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Objective: To describe the patterns of food intake for breakfast, the prevalence of omission of this meal, its relative share in the total intake of energy and nutrients, and the factors associated with its omission. Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study (ISA - Capital) with 795 adolescents. The prevalence of omission of breakfast was analyzed using Chi-square test and Poisson regression considering a significance level of 5%. Differences in the intake of energy and nutrients among adolescents who omit and have breakfast was determined by the Student?s t-test and differences in the relative share of breakfast were verified by the test of proportion. The pattern of consumption of breakfast was investigated by factor analysis. Results: The prevalence of omission of breakfast was 38%, higher among female adolescents. The energy contribution of breakfast was 23%, with contribution in vitamins ranging from 17% in vitamin C, for males, up to 37% in vitamin A and D, for females. Through factor analysis, 12 food groups consumed for breakfast were characterized in five factors that demonstrate a pattern of consumption. Conclusion: The results show the need for actions that promote regular consumption and selection of appropriate food for this meal.(AU) Objetivos: Caracterizar os padroes de cafe da manha, verificar a prevalencia e os fatores associados a omissao desta refeicao, e a participacao relativa na ingestao calorica total e de nutrientes entre adolescentes. Metodologia: Estudo transversal de base populacional (ISA - Capital), com 795 adolescentes. O padrao de consumo de cafe da manha foi analisado atraves da analise fatorial. Para verificar a prevalencia de omissao do cafe da manha, foram utilizados os Testes qui-quadrado e regressao de Poisson, considerando um nivel de significância de 5%. Diferencas da ingestao de energia e nutrientes entre adolescentes que omitem ou consomem o cafe da manha, foi determinado pelo Teste t-Student. As diferencas na participacao relativa do cafe da manha foram verificadas atraves do teste de proporcao. Resultados: Observou-se elevada omissao de cafe da manha (38%), alem de padroes nao saudaveis, incluindo consumo de refrigerantes e salgados. Cafe e acucares de adicao contribuiram significativamente para o primeiro fator; paes, margarinas e manteigas contribuiram significativamente para o segundo fator; e leite e achocolatados foram os alimentos que contribuiram para o terceiro fator. No quarto fator estao embutidos e refrigerantes e no quinto fator, queijos e frutas. A contribuicao energetica foi de 23%, com contribuicao em vitaminas variando de 17% em vitamina C, para o sexo masculino e 37% em vitaminas A e D, para o sexo feminino. Conclusao: Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de acoes que visem nao so estimular o consumo do cafe da manha, mas tambem incentivar a oferta e selecao de alimentos ricos em fibras, vitaminas e minerais.(AU)

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... Breakfast is important for the achievement of nutrient and health recommendations and has been associated with the intake of most vitamins, minerals [3,[8][9][10][11]16], and fibers and a lower intake of fats and cholesterol [17,18]. Studies have shown that its regular consumption is related to health benefits, such as better control of body weight, reduced risk of metabolic syndrome, better functioning of the gastrointestinal system, better mental health; and better performance at both school and work [19][20][21][22]. Many factors influence breakfast consumption, including socioeconomic factors, family structure, and gender [2,3]. ...
... The percentage of breakfast skipping in the sample studied was lower than that in other Brazilian studies [21,36,37]. The study in [36] that evaluated Brazilian adults (n = 600) found that 24% skipped breakfast. ...
... The study in [36] that evaluated Brazilian adults (n = 600) found that 24% skipped breakfast. Marchioni et al. [21] evaluated 795 adolescents in São Paulo/Brazil and found that 38% skipped breakfast. Eating breakfast is hypothesized to reduce subsequent snack consumption, resulting in lower overall daily energy intake, thus maintaining energy balance and a lower body weight, if it is not associated with higher energy product intake [38]. ...
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Objective: This study aimed to characterize the nutritional quality of breakfast consumed by the low-income Brazilian population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1547 low-income individuals attending 36 Community Restaurants (CRs) in Brazil. Food consumption was analyzed by the frequency of food groups presented in the 24 h recall for three days. The nutritional consumption consisted of the analysis of the total energetic value (TEV) and the macronutrients, fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, calcium, and sodium. The nutrients were evaluated considering the percentage of contribution concerning the daily recommendation of consumption. Results: Among the 4641 breakfasts expected to be consumed and reported, 17.2% (n = 797) of the consumers did not consume breakfast. Therefore, we analyzed the 3844 breakfasts. The analysis of food groups showed a high consumption of dairy and cereals, and low consumption of fruits, roots/tubers, and meat/eggs. The percentages of energy contribution of the macronutrients in the TEV were adequate for a balanced diet. The mean intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was low, and the contribution percentages of saturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids were within the recommendations. The mean fiber intake of the breakfast was low, agreeing with the result of low fruit consumption. Calcium intake covered 73.49% of that expected for this meal, and sodium intake was adequate in breakfast. Conclusion: The individuals studied consumed a nutritionally balanced breakfast. Although dairy was one of the most consumed groups, calcium consumption was low, indicating the need to consume higher portions of food sources of this nutrient.
... 41 . In a study conducted in the city of São Paulo, 38.0% did not eat breakfast, whereas the contribution of this meal to total dietary fiber among adolescents was nearly 20.0% (4.0 g for boys and 3.4 g for girls) 42 . In the United Kingdom, children and adolescents (four to 18 years of age) who ate breakfast every day had a greater intake of dietary fiber, calcium, iron, and folate. ...
... In the United Kingdom, children and adolescents (four to 18 years of age) who ate breakfast every day had a greater intake of dietary fiber, calcium, iron, and folate. 42 Breakfast is one of the three main meals of the day 17 and makes an important contribution to dietary fiber intake through the consumption of fruit, bread, and whole grains. ...
