the surface of the tissue. Heschl’s gyrus, a transverse convexity on which the primary auditory cortex is tonotopically represented, retained frequency-discrimination capacities in response to sweeps of weak (2μV) square-wave electrical pulses between 20 Hz and 20 kHz. Together, these results suggest that portions of the post-mortem human brain may retain latent capacities to respond with potential life-like and virtual properties.
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Schumann resonance has been studied for more than half a century. The field became popular among researchers of the terrestrial environment using natural sources of electromagnetic radiation-lightning strokes, primarily-and now many Schumann observatories have been established around the world. A huge number of publications can be found in the literature, the most recent collection of which was presented in a special Schumann resonance section of the journal Radio Science in 2007. The massive publications, however, impede finding information about how to organize measurements and start observations of global electromagnetic resonance. Relevant information is scattered throughout many publications, which are not always available. The goal of this book is to collect all necessary data in a single edition in order to describe the demands of the necessary equipment and the field-site as well as the impact of industrial and natural interference, and to demonstrate typical results and obstacles often met in measurements. The authors not only provide representative results but also describe unusual radio signals in the extremely low-frequency (ELF) band and discuss signals in the adjacent frequency ranges.
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Homeotherm state can bear a relationship to development of self-cognitive consciousness in evolution. Both explicit memory and consciousness could arise from sleep and dreams. In evolution several biomolecular and biophysical mechanisms have been developed, which made possible the formation of strong coherence of the information system in the brain. This coherence can serve as a basis of explicit holograph-like information system in the brain. This article, although not going into details about neuromolecular, biophysical or biophoton processes, proposes a relationship between thermoregulation and biophysical (biophoton) informational processes in the cells of the brain. it does not claim to solve the secret of consciousness, but points out that biophotons play an important role in information processes of the brain during sleep, dreams and wakefulness, and the brain can operate by pictures during thinking.
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When the energy within the mass of the human brain that is associated with the intrinsic range in fluctuations of the Gravitational Constant (G) is set equal to the energy from a magnetic field (B) within the cerebral volume and solved for B, a value in the order of 20 to 50 nT is obtained. Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEG) and sLORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography) analyses of cerebral cortical activity during exposure to a range of applied rotating, frequency-modulated, transcerebral (between the two temporal lobes) magnetic fields between < 1 nT and 7000 nT while volunteers sat within a darkened, quiet chamber were completed. There was marked enhancement of power within the 4 Hz to 10 Hz band within the right caudal (cuneus) hemisphere while the ~5 to 20 nT averaged strength magnetic fields were applied but no significant responses at lesser or greater intensities. These results suggest that a physical process coupled to the source of the fluctuation (~10 -15 m 3 ·kg -1 ·s -2 ) in G may interact with right hemispheric activity within the range at which gravity waves have been estimated to interact with Schumann frequencies generated between the earth and ionosphere.
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Recent measurements of cerebral quantitative electroencephalographic power densities within the first three harmonics of the earth-ionosphere Schumann resonances and the same order of magnitude for both systems electric and magnetic (pT) fields suggest the possibility of direct intercalation or interaction. The phase modulations of the Schumann propagations and those associated with consciousness are very similar. Quantitative solutions from contemporary values for the physical parameters of the human brain and the earth-ionospheric resonances suggest that electromagnetic information maintained during the first 30 min of experience could be also represented within a property of the (Hilbert) space occupied by the ionospheric wave guide within the earth’s magnetic field. Several astronomical phenomena, including gravitational waves and the neutral hydrogen line, display physical properties with magnitudes matching cerebral electromagnetic activity particularly during light sleep. The presence of Schumann frequencies within the human brain may have greater significance than hereto assumed for the human species.
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The multiple quantitative similarities of basic frequencies, harmonics, magnetic field intensities, voltages, band widths, and energetic solutions that define the Schumann resonances within the separation between the earth and ionosphere and the activity within the human cerebral cortices suggest the capacity for direct interaction. The recent experimental demonstration of the representations of the Schumann resonances within the spectral densities of normal human quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) activity suggests a casual interaction. Calculations supported by correlations between amplitudes of the global Schumann resonances measured several thousands of km away (which were nearly identical to our local measurements) and the coherence and current densities or these frequency bands between cerebral hemispheres for a large population of human QEEG measures indicate that such interaction occurs. The energies are within the range that would allow information to be exchanged between cerebral and Schumann sources. The near-identical solution for current density from the increasing human population and background vertical electric fields suggests that changes in the former might determine the degree of coherence between the Schumann resonances. Direct comparisons of local Schumann measurements and brain activity exhibited powerful intermittent coherence within the first three harmonics. Implications of the contributions of solar transients, surface temperature, and rapidly developing technologies to modify the ionosphere’s Schumann properties are considered.
1 The Electromagnetic Environment.- 2 Electrophysical Forces of Natural Origin.- 3 Man-made Electromagnetic Fields and Ionizing Processes.- 4 Biologic Activity of Static and Low-frequency Fields.- 5 Project Seafarer.- 6 Biologic Activity of Higher-frequency Fields and Chemophysical Reactions.- 7 Biologic Activity of Electromagnetic Energies: General Considerations.- 8 Small Air Ions As Biologically Active Agents.- 9 Biometeorology.- 10 The Divining Rod Phenomenon.- 11 Electromagnetic Fields: Biologic Stress or Therapy?.- 12 Electromagnetic Energies in Man's Immediate Environment.- Appendixes.- A Technical and Electrophysical Terms.- B Parapsychological Observations.- C Acceleration.- D Heredity.- E Heliobiology.- F Conclusion of the Public Service Commission of the State of New York's Opinion #78-13 on 760-kV Transmission Lines.- List of References.
In 1938, Oparin, in his book, “The Origin of Life”, proposed environmental conditions under which life or its chemical precursors could have been synthesized on the primitive Earth. Though unchanged in essential features, Oparin’s conditions have been subsequently refined. A central feature of this primitive environment was an atmosphere that was reducing with respect to carbon. The predicted atmosphere (Rasool, 1972) of the Precambrian earth, based upon thermodynamic calculations, is given in Table 1.
The cooperative efforts of physical and biological scientists over the past half century have resulted in a tentative, first order understanding of biological membranes and the behavior of single neurons. Nevertheless, recent work has further exposed the neuron as a highly complex system whose behavior is likely to be the subject of study for many years to come. In fact, the vast discrepancy between real neurons and the „neurons“ of neural network theory has prompted some researchers to label the latter „morons.“ However, even complete understanding of the operation of single neurons or simple neural systems is, by itself, unlikely to add much to our understanding of higher brain function. Partly for this reason, there is an active interest in the field of neural networks, or much more generally, brain dynamics.