ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of core vocabulary therapy for deaf children: Four treatment case studies

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

This study evaluated whether core vocabulary intervention (CVT) improved single word speech accuracy, consistency and intelligibility in four 9−11-year-old children with profound sensori-neural deafness fitted with cochlear implants and/or digital hearing aids. Their speech was characterized by inconsistent production of different error forms for the same lexical item. The children received twice weekly therapy sessions for eight weeks. Fifty target words were drilled and changes in production assessed for accuracy and consistency. Generalization of consistency and accuracy was assessed on non-targeted words. There were four assessment points: six weeks pre-therapy; immediately before therapy; immediately following therapy and six weeks post-therapy. In addition, 10 unfamiliar listeners judged the intelligibility of audio recordings of the children’s speech before and after therapy. The children’s consistency and accuracy of single word production improved following CVT. Consistency generalized to untreated words. Sentence intelligibility ratings improved and more target words were identified after therapy. These case studies suggest that CVT merits further investigation as an effective intervention approach for deaf children, enhancing consistency, accuracy and intelligibility of speech.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Title: Evaluation of Core Vocabulary Therapy for Deaf Children: Four Treatment Case
Studies
Rosalind Herman*, Katie Ford+, Jane Thomas+, Natalie Oyebade*,
Danita Bennett* & Barbara Dodd*
*City University London
Language & Communication Science Division,
Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB
+Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust
Memorial Hospital, Shooters Hill, London SE18 3RG
Corresponding Author:
Dr. R. Herman r.c.herman@city.ac.uk
Language & Communication Science Division,
Northampton Square,
London EC1V 0HB
T: 02070408285
2
Abstract
This study evaluated whether core vocabulary intervention (CVT) improved single
word speech accuracy, consistency and intelligibility in four 9-11 year-old children
with profound sensori-neural deafness fitted with cochlear implants and/or digital
hearing aids. Their speech was characterised by inconsistent production of different
error forms for the same lexical item. The children received twice weekly therapy
sessions for eight weeks. Fifty target words were drilled and changes in production
assessed for accuracy and consistency. Generalisation of consistency and accuracy was
assessed on non-targeted words. There were four assessment points: six weeks pre-
therapy; immediately before therapy; immediately following therapy and six weeks
post-therapy. In addition, ten unfamiliar listeners judged the intelligibility of audio
recordings of the children’s speech before and after therapy. The children’s consistency
and accuracy of single word production improved following CVT. Consistency
generalised to untreated words. Sentence intelligibility ratings improved and more
target words were identified after therapy. These case studies suggest that CVT merits
further investigation as an effective intervention approach for deaf children, enhancing
consistency, accuracy and intelligibility of speech.
KEY WORDS: Core vocabulary therapy, hearing-impaired, deaf, speech
intelligibility, speech consistency, listener feedback, intervention
3
Introduction
Deaf students’ speech intelligibility is crucial for oral communicative competence
(Marschark, & Spencer, 2006) and social development (Most, 2007). However, few
studies have evaluated specific interventions to enhance the speech intelligibility of
children with prelingual, profound deafness. Some intervention approaches target
impaired articulation at a phonetic level (e.g., electropalatography, Pantelemidou,
Herman & Thomas, 2003; ultrasound, Bacsfalvi, 2010). Other studies focus on
phonological knowledge that underpins the acquisition of both speech intelligibility and
literacy (Thomson & Goswami, 2010; Leybaert 2005). Core vocabulary therapy (CVT),
designed for hearing children making inconsistent speech errors, targets both
articulatory and phonological aspects of word production (Dodd, Holm, Crosbie, &
McIntosh, 2010). The case studies reported here evaluated whether the poor speech
intelligibility of four children with cochlear implants and/or hearing aids would be
enhanced by CVT.
Characteristics of deaf children’s speech production skills
Since the days of early research characterising the effects of deafness on speech (e.g.,
Hudgins & Numbers, 1942), technological advances such as cochlear implants have
lead to significant improvements in the intelligibility and language of deaf speakers
(Marschark & Spencer, 2006). For example, Blamey et al. (2001) monitored the
conversational speech of nine children from when they received their implants between
2-5 years until aged 6-11 years. The final assessment revealed that the number of
intelligible words per utterance had increased from 3.6% to 80.8%, despite an increase
in sentence complexity, reflecting great accuracy in the production of monophthongs,
4
diphthongs and consonants. Although speech acquisition was incomplete six years post-
insertion, indicating slow development, there was no evidence of a plateau in
performance (ibid). Tobey, Geers, Sundarrajan and Shin (2011) assessed 110
adolescents with cochlear implants at 8-9 years and again at 15-18 years to identify
factors influencing speech intelligibility. Participant, family, and performance measures
at the first assessment predicted improvements in speech accuracy at the second
assessment. The most important influences on adolescents’ speech intelligibility were
the extent to which participants’ relied on oral communication and their use of shorter
sentences (Tobey et al., 2011). A similar finding emerged from an investigation of the
speech intelligibility of 17 children with cochlear implants, aged 4-11 years (Khwaileh
& Flipsen, 2010). Single word and sentence level intelligibility were linked to the
extent of cochlear implant use rather than age at implantation.
In contrast, De Raeve (2010) reported that the intelligibility of connected speech was
related to age of cochlear implantation. Children receiving implants after 23 months
had lower intelligibility than those implanted before 18 months. Marschark and
Spencer’s (2003) review concluded that receiving a cochlear implant at a younger age
leads to higher levels of communication skills while a late age of implantation is
associated with negative long-term speech and language outcomes.
Despite the benefits of cochlear implants for profoundly deaf children, Ouellet and
Cohen’s (1999) review emphasised great variability in post-implant performance for
speech intelligibility, vocabulary and sentence structure. Factors affecting outcomes
included age of onset, degree of hearing loss, extent of amplification experience and
type of intervention (Khwaileh & Flipsen, 2010; Ouellet & Cohen, 1999). The data
reviewed suggests that speech intelligibility remains an issue for some children with
cochlear implants. The proportion of children having poorer outcomes after cochlear
5
implantation, however, depends on the population studied. Children fitted with hearing
aids alone also have a range of speech intelligibility outcomes, although these are
typically less positive than those of children with cochlear implants (Lejeune &
Demanez, 2006).
Interventions targeting speech
Traditional interventions to establish spoken language focus on the phonetic level, i.e.
the articulation of single sounds, then on phonology, i.e. use of sounds contrastively in
meaningful words (Ling, 1984). For example, four adolescents with moderate to severe
deafness received 14 weekly, 30 minute, individual sessions using instrumental
feedback. Treated consonant accuracy improved by 36% compared to 15% for
untreated sounds. Speech intelligibility was not measured and no long-term follow-up
data on maintenance of gains was reported (Bernhadt, Gick, Bacsfalvi & Ashdown,
2003). A single case study of an 18 year-old deaf client used electropalatography to
target accurate alveolar plosive production (Martin, Hirson, Herman, Thomas & Pring,
2007). The statistically significant gains made, measured perceptually and
instrumentally following six bi-weekly hour-long intervention sessions, were
maintained and generalised to untaught words. A review of intervention focusing on
phonetic targets using electropalatography and/or ultrasound, however, found the
evidence base to be limited (Vuckovich, 2007).
An intervention targeting phonology (Massaro & Light, 2004) trained eight 6-10 year
old deaf children to identify and produce 24 vocabulary items using residual hearing
and lip-read cues presented by a computerised ‘talking head’. Students also read and
wrote the words. The students received 18 twice weekly 30 minute sessions. Children
6
learned 72% of the words receptively and 64% expressively, with learning retained four
weeks after therapy ended. No measures of generalisation to speech intelligibility were
made.Core vocabulary therapy (CVT) combines both phonological and articulatory
cues to teach the intelligible production of words of high functional importance for
children, their families and school classrooms. Clinical intervention trials indicate that
CVT successfully targets inconsistent phonological disorder in hearing children. A
review of the evidence for CVT with hearing children (Dodd, et al., 2010) included
case studies, group comparison of children with different types of speech disorder
(consistent and inconsistent errors) receiving different intervention programmes (CVT
and phonological contrast) and a randomised control trial. The results indicate that an
approach targeting both phonetic and phonological aspects of word production achieves
intelligible speech, usually after eight hours of intervention (twice weekly, 16, 30-
minute sessions). The long-term goal of therapy is to teach children to plan consistent
production of the sequence of phonemes for specific lexical items. Children are taught a
set of 50-70 target words selected for their functional value to the child, their family
and school. Clinical research suggests that once a threshold level of words has been
taught, consistency and accuracy of production generalises to untaught words (Crosbie,
Holm & Dodd, 2005). The methods section details the components of CVT.