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Resumo Objetivou-se avaliar a ingestão de fibra alimentar e fatores associados em adolescentes; identificar as fontes alimentares do nutriente; e verificar a relação de indicadores de práticas alimentares (energia/macro/micronutrientes) com o consumo de fibras. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional com dados de Recordatório de 24 Horas. Utilizou-se a classificação NOVA e foi avaliada a contribuição dos alimentos para o teor de fibras da dieta. Valores de referência da Organização Mundial da Saúde (≥12,5 g) e do Institute of Medicine (14 g) por 1.000 kcal foram usados para avaliar o consumo. A ingestão média foi de 6,4 g de fibra alimentar/1.000 kcal/dia, 1,5 g de solúvel e 4,9 g de insolúvel, para os 891 adolescentes. O consumo de fibras foi baixo, principalmente entre os que ingeriam menos frutas, hortaliças, feijão, mais refrigerante, embutidos, e nos que não consumiam o café da manhã diariamente. Os alimentos in natura forneceram 68,0%, 53,7% e 72,1% da fibra total, solúvel e insolúvel, e os ultraprocessados 24,8%, 37,9% e 21,0%, respectivamente. O consumo de fibras foi inversamente associado ao teor de energia, gordura, açúcar livre e proteína animal da dieta. A ingestão insuficiente de fibras sinaliza a necessidade de promover a alimentação saudável e adequada em nível individual e familiar.
... A omissão do café da manhã foi reportada por quase 20% dos adolescentes avaliados, semelhante a outro estudo transversal, nacional e de base escolar (17) , que encontrou uma prevalência de 21,9% na omissão do café da manhã junto a adolescentes brasileiros. Um estudo transversal, de base populacional, realizado com adolescentes do município de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil, encontrou resultados superiores, de 38% (18) . A omissão de refeições é um hábito muito comum entre os adolescentes, especialmente o café da manhã. ...
... A omissão de refeições é um hábito muito comum entre os adolescentes, especialmente o café da manhã. Essa omissão pode ser prejudicial, pois indivíduos que consomem o café da manhã, quando comparados aos indivíduos que omitem essa refeição, têm maior aporte de micronutrientes e tendem a alcançar as recomendações nutricionais (18) . ...
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Objetivo: Identificar os comportamentos relacionados aos hábitos alimentares, às atividades físicas, ao tempo em frente à tela de televisão (TV) e ao deslocamento ativo de adolescentes. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado em escola estadual do município de Praia Grande, Santa Catarina, Brasil. A amostra foi composta por 86 adolescentes, de ambos os sexos, com idade entre 14 a 19 anos, matriculados no ensino médio. O instrumento de pesquisa utilizado foi elaborado a partir da composição de indicadores validados, composto por 30 perguntas objetivas sobre dados sociodemográficos, hábitos alimentares e de atividades físicas, deslocamento ativo e tempo em frente à tela. Os dados foram tabulados no SPSS, versão 21.0, avaliando frequência absoluta, relativa, média, desvio padrão, teste t de Student e correlação “r” de Pearson, adotando-se o nível de significância de 95% (p≤0,05). Resultados: Dos 86 adolescentes, 40,7% relataram que raramente consomem uma dieta balanceada, 53,5% têm como lazer preferido as atividades físicas, 33,7% deslocam-se a pé para a escola e 31,4% utilizam a bicicleta. Referente ao tempo em frente à tela, meninos têm maior exposição (8h e 10h) do que as meninas (5h e 6h) em dias de semana e finais de semana, respectivamente. Conclusão: As características geográficas, as atividades físicas habituais e a segurança pública contribuem para um estilo de vida saudável no contra turno, exceto nos hábitos alimentares, indicando a necessidade do estabelecimento de estratégias que estimulem nesses jovens a adoção de hábitos saudáveis de vida.
... These results could be partly explained by the fact that the most frequently consumed foods in this meal were mainly from the cereals or dairy products food groups, such as white bread, milk, butter/margarine, and refined cookies and crackers, which were in accordance with the typical Brazilian breakfast described in previous researches. 16,20 It is noteworthy that the most frequently consumed foods by Brazilian adolescents at breakfast are not completely in agreement with the examples of recommended breakfast meals outlined in the Guidelines. 11 Notably, fresh fruits were consumed at breakfast by 5% of adolescents, and the consumption of cereals, dairy products, and fruits/vegetables at the this meal was observed in only 5% of adolescents evaluated. ...
... 16 Similarly, the prevalence of breakfast skipping among adolescents aged 12---19 years in the city of São Paulo was 38%. 20 In other studies, the prevalence ranged between 16% and 48%. 21,22 This wide variation in the prevalence of breakfast skipping across studies may be due to the methodological differences, such as the dietary assessment tool, the number of days evaluated, and the definition of breakfast skipping. ...
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Objective To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. Method A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10–19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008–9, a population‐based cross‐sectional study. Individuals’ information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59 am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi‐squared test or F‐test of regression analysis. Results Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17–32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8–12%) and energy intake (16%). Conclusions Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient‐dense food choices.
... These results could be partly explained by the fact that the most frequently consumed foods in this meal were mainly from the cereals or dairy products food groups, such as white bread, milk, butter/margarine, and refined cookies and crackers, which were in accordance with the typical Brazilian breakfast described in previous researches. 16,20 It is noteworthy that the most frequently consumed foods by Brazilian adolescents at breakfast are not completely in agreement with the examples of recommended breakfast meals outlined in the Guidelines. 11 Notably, fresh fruits were consumed at breakfast by 5% of adolescents, and the consumption of cereals, dairy products, and fruits/vegetables at the this meal was observed in only 5% of adolescents evaluated. ...
