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Compendium of coffee pests

Authors:
  • Oil palm research Center of Colombia , Cenipalma

Abstract

This chapter deals with the most important insect pests of coffee affecting coffee plantations in different parts of the world (Table 1), giving a brief description and some considerations for an ecological management. The text is organized according the structure of the plant infested and habits of the pest: leaf sucking pests, root sucking insects, berry pests, leaf miners and defoliators, twig and stem borers and finally insects on stored coffee beans.
Compendium of Coffee Diseases
and Pests
Edited by
Alvaro L. Gaitán
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Marco A. Cristancho
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Bertha L. Castro Caicedo
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Carlos A. Rivillas
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Gabriel Cadena Gómez
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
e
PRESS
The American Phytopathological Society
~----------
Front cover photograph: Coffea arabica leaves and bean processing stages
from green cherries to dry parchment coffee. (Courtesy C. Bacca, Cenicafé)
Back cover photograph: Coffea arabica plantation at Naranjal Experiment
Station, Caldas, Colombia. (Courtesy G. Hoyos, Cenicafé)
Reference in this publication to a trademark, proprietary product,
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or anyone else is intended for explicit description only and does not
imply approval or recommendation to the exclusion of others that
may be suitable.
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International Standard Book Number: 978-0-89054-470-9
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Contributors
Benoit Bertrand
Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche
Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD)
Montpellier, France
Elliot W. Kitajima
Universidade de Sáo Paulo, Escola Superior de Agricultura
Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ)
Piracicaba, Brazil
Alex Bustillo
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Huver Posada
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Gabriel Cadena Gómez
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Carlos Alberto Rivillas
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Bertha Lucia Castro Caicedo
Centro acional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues
University of Puerto Rico
San Juan, Puerto Rico
Cesar M. Chagas
Instituto Biológico
Sáo
Paulo, Brazil
Mike A. Rutherford
CAB International (CABI)
Egham, United Kingdom
Marco A. Cristancho
Centro acional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
M. Sudha
Central Coffee Research Institute
Chikmagalur, India
Subramani Daivasikamani
Central Coffee Research Institute
Chikmagalur, India
Vitor Varzea
Centro de Investigacáo das Ferrugens do Cafeeiro (CIFC)
Oeiras, Portugal
Rogério Manuel de Lemos Cardoso
Instituto Agronómico do Paraná (IAPAR)
Londrina, Brazil
Luc VilIain
Centre de Coopération InternationaIe en Recherche
Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD)
Montpellier, France
Alvaro L. Gaitán
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé)
Chinchiná, Colombia
Michael 1. WingfieId
University of Pretoria, The Forestry and Agricultural
BiotechnoIogy Institute (FABI)
Pretoria, South AfricaElijah Kathurima Gichuru
Coffee Research Foundation
Ruiru, Kenya
Jayarama
Central Coffee Research Institute
Chikmagalur, India
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Contents
1
Introduction
1 Biology
1 Life Cycle
2 Harvesting and Postharvesting
45 Part 11.Pests
46 Leaf-Sucking Pests
46 Red Spider Mites
46 Woolly Whitefly
47 Coffee Green Scale
48 Hemispherical Scale
49 Black Citrus Aphid
50
Root-Sucking Pests
50 Pineapple Mealybug
50 Rhizoecus Root Mealybug
51 Citrus Mealybugs
51 Cicadas
52
Berry Pests
52 Coffee Berry Borer
54 Coffee Berry Moth
54 Antestia Bugs
55
Leaf Pests
55 Leaf Miners
55 Coffee Leaf Miner
56 Coffee Defoliators
57 Twig Borers
57 Brown Twig Borer
57 Black Twig Borer
58
Stem Borers
58 Black Stem Borer
58 Coffee Stem Borers
59
Pest on Sto red Coffee Beans
59 Coffee Bean Weevil
3 Part l. Infectious Diseases
3 Disease Caused by a Virus
3 Coffee Ringspot
5 Disease Caused by Phytoplasmas
5 Coffee Crispiness Disease
6
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
6 Bacterial Halo Blight
9 Atrophy of Coffee Branches
10 Bacterial Leaf Blight
12 Diseases Caused by Fungi
12 Damping-Off
14 Rosellinia Root Rot
15 Root Diseases
17 Coffee Wilt Disease, Fusarium Wilt, or
Tracheomycosis
20 Ceratocystis Canker Stain
22 Fusarium Bark Disease
23 Black Rot Disease or Koleroga
25 Coffee Berry Disease
27 Berry Blotch or Iron Spot
28 Pink Disease
30 Dieback
31 Coffee Powdery Rust
32 Coffee Leaf Rust
34 American Leaf Spot
35 Greasy Spot
36 Anthracnose
36 Sooty Mold
37 Diseases Caused by Nematodes
37 Root-Knot Nematodes
39 Root Lesion Nematodes
40 Coffee Corky-Root Syndrome
43
Disease Caused by Phytomonas spp.
43 Phloem Necrosis
43
Disease Caused by an Alga
43 Algal Red Leaf Spot
61 Part 111.Abiotic and Physiological
Disorders
61 Nutritional Deficiencies
64 Physiological Disorders
67
Glossary
75 Index
vii
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Part 11.Pests
A huge number of pests feed on coffee plants. This section
deals with a selected list of the most important pests of coffee
that affect plantations in different regions of the world. A list
of known and documented coffee pests is included in Table 1.
This section provides a brief description and some considera-
tions for ecological management for these pests. The text is or-
ganized according to the structure of the plant infested and the
habits of the pest: leaf-sucking pests, root-sucking pests, berry
pests, leaf pests, twig borers, stem borers, and a pest
00
stored
coffee beans.
Table 1. World Distribution ofImportant CotTee Arthropod Pests
Pest
Brazil
Americas
Colombia Central America
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X X
X X
X X
X
X
Africa
Asia
Spidermites (Acari: Tetranychidae)
Oligonychus coffeae
(Nietner)
Oligonvchus vothersi (McGregor)
Oligonvchus ilicis (McGregor)
Whiteflies(Herniptera: Aleyrodidae)
Aleurothrixus
floccosus
(Maskell)
Scales(Hemiptera: Coccidae)
Coccus viridis
(Green)
Saissetia
coffeae
(Walker)
Aphids(Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe)
Mealybugs(Herniptera: Pseudococcidae)
Dysmicoccus
brevipes
(Cockerell)
Neorhizoeccus coffeae (Laing)
Planococcus
citri (Risso)
Cicadas(Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
Quesada
gigas (Olivier)
Quesadasodalis (Walker)
Fidicina
mannifera
(Fabricius)
Fidicina
pulla/a
Berg
Carineta
fasciculata (Germar)
Berrypests
Hypothenemus hampei
(Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae)
Prophantis
smaragdina
(Butler) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Antestiabugs (Herniptera: Pentatomidae)
Amestiopsis orbitalis bechuana
(Kirkaldy)
Antestiopsis orbitalis ghesquierei
Carayon
Antestiopsis intricata (Ghesquiere
&
Carayon)
Leafminers (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)
Leucoptera
coffeellum (Guérin-Méneville)
Leucoptera
meyricki
Ghesquiere
leucoptera
caffeina Wa hburn
Leucoptera coma
Ghesquiere
Coffeedefoliators (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
Oxydia vesu/ia
Cramer
Oxydia hispata
Guenée
Oxydia
trychiata
(Guenée)
Paragonia
procidaria
Herrich-Schaffer
Glena bisulca
Rindge
Apicia
sp.
Ascotis selenaria
(Denis
&
Schiffermüller)
Twigborers (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Xy/osal/drus
morigerus (Blandford)
Xy/osalldrus
compactus (Eichhoft)
Stemborers
Apate monachus
Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae)
Xy/orreehlls quadripes
Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Acalolepta
cervina
(Hope) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Bixadus sierricola
(White) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
MOlloclromus leuconotus
(Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Dirphya nigricornls
(Olivier) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Coffeebean weevil (Coleoptera: Anthribidae)
AraeeeTlls
fasciculatus (De Geer)
X X X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X X
x
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X
X
X X X X
X X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
45
Leaf-Sucking Pests
Red Spider Mites
Description and Life History
Several spider mites of the genus Oligonychus (Acari: Tet-
ranychidae) are recorded on coffee plantations, but the most
prevalent species in South and Central America are O. yothersi
(McGregor) and
o.
ilicis (McGregor).
o.
coffeae (Nietner) is
an important pest of coffee in Africa and Asia. AII of these
species are ver y similar. The adults are oval and 0.4-0.6 mm
long. In general, the life cycle for these spider mites is around
20 days long and the adult lifespan may be as long as 1 month.