Experimental studies comparing hearing children who make inconsistent errors with
those who make consistent errors indicated different profiles of speech processing
strengths and weaknesses (Dodd, 2014). Children whose speech is characterised by
non-developmental consistent errors do poorly on cognitive-linguistic tasks (e.g.,
phonological rule derivation, phonological awareness, literacy). In contrast, children
making inconsistent errors appear to have a phonological assembly difficulty, i.e. in
consistently selecting and sequencing the phonemes that make up a word. While the
7
nature of inconsistency has been well described, both theoretically and clinically, little
is yet known about the nature of inconsistency in children who are hearing impaired.
The trigger for the current study was provided by Speech and Language Therapists
(SLTs) working in schools with provision for deaf students. They reported CVT was
useful when working with children whose speech intelligibility had plateaued following
therapy that adopted traditional approaches in targeting specific phonemes in isolation
and in words (Martin, 2009, personal communication). The theoretical rationale for
using CVT for this study is that prelingual deafness might lead to internal phonological
representations of words that are incomplete or inaccurate. In addition, the ability to
implement the phonetic plan for a word from an intact representation may be limited by
poor self-monitoring of speech output. Inconsistent and/or erroneous word production
would arise from both deficits. CVT targets the underlying phonological representation
of words, ensuring that the client is aware of and can articulate all speech sounds in a
specific word in the correct sequence, consistently. Once a word’s best production has
been elicited, it is drilled in single words, carrier phrases and sentences, developing the
ability to assemble phonology and plan the phonetic program from a word’s intact
mental representation (e.g., Dodd et al., 2010). The importance of practice to
automaticity has previously been emphasised by Perigoe and Ling (1986).
Research hypotheses
The research questions concern whether CVT can increase the accuracy of sounds in
words in order to enhance the speech intelligibility of four deaf children. While the
children attended the same school, they had different hearing histories, language
exposure, communication methods and motivation.
8
It was hypothesised that there would be a significant increase from pre-therapy to post-
therapy measures after CVT:
In Percentage Consonants Correct (PCC) and Percentage Vowels Correct (PVC)
for words targeted in CVT therapy, and
For PCC and PVC in non-targeted therapy words in the Diagnostic Evaluation
of Articulation and Phonology Inconsistency Subtest (DEAP: Dodd, Hua, Crosbie,
Holm, & Ozanne, 2002);
In consistency of production of single words targeted in therapy and a set of
control words not targeted in therapy
In the intelligibility of the children’s speech, measured by listeners’
identification of single word targets and listeners’ comprehension of spoken sentences.
Method
Participants
Table 1 presents individual participant data. The children attended a mainstream
primary school with a resource centre for deaf pupils. Total Communication (Sign
Supported English and British Sign Language) was used consistently. Each child
received weekly specialist speech and language therapy.
Insert Table 1 here.
9
Listeners
Ten listeners rated the participants’ speech intelligibility. Three were male and seven
were female with an average age of 22 years (range 13-29 years). None of the listeners
knew the participants or had any training in phonetics or experience with deaf speakers.
Materials
1. All children were initially assessed on the Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and
Phonology (Dodd, et al., 2002), administered and scored according the assessment's
manual. Participants completed the diagnostic screen, which indicated whether they
should receive the consistency and oro-motor subtests. All children had inconsistency
scores of greater than 40% at that initial assessment. If a child’s inconsistency score is
40% or more, they are diagnosed with inconsistent speech disorder based on
inconsistency data from typically developing and undifferentiated speech disordered
children. None of the participants performed poorly on the oro-motor assessment,
indicating that no apraxic or dysarthric characteristics were present. Subsequent
assessments included the consistency and phonology subtests from the DEAP to gain
measures of both consistency and accuracy (PCC, PVC and percent phonemes correct
(PPC). The four assessment points were: 1) six weeks prior to therapy, 2) immediately
before therapy, 3) immediately following therapy and 4) six weeks post-therapy.
2. Therapy Resources. Each participant received a CVT homework book that listed
current target words, represented in written words and pictures. The parents and class
teachers were provided with their child’s best production of each word, e.g. MA’s best
production of /rules/ was [ɹu], therefore the English spelling ‘roo’ was provided for
ease of interpretation. A board game with dice, a counter and letter cards was used
during the drilling sessions to encourage repetition of target vocabulary.
10
Parents and teachers completed a post-therapy questionnaire rating their experience of
CVT including the amount of practice they had offered the children and the progress
they observed.
Intervention procedure
Before the start of intervention, according to CVT protocol, approximately 85 words
were collected from each child, their parents and teachers. Fifty were selected for
targeting in therapy, ensuring inclusion of educationally and socially important
vocabulary as well as words the children wanted to say better, enhancing motivation.
The taught vocabulary contained a variety of phonemes, syllable shapes (CV, VC,
CCVC, CVCC) and words of more than one syllable. Ten untreated probe words were
matched to target words for syllable length and complexity to monitor consistency
during intervention. Probe words were elicited three times in separate trials every
second session. Children were presented with pictures of the probe words and had to
name them. This occurred three times within the session, each occasion separated by
another activity. Video recordings were made to ensure accurate transcription. These
data were only analysed for consistency, not accuracy, to detect when generalisation of
consistency occurred,
Participants were offered 16 twice weekly 45 minute therapy sessions during the course
of the study. In the first weekly session, each child randomly selected 10 target words
for that week from a box containing all 50 targets. The child’s best production was
elicited for each of these 10 words by breaking the word down into separate syllables,
and syllables into separate sounds. The aim was not the accurate adult production of
each word but the child’s best possible production. When the correct production could
not be elicited for a sound, a developmental error used by typically developing children
11
was accepted, e.g. [t] for /k/; [b] for /bl/; [w] for /r/. Cued Articulation (Passy, 1990)
was sometimes used to elicit participants’ best productions of words as it had been used
in previous therapy with these participants. CVT allows the use of any cues (e.g.
Prompt, finger spelling, written letter sequences, cued articulation) to elicit a child's
best production, irrespective of whether a child is hearing or hearing impaired. Best
productions were identified and transcribed, then practised in games to establish
consistency. This is a crucial component of CVT. When the best production is not used,
listeners (clinician, parent, teachers) say “That is not the way we say it. Remember?” If
it is still not produced, then cues are given about the phonological structure of the word
(e.g. number of syllables, the sounds in the first syllable, and other syllables. When a
child uses their best production, they should receive positive feedback, that is, specific
about the word's structure, e.g., “You said that word just right. It had a 's' at the
beginning and a 'n' at the end. People would understand you when you said it.There
was an emphasis on the child actively remembering the production pattern, rather than
imitating words.
In the second weekly session, selected words were drilled in games. Children
consistently produced their ‘best production’ of each target word at least 20 times.
Once they could produce a particular word consistently (tested at different points
throughout the session), the word was allocated to a “Words I can say well” pile on a
visual chart. Words produced inconsistently were allocated to a “Words I need to
practise” pile. Words that had been drilled were revisited the following week to review
their consistency: any words that children struggled to say consistently were placed
back into the ‘word box’ to be targeted another week. At the start of therapy, children
were asked what they wanted to receive as a reward and were reminded of this during
therapy. Children received their reward once therapy was completed.
12
The implementation of CVT with deaf participants presented a number of challenges.
The student therapists carrying out the intervention used basic SSE to support the
children’s understanding of the presented activities. In addition, visual explanations
using pictures demonstrated what was expected. Due to limitations in staff availability
it was not possible to have an experienced signer or Teacher of the Deaf (TOD) attend
therapy sessions.
Homework carried out by parents and teachers
Homework sheets and class-work sheets were used to liaise with families and teachers.