... 16 Similarly, the prevalence of breakfast skipping among adolescents aged 12---19 years in the city of São Paulo was 38%. 20 In other studies, the prevalence ranged between 16% and 48%. 21,22 This wide variation in the prevalence of breakfast skipping across studies may be due to the methodological differences, such as the dietary assessment tool, the number of days evaluated, and the definition of breakfast skipping. ...
Article
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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. Method: A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Results: Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (up to 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Conclusions: Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices.
... Esta fase da vida é marcada por uma irregularidade alimentar, seja pela realização de dietas restritivas sem acompanhamento, seja pela referida falta de tempo para a realização de refeições, ou pela falta de fome nesse momento do dia 9 . A falta de incentivo dos pais e/ou familiares para a criação de um hábito alimentar, que inclua o consumo de café da manhã, também influencia a omissão dessa refeição entre crianças e adolescentes 4,10 . ...
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Resumo Objetivou-se estimar a frequência do consumo regular de café da manhã (cinco ou mais vezes na semana) entre adolescentes e investigar sua associação com variáveis demográficas, turno escolar e trabalho, comportamentos relacionados à saúde, práticas alimentares e consumo de alimentos. Realizou-se estudo transversal em 30 escolas estaduais de Curitiba, Paraná, entre março de 2016 e maio de 2017, com participação de 1.232 adolescentes. A prevalência de consumo regular de café da manhã foi de 58,6% (IC95% 53,9; 63,2). Após análise ajustada observou-se maior consumo regular de café da manhã entre adolescentes que: frequentavam os turnos vespertino e intermediário/integral; realizavam atividade física supervisionada; relatavam dormir mais que oito horas/noite; relatavam almoçar e jantar com a família todos os dias e; realizavam quatro refeições ou mais por dia. A frequência semanal do café da manhã foi associada ao maior consumo de leite e derivados, e ao menor consumo de macarrão instantâneo e refrigerantes. Destaca-se que o hábito de realizar o desjejum esteve associado com práticas alimentares e hábitos saudáveis, reforçando seu valor enquanto marcador de outros comportamentos relacionados à saúde. Sua realização deve ser incentivada entre os adolescentes.
... A recent study by Marchioni et al. [42], aiming to characterize BF patterns and verify the prevalence and factors associated with BF skipping with adolescents from São Paulo (n = 795), found a prevalence of BF omission of 38%, which was higher among females. The decline in BF consumption has been associated with changes in the contemporary lifestyle of the Brazilian population, such as the increase in the number of individuals living alone, the lack of time to eat meals, and the peculiarities in the consumption of different dishes by family members [2]. ...
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The study aimed to evaluate the breakfast (BF) of the Brazilian low-income population, analyzing cultural aspects, such as the habit of consuming regional foods and the BF food identity markers. This cross-sectional study used a sample of 1872 low-income Brazilians. For the food consumption analysis, three 24–hour dietary recalls were used. For the qualitative analysis of the BF, we used three classifications: standard, full, partial, and without BF. Also, BF was considered as regional when at least one regional food (contained in a predefined list of regional foods) was consumed. For the analysis of BF's food identity markers, we evaluated all food groups and their frequencies. Of the 5616 possible BF meals available for the three days of consumption, 17.3% were skipped, a low percentage. A total of 4642 BF examples were analyzed. Standard type BF was prevalent in all regions, and full BF was rarely consumed by participants. Women during the weekend skipped BF less often. Out of all five Brazilian regions, the ones with the highest consumption of regional foods were the Midwest (46.6%) and the South (45.9%). The highest frequency of consumed foods in BF were coffee with cow’s milk (or milk with coffee), added sugar, bread, and margarine, indicating that these are the identity markers of BF in the studied sample. Considering that the percentage of standard type BF was very high and that the consumption of added sugar and margarine was accentuated, actions to stimulate the intake of fresh fruits and foods in all meals are necessary, especially in the first meal of the day. There is a need for new proposals for actions and programs with the purpose of expanding access to healthy and adequate regional foods, especially to low-income families.
... pesquisa realizada em uma escola pública de Ilhabela-SP com 228 escolares, 21 observou- se que 21% dos adolescentes não tomavam o café da manhã, sendo que este índice foi superior entre as meninas (29%) em relação aos meninos (13%). Do mesmo modo, em estudo realizado na capital paulista com 795 adolescentes, 22 a prevalência de omissão do café da manhã foi de 38%, sendo estatisticamente maior entre adolescentes do sexo feminino. Para ambos os autores, a omissão do café da manhã contribuiu para a dificuldade em atingir as recomendações nutricionais, principalmente de cálcio. ...
Article
Objetivo: Avaliar a frequência do consumo de alimentos lácteos como fonte de cálcio e os comportamentos associados a esse consumo. Metodologia: Trata-se de estudo transversal realizado em uma escola pública do município de Agudo-RS, com adolescentes estudantes do 4º, 5º e 6º anos do ensino fundamental. A coleta de dados se deu através de um Questionário de Frequência Alimentar (QFA) composto por uma lista de alimentos lácteos. Resultados: Participaram 32 escolares. Referiram não consumir nenhuma porção de lácteos por dia 31,3% dos escolares; 15,6% consomem uma porção e 53,1% consomem duas ou mais porções, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre os sexos. Em relação ao café da manhã, 43,7% dos estudantes referem realizá-lo diariamente, sendo esse percentual maior no sexo masculino. Entre os produtos adicionados ao leite, os mais citados foram achocolatado (68,8%), seguido do café (59,4%). O consumo regular de refrigerantes foi relatado por 59,4% dos adolescentes, e os sucos artificiais por 53,1%. Discussão: A omissão do café da manhã e o alto consumo de bebidas açucaradas são fatores que podem contribuir para um menor consumo de laticínios, interferindo negativamente na ingestão de cálcio. Conclusão: O consumo de alimentos lácteos como fonte de cálcio mostrou-se mais prevalente para duas ou mais porções/dia, não havendo diferença significativa de consumo entre os sexos. A realização do café da manhã foi mais frequente entre adolescentes do sexo masculino. Observou-se elevado consumo de bebidas açucaradas, que podem ser considerados substitutos dos lácteos na rotina dos adolescentes. DOI: 10.12957/demetra.2018.32052
... Dentre os poucos alimentos fonte que fazem parte do hábito alimentar da população brasileira está o leite [22]. Porém, o café da manhã, refeição na qual há maior consumo de produtos lácteos, é considerada a mais omitida pelos adolescentes [36]. Outra fonte importante de vitamina D é a formação endógena desencadeada pela exposição à luz solar [37]. ...