AII of these species are characterized by their red color in the
adult stage. They are normally found on the lower side of the
leaves along the veins. Adult females can lay up to 30 eggs in
about 8 days.
o.
coffeae, commonly called the coffee red spider mite, also
attacks tea, cotton, and several other plants. Eggs are bright
red, spherical, and invisible to the naked eye. The anterior part
of the adult is red and the posterior part is lightly colored (Fig.
80).
The nymphal stages are similar but smaller.
o.
ilicis is also
red and lives on the upper surface of leaves, covering itself with
webbing. The mites descend on threads from leaf to leaf and
are carried by wind.
o.
yothersi is also a serious pest of avo-
Fig. 80. Oligonychus coffeae adult. (Courtesy
J.
C. Ortiz, Cenicalé)
Fig. 81. Reddish brown areas along the leal veins in plants at-
tacked by red spider mites. (Courtesy A. Bustillo, Cenicalé)
46
cado in several regions of the Americas. The life stages last
14-15 days. Females are capable of laying 40-50 eggs during
their lifespan.
Damage
Nymphs and adults feed by sucking the sap from the leaf
tissue. Feeding is initially confined to the upper surface af
leaves and is found first along the midrib and secondary leaf
veins. The areas along the veins become reddish brown (Fig.
81). Damage by spider mites reduces photosynthesis up to 30~.
Infested leaves often abscise prematurely.
Population Management
Spider mites are especially abundant during dry seasons,
increasing populations and causing alarm among the farm-
ers. However, populations decrease as soon as the rainy
season arrives. They are very common in coffee plots near
dusty roads. Control is exerted by several natural enemies,
such as members of the family Coccinellidae, Stethorus sp.,
Scymnus sp., Coleomegilla sp., and fungal entomopathogens,
such Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. and Paecilo-
myces spp. They are also preyed upon by mites in the family
Phytoseiidae.
Selected References
Cárdenas, R. 1983. La arañita roja del cafeto, Oligonychus yothersi.
Av. Téc. Cenicafé 110:1-2.
Crowe, T. 1. 1960. Mites as coffee pests. Kenya Coffee 29:504-505.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Woolly Whitefly
Description and Life History
Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
is recognized by the abundant woolly mass deposited on
the leaves. The adult A. floccosus is 1.5 mm long and re-
sembles a very small moth, with a yellow body dusted with
white waxen powder and narrow wings, revealing the abdo-
men. The eggs are pedunculate, oval, and la id in a circle or
semicircle. The nymphal stage undergoes three instars. The
nymph is sedentary with a flattened, nearly transparent body
protected by a mass of waxy strands and has a slightly oval
shape. Nymphs and adults feed on the sap of young foliage of
coffee plants.
Damage
Direct damage results from the nymphs and adults sucking
the sapo This damage is aggravated by the intensive develop-
ment of sooty molds, which reduces the photosynthetic activity,
and the affected leaves wilt and finally fall (Fig. 82).
Population Management
Whiteflies have many natural enemies, such as the fungi
Aschersonia aleyrodis Webber and Lecanicillium lecanii
(Zimmerman) Zare & W. Gams and parasitoids of the genera
Amitus, Eretmocerus, and Prospaltella. The use of insecticides
to control A. floccosus reduces the natural enemy populations
and increases pest populations.
Fig. 82. Aleurothrixus f1occosus on leaves Irom Colombian eoffee
plantations. (Courtesy A. Bustillo, Cenieafé)
Selected References
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations for
the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Convention
Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S.
G.,
Gabardo, J.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática o.
1.
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
(Prepared by A. BustilIo)
Coffee Green Scale
Description and Life History
The coffee green scale, Coccus viridis (Green) (Hemiptera:
Coceidae), is the most important scale pest affecting coffee
plants, causing serious losses in many coffee-growing regions
around the world. The green scale develops a tough, scaly cov-
ering and does not move once it has established a feeding site.
The adult green scale is oval (about 2
x
4
mm),
fairly flat, bright
pale green, and legless, with short, curved black markings on
the back. They are found on coffee berries and stems but most
commonly on the lower side of leaves, along the central vein
(Fig. 83). The green scale females reproduce without males.
Each female may lay
100-500
eggs, which hatch within a few
hours. There are three nymphal instars, each larger than the
previous one. The first instar, calIed a crawler, has two long,
taillike structures. It wanders over the plant before settling to
feed. The lifespan from egg to adult is about
30-40
days. The
adult lives for
2-5
months.
Damage
Green scales suck the tree sap and debilitate the plant, par-
ticularly when the tree is young. The green scale excretes a sweet
Fig. 83.
Coccus viridis on the lower side
01
a eoffee leal. (Cour-
tesy A. Bustillo, Ceniealé)
Fig. 84.
Coccus viridis inleeted by Lecanicillium lecanii on eollee
berries. (Courtesy A. Bustillo, Ceniealé)
substance referred to as honeydew, which covers the leaves and
supports the growth of a black sooty mold that reduces photo-
synthesis. Green scales require constant monitoring when the
trees are young and growing rapidly, particularly in dry areas
or during dry seasons. Unless green scale is controlled, coffee
trees become stunted and sometimes die.
Population Management
Ants herd and protect green scales and, therefore, are chiefly
to blame for the spread and increase of the green scale popu-
lation. If ants are prevented from getting to a coffee tree, the
green scale frequently disappears, controlled by its natural
predators. Ants can be controlIed by the use of natural baits
(e.g., corn bran and sugar cane bagasse) amended with 1% in-
secticides, such as carbaryl or diflubenzuron. The most suc-
cessful biological control agent against the green scale is the
fungus Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Zare
&
W. Gams
(Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viégas). L. lecanii invades
and destroys green scales within
2
days. After
10
days, it grows
out of the green scale to produce the characteristic white halo
around the insect, which can be seen before it disappears (Fig.
84). The white halo fungus requires high humidity to germi-
nate and rain to spread its spores. Even at 96% relative humid-
ity, germination falls by two-thirds, hence the lack of fungus
activity during dry weather. Its action is favored by high hu-
midity and lower temperatures. Many key natural enemies of
green sea les are parasitic wasps. Seven wasp species parasitize
the green sea le, but they are not effective in hot, dry, windy
areas. Several predators feed on the green scale, such as
Azya
orbigera Mulsant and many members of the family Syrphidae
(Fig.85).
47
Fig. 85. A Syrphidae predator 01 coffee green scale. (Courtesy
A. Bustillo, Cenicalé)
Selected References
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens, J. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1.N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. A ACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Pro-
duction. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Re-
searchers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim,
Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Hemispherical Scale
Description and Life History
Male hemispherical scales, Saissetia coffeae (Walker) (He-
miptera: Coccidae), are rarely found, and it is presumed that
most reproduction occurs primarily through parthenogenesis.
The eggs are laid underneath the carapace of the adult female.
The eggs are translucent or whitish just after oviposition and
later turn pale yellow and ultimately orange. The first instars
are called crawlers. They are fiat, oval, and greenish brown to
pale amber; have six legs; and are about the same size as the
eggs. This is the only mobile stage of female hemispherical
scales. Crawlers move about the leaf area in search of a suitable
feeding site until one is found. The remaining two nymphal
stages are essentially stationary at the site selected by the
crawler, and only under adverse conditions do female nymphs
move small distances. The body color of the last two instars
ranges from pale yellow to greenish brown to dark pink. The
second and early third instar body shape has an irregular out-
line and lies
ñat.
Toward the end of the third instar, the hemi-
spherical scale undergoes a rapid growth phase, until it is about
the size of the adult. The mature female hemispherical scale
48
Fig. 86. Saissetia coffeae adult. (Courtesy A. Bustillo, Cenicalé)
has a convex, light to dark yellow-brown, smooth and polished,
helmet-shaped carapace (Fig. 86). The adult stage is incapable
of locomotion and is about 2 mm long.
Females have a 2- to 3-day waiting period before laying eggs,
which they do for
4-6
days before dying. The average number
of eggs laid per female varies from 250 to 400. Since females
are not capable of wandering once they have settled and start
feeding, long-range dispersal occurs by passive transport of in-
fested plant material. Short-range dispersal occurs as crawlers
search for places to settle and feed. The adult males have wings
but are incapable of long flights and are wind transported.
Males live only a few hours, emerging in the late afternoon to
mate. Because of their tiny size, short life, and evening activity,
it is rare to find adult males in the field.