It was essential for children to practise their words outside the therapy sessions to
develop consistency of word productions and promote generalisation. Traditional CVT
has included the parent/carer being present at every session. However, in the current
study, this was not possible for parents. The homework sheets provided a detailed
breakdown about how to carry out CVT homework practice with their child. Parents
were advised to help children practise for at least 10 minutes every day. The sheets also
provided a checklist for parents to mark off when they had finished practising each
week and they were encouraged to provide feedback or make comments on their child’s
production of the target words. Where parents were unable to support their child,
another family member was enlisted.
Teachers were familiar with the use of Cued Articulation and had received training
from the SLT in its implementation. The class sheets contained information on the
specific cues used in the session and advised teaching staff to encourage the child by
using cues that helped to elicit their best production of the target words. Children
practised their words at least three times a week during literacy lessons with support
staff.
13
Listener ratings
For the purposes of listener intelligibility ratings, a 30 minute audio recording was
presented individually to 10 unfamiliar listeners. It comprised 80 sentences, 10 spoken
by each of the four participants on two occasions, before and after CVT. The last word
of each carrier sentence was a word targeted in therapy (see Table 2). The order of
sentences and of the children producing them was randomised. The listeners could only
hear the children speaking; no visual clues (signs or lip patterns) were provided. All
recordings were made in a quiet room using identical recording conditions. Each
sentence was presented twice and listeners could request a third presentation. The
listeners were asked to a) identify and write down the last word in each sentence (1 =
correct identification of whole word, 0 = incorrect), and b) rate the overall intelligibility
of each sentence on a four point scale of understanding (1= nothing; 2= part; 3= most;
4= entire sentence).
Insert Table 2 here
Reliability
Reliability of coding was assessed by two raters independently phonemically
transcribing the 50 words from video of the DEAP phonology assessment for each
participant. If the phonetic variation was within the phonemic category of the target
phoneme, the realisation was counted as correct. The transcriptions were compared for
number of correct consonants and vowels present in relation to the target word.
Transcriptions were highly correlated (0.939, p<0.001) indicating high inter-rater
reliability.
14
Results
The quantitative and qualitative data collected were used to evaluate the effectiveness
of CVT for the children’s speech intelligibility, consistency and generalisation of
therapy. Below we present the study findings at each of the four assessment points.
Baseline comparisons
Table 3 presents the scores obtained for the two DEAP assessments carried out at the
two pre-therapy assessment points. All children had more accurate vowel than
consonant production and exhibited inconsistency at a level indicative of inconsistent
speech disorder. SI and DB had the highest levels of inconsistency while SI and MA
made more consonant and vowel errors. DK achieved the highest PCC and PVC scores
and also had the lowest level of inconsistency. All children showed small positive
changes at the second assessment point, with the mean difference scores for consonants
being +6%; for vowels +3.5%; and for inconsistency -15%. These changes probably
reflect increased familiarity with assessors, procedure and stimulus items.
Insert Table 3 here
Comparing pre and post-therapy scores
To investigate whether or not therapy was effective, the mean of the two DEAP pre-
therapy scores for each of PCC, PVC and inconsistency were compared to the
immediate post-therapy scores (see Table 4). All children showed positive changes
post-therapy, with the mean difference scores for consonants being +10.3%; vowels
+10.8%; and inconsistency -19%.
15
Insert Table 4 here
Individual differences were apparent. SI increased consistency of word production by
28% but accuracy changed little. MA improved his vowel accuracy by 20% and
consistency by 24%. DK’s consistency increased by 20% but accuracy gain was
limited. DB gained only 14% in consistency but accuracy improved for both consonants
(17.5%) and vowels (17%). Given that core vocabulary primarily targets consistency of
production, it is not surprising that all four children showed gains post-therapy that
exceeded their pre-therapy change.
Maintenance of therapy
To explore whether benefits from therapy were maintained after therapy had ceased, a
comparison was made of the immediate post-therapy DEAP scores and those obtained
6 weeks later (see Table 5). By the maintenance assessment point, the mean positive
difference score for consonants was +4.2% and for vowels +5.5, indicating that speech
accuracy was maintained. Change in inconsistency varied: one child became 8% less
consistent, one made no change, one improved consistency by 12% and one by 32%.
Two of the children had consistency below the diagnostic criterion of 40% of the
DEAP (Dodd, et al., 2002). For the group the mean decrease in inconsistency between
the combined pre-therapy assessments and the final follow-up assessment was 30.5%
(range 20-46%). Although statistical analyses should be treated with caution for such a
small clinical sample, a paired t-test was significant (t (2) = 7.1813, p < 0.02).
16
Insert Table 5 here
Generalisation to untaught words during therapy
Every second week, children named ten untaught words matched for phonological
complexity to ten of their target words. There was a 30% decrease in inconsistency
between sessions three and seven for two of the children: SI from 80% to 50%; MA
from 70% to 40%. Consistency data for the other two children were unavailable as one
student mislaid her data. PCC accuracy improved between sessions three and seven for
three of the four children: MA 25%; DK 31%; DB 15%, but there was no change for SI
with a 3% gain.
Listener ratings
Results of listener ratings of sentence intelligibility and listener identification of target
words are presented in Table 6. Paired t tests showed that sentence intelligibility ratings
(t(9)= 8.44, p=<0.001) and word identification (t(9)=5.10, p=0.001) were significantly
higher post-therapy.
Insert Table 6 here
Parent and teacher questionnaires
All four class teachers reported that they had practised three times per week with each
child. They noted that children showed benefits by becoming more intelligible in class
and more confident when speaking or reading aloud at school. One teacher mentioned
17
that she now felt more confident in her ability to correct children’s speech errors
appropriately following the intervention.
Parental feedback questionnaires were returned by two of the four children’s parents.
One mother reported that she had practised three times per week with her child. The
other parent had only practised at weekends. Both reported satisfaction with the therapy
their child had received and felt that there were noticeable improvements in their
children’s speech. One parent requested that further CVT therapy should be offered.
For another child (DB), it was evident from speaking to him that although he had
practised his target words regularly at school, practice at home had been sporadic.
Discussion
Clinical trials indicate that CVT is an effective intervention for hearing children who
make inconsistent speech errors (Dodd et al., 2010). The evidence base includes case
and group studies, as well as a randomised control trial. This paper presents the first
evaluation of CVT with a small group of deaf children, the first step of the development
of an evidence base for a particular approach to intervention (Robey & Shultz, 1998).
All children made significant improvements in their speech intelligibility post-therapy.
In addition, change was evident when measured by listener ratings of intelligibility and
word identification and more informally from parent and teacher report.
Importantly, there was evidence of generalisation to untaught words and gains made
were maintained six weeks after therapy had ended. The CVT described in this study
specifically targeted single word speech accuracy. Nevertheless, the higher ratings of
sentence intelligibility post-therapy using listeners who were unfamiliar with deaf
speech are indicative of gains extending beyond the single word level.
18
Speech characteristics prior to therapy
Initial DEAP assessment results indicated that all children made inconsistent speech
errors. They had been referred specifically because they had reached a plateau in their
speech development with traditional therapy, suggesting their speech was resistant to
change. The four children’s inconsistency scores were surprisingly high (range 40-
80%) for a group of children with hearing impairment who had received intervention
over many years. Although the second pre-therapy assessment showed some decrease
in inconsistency, all four children’s scores met criteria for a diagnosis of inconsistent
speech disorder (Dodd et al., 2002).
It is surprising that inconsistent speech production of the same lexical item has not
previously been reported in the literature for deaf children (e.g., Tobey, et al., 2011).
Indeed, descriptive studies usually report deaf children’s speech errors to be systematic
(Parker & Rose, 1990) and to respond best to phonological rather than phonetic
intervention approaches when these have been compared (Paatsch, Blamey & Sarant,
2001). The current results indicate that even at the single word level, many lexical
items were pronounced differently on repeated production, affecting listeners’ ability to
learn how a child says a particular word. It may be that the inconsistent speech of these
children is atypical of primary school deaf children fitted with cochlear implants.
Alternatively, given that most speech assessments only require children to say each test
item once, consistency of word production is not often tested and may have been
overlooked due to the use of assessment measures that focus on phonetic repertoires
and severity measured by counting errors.