Article
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Objetivos: Determinar a prevalência de síndrome metabólica em adolescentes e comparar o consumo alimentar dos indivíduos com e sem a síndrome. Métodos: Foi conduzido um estudo transversal com adolescentes de 15 a 17 anos de idade, matriculados em escolas públicas e privadas do município de Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal para determinar o estado nutricional, classificado de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde. A medida de circunferência da cintura foi aferida segundo Petroski 2003. Para o diagnóstico da síndrome metabólica foram coletados dados de triglicerídeos, colesterol ligado à lipoproteína de alta densidade, glicemia de jejum e pressão arterial e utilizados os critérios da International Diabetes Federation. Para a avaliação dietética utilizou-se um registro alimentar de três dias não consecutivos. Na análise estatística para a associação entre os grupos, foram usados os testes qui quadrado e exato de Fisher e os testes t de Student (teste paramétrico) ou Mann Whitney (não paramétrico). Resultados: Foram avaliados 302 adolescentes, sendo 51,99% do sexo masculino e 73,51% estudantes de escolas públicas A prevalência de obesidade foi de 27,48% e a de síndrome metabólica de 3,97%, sendo esta de 4,83% entre as meninas e 3,18% entre os meninos (p=0,46). A prevalência de síndrome metabólica entre os alunos de escolas públicas foi de 4,50% e entre os de escolas privadas de 2,50% (p=0,73). Na comparação entre os grupos com e sem a síndrome, não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas significativas na adequação calórica e de micronutrientes, exceto de vitamina D (p=0,01). Verificou-se que os adolescentes com síndrome metabólica consumiam menos vitamina D do que aqueles sem a síndrome Conclusões: A prevalência de síndrome metabólica encontrada foi relevante, considerando-se sua complexidade, gravidade e a faixa etária em estudo. Detectou-se menor ingestão de vitamina D entre os adolescentes com síndrome metabólica
... Among the 39 food groups identified as consumed at breakfast, only nine of them were consumed by more than 10% of the population. White bread, coffee with milk, coffee without milk and butter or margarine were the most commonly consumed foods at breakfast in the total population, which is in accordance with previous studies with adults and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil (Mattos & Martins, 2000, Marchioni, Gorgulho, Teixeira, Verly Junior, & Fisberg, 2015. ...
Article
The absence or delay of 4h of food supply in the beginning of the dark phase of the cycle in rats is related to the increase in visceral fat pads, and biochemical changes. Four groups (n = 34, Wistar rats) were formed from the diet and food restriction protocol: Control (C), Restricted Control (RC), Westernized Diet (W) and Restricted Westernized Diet (RW). Body weight, glucose and serum lipids, oral glucose tolerance test, visceral and liver fat were analyzed. It considered a significance level of 5%. Delaying the meal at the beginning of the active phase of the cycle did not change body weight, but increased visceral fat by 85%, 36% and 67% in RC, W and RW, respectively, compared to C. the groups that increased deposits of visceral fat had a concomitant reduction in food intake, with the exception of CR. The use of a Westernized diet did not change the glycemic curve, but it showed resistance to a fall in glucose to baseline levels, a reduction in HDLc and fasting hyperglycemia. The Westernized diet and delayed first meal in females caused hyperglycemia, increased visceral fat, and greater infiltration of liver fat as a result of the diet.
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This study evaluated having breakfast and its association with dietary intake and anthropometric profile among 8 th and 9 th grade students in public schools in Brasília-DF. This was a cross-sectional study with application of a questionnaire through an interview, in which data collected concerning gender, age, daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and a 24-hour recall, for the analysis of breakfast consumption and energy, nutrients, cholesterol and fiber intake. Weight and height were measured for analysis of the Body Mass Index for age. The association between having breakfast and the other study variables was investigated. The 838 adolescents enrolled had a mean age of 13.9±0.94 years, 59.5% were female and 18.1% were overweight. Only 11.0% reached the recommended consumption of fruits and vegetables (>5 servings/day). Among the adolescents who had breakfast (80.2%), 12.2% reached the recommended consumption of fruits and vegetables; among those who did not have breakfast, 6.0% reached the recommendation (p=0.023). Energy, macronutrients, fiber, iron, sodium and calcium intake were significantly higher among those who had breakfast compared to those who did not have this meal. No significant association was found between this meal and sex, age group or anthropometric profile. It was concluded that most of the adolescents had breakfast, which was associated with higher daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and with a greater supply of energy, macronutrients and fiber, but also saturated fat and sodium.
Article
Objective: Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Results: Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." Conclusion: This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality.