Damage
Hemispherical scales are found clustered on the shoots,
leaves, and young fruits of plants. They are often arranged in
an irregular line near the edge of the leaf blade. Hemispheri-
cal scales feed on plant juices and cause debilitation of older
plants, deformation of infested plant parts, los s of leaves, re-
tarded plant growth, and even death of nursery plants. Hon-
eydew secreted by the hemispherical scale forms a film on the
leaves and a black fungus (sooty mold) grows on it. Ant activity
is frequently noticed, protecting the hemispherical scales and
feeding on the honeydew.
Population Management
Parasitoids known to attack hemispherical scale include
Encyrtus infelix (Embleton), Encyrtus barbatus Timberlake,
Tomocera californica Howard, Microterys fiavus (Howard),
Scutellista cyanea Motschulsky, and Aneristus ceroplastae
Howard. It is also very common for hemispherical scales to
be infected by the fungus Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerman)
Zare & W. Gams. The hemispherical scale is usually controlled
by its natural enemies, and chemical treatments are usually not
necessary.
Selected References
Crowe, T. J. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. LId.,
London, United Kingdom.
-----
-
----
!
I I I
I
i
!
;, I
I
Sánchezde León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
miae Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,J. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion.A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers.Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Black Citrus Aphid
Description and Life History
Toxoptera aurantii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) (Hemiptera:
Aphididae) is found wherever coffee is grown throughout the
tropies and subtropics, including South America, Africa, India,
eastern Asia, and Australia, as well as the Mediterranean re-
gion, Central America, and the southern United States. Only
females are found, measuring 2.0-3.0 mm long. They are oval;
shiny black, brownish black, or reddish brown, with black si-
phuneuli and caudae; and either winged or wingless, and they
have short black-and-whitc-banded antennae (Fig. 87). Winged
individuals tend to have darker abdomens and are slightly thin-
ner. The incidence of winged individuals is dependent on the
population density and leaf age.
Repraduction is parthenogenic, and females start reproduc-
ing soon after becoming adults. They produce five to seven
nymphs per day, up to a total of about 50 per female. Newly
born nymphs are found grouped together because adult females
do not move about while giving birth. Colonies develop pref-
erentially on the lower side of foliage. They may also be found
on shoots and ftower buds. The development of the black citrus
aphid is temperature dependent. In the tropics, males and eggs
are not found, and a generation may live as long as 15 days.
Generations are continuous throughout the year. Females give
birth to living nymphs. There are four nymphal stages. First-
stage nymphs are approximately 0.7 mm long, the fourth-stage
nymph is about 1.5 mm long, and both are brownish.
This is the only aphid with an audible stridulation or high
piereing sound caused by rubbing together two parts of its body,
mueh like crickets. Large colonies produce this scraping sound
when they are disturbed.
Damage
T.aurantii feeds by sucking sap from its hosts, causing the
plants to become deformed and the leaves to curl and shrivel.
In most cases, the black citrus aphid is a minor pest of coffee
wherever it is found. It congregates on tender young shoots, ftower
buds, and the lower side of young leaves. They are not known
to feed on the older and tougher plant tissues. On coffee plants,
feeding causes some leaf distortion and growth malformation of
the leaves and shoot tips. The black citrus aphid is more often a
serious pest in coffee nurseries, and they produce honeydew. This
sweet and watery secretion is fed on by bees, wasps, ants, and
other insects. The honeydew ser ves as a medium on which sooty
mold fungi grow. Sooty mold blackens the leaf, decreases photo-
synthesis, decreases vigor, and causes malformations of the host.
The black citrus aphid is a vector of viral diseases of Coffea
liberica W. Bull ex Hiern, C. arabica L. var. bullata Cramer
(blister spot), and C. excelsa A. Chev. (ring spot). On citrus, it
is a vector of Citrus tristeza virus, Citrus infectious mottling
virus,and
Liule
leaf and lemon-ribbing virus of lemon.
Population Management
Several natural enemies of the black citrus aphid keep this
pest under control; sometimes to the extent that insecticides
Fig. 87.
Toxoptera aurantii
adult female. (Courtesy A. Bustillo,
Cenicafé)
Fig. 88.
Lysiphlebus testaceipes
parasitizing
Toxoptera aurantii.
(Courtesy A. Bustillo, Cenicafé)
are unnecessary. Predators include Allograpta obliqua (Say),
Chrysopa basa lis Walker, Chrysopa microphya McLaehlan,
Coccinella inaequalis Fabricius, Coelophora inaequalis (Fa-
bricius), Platyomus lividigaster Mulsant, and Scymnodes lividi-
gaster (Mulsant). The parasitoids include Aphelinus semiflavus
Howard and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Fig. 88). There
are many other predators and parasitoids to this pest through-
out the world. T. aurantii is al so controlled by the fungus Leca-
nicillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Zare & W. Gams.
Selected References
Crowe, T.
J.
2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production.
J. .
Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens,
J. .
2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production.
J. .
Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo,
J.
C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. l. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mía e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
49
Wintgens, J. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Root-Sucking Pests
Mealybugs are worldwide pests that are small, sap sucking,
and often covered in a white, waxy coating. The nymphs and
adult females may attack leaves, branches, roots, or flowers.
Mealybugs live in colonies and usually inhabit the base of their
host plants, such as the lower portions of stems and exposed
roots. Large populations of mealybugs may result in the loss of
plant growth vigor and in smaller shoots and leaves. Their feed-
ing reduces terminal growth and vigor, interfering with pho-
tosynthesis and resulting in smaller berries and poor quality.
During new terminal growth, especially after rain, mealybugs
grow rapidly, secreting copious amounts of honeydew. Many
species are recorded attacking coffee trees all around the world.
Pineapple Mealybug
Description and Life History
Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococ-
cidae) has a pantropical distribution. It is primarily a pest of
pineapple but it also infests a great variety of plants, includ-
ing coffee. This mealybug is commonly found in most coffee-
growing countries, infesting mainly the roots and the neck of
the stem (Fig. 89). It is rarely found on coffee berries. D. brevi-
pes goes through three larval stages before becoming an adult.
Adult female longevity is 20-26 days. This species is ovovivip-
arous, the eggs hatching within the female ovisac from which
the nymphs emerge. First instar larvae, called crawlers, are the
primary dispersal stage in all mealybug species. They have
flattened bodies with long hairs that aid in their dispersal by
wind. They remain protected underneath the mother's body for
Fig. 89.
Dysmicoccus brevipes on coffee roots.
(Courtesy
J.
C. Ortiz, Cenicafé)
50
a short time before developing a waxy covering. Nymphsmoll
three times before reaching adult maturity. The total nymphal
period varies from 48 to 68 days.
Males are winged and smaller than females and havea
shorter lifespan. Females can also reproduce by partheao
genesis, giving birth to only females. The adult female mealy·
bug is convex in body shape, pale pink or white, broadlyoval.
and approximately 3 mm long. Lateral wax filaments areusu·
ally less than one-fourth as long as the breadth of the body,
and those toward the back of the insect are one-half as longas
the body. There are 17 pairs of these wax structures. Thepre
larviposition period lasts for around 27 days. The larviposition
(giving birth to crawlers) period lasts for an average of25 days.
They give birth to about 234 progeny but may produce uplo
1,000 crawlers. The adult female's lifespan varies from
311080
days, averaging about 56 days.
Damage
On coffee plants, D. brevipes infests the roots and maycause
stunting and weakening of the plant. A yellowing of plantscan
be observed. Adult coffee plants rarely die from a mealybug
infestation, but newly planted plants may suffer the attackof
heavy populations, which can cause their death.
Population Management
Mealybug management often focuses on the control of
'tare.
taker" ants that are essential for the proper development of
mealybugs. They provide the mealybugs with shelter, protect
them from predators and parasitoids, and keep them clean from
detritus that may accumulate in the secreted honeydew and can
be deleterious to the colony. Without the ants, mealybug popula-
tions are small and slow to invade new areas and the field should
remain free of a serious mealybug infestation. Two ant species
are responsible for maintaining mealybug populations: Pheidole
megacephala (Fabricius) and Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius).
There are many natural enemies for D. brevipes. The para-
sitoids include Aenasius colombiensis Compere and Anagyrus
ananatis Gahan, and among the predators, Cryptolaemus mon-
trouzieri Mulsant and Scymnus spp. play an important role in
reducing populations. Coffee plantations should be kept c1ean
of host weeds and debris that may support mealybugs. Weeds
also provide alternate food sources that maintain ant popula-
tions between periods, when mealybug infestations are small
Care should be taken to detect weeds that can also host mealy-
bug populations.
