Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. To the Secretary of Health and Human Services. Part A: executive summaryNutr Rev20096721142019178654

Article · January 2008with20 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00136.x
    • "Because an active lifestyle is an essential factor in the prevention of many diseases and in the management or minimisation of the progression of chronic disease processes , interventions to increase PA are essential. There is strong evidence indicating that among older adults, PA is associated with higher levels of functional health, decreased risks of falling, and improved cognitive func- tion [1,6,7]. Moreover, Moschny et al. found that poor health was the most important barrier preventing adequate PA execution by older individuals [24]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Physical activity (PA) has been shown to improve the general health of patients with chronic diseases and to prevent the onset of such conditions. However, the association between multimorbidity and PA has not been investigated in detail, and recent studies of this topic yield dissenting results. The objective of this study was to examine whether PA levels were associated with multimorbidity, self-rated health and functional limitation. Methods This was a cross-sectional study based on data from the 2009 European Health Interview Survey for Spain. The sample population included 22,190 adults over 15 years of age. The independent variables were multimorbidity (measured as the number of chronic diseases), activity limitations, and self-rated health status. The dependent variable was PA level, measured as a) a continuous variable in metabolic equivalents (METs) and b) a dichotomous variable based on international recommendations (</≥500 MET-minutes per week). The associations between the dependent and independent variables were evaluated across sex and age groups (16–24, 25–44, 45–64, 65–74, >74 years), using multivariate linear and logistic regression models that were adjusted for age, educational level and employment status. Results An inverse association was found between PA and multimorbidity among older males and young females between 16–24 years. This negative association was also observed among males aged 25–44 years when analysing PA as a dichotomous variable. Self-rated health status was directly related to the achievement of minimum PA levels among middle-aged and older individuals, but the opposite happened among the youngest group of females. Significant associations between the existence of activity limitations and the performance of lower volumes of PA were consistently observed among subjects over 44 years. Conclusions There is an inverse association between multimorbidity and PA in the youngest and oldest age groups. In addition, both low self-rated health status and the presence of functional limitations were related to lower PA in most of the examined population groups. These features should be considered in the design and implementation of community-based approaches to promoting PA, if further corroborated in longitudinal studies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
    • "In healthy individuals, Kohrt et al. showed that VO 2 max increased in individuals aged 60–71 with an endurance exercise program in which the intensity averaged 80 ± 5% HRmax, and that this adaptation was independent of sex, age, and initial level of fitness [71]. The executive summary of the Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report indicated that there is strong evidence that vigorous-intensity exercise is associated with greater improvements for some health outcomes compared to those observed with moderate-intensity exercise [29]. High-intensity training has been demonstrated to be feasible in individuals with PD and there is some evidence that high-intensity endurance exercise training is beneficial for PD patients with a dose-response effect of exercise in this population. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite the benefits of medications and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), these treatments are not without complications and neuroprotective strategies are still lacking. Therefore, there is a need for effective alternative approaches to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. During the last decade, several studies have investigated endurance exercise training as a potential treatment for individuals with PD. Objective: This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. Methods: First, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor signs of parkinsonism, functional outcomes including gait, balance and mobility, depression and fatigue, quality of life and perceived patient improvement, cardiorespiratory function, neurophysiological measures, and motor control measures in PD. Second we performed a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Then, we focused on several important factors to consider when prescribing endurance exercise training in PD such as intensity, duration, frequency, specificity and type of exercise. In addition, we identified current knowledge gaps regarding endurance exercise training in PD and made suggestions for future research. Results: A total of eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. This systematic review synthesizes evidence that endurance exercise training at a sufficiently high level enhances cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance by improving VO2 max and gait in moderately to mildly affected individuals with PD. However, there is not yet a proven effect of endurance exercise training on specific features of PD such as motor signs of parkinsonism. Conclusion: Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is a need for well-designed large-scale randomized controlled trials to confirm benefits and safety of endurance exercise training in PD and to explore potential benefits on the motor and non-motor signs of PD.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014
    • "Low income and minority populations carry an excess burden due to early onset, later diagnosis, and poorer disease management outcomes [5-7]. Health-enhancing behaviors, including physical activity, healthy eating, and avoiding tobacco, can delay or prevent chronic disease [8-12]. In addition, management of existing conditions through health-enhancing behaviors has been found to improve quality of life and reduce healthcare costs [13]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BackgroundCancer and other chronic diseases reduce quality and length of life and productivity, and represent a significant financial burden to society. Evidence-based public health approaches to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases have been identified in recent decades and have the potential for high impact. Yet, barriers to implement prevention approaches persist as a result of multiple factors including lack of organizational support, limited resources, competing emerging priorities and crises, and limited skill among the public health workforce. The purpose of this study is to learn how best to promote the adoption of evidence based public health practice related to chronic disease prevention.Methods/designThis paper describes the methods for a multi-phase dissemination study with a cluster randomized trial component that will evaluate the dissemination of public health knowledge about evidence-based prevention of cancer and other chronic diseases. Phase one involves development of measures of practitioner views on and organizational supports for evidence-based public health and data collection using a national online survey involving state health department chronic disease practitioners. In phase two, a cluster randomized trial design will be conducted to test receptivity and usefulness of dissemination strategies directed toward state health department chronic disease practitioners to enhance capacity and organizational support for evidence-based chronic disease prevention. Twelve state health department chronic disease units will be randomly selected and assigned to intervention or control. State health department staff and the university-based study team will jointly identify, refine, and select dissemination strategies within intervention units. Intervention (dissemination) strategies may include multi-day in-person training workshops, electronic information exchange modalities, and remote technical assistance. Evaluation methods include pre-post surveys, structured qualitative phone interviews, and abstraction of state-level chronic disease prevention program plans and progress reports.Trial NCT01978054.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013
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