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Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global 'epidemic'. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11-15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95%CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent's low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Italian school-children 11-15 yrs old are high, in particular in the South and in boys. These findings suggest appropriate interventions are needed, at the community as well as the individual level, in particular in the southern regions. However, more research is warranted on intermediary factors to determine which interventions are likely to be most effective.
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Breakfast is one of the main daily meals but despite its importance for health, skipping breakfast is becoming increasingly common and constitutes an important change from former to current food habits. This study discusses the characterization of this meal, its implication on health, its importance and consumption recommendations. Searching databases in the field for articles and their respective scientific contributions evidences that there are very few studies on this meal. However, the existing studies show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with a lower risk of overweight and obesity and improved learning ability. Individuals who have breakfast regularly are usually physically active nonsmokers who monitor their weight and drink only sporadically. Thus, the reviewed articles suggest that there is a positive association between having breakfast regularly and healthy lifestyle, justifying the recommendation of programs that stimulate its consumption.
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Objective: To propose and apply an instrument to assess the breakfast quality of children and adolescents in the Mediterranean area. Design: Randomized, cross-sectional survey of breakfast consumption using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ administered at school by trained dietitians between Tuesday and Friday. A Breakfast Quality Index (BQI) score was developed, assigning a positive value to the consumption of cereals, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, MUFA, Ca and compliance with energy recommendations, and to the absence of SFA and trans-rich fats. Data were analysed by Student's t test and ANOVA. Setting: Schools in Granada and Balearic Islands (Spain). Subjects: All schoolchildren (n 4332) aged 8-17 years at randomly selected and representative schools between 2006 and 2008, stratified by age and sex. Results: Breakfast was not consumed by 6·5 % of participants. BQI score was highest for children aged 7-9 years and decreased with age (P = 0·001). Females scored higher in all age groups. The lowest score was in males aged 14-17 years and the highest in females aged 7-9 years (P = 0·006). Conclusions: The proposed BQI appears useful to estimate the breakfast quality of schoolchildren and to form a basis for nutrition education.
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Objective: To examine the association between breakfast consumption and CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional. Breakfast consumption was assessed by the statement ‘I often skip breakfast’ and categorized into ‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG, insulin and glucose were measured and BMI, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C and homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. Setting: The European Union-funded HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Subjects: European adolescents, aged 12?50–17?49 years, from ten cities within the HELENA study (n 2929, n 925 with blood sample, 53% females). Results: In males, significant differences across breakfast consumption category (‘consumer’, ‘occasional consumer’ and ‘skipper’) were seen for age, BMI, skinfold thickness, waist circumference, cardiorespiratory fitness, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and LDL-C; in females, for cardiorespiratory fitness, skinfold thickness, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR. In overweight/obese males significant differences were also seen for TC and LDL-C, whereas no differences were observed in non-overweight males or in females regardless of weight status. Conclusions: Our findings among European adolescents confirm previous data indicating that adolescents who regularly consume breakfast have lower body fat content. The results also show that regular breakfast consumption is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents, and with a healthier cardiovascular profile, especially in males. Eating breakfast regularly may also negate somewhat the effect of excess adiposity on TC and LDL-C, especially in male adolescents.
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In developed countries, obesity is the most frequent nutritional disorder, and overweight and obesity prevalences have increased whilst physical activity and breakfast consumption have declined. There is growing scientific interest in the possible role of breakfast in weight control and in factors such as appetite control, dietary quality and reduced risk for chronic diseases. The current article reviews the literature and discusses how the breakfast 'environment' and the composition of breakfast meals might be improved, particularly in children, so as to maintain the breakfast eating habit throughout life. Recommendations are proposed to encourage children to keep eating breakfast and the nutritional composition of the 'American breakfast' and two types of Mediterranean 'cereal breakfasts' are compared. We also propose a new breakfast type for children and adolescents that is based on chocolate hazelnut spread within a mixed breakfast type in order to reinforce positive experiences.
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We examined breakfast consumption patterns and trends between 1965 and 1991 for children (1-10 y old) and adolescents (11-18 y old) in the United States. The analysis was undertaken by pooling nationally representative samples obtained from the Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys of 1965 and 1977-1978 and the 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. Breakfast consumption, defined as the consumption of food, beverage, or both between 0500 and 1000, was the focus of the trends analysis. Descriptive results indicated a decline in breakfast consumption between 1965 and 1991, particularly for older adolescents aged 15-18 y; the rates for boys and girls declined from 89.7% and 84.4%, respectively, in 1965 to 74.9% and 64.7%, respectively, in 1991. Multivariate results indicated that breakfast consumption declined predominantly because of behavioral changes and not the population's changing sociodemographic patterns. The nutritional quality of foods consumed at breakfast has improved since 1965, with significant shifts toward consumption of lower-fat milk and smaller changes in other food groups. The improvement over time in the quality of food consumed at breakfast, however, is offset by the large percentage of persons aged > or = 11 y who do not presently consume breakfast. Given the association of obesity with less frequent breakfast consumption and the rise in obesity among persons of this age group, a renewed emphasis on the importance of breakfast is warranted.