Vowels were less prone to error than consonants, reflecting previous research on
phonological acquisition of deaf children (e.g. Hudgins & Numbers, 1942). The
19
percentage of consonant errors made by the four children studied varied: two were in
the severe range with fewer than 50% correct consonants, one moderate severe (50-
64%), and one moderate (65-85%) according to Bowen’s (2013) criteria. The wide
variation shown in only four children probably reflects variation in factors such as age,
language learning background (two were bilingual), age at implantation, means of
communication at home and school, and support in the use of hearing aids and cochlear
implants (Marschark & Spencer, 2006).
Response to CVT
The results indicated a reduction in inconsistency with three children attaining scores at
or below the threshold of 40% criterion for diagnosis of inconsistent speech disorder.
One child, who continued to show 56% inconsistency, may benefit from further therapy
focusing on consistency of production given that he was absent for three sessions. CVT
not only reduced inconsistency in the participating deaf children's word production, but
also led to improvement in consonant accuracy although the mean improvement
between the combined pre-therapy assessments and the final follow-up assessment was
limited (15%) compared to that of three hearing children (33%) (McIntosh & Dodd,
2009). Nevertheless, by the final assessment, one child could be classed as mild and
one as moderate and even the two whose accuracy remained in the severe category
showed improvements of 14% and 15% in PCC. Vowel accuracy remained relatively
constant across assessments, with severity of impairment in the mild to moderate range.
The improved intelligibility ratings and identification of target words in sentences
suggest that the impact of CVT on communication was greater than might be predicted
by consistency and accuracy scores. Perhaps the acceptance and reinforcement of
developmental speech errors aided listener comprehension despite words not being
20
accurate. This intervention strategy might have contributed to maintenance and a trend
for continuing improvements at the final follow-up assessment.
CVT is inherently motivating because children, their parents and teachers play an active
role in selecting the target vocabulary and in practising outside of therapy sessions. All
children practised their target words regularly in school and enjoyed the therapy
sessions, particularly when they became aware of the improvements in their speech and
when others commented on their progress. However, outside school, regular practice
was only confirmed for 1 child, was occasional for 2 children and information was
missing for the fourth child, whose parents spoke little English. Nevertheless,
observable progress was made by all participants. By drilling a substantial number of
words intensively to achieve each child’s best production, children’s phonological
representations were stabilised and their intelligibility improved. The progress made,
then, might be considered clinically significant. Even in the absence of large gains in
consonant accuracy, consistency of word production allows listeners to learn how
children say particular words, enhancing communication (Bernstein-Ratner, 2006).
Implications
In hearing children, inconsistent speech errors in the absence of childhood apraxia of
speech are attributed to an impaired ability to assemble a phonological plan (the
sequence of phonemes to be uttered) from an intact mental phonological representation
of a word (Dodd et al., 2011). The cause of inconsistent errors in deaf children may
differ. Should future research indicate that inconsistent production of the same lexical
item is prevalent in this population, it would need to be explained. One plausible
account would be that children learning to use information provided by a cochlear
implant take time to build complete and accurate underlying phonological
21
representations for words. These representations are thought to underpin both speech
intelligibility and literacy (Leybaert 2005). An incomplete representation (e.g. /m-æ-
plosive/ for mat) would result in a variety of different spoken realisations ([mæt];
[mæp]; [mæk]; [mæs]; [mæd], etc.) as well as an impaired ability to map between
written words, phonology and meaning, affecting literacy.
The identification of inconsistent speech errors among a small group of deaf
participants with persistently poor intelligibility suggests that clinicians need to
consider the impact of inconsistency on speech and literacy and the implications for
intervention. CVT was successful in achieving significant speech improvement.
Nevertheless, there is a need for the intervention to be better adapted for this
population. Future research might establish the prevalence and nature of inconsistency
in the speech of deaf children to better inform the development of CVT for deaf
children.
Research has noted the variability in outcomes following cochlear implantation
(Marschark & Spencer, 2006). Of the four children referred, three used cochlear
implants either alone or in addition to a digital hearing aid. In view of their poor speech
intelligibility, they may be considered to be relatively unsuccessful implant users. One
explanation for this may be the timing of implantation. In all cases, implantation or
activation of the implant occurred between the ages of 3 and 5 years, which is
considered late by current standards (Marschark & Spencer, 2006). Interestingly it was
the participant who used only digital hearing aids (DK) who presented with the best
speech. A further participant (SI) presented with additional difficulties, having been
diagnosed with autism and a speech-language disorder. Nonetheless, he made
significant improvement. Further research is needed to evaluate the usefulness of CVT
therapy for children with impaired hearing whose speech is characterised by
22
inconsistent errors. Case studies would build evidence concerning which children
respond positively to CVT. Experimental studies exploring the intactness of
phonological representations and phonological assembly skills would allow better
understanding of how CVT affects the speech processing skills of hearing impaired
children.
Conclusion
This study has identified a small group of deaf children who made inconsistent speech
errors. For these children, CVT was an effective intervention approach, enhancing
consistency, accuracy and intelligibility of speech. Clearly caution is needed in drawing
conclusions from four individuals. Nevertheless, despite widely differing profiles and
differences in initial speech ability, the results indicated the usefulness of CVT for all
children. Further research is needed on larger numbers of participants, at different ages
and from different language learning contexts. That research might explore ways in
which CVT can be better adapted for deaf children, to determine the potential of CVT
to enhance real world communication.
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank the children, their families and teachers who participated so
enthusiastically in this research.
23
References
Bacsfalvi, P. (2010). Attaining the lingual components of /r/ with ultrasound for three
adolescents with cochlear implants. Canadian Journal of Speech Language Pathology
and Audiology, 34(3), 206-217.
Bernhardt, B. Gick, B., Bacsfalvi, P. & Ashdown, J. (2003). Speech habilitation of hard
of hearing adolescents using electropalatography and ultrasound as evaluated by trained
listeners. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 17, 3, 199-216.
Bernstein-Ratner, N. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice: An examination of its
ramifications for the practice of speech-language pathology. Journal: Language Speech
and Hearing Services in Schools, 37 (4), 257-267.
Blamey, P., Sarant, J., Paatsch, L., Barry, J., Bow, C., Wales, R., Wright, M., Psarros,
C., Rattigan, K., & Tooher, R. (2001). Relationships among speech perception,
production, language, hearing loss, and age in children with impaired hearing. Journal
of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 264285.
Bowen, C. Red flags for speech impairment. http://speech-language-therapy.com/
Accessed 8th December, 2013.
Crosbie, S., Holm, & Dodd, B. (2005). Interventions for children with severe speech
disorder: A comparison of two approaches. International Journal of Language and
Communication Disorders, 40, 467-492.
De Raeve, L. (2010). Education and rehabilitation of deaf children with cochlear
implants: a multidisciplinary task. Cochlear Implants International 11 (Suppl 1):7-14.
24
Dodd, B., Holm, A., Crosbie, S., & McIntosh, B. (2010). Core Vocabulary
intervention for inconsistent speech disorder In P. Williams, S. McLeod, S. & R.
McCauley (Eds.), Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children. pp 117-
136. New York: Brookes.
Dodd, B., Zhu H., Crosbie, S., Holm, A., & Ozanne, A. (2002). Diagnostic Evaluation
of Articulation and Phonology. London: Psychological Corporation
Hudgins, C, & Numbers, F. (1942) An investigation of the intelligibility of the speech
of the deaf. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 25, 2889-392.
Khwaileh, F., & Flipsen, P., (2010). Single word and sentence intelligibility in children
with cochlear implants. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 24(9), 722-733.
Lejeune, B., & Demanez, L. (2006). Speech discrimination and intelligibility: outcome
of deaf children fitted with hearing aids or cochlear implants. Ear, Nose and Throat.
2(2), 63-8.
Ling, D. (Ed.). (1984). Early Intervention for Hearing-Impaired Children: Oral
Options. San Diego, CA: College-Hill.
Leybaert, J. (2005). Learning to read with a hearing impairment In M. Snowling & C.
Hulme (Eds) The Science of Reading: A Handbook, pp.379396. Oxford: Blackwell.
Martin, K., Herman, R., Hirson, A., & Pring, T. (2007). The Efficacy of Speech
Intervention using Electropalatography with an 18 year old Deaf Client: A Single Case
Study. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 9 (1). 46-56.