Selected References
Benavides G., M., and Cárdenas, R. 1977. Hormigas de Amaga ydela
Esperanza. Av. Téc. Cenicafé 69: 1-4.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, J. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co.LId.,
London, United Kingdom.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Rhizoecus Root Mealybug
Description and Life History
The Rhizoecus root mealybug, Neorhizoecus coffeae (Laing)
(Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is widely distributed in Central
and South America. The adult female root mealybug is
snow
white and has an elongated oval shape up to about 2.3 mm long
The life cycle from egg, to crawler, to nymph, to adult is about
60-120 days. The adult female lives for 27-57 days and can
give birth to 17-83 young. White, cottony-like masses contain-
ing egg-Iaying females, eggs, or both are normally visible on
the outside of the root mas s when an infested plant is lifted
from the soil. Eggs hatch les s than 24 h after being laid. Once
crawlers find a suitable root, they settle down and begin to
feed with their sucking mouthparts, especially on the second-
ary roots. The Rhizoecus root mealybug is known to spread by
crawlers moving from infested plants to other plants.
Damage
Damage by the Rhizoecus root mealybug is nonspecific in
that the most common symptoms are slow plant growth, lack
of vigor, and subsequent death. The Rhizoecus root mealybug
is not evident unless the root ball is examined by removing the
plant. A white waxy substance and adult females are noticeable
on the roots.
Population Management
N. coffeae has mutualistic associations with the ant Acrop-
yga fuhrmanni (Forel), which is about 2 mm long. The ant
protects and transports the mealybug from one root to nearby
roots when necessary. The ant rubs the mealybug abdomen and
gets the honeydew secretion, which it uses as food. There are
no known natural predators of Neorhizoecus spp. Because the
Rhizoecus root mealybug is very difficult to detect and con-
trol, every effort should be made to prevent its spread and es-
tablishment. Before planting coffee trees, the field site should
be inspected for the presence of mealybugs. Similarly, roots
of newly purchased plants must be examined by removing the
pots or bags. In the field, roots of suspected plants, especially
slow-growing ones, have to be checked. Alternate hosts must be
removed or treated.
Selected References
Benavides G., M., and Cárdenas, R. 1977. Hormigas de Amaga y de la
Esperanza. Av. Téc. Cenicafé 69:1-4.
Crowe, T. J. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo,
J. c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática o. l. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens.J. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Citrus Mealybugs
Description and Life History
Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is
one of the most common mealybugs and it is present in nearly
all coffee-growing countries. It mainly attacks the aerial part
of the plant. The species P. lilacinus (Cockerell) and P. minor
(Maskell) are restricted to Asia, and similar species, P. kenyae
(Le Pelley) and P.fungicola Watson & Cox, are only in Africa.
Male citrus mealybugs have four nymphal stages. Nymphs are
yellow and mobile. The first nymphal stage lasts an average of
9.9 days; the second, 8.7 days; the third, 2.5 days; and the fourth,
3 days. Female citrus mealybugs have only three nymphal
stages. The first nymphal stage lasts an average of 11.5days; the
second, 8.2 days; and the third, 8.4 days. Male mealybugs live
for 2-4 days after the final nymphal molt. Females live for an
average of 87.6 days as adults and may start laying eggs 15-26
days into their adult life. Females lay 200-400 eggs in a life-
time. The sex ratio of females to males is approximately equal.
Eggs are laid in groups, covered by ovisac wax threads. Eggs are
yellow, hatch in 2-5 days, and are cylindrical to ovoid. The cit-
rus mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its life.
Damage
On coffee plantations, nymphs and adults form large aggre-
gates around the cluster of berries and in the new foliage of the
upper third of the trees. Feeding causes yellowing of the plant
organs and wilting. In addition to the honeydew secretions, a
sooty mold develops, which interferes with the plant photosyn-
thesis. Although the citrus mealybug is not a great honeydew
producer, severa l ant species tend them. Damage is generally
increased in severity when the citrus mealybug is associated
with ants. The most common tending ant species is Anoplolepis
longipes (Jerdon).
Population Management
There are numerous parasitic wasps that attack the citrus
mealybug and several predatory beetles. The most common
natural controls are the parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii
Howard and the predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant.
Pathogenic fungi also attack this pest. Controlling the tending
ants helps reduce the citrus mealybug populations.
Selected References
Benavides G., M., and Cárdenas, R. 1977. Hormigas de Amaga y de la
Esperanza. Av. Téc. Cenicafé 69:1-4.
Cárdenas, R. 1985. La palomilla de las ramas del cafeto, Planococcus
citri (Risso). Av. Téc. Cenicafé 125: 1-2.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. l. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Cicadas
Description and Life History
Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) commonly infest coffee plan-
tations in Brazil, and at least 10species have been recorded. The
51
most important species are Quesada gigas (Olivier), Quesada
soda lis (Walker), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicina pul-
lata Berg, and Carineta fasciculata (Germar). These species
are pests in the states of Minas Gerais, Sáo Paulo, and Paraná.
Besides being the most important of this group, Q. gigas is the
largest in size and also a pest of many other plants. Q.
gigas
has a wide range of geographical distribution in South Arner-
ica, and it is the best studied species of this group in the South
American continent.
For most winged cicadas, membranous wings are held roof-
like over the body. AII have three ocelli and the antennae arise
between, rather than beneath, the eyes. Cicada songs sound
buzzy, raspy, or whiney, because their carrier frequencies are
less pure and are higher than those of crickets. Cicadas call
almost exclusively during daylight hours and at dusk, usually
from trees and shrubs. On uncultivated land, the nymphal stage
feeds on the roots of indigenous trees. When the bush is cleared
and coffee is planted, the larvae move to the coffee roots and
feed, causing damage. Nymphs of
Q.
gigas have been observed
up to 50 cm below the ground on the roots. The nymphal stage
goes through five instars. They suck the roots and form cavi-
ties in the soil around them, creating openings for infections by
disease-causing organisms. The lifespan of the nymphal stage
of these cicadas varies from 4 up to 17 years depending on the
species, but the adult stage lasts 1-3 months. Adults are good
ftiers and rest on the tops of trees. The female adults mate upon
emergence from the soil, attracted by the song of the males,
and then lay eggs on the bark of trees. The nymph emerges and
drops to the soil, where it searches for the coffee roots to feed
upon and complete its development.
Damage
Cicadas are characterized by piercing-sucking mouthparts,
and they feed on the sap of the plant root. Cicada nymphs darn-
age the plants, causing chlorosis of the leaves in the apexes of
branches, loss of leaves, low production, and death of plants
under heavy infestations.
Population Management
Because of the cryptic (hidden) habits of nymphs feeding
on the roots of coffee plants, insecticidal treatments are only
effective when adults are emerging and have not laid eggs.
Monitoring the adult ftights should help to program the control
activities. An alternative to be considered for nymphal control
is the use of entomopathogenic nematodes.
Selected References
Anonymous. 1994. O ataque das cigarras. Inf. Garcafe 1(4):1-16.
Crowe, T. J. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Martinelli, . M., and Zucchi, R. A. 1987. Cigarras associadas ao
cafeeiro: 1.Genero Quesada Distant, 1905 (Homoptera, Cicadidae,
Cicadinae). An. SocoEntomol. Sras. 16:51-60.
Martinelli, N. M., and Zucchi, R. A. 1997. Cigarras (Hemiptera: Ci-
cadidae: Tibicinidae) associadas ao cafeeiro: Distribuicáo, hospe-
deiros e chave para as espécies. An. SocoEntornol. Sras. 26:133-143.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
52
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1. C., and Rocha,
M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná.Serie
Didática No. l. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola deAgrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, SustainablePro-
duction. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and
Re-
searchers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
ce.
KGaA, Weinheim,
Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Berry Pests
Coffee Berry Borer
Description and Life History
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)
(Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is the most serious pest of coffee all
around the world wherever coffee is grown. It spread via the cof-
fee trade from Central Africa, which is believed to be the place
of origin, across Africa, Asia, and Central and South America.
In the Americas, the coffee berry borer was introduced to Bra-
zil around 1913. In 1962, it was found in Peru and then in Gua-
temala (1971), Honduras (1977), Mexico and Jamaica (1978), El
Salvador and Ecuador (1981), Colombia (1989), Nicaragua and
Cuba (1990), the Dominican Republic and Venezuela (1995),
Costa Rica (2000), and finally Panama (2005).
The coffee berry borer is a small black beetle, 1.5 mm long.
AII of the immature life stages take place inside the coffee
berry. The female adult is larger than the male, and females
generally outnumber males in a ratio of 10:1. Males mate in-
side the berry with females, but they never emerge. The male
lives 50-75 days, while the female survives 100-150 days. The
female enters the coffee berry through a circular hole that it
makes, usually in the tip of the berry (Fig. 90). The female tun-
nels within the bean and starts laying eggs at arate of two to
three per day, for a period of about 1 month. The eggs hatch in
5 days. Larvae are white and legless and are found feeding in-
side the coffee beans, rendering the beans unsuitable for com-
merce or greatly lowering their quality. The larval stage passes
Fig. 90. Hypothenemus hampei adult female
initiating entry into a coffee berry. (Courtesy
G. Hoyos, Cenicafé)
through two instars, lasting about 25 days, and the pupal stage
lasts about 15 days (Fig. 91). Complete development from egg
laying to adult is between 45 and 60 days under conditions of 21
or 18°C, respectively. Mated females emerge to fty and search
for a new berry, bore into it to lay eggs, and start a new cycle.
It is estimated that only about 65% of all emerged adults are
fertilized, and they are the ones that can successfully colonize
new berries.
Coffee berries at different stages of development can be at-
tacked by the coffee berry borer. However, the borer only lays
eggs in those berries that have more than 20% dry weight. In
some regions, this stage is reached 120-150 days after flower-
ing. In Colombia, the optimal time for borer attack is reached
when berries have developed for more than 150 days. In these
berries, oviposition takes place 4-5 days after the coffee berry
borer enters the seed. Under these conditions, the coffee berry
borer is only capable of having two generations during the
coffee plant production season. The coffee berry borer is usu-
ally dispersed by migrant coffee pickers, who bring coffee for
personal use along with them from previous jobs. Adult ftight
dispersal is also important since H. hampei fties upright and
can be transported by the wind for several hours over long
distances. Borers initially find host berries by responding to
volatile chemicals emitted by the coffee berry during its de-
velopment. The borers position themselves close to the berries
using sight, and the borers prefer red berries.
Damage
The coffee berry borer causes damage by boring and de-
positing eggs into the berry. Larvae emerge and feed on the
seed of the berry, destroying it. Immature, infested berries may
fall because of injury or secondary infection. The economic
damage is twofold: berries that prematurely drop reduce the
total yield, and damaged berries that remain on the tree until
the harvest have a lower commercial value because of reduced
bean weight and downgraded quality. Severe infestations may
result in heavy crop losses. Worldwide, the coffee berry borer
causes an estimated USD $500 million in losses.
Population Management
The coffee berry borer is difficult to control by spraying in-
secticides since much of its life cycle takes place deep inside
the berry. Therefore, other methods must be devised. Cultural
control methods, including completely harvesting all berries
from the coffee trees, have a limited impacto In some countries,
picking up the fallen berries from the ground at the end of the
harvest season is recommended, but this is laborious and very
expensive. Therefore, the backbone of H. hampei population
Fig. 91. Larval (Ieft)and pupal (right) stages of the coffee berry
borerininfested beans. (Courtesy
J.
C. Ortiz, Cenicafé)
management is to very carefully harvest the coffee so that ripe
berries on the tree and fallen berries on the ground are not left
behind.
An integrated pest management approach is the best strategy
to reduce borer populations to under the economic damage
threshold. Neither the application of chemicals nor the cultural
or biological methods have proven to be sufficiently effective as
a single method of control. However, each may have an impor-
tant contribution to an integrated pest management programo
The recommended methods include insect monitoring, using
good harvesting practices, avoiding the escape of borers from
the processing area, releasing biological control agents into
the field, and integrating cultural practices, such as harvesting
every berry left on the trees and those fallen on the ground. Ra-
tional use of agrochemicals, such as chlorpyrifos, pirimiphos-
methyl, and fenitrothion, can be incorporated where necessary.
Several parasitic wasps, such as
Cephalonomia stepha-
noderis Betrem, Prorops nasuta Waterston, and
Phymastichus
coffea LaSalle (Fig. 92), attack the coffee berry borer in its Af-
rican center of origin, as does the parasitic fungus Beauveria
bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Fig. 93). This entomopathogenic
fungus and the parasitoids have been successfully mass pro-
duced in several countries in South and Central America and
in India. The parasitoids have been released by the millions
in Colombia, and B. bassiana has been sprayed in almost all
of the infested coffee-growing areas, where it has become the
main mortality factor of the coffee berry borer.
Fig.
92.
Phymastichus coffea adult parasitizing Hypothenemus
hampei. (Courtesy L.M. Constantino, Cenicafé)
Fig. 93. Hypothenemus hampei adult being parasitized by
Beauveria bassiana. (Courtesy L.M. Constantino, Cenicafé)
53
Selected References
Baker, P. S. 1999. The coffee berry borer in Colombia: Final repon
of the DFID-Cenicafé-CABI. Bioscience lPM for Coffee Project
(CNTR 93/1536A). DFID-Cenicafé, Chinchiná, Colombia.
Bu tillo, A. E. 2000. The role of biological control in an integrated
coffee berry borer management in Colombia. Pages 229-237 in:
Proc. Int. Semin. on Biotechnology in the Coffee Agro Industry:
Coffee Biotechnology and Quality, 2nd. T. Sera, C. R. Soccol,
A. Pandey, and S. Roussos, eds. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The
Netherlands.
Bustillo, A. E. 2002. El manejo de cafetales y su relación con el
control de la broca del café en Colombia. Bol. Téc. 24, Cenicafé,
Chinchiná, Colombia.
Bustillo, A. E. 2005. La comunicación en insectos. ¿Reciben mensajes
de las plantas?: El caso de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei
(Ferrari). Pages 40-64 in: Memorias Congreso Sociedad Colombi-
ana de Entomología, 32nd. Socolen, Bogotá, Colombia.
Bustillo, A. E. 2006. Una revisión sobre la broca del café, Hypothene-
mus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), en Colombia.
Rev. Colomb. Entomol. 32:101-116.
Bustillo, A. E., Cárdenas, R., Villalba, D., Benavides, P., Orozco, 1.,
and Posada, F. J. 1998. Manejo Integrado de la Broca del Café
Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) en Colombia, 2nd ed. Cenicafé,
Chinchiná, Colombia.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Proce sing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgen , ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Duque, H., and Baker, P. S. 2003. Devouring Profit: The Socio-
Economics of Coffee Berry Borer IPM. The Commodities Press-
CABI-Cenicafé, Chinchiná, Colombia.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations for
the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Convention
Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, J. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. ., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1. C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática o. 1.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Coffee Berry Moth
Description and Life History
The adult Prophantis smaragdina (Butler) (Lepidoptera: Py-
ralidae) lays eggs singly, usually on green berries. The eggs are
fiar, translucent, very small, and difficult to see with the naked
eye. Larvae emerge 7 days after the eggs are laid. They are red-
dish and start feeding on flowers and small berries. When the
berries are larger, P. smaragdina feeds on one berry and then
goes to the next one. The whole cluster of berries is webbed
together with silk. The attacked berries turn brown. The larva
feeds inside the berry for about 14 days until completion of the
larval development. To pupate, the larva leaves the berry at
night and drops to the ground, covering its body with debris
found in the soil. The pupal stage lasts 7-42 days, depending
on the level of soil moisture. The stage is shorter with high
moisture levels. The adult moth is nocturnal and golden brown.
Moths are mostly found on the lower side of the lower branches.
54
Damage
P. smaragdina has recently become a erious pest of coffee
in eastern Africa, causing up to 25% of the crop losses. Losses
are caused by the damage to the coffee berries, and this damage
also facilitates attack by the coffee berry disease fungus.
Population Management
Management is complicated because the eggs and small lar-
vae are difficult to see and the larvae enter the berries very
quickly. Once the berry cluster is webbed, insecticide sprays
will not penetrate the cluster. In heavy infestations, cultural
control is recommended by stripping off the infested berry
c1usters by hand. This material should be placed in holes in the
ground and covered with a fine mesh to prevent the adult rnoths
from escaping and to allow the adult parasitoids to go back
10
the coffee fields.
Selected References
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. . Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Antestia Bugs
Description and Life History
Antestia bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests in
Africa and are found more frequently on arabica coffee
plants,
There are several Antestiopsis spp. A. orbitalis bechuana
(Kirkaldy) is very important in eastern Africa, while
A.
or-
bitalis ghesquierei Carayon and A. intricata (Ghesquiere &
Carayon) are major pests in western Africa. Antestiopsis spp.
can be recognized by the black, white, or orange characteristic
patterns or markings on their bodie . The life history and biol-
ogy of the e species are very similar. Eggs are laid in groups
of 12 on the lower ide of leaves. They are white, about 1.2 mm
long, and barrel shaped. Nymphs emerge in 10-14 days. The
nymphal stage passes through five instars and lasts 50-100
days. The last instar is close to 8 mm long. Adult females can
live for 1year and lay up to 500 eggs.
Damage
Adults and nymphs suck on the green berries and, after the
harvest, on different parts of the trees. However, the main
damage is caused by a secondary infestation of the berries by
Ashbya spp., fungi that destroy the seeds. After the harvest,
Antestia bugs may feed on the tips of coffee branches, stimu-
lating shoot development. These shoots deplete the plant's re-
sources but bear no fruit. Antestia bugs may also attack fiower
buds, which turn black and fail to develop into fruits.
Population Management
There are more than 20 parasitic wasps that attack Antestia
bugs in East and Central Africa. Aridelus spp., for example,
attack the nymphs and are particularly important in these re-
gions. Asolcus spp. are significant egg parasitoids. The para-
fly
Bogosia rubens (Villeneuve) attack the adults. Other
ralenemie of thi pe t are clo ely related predatory bugs.
irol measures in Africa include pruning to open the tree
hand collecting the berries in small coffee plot . Spray-
withthe in ecticide malathion or fenitrothion is necessary
nthe population exceeds two individuals per tree.
Selected References
e,T.
J.
2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing,Processing, Sustainable Production. 1.
N.
Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
n, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
rthe Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
entionProject Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
haftfür Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
C.
c.,
and Wintgens, J. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
~\ia-Pacificregion. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
g,
Sustainable Production. J. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Pelley,R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
london,United Kingdom.
alha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, J.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da
1965.Praga s e doenca do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática o. l. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
iae Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
tgens,J. .2004. Coffee: Growing, Proce sing, Sustainable Produc-
n.A Guidebook for Grower ,Proce ors, Traders, and Research-
.Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
LeafPests
LeafMiners
ere are four Leucoptera spp. (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae)
feedon coffee plant leaves. The pecies found in the Amer-
isknown as the coffee leaf miner, L. coffeellum (Guérin-
eville). The other species, L. meyricki Ghesquiere, L. coma
quiere, and L. caffeina Washburn, are found exclusively
Africa.The only species recorded from Asia is L. caffeina.
fminers are important pests in most of the coffee-growi ng
ionsof the world. Coffee leaf miners are considered a mo-
agous pest, attacking only coffee plants. They owe their
to the gallerie or tunnels formed in the epidermis of the
asa consequence of the larvae destroying the palisade tis-
touse it for food.
Coffee Leaf Miner
cription and Life History
ucoptera
coffeellum (Guéri n-Ménevi 11e) (Lepidoptera:
Ly-
iidae) is a micro-Iepidopteran, with a crepuscular nocturnal
it.The moths have a 6.5-mm wing pan and are brownish
e,with frilled fore and hind wings. The larvae Iive in tun-
they construct within the leaf (Fig. 94). Completely de-
d larvae are 3.5 mm long. There is sexual dimorphism,
al: l sex ratio. The eggs of L. coffeellum, deposited by the
les on the upper urface of the coffee leaves, have a ge-
ous aspect and are difficult to see with the naked eye. The
stage is 4-6 days long. After eclosion, the L. coffeellum
rpillars enter the leaf tissue through the lower part of the
,whichis in contact with the leaf epidermis, without touch-
ing the outside. The coffee leaf miner has four larval instars.
The lar val stage lasts 16-26 days at temperature around 20°C.
After completing the larval period, larvae are transformed into
pupae. They abandon the tunnels and weave a cocoon, nor-
mally at the axial part of the leaves (Fig. 95). In general, more
pupae are found on the lower third of the plant. Some larvae
may fall onto the soil, where they pupate. The pupal stage lasts
about 14 days at 20°C.
In the field, adult coffee leaf miners feed on honeydew. They
mate mainly at night, although they can also mate in the morn-
ing after the dew dries. Preoviposition time is 3.6 days at 20°C.
Oviposition does not occur below 18°C. The number of eggs
laid per female is quite variable. On average, females place 75
eggs in 13 days on the leaves of susceptible coffee plants, with
the largest number of eggs la id on day four.
Damage
Outbreaks of L. coffeellum are common on coffee plantations
located at low altitudes and in warm areas and during dry sea-
sons in area where pesticides are frequently used. Right after
eclosion, the caterpillars perforate the upper epidermis of the
leaf and enter the mesophyll, feeding on palisade parenchyma
cells. The lesions that form between the epidermis, also called
galleries or tunnels, have irregular margins, are paje yellow,
and later become brownish (Fig. 96). The necrosed leaf surface
reduces photosynthesis because the flux of water, minerals, and
organic matter is limited. Nevertheless, the los in production is
Fig. 94.
Leucoptera coffeellum
larva removed Irom its mine.
(Courtesy
J.
C. Ortiz, Cenicalé)
Fig. 95.
Leucoptera coffeellum
cocoon. (Courtesy
J.
C. Ortiz,
Cenicalé)
55
Fig. 96. Leaf damage caused by
Leucoptera coffeellum.
(Cour-
tesy A. Bustillo, Cenicafé)
mainly due to defoliation, provoked by the increase in the level
of ethylene, principally when the lesions are near the petiole.
More tunneled leaves fal! from the upper third of the plant,
and the production losses are directly related to the intensity
of attack and the period over which it takes place. Besides the
direct damage, an intense attack by L. coffeellum weakens the
plant and incites a 61% loss of the leaves, a 70% loss in the dry
matter of the trunk, a 60% loss of the roots, and a 50% reduc-
tion in the photosynthetic activity of the remaining leaves.
Population Management
Coffee leaf miners are now important pests in parts in Africa
and the Americas, mostly as a result of heavy use of pesticides,
which has eliminated many of the pest's natural enemies within
coffee groves. Abundance of coffee leaf miners is favored dur-
ing dry seasons in areas of high temperatures. Monitoring can
be facilitated with pheromone traps. Populations are reduced
by the combined action of rainy seasons and a complex of
natural enemies. Among the predators recorded are Polybia
spp., Polistes spp., Chrysoperla externa (Hagen), and parasit-
oids of the genera Closterocerus, Horismenus, Pnigalio, and
Chrysocharis.
Selected References
Cárdenas, R., and Benavides G., M. 1974. El minador de la hoja del
cafeto (Leucoptera coffeella). Av. Téc. Cenicafé 35:1-4.
Crowe, T. J. 1964. Coffee leafminers in Kenya. Species and life histo-
ries. Kenya Coffee 29:222-227.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1.
e,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
56
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustil1o)
Coffee Defoliators
Description and Life History
The most important defoliators (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
found affecting coffee plantations are members of the family
Geometridae and characterized by large and voracious larvae
that move with a typical looping motion. Species from vari-
ous regions of the world are quite different, although they may
have separated from common ancestors, giving place to sym-
patric species, individuals that are very similar and occupy the
same geographical regions but do not mate. Ascotis selenaria
(Denis & Schiffermüller), known as the giant coffee looper, is
a serious pest in Kenya. In the Americas, Oxydia spp. are com-
mon defoliators of coffee plants. On Colombian coffee planta-
tions, outbreaks of O. trychiata (Guenée), O. hispata Guenée,
O. vesulia Cramer, Paragonia procidaria Herrich-Schaffer,
Glena bisulca Rindge, and an Apicia sp. (Fig. 97) take place
where there is excessive use of insecticides or where planta-
tions are in close proximity to outbreaks of these defoliators on
conifer plantations.
In general, adult females lay egg masses on the foliage and
larvae emerge after 8-10 days and then go through five or six
instars, feeding on the foliage of affected coffee plants. The
larval stage lasts about 45 days, and mature larvae fal! to the
soil, where they pupate, taking about 15-18 days for the adult
moth to emerge. The sex ratio is
1:1,
and adults mate at dusk
to start a new cycle. The number of eggs produced varies from
300 to 1,000.
Damage
Heavy infestations can cause the total defoliation of the trees.
Although the coffee trees can recover, there is a complete loss
ofthe crop.
Population Management
Injurious attack of defoliators in coffee ecosystems is mainly
due to the abuse or indiscriminate use of insecticides, which
reduces their natural enemies. The use of insecticides is there-
fore not recommended to control these defoliators. They have
numerous natural enemies that can keep the population under
Fig. 97. Larva of an
Apicia
sp., a common defoliator on coffee
plantations in Colombia. (Courtesy A. Bustillo, Cenicafé)
1.Manyparasitoids of the genera Trichogramma, Teleno-
andApanteles, tachina flies, and ichneumon wasps have
reportedto control defoliator populations. Infections by
ofthe genus Cordyceps and several polyhedral viruses
rycommon. If the population is out of control, spraying
lationsof Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner or the fungus
eria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. is recommended.
Selected References
,T.1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
ing, Processing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed.
y-VCHVerlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
, A.
E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
IheCommon Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
ionProject Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
ft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
any.
C.
e.,
and Wintgens, 1. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
.-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
bH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
lIey,R. H. 1968.Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
don,United Kingdom.
Iha,M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1. C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
1965.Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
ática o.
1.
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escala de Agrono-
eVeterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
ley,P.E. 1963.The giant coffee looper, Ascotis selenaria recip-
aria.
East Afr. Agric. For. 1. 29: 143-146.
rens,1.N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
. A
Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
Wiley-VCHVerlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Twig Borers
igborers are pests mainly of Coffea canephora Pierre
. Froehner, causing considerable damage in the second-
md
tertiary branches. Damage to coffee plants is primarily
dbyextensive tunneling within the branches, limiting the
How.The affected branches then dry out. Withering and
ofbranches with shot holes are symptoms of an attack.
Brown Twig Borer
ription and Life History
ylosandrusmorigerus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculioni-
isin every area of the world where coffee is grown. The fe-
isbrown and less than 2 mm long. She bores a hole about
indiameter, usually on the underside of a twig, and in the
leof the twig, she hollows out a chamber into which the
aredeposited in irregular heaps. It takes about
1-3
days to
intothe twig and about
4-6
days to construct the chamber.
r10days, eggs are observed. Larvae emerge 8 days later.
are white, legless, and vermiform and feed on a layer of
eliaof the ambrosia fungus, which the adult carries on its
.whenboring the hole in the twig.
elarval stage lasts about 10 days. The larva then pupates
10
days later a light brown adult emerges. The average nurn-
ofeggs is 60. They mate in or very close to the nest. The
iswingless and never leaves the host in which it is bred.
layingand enlargement of the nest continue for some days,
Ihenest may contain up to 80 offspring in various stages of
lopment.The sex ratio is close to 14females per maleo
Damage
The brown twig borer is capable of perforating the coffee
twigs and killing them. However, the main damage is caused by
the associated ambrosia fungus in the tissues around the tun-
nels. In slender twigs, this fungus may rapidly spread over the
circumference of the twig, which finally breaks off.
Population Management
The most effective way to manage this twig borer is through
cultural control by cutting off and burning infested shoots.
Selected References
Benavides G., M., and Orozco, 1. 1989. El pasador de las ramas del
cafeto. Av. Téc. Cenicafé 142:1-4.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. J. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests ofCoffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil .
Walker, K. 2006. Brown coffee twig beetle (Xylosandrus morigerus).
PaDIL: Pests and Diseases Image Library. www.padil.gov.au
Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Pro-
duction. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Re-
searchers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim,
Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Black Twig Borer
Description and Life History
Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculioni-
dae) adult females are 1.4-1.9 mm long and 0.7-0.8 mm wide.
They have a stout, cylindrical, elongated, brown to black
body; distinct punctures on the pronotum posterior; a trans-
versely oriented hair tuft at the pronotum base; and long setae.
The adult male is 0.8-1.1 mm long and 004-0.5 mm wide;
has a rounded, dwarfed, reddish brown body; and is flightless
and rare. Eggs are small (0.3 x 0.5 mrn), white, and ovoid. A
mature larva is about 2 mm long and has a pale brown head
capsule and a creamy white, legless body. A pupa is about as
long as an adult and has a creamy white body and a typical
exarate formo
The tiny, brownish black, cylindrical beetle is a type of
ambrosia beetle, and it attacks both the lateral and vertical
branches. Eggs are laid approximately 7 days after the female
enters the twig. The egg stage lasts 4 days, the larval stage lasts
11 days, and the pupal stage lasts 7 days. Adults harden the
tegument in about 2 days and the female reaches sexual rnatu-
rity in 6 days. Mated females bore into the twig, make a tunnel
for eggs, and grow food for larvae. The female carries a fungus,
Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., which she cultivates within the
tunnel to feed her larvae. This fungus produces a toxin that
kills the twig and the leaves beyond the entrance hole. Eggs are
laid in groups of 8-15. Larvae spend all of their life inside the
gallery, passing through two instars and feeding on the conidia
of this ambrosia fungus.
57
Damage
X. compactus is commonly found on Coffea canephora
Pierre ex A. Froehner, and although it is not a serious pest,
infestations on individual plantations can be severe. Typical
symptoms of black twig borer attack are withered or dried
branches with shot holes. The attacked tissue collapses and ter-
minal leaves beyond the point of attack fall off prematurely.
The circular entry hole, less than 1.6 mm in diameter, is usually
located between the last healthy leaf and the first wilted leaf on
the dying lateral. Although a single beetle hole may kill a twig,
several burrows are often required before the lateral branch
dies. On the thicker vertical trunk, even heavy infestations do
not always kill the branch. This beetle generally attacks trees
weakened by drought, girdling, heavy pruning, standing water,
or lack of fertilizer. Some coffee cultivars are more susceptible
than others.
Population Management
The best control is maintaining healthy trees. Infested later-
als should be pruned
5-8
cm below the hole as soon as wilting
is observed because new adults will emerge in a few weeks.
Pruned laterals should immediately be chipped, burned, or
buried to kill the beetles and the larval stages. Light shade
and good drainage must be maintained. Simply cutting off the
wilted lateral and leaving it on the plantation do es not kill the
adult or young. They will leave the branches and move to an-
other tree. None of the insecticides registered for coffee is ef-
fective against this pesto
Selected References
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community lnitiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S.
G.,
Gabardo, 1.
c.,
and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No.!. Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Stem Borers
Black Stem Borer
Description and Life History
Apate monachus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) is a
serious pest in Africa, where it lives on forest trees, complet-
ing its life cycle. It is a pest of oil palms that sometimes flies
onto coffee plantations and bores tunnels about 20 cm long up-
58
wards into a main stem. The adult is bright brown and about
2 cm long. It has rounded angles on the elytra, a well-marked
and rounded thorax, and a head concealed below the thorax.
The larva, which is not found on coffee plants, is white with
smalllegs and has a massive body that is almost cylindrical but
thicker at the anterior end.
Damage
Damage is caused by the adults, which are very active and
strong fliers. They bore into coffee stems, producing large tun-
nels that may cause the death of the branch or the tree. They
rest on coffee trees during the night. In the morning, they move
to the warm sunny side of the trunk, and the entrance holes are
always found on this side. Their presence is revealed by afine
dust, which accumulates at the base of the tree.
Population Management
Management of A. monachus populations is only possible by
cultural practices, such as cleaning plantations by burning all
dead wood that may contain insect stages, destroying infested
coffee and other trees, and hand collecting the adults in the
early morning. Another control practice is to push a springy
wire into the hole; if sawdust-like frass stops coming out of the
tunnel entrance after a few days, the beetle has been killed.
Alternatively, a plug of cotton wool soaked in an insecticide
solution can be pushed up into the tunnel.
Selected References
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. . Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community lnitiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C. C., and Wintgens, 1. . 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. J. . Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
GmbH
&
CO. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernal ha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, 1. C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Pragas e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens.J. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-Vf.H Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Coffee Stem Borers
Many species of stem borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae),
including the white stem borer (Xylotrechus quadripes Chev-
rolat), coffee brown beetle (Acalolepta cervina (Hopej), West
African coffee borer (Bixadus sierricola (Whiteí), white coffee
borer (Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoej), and yellow headed
borer (Dirphya nigricornis (Olivierj), have been recorded in
different coffee-producing countries. Stem borers are the most
destructive pests of Coffea arabica L. in Asia and Africa. One
possible reason for the abundance of these stem borers is that
coffee cultivation is associated with shade trees for the purpose
of maintaining an ecological balance in poor hillsides, prevent-
ing erosion, and encouraging biodiversity. In the Americas, in-
tations of stem borers take place but are not serious. Coffee
ntations in these countries have les s shade associated with
trees.
scription and Life History
Thefemales of these species of beetles lay eggs in the crev-
on the main stem of coffee. The larvae bore into the bark
the wood itself. They may tunnel down into the roots for
to 20 cm and up into the main stem for as much as 100
, causing extensive damage to the lower part of the trunk
the root system. If the coffee trees survive the attack, the
Idof the older plants is drastically reduced. Susceptibility
dieases and termites may increase. Larvae are cream white
'h
a typically prominent head. Adults are characterized by
rery long antenna. The young larvae of the stem borer may
dIethe trunk, cutting off the supply of nutrients to the upper
ions of the coffee plant. Young plants up to 2 years old are
uently killed, and if they survive, yield is reduced to the
int
at which they may not be worth maintaining.
X.
quadripes and
A.
cervina are important pests in Asian
ntries. X. quadripes is the most serious pest of arabica
lee in India, as well as in Sri Lanka, China, Vietnam, and
iland,
In India, it is estimated that more than nine million
are destroyed each year because of attacks by this insect.
leuconotusand D. nigricornis are found in eastern African
ntries, causing ver y serio u damage on coffee plantations.
sierricolaattacks both arabica and robusta coffee in West
Central Africa.
mage
fested plants have external ridges around the stem. Af-
ed plants also have yellowing and wilting of the leaves.
age inflicted to coffee stems by wood-feeding larvae re-
esthe fruit production and even kills the plants.
ulation Management
ontrol methods are limited, and infested trees should be
ved and destroyed to prevent infestation of surrounding
s.
Because larvae inside the coffee stems are difficult to
irol,
management strategies are aimed at preventing infes-
n.These strategies include manually collecting adults, up-
ing infested stems, and interfering with oviposition. The
I
strategy is to scrub the stems or swab them with repellent
micalsto debark the stems of coffee trees and apply insecti-
s,
such as chlorpyrifos, prophylactically on them. There is
information on the natural enemies of stem borers. How-
. a parasitic wasp and a parasitic fly have been recorded
e West African coffee borer. Development of pheromone
using (S)-2-hydroxy-3-decanone, which attracts female
borers, is well advanced in India.
Selected References
e,T.1.2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
wing,Processing, Sustainable Production.
J. .
Wintgens, ed.
'iley-VCHVerlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
n,A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
theCommon Code for the Coffee Community Tnitiative. Con-
nlionProject Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
rmany.
C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
ia-Pacificregion. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
,SustainableProduction.
J.
N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH Verlag
mbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
lIey,R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
ndon,United Kingdom.
ods,M.,Lan, C.
c.,
King, S., Gries, R., Mo, L. Z., and Gries, G.
1.Pheromone communication and mating behavior of coffee
itestem borer, Xylotrechus
quadripes
ChevroJat (Coleopter«:
rambycidae).Appl. Entornol. Zool. 36:299-309.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S.
G.,
Gabardo, 1. C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No. 1.Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mía e Veterinaria, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Pro-
duction. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Re-
searchers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim,
Germany.
(Prepared by A. Bustillo)
Pest on Stored Coffee Beans
Coffee Bean Weevil
Description and Life History
This weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer) (Coleop-
tera: Anthribidae), has a pantropical distribution and is a pest
of stored coffee. The adult is 3-5 mm long, dark brown, and
mottled with whitish to yellowish scalelike setae and has a var-
ied pattern and a short broad beak or rostrum. The wings are
slightly shorter than the abdomen, and the three terminal seg-
ments of the antennae are thickened.
Eggs are laid singly in the parchment coffee or dried pulp if
present. This stage lasts 4-7 days. The larva is a white, legless
grub, similar to many weevil larvae. It initially feeds on the
pulp but later perforates the bean. The larval stage lasts 33-40
days at 23°C. The pupa is white with numerous setae in the
body and survives 5-11 days. Adults are dark brown. Males
are 2.5-3.5 mm long and females are 3.5-4.5 mm long. Under
laboratory conditions, they can live up to 115 days. They mate
4-5 days after emergence of the adults, and the females almost
immediately lay eggs by inserting them into the stored coffee
beans. The average number of eggs laid is 52 at arate of three
per day.
Damage
A. fasciculatus damages stored beans, especially old coffee
kept at high humidities. The adult perforates the dried coffee
bean and lays eggs and then the larvae develop inside and de-
stroy the bean completely. The main los s is the contamination
of the stored coffee, which considerably reduces the commer-
cial value.
Population Management
To control the coffee bean weevil, coffee should not be stored
in wet areas. Sun drying the coffee may kill the insect since
it cannot survive temperatures above 37°C. Parchment coffee
with a moisture level below 12% is seldom attacked by this in-
sect. Direct control measures include cleaning the warehouses
and fumigating. Fumigation provides good control but does not
eliminate the infestation of the coffee beans. Methyl bromide
and ethylene dibromide are effective but are now being phased
out. Natural enemies, such as the parasitoids Anisopteromalus
calandrae (Howard), Cephalonomia gallicola (Ashmead), and
a Plastanoxus sp., are commonly found attacking the larval
stages of this pest, but their impact is not sufficient for satisfac-
tory control.
Selected References
Benavides G., M., and
Cárdenas,
R. 1983.El
gorgojo
del café,
Araece-
rusfasciculatus (DeGeer). Av. Téc. Cenicafé 114:1-4.
Crowe, T. 1. 2004. Coffee pests in Africa. Pages 421-458 in: Coffee:
Growing, Processing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed.
Wiley-VCH VerIag GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Jansen, A. E. 2005. P1ant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations
for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Con-
vention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesell-
schaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn,
Germany.
Lan, C.
c.,
and Wintgens, 1. N. 2004. Major pests of coffee in the
Asia-Pacific region. Pages 459-473 in: Coffee: Growing, Process-
ing, Sustainable Production. 1. N. Wintgens, ed. Wiley-VCH VerIag
GmbH
&
Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
London, United Kingdom.
60
Mphuru, A. N. 1974. Araecerus fasciculatus (DeGeer) (Coleoptera:
Anthribidae): A review. Trop. Stored Prod. Inf. 26:7-15.
Sánchez de León, A. 1984. Manual de las Enfermedades y Plagas del
Café: Daños y Técnicas de Control. ANACAFE, Subgerencia de
Asuntos Agrícolas, Guatemala.
Vernalha, M. N., Soares, S. G., Gabardo, J. C., and Rocha, M. A. L.
da 1965. Praga s e doencas do cafeeiro no estado do Paraná. Serie
Didática No.
1.
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Escola de Agrono-
mia e Veterinária, Paraná, Brazil.
Wintgens,1. N. 2004. Coffee: Growing, Processing, Sustainable Produc-
tion. A Guidebook for Growers, Processors, Traders, and Research-
ers. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
&
CO.KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
(Prepared
by A.
BustilJo)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Chapter
Full-text available
Coffee is the most important export crop of Colombia. Its importance grows if we consider the socio-economic aspect that supports many families and generates millions of direct and indirect jobs. The most important pest of this crop is the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). This insect destroys the coffee berry and causes fall and weight loss of the harvested berry, but more important even is the loss in the quality of the beverage. The unique dependence on the use of chemical insecticides for its control is not recommended; therefore, it is suggested the implementation of an integrated management program based on the biological control to achieve a cost reduction in production, adding an ecological base, thus improving the quality of the coffee produced.
Article
Full-text available
Se presenta una revisión sobre la investigación realizada sobre la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei en Colombia
Book
This book is the result of the project "Integrated Management of the CBB" (CFC/ICO/02), carried out in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, India and Mexico. It discusses aspects such as the control of the CBB /Hypothenemus hampei/ in the 6 countries, the economic losses caused by this pest, the costs of its control and finally, some recommendations for CBB control policies are made.
Chapter
IntroductionIntegrated Management of Insect PestsMajor Coffee Pests
Chapter
IntroductionGrasshoppers and CricketsTermitesAphidsScale Insects and MealybugsSucking BugsThripsWood-boring BeetlesCoffee Berry BorerLeaf-eating BeetlesFruit FliesLepidopterous Leaf MinersBerry-boring LepidopteraLeaf-eating CaterpillarsAntsMitesStorage PestsVertebratesFuture Trends in Pest Control
El manejo de cafetales y su relación con el control de la broca del café en Colombia
  • A E Bustillo
Bustillo, A. E. 2002. El manejo de cafetales y su relación con el control de la broca del café en Colombia. Bol. Téc. 24, Cenicafé, Chinchiná, Colombia.
La comunicación en insectos. ¿Reciben mensajes de las plantas?: El caso de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Pages 40-64 in
  • A E Bustillo
Bustillo, A. E. 2005. La comunicación en insectos. ¿Reciben mensajes de las plantas?: El caso de la broca del café, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari). Pages 40-64 in: Memorias Congreso Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología, 32nd. Socolen, Bogotá, Colombia.
Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative
  • A E Jansen
Jansen, A. E. 2005. Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Convention Project Chemical Safety. Final Report. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany.
Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and CO
  • Le Pelley
Le Pelley, R. H. 1968. Pests of Coffee. Longmans, Green and CO.Ltd., London, United Kingdom.