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Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experimental studies are also necessary to rigorously test causality and biological mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted 2 pilot experimental studies to examine some of the effects of breakfast skipping and breakfast composition on blood glucose and appetite in children and adults. Our results suggest that breakfast frequency and quality may be related in causal ways to appetite controls and blood sugar control, supporting the hypothesis that the breakfast meal and its quality may have important causal implications for the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
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OBJETIVO: As fibras alimentares estão entre os principais fatores da alimentação na prevenção de doenças crônicas. Por isso, objetivou-se estimar o consumo médio diário de fibras alimentares totais, insolúveis e solúveis, nas refeições de uma população de área metropolitana. MÉTODOS: Foi estudada uma amostra da população do Município de Cotia, SP, composta por 559 indivíduos com mais de 20 anos. O consumo alimentar foi obtido pelo método de história alimentar - dieta habitual. Foram identificadas as fontes de fibras nas refeições: desjejum, almoço e jantar. Com base na porção média, os alimentos foram classificados quanto ao conteúdo de fibras como: muito alto (7 g ou mais); alto (4,5 g a 6,9 g); moderado (2,4 g a 4,4 g) e baixo (< 2,4 g). RESULTADOS: O consumo médio diário da população foi de 24 g de fibras totais, sendo as quantidades médias de fibras insolúveis 17 g e, de solúveis, 7 g. O consumo de fibras alimentares entre mulheres e homens foi, respectivamente, 20 g e 29 g (p<0,01). A maioria dos alimentos presentes na dieta continha baixo teor de fibras. O feijão foi o único alimento com alto teor de fibras na dieta habitual e, a principal fonte de fibra na alimentação. O almoço e o jantar foram as refeições que forneceram maior quantidade de fibras. CONCLUSÕES: Constatou-se baixo consumo de fibras alimentares, com diferenças estatisticamente significante entre os sexos. As práticas alimentares revelaram que a dieta é constituída por alimentos pobres em fibras alimentares.
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Cognitive enhancement takes many and diverse forms. Various methods of cognitive enhancement have implications for the near future. At the same time, these technologies raise a range of ethical issues. For example, they interact with notions of authenticity, the good life, and the role of medicine in our lives. Present and anticipated methods for cognitive enhancement also create challenges for public policy and regulation.
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Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.
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To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal biracial cohort study with annual 3-day food records. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited 2,379 girls (1,166 white and 1,213 African American), aged 9 or 10 years at baseline for an observational study. Retention rates were very high at visits two through four (96%, 94%, and 91%), but declined to a low of 82% at visit seven, and increased to 89% at visit 10. Frequency of breakfast consumption, dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI. Generalized estimation equations methodology was used to examine differences in the frequency of breakfast eating by age and race. Generalized estimation equations analyses were also conducted to test whether breakfast consumption was predictive of intake of dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI, adjusting for potentially confounding effects of site, age, race, parental education, physical activity, and total energy intake. Frequency of breakfast eating declined with age, white girls reported more frequent breakfast consumption than African-American girls, and the racial difference decreased with increasing age. Days eating breakfast were associated with higher calcium and fiber intake in all models, regardless of adjustment variables. Days eating breakfast were predictive of lower BMI in models that adjusted for basic demographics (ie, site, age, and race), but the independent effect of breakfast was no longer significant after parental education, energy intake, and physical activity were added to the model. Dietetics professionals need to promote the importance of consuming breakfast to all children and adolescents, especially African-American girls.
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To ascertain the breakfast habits of 10-15-year-old schoolchildren and to assess the quality of this meal as well as its relationship to the food consumption pattern for the full day. Cross-sectional survey. Eight hundred and two schoolchildren, boys and girls, aged 10-15 years, belonging to different urban schools located in Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The breakfast eating patterns of the children were studied and their impact on growth was assessed, using dietary recalls and anthropometric measurements. Only 42.8% of the children ate breakfast regularly. Over half of the children skipped breakfast, ranging from daily to once in two weeks. The energy and protein composition of breakfasts eaten by the children indicated that those who did not skip breakfast met one-quarter to one-third of their total daily energy and protein requirements. Mean nutrient intakes calculated from 24-hour recalls revealed that the children's diets were inadequate compared with the recommended values for energy and protein. The inadequate energy intake was reflected in a high incidence of malnutrition in both boys and girls; 40.3% of the boys and 32.1% of the girls studied were found to be underweight. Protein intake was also inadequate among boys and girls, although a higher percentage of children met their protein requirements. Over half of the schoolchildren studied skipped breakfast frequently, the main reason being getting up late. Children who consumed breakfast had higher daily intakes of energy and protein than children who skipped breakfast. These data confirm the importance of breakfast to overall dietary quality and adequacy in school-aged children.