25
Marshark, M., & Spencer, P. (2003). Handbook of deaf studies and deaf education,
Cognitive functioning in deaf adults and children. Oxford University Press, New York.
Marschark, M., & Spencer, P. (2006). Spoken language development of deaf and hard-
of-hearing children: Historical and theoretical perspectives. In Advances in the spoken
language development of deaf and hard-of-hearing children. P. Spencer & M.
Marschark (Eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, pp 321.
Massaro, D., & Light J. (2004). Improving the vocabulary of children with hearing loss.
Volta Review. 104, 141174.
McIntosh, B., & Dodd, B. (2009). Evaluation of core vocabulary intervention for
treatment of inconsistent phonological disorder: Three treatment case studies. Child
Language Teaching and Therapy, 25, (1) 9-29.
Most, T. (2007). Speech Intelligibility, Loneliness, and Sense of Coherence among
Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children in Individual Inclusion and Group Inclusion.
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 12 (4): 495-503.
Ouellet, C., & Cohen, H. (1999). Speech and language development following cochlear
implantation. Journal of Neurolinguistics 12, 271-288.
Paatsch, L., Blamey, P., & Sarant, J. Z. (2001). Effects of articulation training on the
production of trained and untrained phonemes in conversations and formal tests.
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 6(1), 3242.
Pantelemidou, V., Herman, R., & Thomas, J. (2003). Efficacy of speech intervention
using electropalatography with a cochlear implant user. Journal of Clinical Linguistics
and Phonetics, 17, 383-392.
26
Parker, A., & Rose, H. (1990) Deaf children’s phonological development. In P.
Grunwell (Ed.) Developmental Speech Disorders. London: Whurr Publishers Ltd.
Passy, J. (1990). Cued articulation. Melbourne: ACER Press.
Perigoe, C. B. & Ling, D. (1986). Generalization of speech skills in hearing-impaired
children. The Volta Review, 88, 351-366.
Robey R., & Schultz M. (1998) A model for conducting clinical outcome research: An
adaptation of the standard protocol for use in aphasiology. Aphasiology 12, 787810.
Thomson, J., & Goswami, U. (2010). Learning novel phonological representations in
developmental dyslexia: Associations with basic auditory processing of rise time and
phonological awareness. Reading & Writing, 23, 453-69.
Tobey, E., Geers, A., Sundarrajan, M., & Shin, S. (2011). Factors influencing speech
production in elementary and high-school aged cochlear implant users. Ear & Hearing.
32(1):27S-38S.
Vuckovich, M. (2007) Critical Review: Electropalatography and the productive speech
intelligibility of children and adolescents with hearing impairments. CSD 9761
Evidence Based Practice for Clinicians 3rd Annual Research Day 2006/7.
27
Table 1. Participant information
Name Age
gender
Diagnoses
Amplification
Background
information
Sessions
attended
SI 11;3
Boy
PBSNHL
ASD (at 5
years)
SLD
Unilateral CI
activated at 3
years
Contralateral
digital HA
Consistent use
at school and
home.
Only deaf
member of
family
Parents & SI
communicate
using SSE +
basic BSL.
Low speech
intelligibility
Highly inconsistent on
unfamiliar vocabulary
Not stimulable for
production of velar
consonants [g, k, ŋ]
Imitated a range of
syllable structures and
vowels accurately
13/16
Technical
fault with
CI affected
2 sessions,
away ill for
1 session
MA 9;0
Boy
PBSBHL
Unilateral CI
activated at 5
years
Contralateral
digital HA
Consistent use
at school and
home.
Only deaf
member of
family.
English and
Senegalese
spoken at
home.
Parents & MA
communicate
using SSE +
basic BSL.
Severely reduced
speech intelligibility.
Highly inconsistent
productions affecting
vowels & consonants
Consonants /v, n, ŋ/
were not stimulable
Poor discrimination of
consonant contrasts.
16/16
DK (9;6)
Girl
BSNHL
(profound
on left /
severe-
profound
on right)
Pendred
Syndrome
Bilateral
digital HA
Consistent use
at school and
home
Hearing family
except for one
of her three
siblings
Parents & DK
communicate
using SSE +
some BSL
Discriminated syllable
structures, vowel
contrasts and many
consonants by
listening alone.
Unable to
discriminate: /t, k/, /d,
g/, /ʃ, tʃ/ and /z, d/
Often omitted WFC
reducing speech
intelligibility
16/16
DB (10;9)
Boy
PBSNHL
Unilateral CI
activated at 4
years
Consistent use
at school but
inconsistent at
home.
Hearing family
except for DB’s
only sibling
English and
Vietnamese
spoken at home
Parents & DB
communicate
using basic
English
Discriminated syllable
structures and vowel
contrasts by listening
alone.
Difficulty
discriminating most
consonant contrasts
Severely reduced
speech intelligibility
16/16
PBSNHL: profound bilateral sensori-neural hearing loss; ASD: autistic spectrum disorder; SLD: speech
and language disorder; CI: cochlear implant; HA: hearing aid; WFC: word final consonants.
Table 2. Treated words included in pre- and post-therapy sentences for listener ratings
28
SI
MA
DK
DB
World
Beautiful
Phone
Zoo
Cinema
Love
Shy
Music
Mosque
Mirror
Multiply
Sunny
Lion
January
Picture
Bright
Sun
Noodles
Watch
Upstairs
Socks
Pasta
Calculator
Happy
English
Homework
Sad
September
Chocolate
Rules
Cake
Homework
Chair
Assembly
Saturday
Play
Calculator
Dress
Gloves
Shopping
29
Table 3. DEAP assessment scores at pre-therapy assessment points 1 and 2: PCC and
PVC and percentage inconsistency scores
Child
PCC1
PCC2
PVC1
PVC2
Inconsistency 1
Inconsistency 2
SI
26%
35%
55%
57%
80%
64%
MA
24%
26%
37%
43%
72%
56%
DK
75%
85%
90%
92%
56%
40%
DB
59%
62%
67%
71%
80%
68%
30
Table 4. DEAP pre and post-therapy assessment scores: PCC and PVC and percentage
inconsistency scores.
Child (age)
PCC1/2
PCC3
PVC1/2
PVC3
Inconsistency 1/2
Inconsistency 3
SI (11;3)
30.5%
37%
56%
58%
72%
44%
MA (9;0)
25%
34%
40%
60%
64%
40%
DK (9;6)
80%
88%
91%
97%
48%
28%
DB (10.9)
60.5%
78%
69%
86%
74%
60%
31
Table 5. DEAP assessment scores at two post-therapy assessment points: PCC and
PVC and percentage inconsistency scores.
Child
PCC3
PCC4
PVC3
PVC4
Inconsistency 3
Inconsistency 4
SI
37%
44%
58%
58%
44%
52%
MA
34%
40%
60%
72%
40%
40%
DK
88%
90%
97%
99%
28%
16%
DB
78%
80%
86%
94%
60%
28%
32
Table 6. Mean listener sentence intelligibility ratings (N=10) and word identifications
pre- and post-therapy
Pre-therapy
rating
Post-therapy
rating
Pre-therapy
identification
Post-therapy
identification
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
59
102
78.5
13.4
91
121
98.8
11.2
7
15
9.4
2.37
12
23
14.9
3.03
... The existence of IPD and the use of core vocabulary to treat it have been extensively studied in children 3 years of age and older (see Crosbie et al., 2005Crosbie et al., , 2006Dodd & Bradford, 2000;Dodd & Lacono, 1989;Flanagan & Ttofari-Ecen, 2018;McIntosh & Dodd, 2008a). Additionally, researchers have explored IPD and core vocabulary use with children 3 years of age and older representing special populations such as children with hearing deficits (see Herman et al., 2015), children with Down syndrome (see Dodd et al., 1994), and children from culturallylinguistically diverse backgrounds (see Hemsley & Holm, 2017;Holm & Dodd, 1999). However, although proponents of the approach note its suitability for use with children 2 years of age and older (Crosbie et al., 2021), scant research is available regarding its successful implementation with 2-year-olds specifically. ...