Article
Objetivos: Conocer la relación entre el desayuno desde el punto de vista cualitativo y el rendimiento escolar. Material y métodos: El estudio se realizó en 141 alumnos (70 varones y 71 mujeres) con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 13 años, de 1º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) de un Instituto de Zaragoza mediante el recordatorio del desayuno del día anterior. La calidad del desayuno se ha evaluado siguiendo los criterios del estudio en Kid: BUENA CALIDAD: contiene, al menos un alimento, el grupo de los lácteos, cereales y fruta. MEJORABLE CALIDAD: falta uno de los grupos. INSUFICIENTE CALIDAD: faltan dos. MALA CALIDAD: no desayuna. Consideramos que la calidad mejoraba solamente cuando se añadía a media mañana (almuerzo) un alimento de un grupo distinto a los ingeridos en el desayuno. La calificación media a final de curso ha sido el criterio utilizado para valorar el aprovechamiento escolar. El análisis estadístico de los datos recogidos para el presente estudio se ha realizado mediante el programa SPSS 10.0 bajo Windows XP. Dicho análisis se compone de una parte descriptiva y una parte inferencial. Para el análisis de la significación global de las diferencias se ha aplicado la técnica de Análisis de la Varianza, seguida de pruebas a posteriori mediante los métodos de Bonferroni y de Tukey para detectar los grupos específicos que explican la significación global. Resultados: La calificación media aumenta sistemáticamente conforme se avanza en la calidad del desayuno, desde una media de 5,63 en el grupo de desayuno de mala calidad, hasta una media de 7,73 en el grupo de desayuno de buena calidad. Se ha realizado un Análisis de la Varianza para estudiar la significación estadística de las diferencias entre las medias de los grupos. El resultado ha sido que existen diferencias significativas globales entre los grupos (p-valor = 0,001), es decir, la calificación media cambia significativamente en función de la calidad del desayuno. Cuando se estudia la calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo. se observa que la calificación media aumenta sistemáticamente conforme se avanza en la calidad del desayuno-almuerzo desde una media de 5,77 en el grupo de desayuno-almuerzo de mala o insuficiente calidad, hasta una media de 7.61 en el grupo de desayuno-almuerzo de buena calidad. Se ha realizado un Análisis de la Varianza para estudiar la significación estadística de las diferencias entre las medias de los grupos. El resultado ha sido que existen diferencias significativas globales entre los grupos (p-valor= 0,0004), es decir, la calificación media cambia significativamente en función de la calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo. Asimismo, hemos abordado la cuestión de la contribución que realiza la calidad del almuerzo dada una calidad determinada del desayuno. Para ello se han calculado las calificaciones medias para cada combinación de "calidad desayuno" y "calidad desayuno + almuerzo".Así, en el grupo de calidad de desayuno "mala", aquellos que permanecen en calidad "mala o insuficiente" en el desayuno + almuerzo obtienen una calificación media de 5,55, mientras que quienes (sólo uno) pasan a calidad "mejorable" obtienen una calificación media de 6,10. Los escolares que han tenido un desayuno de calidad "insuficiente" obtienen una media de 5,91 si siguen en "mala o insuficiente", 6,30 si pasan a "mejorable" y 8,00 si pasan a "buena". Los escolares que han tenido un desayuno de calidad "mejorable" obtienen una media de 6,82 si siguen en "mejorable", y 6,96 si pasan a "buena". Conclusiones: Relación entre calidad del desayuno y calificaciones: 1. La calificación media aumenta conforme aumenta la calidad del desayuno (nivel descriptivo). 2. La calificación media aumenta significativamente cuando la calidad del desayuno pasa de mala o insuficiente a buena (nivel inferencial). Relación entre calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo y calificaciones: 3. La calificación media aumenta conforme aumenta la calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo (nivel descriptivo). 4. La calificación media aumenta significativamente cuando la calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo pasa de mala, insuficiente o mejorable a buena (nivel inferencial). Contribución específica del almuerzo: 5. Dada una calidad del desayuno, la calificación media aumenta conforme aumenta la calidad conjunta del desayuno y el almuerzo (nivel descriptivo).
Article
Twenty-nine schoolchildren were tested throughout the morning on 4 successive days, having a different breakfast each day (either of the cereals Cheerios or Shreddies, glucose drink or No breakfast). A series of computerised tests of attention, working memory and episodic secondary memory was conducted prior to breakfast and again 30, 90, 150 and 210 min later. The glucose drink and No breakfast conditions were followed by declines in attention and memory, but the declines were significantly reduced in the two cereal conditions. This study provides objective evidence that a typical breakfast of cereal rich in complex carbohydrates can help maintain mental performance over the morning.
Article
This cross-sectional, descriptive correlational research study describes the breakfast-eating habits of 846 inner-city high school students. Fifty-seven percent of students reported skipping breakfast on the day of the survey, despite the free hot-breakfast program at their high school. Significantly more girls than boys skipped breakfast, and 10th grade students had the highest rate of skipping breakfast. Sixty-four percent of breakfast-skippers cited a lack of time, and 28% stated they could not eat early in the morning. More breakfast eaters reported eating at home (48%); only 14% reported eating at school, with 3% reportedly eating both at home and school. Milk, orange juice, cereal, and foods in the bread group were the most frequently eaten foods. Patterns of eating by gender and by grade level are discussed in this article, as are implications for school nursing, including assessment, teaching, and research. It is important to educate students and parents about the importance of eating breakfast, because it provides an important part of a student's daily intake of nutrients needed for energy, growth, and learning.
Article
Eating behaviors developed during adolescence can have immediate health implications and influence future chronic disease risk. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the distribution of energy and nutrient intakes among meals and snacks, and relate eating occasion frequency to body mass index (BMI) of adolescent males. Healthy adolescent males (n = 180) completed 3-day food records. Following analysis for energy and nutrient intakes, 3-day averages and frequencies were computed for all meals and snacks. Dinner was the largest contributor of energy, macronutrients, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and sodium, whereas both dinner and breakfast were the largest contributors of calcium and iron. On average, subjects consumed 1.63 snacks/day, with 77% consuming > or = 1 snack/day. BMI was significantly greater and energy intake was significantly lower in subjects having < or = 3 eating occasions/day relative to 4 or > or = 6 eating occasions/day. The 26% of subjects classified as inconsistent breakfast consumers had significantly higher BMIs and lower iron intakes relative to consistent breakfast consumers. This study provides valuable information regarding eating occasion frequency and contribution of meals and snacks to energy and nutrient intakes in adolescent males. Such information could be used to improve nutrition education programs for adolescents aimed at chronic disease prevention.
Article
Although 24-hour recalls are frequently used in dietary assessment, intake on a single day is a poor estimator of long-term usual intake. Statistical modeling mitigates this limitation more effectively than averaging multiple 24-hour recalls per respondent. In this article, we describe the statistical theory that underlies the four major modeling methods developed to date, then review the strengths and limitations of each method. We focus on the problem of estimating the distribution of usual intake for a population from 24-hour recall data, giving special attention to the problems inherent in modeling usual intake for foods or food groups that a proportion of the population does not consume every day (ie, episodically consumed foods). All four statistical methods share a common framework. Differences between the methods arise from different assumptions about the measurement characteristics of 24-hour recalls and from the fact that more recently developed methods build upon their predecessor(s). These differences can result in estimated usual intake distributions that differ from one another. We also demonstrate the need for an improved method for estimating usual intake distributions for episodically consumed foods.