Article
Purpose Speech sound production intervention in early childhood is relatively rare despite empirical and theoretical support for providing this type of targeted therapy for toddlers. Challenges perpetuate the present clinical condition including those related to treatment decision making (e.g., intervention approach). Method Although there are numerous speech sound production treatment approaches appropriate for the pediatric population, a much smaller proportion are proposed to be appropriate for children under the age of 3 years. Of these, five approaches (i.e., core vocabulary, cycles, naturalist recast, stimulability, and psycholinguistic intervention) were selected for review because they can be used to treat functional speech sound disorders produced by toddlers and none required additional clinician training for implementation. Results We found the empirical evidence supporting the use of these approaches with children under the age of 3 years scant to nonexistent. Conclusions Due to the lack of empirical evidence, early intervention speech-language pathologists must primarily rely on internal factors (e.g., clinician experience and client/caregiver perspectives) to support evidence-based intervention decisions in the absence of external empirical support. Clinical action steps such as careful documentation of approaches used/discontinued and associated individual client outcomes are necessary for evidence-based decision making until more robust empirical evidence is established.
... This taxonomy defines intensive interventions through platforms and identifies platforms that can assist implementation for D/HH students. Herman et al. (2015) conducted this study evaluating the use of Core Vocabulary Intervention (CVT) for deaf students' English learning. The Total Communication method is also used in this research to teach English sign language vocabulary to deaf students in elementary schools. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to examine previous studies and theoretical studies related to English reading skills based on local wisdom assisted by audio-visual for deaf students. This research is a literature study by examining previous studies and theoretical studies. The results of the literature review will be used to identify the English language needs of special senior high school for deaf students (SMALB-B) as preliminary study in Pekanbaru. Two parts explained in literature review, namely theoretical review and previous research. Each parts contained sub part that consist of each theoretical review and previous research. The results of this study are the teaching materials developed for deaf students’ needs that should be suitable for literature review and previous research.
... A study of hearing impaired children, cochlear implant and/or hearing aid users showed that the intervention based on the stimulation of vocabulary is effective and its effectiveness was verified by comparing the percentages of correct consonants, in which an improvement of 14 and 15% was observed 9 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: obter e comparar o índice de porcentagem de consoantes corretas em crianças deficientes auditivas, usuárias de Implante Coclear e/ou Prótese Auditiva num intervalo de doze meses. Além disso, buscou-se verificar a influência da frequência em terapia, da época da identificação da deficiência auditiva e do tempo de uso do dispositivo auditivo no índice de PCC. Métodos: participaram desta pesquisa 19 crianças deficientes auditivas, usuárias de Prótese Auditiva e/ou Implante Coclear e que estavam em terapia fonoaudiológica. O índice de porcentagem de consoantes corretas foi calculado por meio de três provas: nomeação, imitação e fala espontânea utilizando as tarefas da prova de fonologia do ABFW - Teste de Linguagem Infantil. Os procedimentos foram aplicados, reaplicados e comparados, num intervalo de 12 meses, caracterizando um estudo longitudinal. Resultados: em relação à comparação do índice de porcentagem de consoantes corretas, houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre as aplicações em todas as provas. Observou-se associação do ganho médio de porcentagem de consoantes corretas apenas com a frequência em terapia. Conclusão: a partir da obtenção e comparação em duas oportunidades do índice PCC em crianças deficientes auditivas, observou-se melhora em todas as tarefas após 12 meses de intervenção fonoaudiológica com a aborgadem aurioral. A melhora do desenvolvimento da linguagem oral destas crianças foi influenciada diretamente pela assiduidade em terapia. A época da identificação da deficiência auditiva e a tempo de uso do dispositivo não influenciaram os índices de PCC.
Article
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the Core Vocabulary Extension Program for establishing speech sound consistency on speech inconsistency and accuracy of children with inconsistent SSD.Methods: Four children with inconsistent SSD aged 3-5 years who exhibited speech sound inconsistency, phonological error patterns, and articulation problems at the same time participated in this study. The program of this study used a core vocabulary approach and a multi-sensory approach, and parental support was provided at the same time. The experimental design used a multiple probe baseline design, with 3-5 baseline evaluations, 10 treatment evaluations, and 3 maintenance evaluations were performed. Data analysis of dependent variables, mean, trend line slope, standard deviation, immediate effect of treatment, and ratio of non-overlapping data (PND) were analyzed.Results: As a result of the study, inconsistency was reduced and articulation ability was improved. Speech inconsistency improvement was effective in all four participating children, but accuracy improvement was only effective in three children.Conclusion: This study is significant in that it confirmed the therapeutic effect of the Core Vocabulary Extension Program which integrated a multisensory approach and parent coaching based on a core vocabulary approach on speech sound inconsistency and accuracy of children with severe speech sound disorder accompanied by intellectual problems and language disorders. In the future, it is necessary to apply a phonological approach to remove the remaining phonological error patterns after speech consistency is established and to confirm the effectiveness of the phonological approach
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims: One of the therapeutic approaches that improves speech intelligibility is core vocabulary approach. The core vocabulary intervention with the purpose of producing consistent words has been appropriate in functional speech sound disorders and in this disorder, the child articulates the same lexical items as inconsistently in the absence of speech apraxia. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of the core vocabulary approach on speech intelligibility of a child with inconsistent phonological disorder. Case Report: The patient was a four-year-old boy who was given birth after a term pregnancy and via vaginal delivery. The parents referred to the Speech Therapy Clinic complaining about the child's speech unintelligibility. Results: According to Clinical Problem Solving Model for speech and language pathologist, assessment data were analyzed to address seven case management questions regarding the need for intervention, service delivery, differential diagnosis, intervention goals, and generalization of therapeutic gains, discharge criteria, and evaluation of efficacy. After appropriate assessments, he was diagnosed as having inconsistent phonological disorder from articulation disorder category that required intervention. The present study reports on the clinical observations, inconsistent phonological disorder diagnosis process, the nature and protocol of core vocabulary approach, and the progress of the patient's speech and language over the course of treatment. Conclusion: According to the results and assessment data, the core vocabulary approach was chosen as the most appropriate and frequent therapy technique in inconsistent phonological disorders. The obtained results, similar to the previous studies, showed that the core vocabulary approach is effective in enhancing the consistent production and other speech and language skills. To ensure confidence in the effectiveness of core vocabulary approach, further studies are necessary on more sample and in other languages.
Thesis
امروزه حتی باوجود پیشرفت روزافزون علوم پزشکی، ناشنوایی و تبعات آن همچنان گریبانگیر قشر نسبتاً قابل توجهی از کودکان و بزرگسالان کشورمان می‌‌باشد. به روشنی مشخص است که ماهیت ارتباط و آموزش ناشنوایان با افراد شنوای جامعه، متفاوت است و مستلزم نگاهی ویژه و کارشناسانه، حاصل از همگرایی علوم مختلف از جمله علوم تربیتی، زبان‌شناسی، شنوایی‌شناسی و روانشناسی می‌باشد. در این بین، مسالۀ زبان (از هر نوع که باشد زبان اشاره یا زبان گفتاری) و آموزش آن در ناشنوایان با توجه به ماهیت طبیعی زبان و در نظر گرفتن پارامتر‌هایی از قبیل انواع ناشنوایی، شدت ناشنوایی، زمان وقوع ناشنوایی و زمان تشخیص ناشنوایی اهمیت بسزایی دارد. زبان اشاره و زبان گفتاری همواره مسائل بحث‌برانگیزی در حوزه مطالعات ناشنوایان بوده و هست. همواره رویکردها و روش‌های ارتباطی (ارتباطی-زبانی) و آموزشی مختلفی برای ناشنوایان وجود داشته و دارد. چیزی که فقدان آن در تحقیقات و پژوهش‌های انجام‌شده پیرامون ارزیابی این رویکردها و روش‌ها احساس می‌شود بررسی آنها از منظر علم زبان‌شناسی و ارتباط است. مخصوصاً آنجا که بحث انتخاب و آموزش زبان (زبان گفتاری/ زبان اشاره) به ناشنوایان مطرح می‌شود. پرسش‌‌های پژوهش 1. آموزش ناشنوایان چه ویژگی‌‌‌های منحصر بفردی دارد؟ 2. نقاط قوت و ضعف رویکرد‌ها و روش‌های ارتباطی و آموزشی ناشنوایان به چه عواملی بستگی دارد؟ 3. پارامتر‌های زبانشناختی مؤثر در آموزش زبان‌‌‌های گفتاری به ناشنوایان چیست؟ 4. چه رویکردها و روش‌‌های آموزش زبان (زبان فارسی) از نقطه‌نظر زبانشناختی برای ناشنوایان مناسب‌تر به نظر می‌رسد؟ فرضیه‌‌های پژوهش 1. ناشنوایان با توجه به متغیر‌های نوع ناشنوایی، شدت ناشنوایی، سن شروع ناشنوایی، سن شناسنامه‌ای، زمان تشخیص ناشنوایی و شرایط محیط زندگی در گروه‌‌هایی دسته‌بندی می‌شوند که هر گروه ویژگی‌‌های آموزشی خاص خود را دارد. 2. نقاط قوت و ضعف رویکرد‌ها و روش‌های ارتباطی و آموزشی ناشنوایان بستگی به میزان توجه آنها به متغیر‌های نوع ناشنوایی، شدت ناشنوایی، سن شروع ناشنوایی، سن شناسنامه‌ای، زمان تشخیص ناشنوایی و شرایط محیط زندگی ناشنوایان و کاربرد آنها در گروه‌‌های مناسب ناشنوایان دارد و یک رویکرد و روش ارتباطی و آموزشی را نمی‌توان برای همۀ ناشنوایان تجویز کرد. 3. کانال و رسانه در آموزش زبان به ناشنوایان مهمترین پارامتر زبانشناختی مؤثر در آموزش زبان گفتاری به ناشنوایان است. در آموزش زبان گفتاری به ناشنوایان در نظر گرفتن مفهوم کانال و رسانه ملاحظات ویژ‌ه‌ای را بوجود می‌آورد که آموزش هر یک از مهارتها و مؤلفه‌‌های زبانی تحت الشعاع آن قرار می‌گیرد. 4. مناسب‌ترین رویکرد و روش آموزش زبان (زبان فارسی) به ناشنوایان به کارگیری رویکرد پساروش‌گرا (رویکرد پسا‌ ارتباطی) و روش‌های پیاده‌سازی آن فراخور موقعیت، ویژگی‌ و نیاز‌های آموزشی گروه زبان‌آموزان یا (شخص زبان‌آموز) می‌باشد. Abstract: Today, contrary to the development of medical science, deafness and its consequences continue to be confronted with a large population of children and adults in our country. It is clear that the nature of communication and Deaf education differs from the Non-Deaf peoples and requires a special and expert look at the convergence of various sciences such as Educational Sciences, Linguistics, Audiology, and Psychology. In this case, the language issue (language of any kind: sign language or spoken language) and its training in the Deaf according to the natural nature of the language and considering parameters such as Types of Deafness, Severity of Deafness, Deafness Occurrence Time and Deafness Recognition Time are important. Sign language and spoken language have always been controversial issues in the field of Deaf studies. There are several Approaches and methods of communication (Communication and Language) and Education for the Deaf. What is lacking in researches on the evaluation of these approaches and methods seems to be their examination in linguistics aspect. Especially when we want to choosing and teaching language (Spoken / Sign) to the Deaf. In this research, at the first a detailed study was occurred on theoretical foundations of language teaching, communication science, and on approaches and methods of communication and education of Deaf. After reviewing the above mentioned topics as well as studies on the Deaf in Iran and the world, in the second chapter, we tried to summarize the articles and theses on the subject. Then, according to the study of the sources and the findings in the fourth chapter, at the end of this theses, in the fifth chapter, a model was developed to study the approaches and methods of communication and educational for deaf in the name of “BiLingual-BiCultural Meta Approach”. In based on BiLingual-BiCultural Meta Approach at the first we separated Deaf Communication-Language approaches and methods from Deaf education approaches and methods, and then we defined Mastery Flipped learning approach as an appropriate education approach. Finally, we proposed this approach context for implementing a suitable approach and appropriate method (post-method approach) for teaching Persian/Farsi language to the Deaf. KeyWords: Approaches and Methods in Deaf Communication, Approaches and Methods in Deaf Education, BiLingual-BiCultural Meta Approach,Teaching Farsi to Deaf, Deaf Language Culture, Iranian Sign Language (Zaban Eshareh Irani): ZEI.
Article
A critically appraised topic (CAT) is one form of rapid review that can be particularly useful for informing practice (White, Raghavendra, & McAllister, 2017). The purpose of this CAT was to determine the effectiveness of non-auditory verbal therapies in improving speech production in school-aged children who are hearing impaired. In addition to the methodology, the authors present and discuss the findings of this CAT. The authors propose an update to this CAT in January 2020.
Article
Approximately 10% of children with a speech sound disorder present with an inconsistent phonological disorder, characterized by inconsistent production of words across multiple trials. A number of studies have provided evidence of the efficacy of core vocabulary therapy for the remediation of this speech sound disorder with a dosage of two speech-language therapy sessions per week. The present study aimed to investigate if two variations of core vocabulary therapy under real world conditions were effective in improving consistency in the speech of children with inconsistent phonological disorder. Variation A was based on standard administration of core vocabulary therapy (with the addition of a third session per week) and Variation B involved one therapy session per week with a speech-language therapist and an imitation based home program delivered by caregivers. This effectiveness study involved five participants (four males, one female) with inconsistent phonological disorder. The ages of the participants ranged from 39 to 59 months at baseline. One child participated in Variation A and four children participated in Variation B. Changes in consistency of speech between baseline and post-therapy were analysed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Consistency of speech improved significantly between and pre- and post-test assessment for four out of five participants treated with either variation A or B. These results suggest that core vocabulary therapy delivered once per week with a speech language therapist and using imitation home practice may be an alternative therapy option for children with inconsistent phonological disorder, with implications for the cost and time required. These findings also challenge our theoretical understanding of the locus of impairment in inconsistent phonological disorder. Given the small number of participants in the study, there is a need for replication of these research findings using a larger number of participants.
Article
Full-text available
Diagnostic ultrasound imaging has been a common tool in medical practice for several decades. It provides a safe and effective method for imaging structures internal to the body. There has been a recent increase in the use of ultrasound technology to visualize the shape and movements of the tongue during speech, both in typical speakers and in clinical populations. Ultrasound imaging of speech has greatly expanded our understanding of how sounds articulated with the tongue (lingual sounds) are produced. Such information can be particularly valuable for speech-language pathologists. Among other advantages, ultrasound images can be used during speech therapy to provide (1) illustrative models of typical (i.e. "correct") tongue configurations for speech sounds, and (2) a source of insight into the articulatory nature of deviant productions. The images can also be used as an additional source of feedback for clinical populations learning to distinguish their better productions from their incorrect productions, en route to establishing more effective articulatory habits. Ultrasound feedback is increasingly used by scientists and clinicians as both the expertise of the users increases and as the expense of the equipment declines. In this tutorial, procedures are presented for collecting ultrasound images of the tongue in a clinical context. We illustrate these procedures in an extended example featuring one common error sound, American English /r/. Images of correct and distorted /r/ are used to demonstrate (1) how to interpret ultrasound images, (2) how to assess tongue shape during production of speech sounds, (3), how to categorize tongue shape errors, and (4), how to provide visual feedback to elicit a more appropriate and functional tongue shape. We present a sample protocol for using real-time ultrasound images of the tongue for visual feedback to remediate speech sound errors. Additionally, example data are shown to illustrate outcomes with the procedure.
Article
Full-text available
This single case study explored the use of EPG as a therapeutic tool for treating inaccurate articulation of the voiceless alveolar plosive /t/. The participant (M) is an 18-year-old deaf1 adult who consistently uses hearing aids, and who communicates using a combination of English, Sign Supported English and British Sign Language (BSL). M received traditional phonological therapy targeting his production of /t/ prior to EPG therapy, but without success. He requested further therapy and EPG was offered as an alternative approach. Pre-EPG therapy, M made tongue placement errors for both /t/ and the voiced alveolar plosive /d/. Based on perceptual analysis by M's speech and language therapist, the first author, his productions were inconsistent, though generally perceived as voiceless and voiced velar plosives respectively. The EPG therapy consisted of six bi-weekly therapy sessions, each lasting for 1 hour, targeting M's production of /t/ in familiar words, using the visual feedback from the EPG display. Trained and untrained listeners perceptually analysed audio recordings of words and sentences collected at three assessment points. Improvements, both over the course of the EPG therapy and during the follow-up period, were found to be statistically significant. Significantly, M was able to generalize his production skills to untaught words containing both /t/ and /d/. Equally significant was the lack of change in M's production of a control sound, the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. More globally, an improvement was observed in ratings of M's intelligibility in sentences and in his voice quality (assessed impressionistically).
Article
Full-text available
Across languages, children with developmental dyslexia are known to have impaired lexical phonological representations. Here, we explore associations between learning new phonological representations, phonological awareness, and sensitivity to amplitude envelope onsets (rise time). We show that individual differences in learning novel phonological representations are related to individual differences in both rise time categorization and rise time discrimination when non-verbal IQ and short-term memory skills are controlled. This is consistent with the developmental claim that difficulties in the basic auditory processing of rise time cause difficulties in setting up the phonological lexicon from infancy, leading to impairments in phonological awareness. KeywordsAmplitude envelope-Developmental dyslexia-Neighborhood density-Phonological representation-Rise time
Article
Children with hearing loss frequently have difficulty learning North American English /r/. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the remediation of North American English /r/ by establishing its tongue movement components for three adolescents with recent cochlear implants (CIs) through the use of ultrasound as an adjunct to speech therapy. The three adolescents had all been diagnosed with severe-to-profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, and had recently received unilateral CIs. All three students wore a hearing aid in their other ear. Ultrasound was used to assist in establishing the gestural components of /r/ as a starting point for accurate /r/ production: tongue root retraction, retroflexion or bunching and midline grooving. A single subject design was used, with analyses of the gestural components of /r/ before, during and after intervention. All participants were able to learn the gestural components of /r/ with ultrasound. Furthermore, one of the participants gained accurate production of /r/ in isolation and at the word level.
Article
This chapter argues for a reconsideration of the history, progress, and future directions of research on spoken language development of deaf children. Such a discussion will help to provide a more a complete understanding of deaf education, the Deaf community, and the development of deaf children in today's context. It discusses language development by deaf children, historical views of language development and deaf children, spoken language in deaf education, language development research with deaf children, and current oral methods for educating deaf children. © 2006 by Patricia Elizabeth Spencer and Marc Marschark. All rights reserved.
Article
This critical review examines the effects of electropalatography (EPG) on the productive speech intelligibility of children and adolescents with severe to profound hearing impairments. Study designs include: case study, case series and comparison study. Overall, research supports the use of EPG technology with this population in developing more typical tongue-palate contact patterns and improving speech intelligibility. However, the evidence base for this field of research is limited and the studies reviewed demonstrate methodological weaknesses. Recommendations for future research and clinical practice are provided.
Article
Communication disorders scientists and practitioners face critical fiscal pressures to establish the efficacy and effectiveness of treatments. The pressures come about from (a) increasing demands from remibursers that a variety of professins test the effectiveness of their treatments, thereby generating demands for the resources to do so; (b) increasing demands for reimbursement of those same clinical services provided by the same variety of professions; and (c) a general recision in in available funds for each. While there is strong evidence that the treatments of speech-language pathologists and audiologists have generally proved potent as they have been tested, the accetped standards for clinical-outcome testing used throughout the research community (e.g. by other clinical disciplines, regulatory agencies of the federal government, and third-party payers) have been mostly ignored. In a marketplace of competition for scare resources, and a recognized set of procedures for demonstrating the efficacy of intervention, it seems obvious that this profession cannot continue to depend on idiosyncratic approaches to clinical-outcome research. Ensuring successful claims for reimbursement requires that assertions of efficacy be justified on the basis of broadly accepted criteria of the general outcome-research community. Critcial aspects of accepted standards are described, including prospective adaptations to the clinical-outcome research of our own discipline. A plausible means for conforming to the standard model is proposed in the context of treatment for aphasia.
Article
With detailed discussion and invaluable video footage of 23 treatment interventions for speech sound disorders (SSDs) in children, this textbook and DVD set should be part of every speech-language pathologist's professional preparation. Focusing on children with functional or motor-based speech disorders from early childhood through the early elementary period, this textbook gives preservice SLPs critical analyses of a complete spectrum of evidence-based phonological and articulatory interventions. An essential core text for pre-service SLPs--and an important professional resource for practicing SLPs, early interventionists, and special educators--this book will help readers make the best intervention decisions for children with speech sound disorders. Chapters of this book include: (1) Introduction to Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children (A. Lynn Williams, Sharynne McLeod, & Rebecca J. McCauley); (2) Minimal Pair Intervention (Elise Baker); (3) Multiple Oppositions Intervention (A. Lynn Williams); (4) Complexity Approaches to Intervention (Elise Baker & A. Lynn Williams); (5) Core Vocabulary Intervention (Barbara Dodd, Alison Holm, Sharon Crosbie, & Beth McIntosh); (6) The Cycles Phonological Remediation Approach (Raul F. Prezas & Barbara Williams Hodson); (7) Nuffield Centre Dyspraxia Programme (Pam Williams & Hilary Stephens); (8) Stimulability Treatment (Adele W. Miccio & Al Lynn Williams); (9) Psycholinguistic Intervention (Joy Stackhouse & Michelle Pascoe); (10) Metaphonological Intervention: Phonological Awareness Therapy (Anne Hesketh); (11) Computer-Based Interventions (Yvonne Wren, Sue Roulstone, & A. Lynn Williams); (12) Speech Perception Intervention (Susan Rvachew & Francoise Brosseau-Lapre); (13) Nonlinear Phonological Intervention (B. May Bernhardt, Karen D. Bopp, Bonnie Daudlin, Susan M. Edwards, & Susan E. Wastie); (14) Dynamic Systems and Whole Language Intervention (Paul R. Hoffman & Janet A. Norris); (15) Morphosyntax Intervention (Ann A. Tyler & Allison M. Haskill); (16) Naturalistic Intervention for Speech Intelligibility and Speech Accuracy (Stephen M. Camarata); (17) Parents and Children Together (PACT) Intervention (Caroline Bowen); (18) Enhanced Milieu Teaching with Phonological Emphasis for Children with Cleft Lip and Palate (Nancy J. Scherer & Ann P. Kaiser); (19) PROMPT: A Tactually Grounded Model (Deborah A. Hayden, Jennifer Eigen, Anne Walker, & Lisa Olsen); (20) Family-Friendly Intervention (Nicole Watts Pappas); (21) Visual Feedback Therapy with Electropalatography (Fiona E. Gibbon & Sara E. Wood); (22) Vowel Intervention (B. May Bernhardt, Joseph P. Stemberger, & Penelope Bacsfalvi); (23) Developmental Dysarthia Intervention (Megan M. Hodge); (24) Nonspeech Oral Motor Exercise (Heather M. Clark); and (25) Interventions for Children with Speech Sound Disorders: Future Directions (Rebecca J. McCauley, A. Lynn Williams, & Sharynne McLeod). A glossary and an index are also included.
Chapter
The Science of Reading: A Handbook brings together state-of-the-art reviews of reading research from leading names in the field, to create a highly authoritative, multidisciplinary overview of contemporary knowledge about reading and related skills. Provides comprehensive coverage of the subject, including theoretical approaches, reading processes, stage models of reading, cross-linguistic studies of reading, reading difficulties, the biology of reading, and reading instruction. Divided into seven sections:Word Recognition Processes in Reading; Learning to Read and Spell; Reading Comprehension; Reading in Different Languages; Disorders of Reading and Spelling; Biological Bases of Reading; Teaching Reading. Edited by well-respected senior figures in the field.
Chapter
Do People with a Hearing Impairment Use Phonological Coding in Reading and Spelling?Reading ProcessesIndividual Differences in the Use of Phonological Codes by People with a Hearing ImpairmentSpelling ProcessesPhonological AwarenessThe Role of Visible Language in Reading Development of the Hearing ImpairedCued SpeechThe Linguistic Advantages for Hearing-impaired Children Born to Hearing-impaired ParentsThe Use of Orthographic Coding by Children with Hearing ImpairmentNeural Systems Underlying Reading in People with Hearing ImpairmentConclusions