Article
The evidence supporting the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight is growing, but the mechanisms to explain this relationship are less understood. This study aims to describe the relationship between breakfast consumption and body mass index (BMI) and relevant nutrition behaviors. Cross-section design using the New Zealand's 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey. Participants were interviewed about their food habits and physical activity, completed a food frequency questionnaire, and were weighed and measured for height. A nationally representative sample of 3,275 children aged 5 to 14 years. Breakfast consumption, BMI, and nutrition behaviors. The demographic characteristics of children by breakfast consumption were generated by cross-tabulations. Regression models were used to examine the relationships between breakfast consumption and BMI and nutrition behaviors. Breakfast consumption was most frequent among boys, children aged 5 to 6 years, children aged 7 to 10 years, New Zealand European children, and children from more affluent neighborhoods. Age differences in breakfast consumption increased with socioeconomic deprivation; older children experiencing the most socioeconomic deprivation were the least likely to eat breakfast. Skipping breakfast was associated with a higher BMI (P=0.002). Children who missed breakfast were significantly less likely to meet recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption (P=0.005) and more likely to be frequent consumers of unhealthy snack foods. No relationship was found between breakfast consumption and physical activity. Results from our study suggest that efforts to increase breakfast consumption should be prioritized for older children from more deprived backgrounds. Increasing at home breakfast consumption may limit the amount of unhealthful snack foods children consume later in the day. Schools also have the potential to make a reasonable nutritional impact by providing healthful and affordable breakfast options for children who do not eat breakfast at home.
Article
To examine an alternative to exclusion of apparently implausible data when examining the relationship of dietary energy density to total energy intake and of energy intake to body mass index (BMI). The objective is to show the advantages of retaining all available data but stratifying based on level of energy intake. We examined 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from 7,720 adult participants (18 to 64 years old) in the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The relationship of energy density to energy intake, and of energy intake to BMI was assessed using linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and exercise. A sensitivity analysis was done to determine whether the relationship differed when generally accepted exclusionary criteria were applied. Although the relationship of energy density to energy intake is similar across a large range of energy intakes, it differs at very low levels of energy intake. Energy intake is much less dependent on energy density at low intakes. The relationship of energy intake to BMI is different at both high and low levels of intake. Furthermore, the nature of the relationship between BMI and energy intake differs based on reporting status (whether reported energy intake is consistent with energy expenditure estimation). Instead of excluding observations based on energy intake, examining all the data but stratifying by level of intake may be more informative of population nutrient intake.
Food and Agricultural Organization -FAO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease
World Health Organization -WHO. Food and Agricultural Organization -FAO. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease. Geneva: WHO; 2003. (WHO Technical Report Series, v. 916).
Hábitos alimentares na adolescência. Atualização Científica em Nutrição: nutrição da criança e do adolescente
  • M Fisberg
  • Crs Bandeira
  • Ea Bonilha
  • G Halpern
  • Md Hirschbruch
Fisberg M, Bandeira CRS, Bonilha EA, Halpern G, Hirschbruch MD. Hábitos alimentares na adolescência. Atualização Científica em Nutrição: nutrição da criança e do adolescente. Porto Alegre: Atheneu; 2002. p. 66- 93.
Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares: Análise do consumo alimentar pessoal no Brasil Rio de Janeiro
  • Instituto Brasileiro De Geografia E Estatística-Ibge
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística -IBGE. Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares: Análise do consumo alimentar pessoal no Brasil. Rio de Janeiro; 2011 [cited 2012 July 24]. Available from: http://www.ibge.gov. br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza. php?id_noticia=1648&id_pagina=1.
Excesso de peso em adolescentes: explorando potenciais fatores de risco
  • J Benedet
  • Maa Assis
  • Mcm Calvo
  • Df Andrade
Benedet J, Assis MAA, Calvo MCM, Andrade DF. Excesso de peso em adolescentes: explorando potenciais fatores de risco. Rev Paul Pediatr. 2013;31(2):172-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822013000200007. PMid:23828053
Report nazionale HBSC Italia Available from
  • Istituto Superiore
  • Di Sanità
Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Report nazionale HBSC Italia. Roma; 2010. Available from: http://www.hbsc. unito.it/it/images/pdf/hbsc/report_nazionale_2010. pdf.
Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde Departamento de Atenção Básica Coordenaçãogeral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição. Guia alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável
  • Brasil
  • Ministério Da Saúde-Ms
Brasil. Ministério da Saúde -MS. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Atenção Básica. Coordenaçãogeral da Política de Alimentação e Nutrição. Guia alimentar para a população brasileira: promovendo a alimentação saudável. Brasília; 2006.
[Food behavior in student residence halls: a setting for health promotion]
  • Hj Alves
  • Mcf Boog
Alves HJ, Boog MCF. [Food behavior in student residence halls: a setting for health promotion]. Rev Saude Publica. 2007;41(2):197-204. http://dx.doi. org/10.1590/S0034-89102007000200005. PMid:17384793
Idec testa margarina e empresa retira gordura Trans: Após 4 meses da divulgação do resultado do teste, multinacional apresenta novas margarinas
  • Instituto Brasileiro De Defesa Do Consumidor-Idec
Instituto Brasileiro de Defesa do Consumidor -IDEC. Idec testa margarina e empresa retira gordura Trans: Após 4 meses da divulgação do resultado do teste, multinacional apresenta novas margarinas. [cited 2005
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo -FAPESP e Conselho
  • Fonte De Financiamento
Fonte de financiamento: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo -FAPESP e Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPQ.