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Due to the tough competition prevailing in the manufacturing industries, retention of employees has become a challenge for the organizations. Surveys predicted that there is a strong growth in ceramic sector. Therefore special attention is given in this paper to analyze the factors influencing employees' continuation in ceramic manufacturing industries. Work life balance & policies, organization commitment, supervisor support and training & development were the four non-monetary factors considered for analysis. This study explored the facts over employees of ceramic manufacturing industries in India. Statistical tools were utilized to analyze the influence of variables. The analysis revealed that all the four factors were correlated to employee retention. The findings also concluded that work life balance & policies, organization commitment and supervisor support exerted significant influence with employee retention. It is also found that supervisor support exerted more influence that other two factors. Suggestions and limitations of the study were also incorporated.
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Asian Social Science; Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
ISSN 1911-2017 E-ISSN 1911-2025
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Retention Factors and Their Relative Significance in Ceramic
Manufacturing Industries in India
S. Umamaheswari1 & Jayasree Krishnan2
1 Faculty of Business Administration, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India
2 Department of Management Studies, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai, India
Correspondence: S. Umamaheswari, Faculty of Business Administration, Sathyabama University, Chennai, India.
Received: December 31, 2014 Accepted: March 4, 2015 Online Published: May 16, 2015
doi:10.5539/ass.v11n13p260 URL:
Due to the tough competition prevailing in the manufacturing industries, retention of employees has become a
challenge for the organizations. Surveys predicted that there is a strong growth in ceramic sector. Therefore
special attention is given in this paper to analyze the factors influencing employees’ continuation in ceramic
manufacturing industries. Work life balance & policies, organization commitment, supervisor support and
training & development were the four non-monetary factors considered for analysis. This study explored the
facts over employees of ceramic manufacturing industries in India. Statistical tools were utilized to analyze the
influence of variables. The analysis revealed that all the four factors were correlated to employee retention. The
findings also concluded that work life balance & policies, organization commitment and supervisor support
exerted significant influence with employee retention. It is also found that supervisor support exerted more
influence that other two factors. Suggestions and limitations of the study were also incorporated.
Keywords: employee retention, work life balance & policies, organization commitment, supervisor support,
training & development, ceramic manufacturing industries
1. Introduction
Employees are considered as the heart and soul of an organization. Most of the manufacturing industries mainly
depend on their workforce for their production though some major firms utilize latest technology of automation.
Even for them, work force is essential to operate and maintain their machineries. Further possessing of critical
employees differentiates them from their competitors. But in reality industrialization provided wider scope for
able employees to mobilize towards better opportunities and pulling of capable employees by the competitors
can also occur creating a deficit in the required work force. The benefits of retaining critical employee include
the ability of the company to achieve strategic business objectives and to gain a competitive advantage over its
current and potential competitors (Ramlall, 2003).
Knowledgeable workers play a vital role in the business activities of the organizations. One of the characteristics
of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of the key resources is high in
both financial and non-financial terms. There is, thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the
retention of cognitions of knowledge workers (Sutherland & Jordaan, 2004).The researchers Sutherland &
Jordaan (2004) concluded from their study that the need of high individualism, the need for challenge and the
career management desires of this new breed of workers who are unique and increasingly important contributors
to the knowledge based economy is to be considered in the formation of retention strategy. Organizations should
have a proactive retention strategy so as to satisfy the employees who differ by roles, needs and their motivation
to the maximum extent (Ragupathi, 2013).Hence organizations, particularly manufacturing industries are giving
their utmost priority in retaining their employees apart from giving importance to acquire raw materials for their
1.1 Significance of the Study
The studies by Hay group(2013) observed that higher attrition rate of over 26% exists in India and survey on
manufacturing industries predicted a strong growth of over 10% in ceramic sector in April-June
2014-2015(FICCI,2014),which increased the necessity of more employees. The general strategy of “pay more Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
and retain” results in escalation of production cost, which diminished the chances in capturing domestic and
international market. Thus organizations are looking for non- monetary factors effecting retention. Moreover pay
is clearly not the most important issue in employee turnover however, a certain level of pay is needed to recruit
and retain (Boxall, Macky, & Rasmussen, 2003). Researchers Yiu & Saner (2014) outlined in their article that
turnover cannot be smoothened by salary increase and by costly extrinsic incentives alone. Hence non-financial
factors also plays considerable role in the retention of employees. Further, motivation for job change is a
multi-dimensional and no one factor will explain it (Boxall et al., 2003). There is no globally accepted formula to
prevent turnover and it is needful to formulate suitable retention strategies to compete in the global market
giving importance to the critical factors influencing retention of employees (Nwokocha & Iheriohanma, 2012).
This necessitated the research and main factors focused in this article were work life balance & policies,
organization commitment, supervisor support and training &development. As ceramic sector is less attended one,
this article explores the influence of above non-financial factors and their relative significance over employee’s
working in ceramic manufacturing industries in India.
1.2 Literature Review
1.2.1 Work Life Balance & Policies and Retention
Work life balance involves balancing career demands with personal and family needs (Gupta, 2010). Work life
policy is the organization‘s methods adopted for satisfying the needs of employees to balance work and their life.
Policy on work life balance varies from organization to organization. Various combinations of options were
offered to the employees. Some of the options include job sharing, part time working, staged working hours,
occasionally working at home, and leaves etc. (Sanghi, 2012). Work life balance is increasingly an important
factor for employee retention and people are leaving their jobs, to acquire better work life balance (Boxall et al.,
2003). Supportive work culture characterized by work time and work life flexibilities contributes to increased
work life balance and make employee more proactive. This kind of corporate culture has a strong role to play
between work life balance & practices and human resource issues like retention and turn over (Kar & Misra,
2013). Work life balance have an impact on employee retention and work life policies plays a role of obtaining a
balance between work and life. It encourages employee’s decision to remain with the organization (Shoaib, Noor,
Tirmizi, & Bashir, 2009). According to recent research published in training & development 69% absences are
not due to illness but occur because employees decide to attend their personal needs. This may cost an employer
over $600 per absence .The financial health of a company is linked to personal health of the human capitals.
(Work/Life Initiatives Impact Employee Retention, 2003). Flexible working practices helps staff to strike a
balance between paid work and personal life, can lead to improved recruitment and retention, reduction of
absenteeism and an improved staff commitment and productivity (Manfredi & Holliday, 2004). Job retention is
positively associated with the employer’s promotion of work life balance (Smith, 2005).
The Mccrindle study of 3000 Australians showed that work life balance is the number one factor of job attraction
and retention (even above salary) (Pleffer, 2007). One of the main reasons for employee’s stay in their company
is flexible work schedule (Ramlall, 2003). Both perceived flexibility and supportive work life balance & policies
significantly increase the likelihood of expected retention (Richman, 2006). Work life programme have the
potential to significantly improve employee morale, reduce absenteeism, and retain organizational knowledge,
particularly during difficult economic times. Also work life programmed offer a win- win situation for employers
and employees (Lockwood, 2003). An exploratory study on the views of male workers by the researchers
Hughes & Bozionelos (2007) indicated the existence of clear correlation between problems with work life
balance and withdrawal behaviors including turnover and non-genuine sick absence. According to new research
from Hay Group (April 16, 2013) more than one in four employees (27%) at organization that are not perceived
to support work life balance plan to leave their companies within next two years. The authors
Cegarra-LeivaSánchez-Vidal & Cegarra-Navarro (2012) while analyzing the effect of work life balance over
managers found that informal support for work life balance is expressed through the existence of positive and
supportive organizational values for work life balance, plays a major role in enhancing organizational out comes
such as job satisfaction among mangers and their retention in small and medium enterprises. The above literature
review reveals that work life balance &policies is an important factor for retention.
1.2.2 Organization Commitment & Retention
Organization commitment is the extent to which an employee feels a sense of allegiance and loyalty to /his/her
employer. Organization commitment is the emotional reaction of employees towards an organization and its
policies. Organization commitment is getting attention due to its ability to produce desirable outcomes for the
people of the organization (Haldar & Pareek, 2009). Organization commitment was found to be the most Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
influential factor in affecting employee’s staying intention (Othman & Ghazali, 2014). Strong organization
commitment derives and shapes the organization culture that promotes a sense of belonging and ownership
among employees essential for being satisfied, productive and loyal employees, hence reduces turnover intention
(Hussain & Asif, 2012). A strong inverse relationship is also confirmed by the research of (Jehanzeb, Rasheed, &
Rasheed, 2013) between organization commitment and turnover intention. Affective commitment of employees
is negatively and significantly related to employees’ turnover intention (Joarder, Sharif, & Ahmmed, 2011).
The researcher Arthur (1994) found that employees with more commitment towards their organization perform
better and also noticed increased efficiency and production quality in their job. Hence organization prefers
philosophy of commitment to minimize their employees’ turnover. Work values are related to various facts of job
satisfaction, which in turn influence commitment to the organization (Froese & Xiao, 2012). Intention to quit is
largely influenced by lack of commitment to the organization(Firth, Mellor, Moore & Loquet,2004).Research
conducted by Parasuraman (1982) found that organization commitment of employees was one of the strongest
predictors of turnover intentions. The research by Salleh Nair & Harun (2012) provided empirical support that
organization commitment was significantly and negatively related to turnover intention. According to Steers,
(1977) who carried out the study among 382 hospital employees and 119 scientists and engineers found that for
both samples, personal characteristics, job characteristics, and work experiences influenced commitment.
Moreover, commitment was found to be strongly related to intent and desire to stay. Also organizational
commitment played a very important role in affecting a person's decision to stay (Igbaria, Meredith, & Smith,
1994). The above findings give evidence that organization commitment is an important factor for employee
1.2.3 Supervisor Support and Retention
Organizations feel that the supervisors are the sources of general assistance in the efforts to retain their critical
employees (Ramlall, 2003). The quality of relationship between supervisor and employees is an important factor
in retaining individuals (Boxall et al., 1993). Supervisor support is a major contributor for employee retention
amongst all other determinants (Shoaib et al., 2009). The research by Gentry, Kuhnert, Mondore, & Page (2007)
on blue-collar part time workers in U.S.A revealed that “perceived supervisor support levels were related to
retention rates” and this clearly shows that supervisor support is an important predictor of retention. Employees
who perceived high support expressed stronger feelings of affiliation and loyalty to the organization as perceived
support related to supervisor’s evaluations; the relationship with supervisor plays an important role in
employee’s decision of stay in the organization (Eisenberger, Fasolo, & Davis-LaMastro, 1990). Supervisory
relationships were rated as an important factor in the decision of continuation with the company and also
perceived poor treatment by a supervisor leads to turnover (Borstorff & Marker, 2007). Supervisor role is
becoming very crucial for organization. Supervisors are influenced in directing a clear career vision to
employees thus enhancing dependence on organizational career management. The encouragement of a more
interactive and coaching approach via supervisors would facilitate the development of trust and confidence from
employees and they will be more willing to strive for organization goal in return (Tan, 2008).
Employees who believed that the supervisor valued their contribution and cared about their well-being showed
increased perceived organization support, which in turn was related to decreased turnover. Also employees with
low perceived organization support may believe that their prospective success in the organization is greatly
limited. Thus a reduction of perceived organization support, resulting from perceived supervisor support or other
resources may increase employee’s likely hood of quitting the organization. (Eisenberger, Stinglhamber,
Vandenberghe, Sucharski, & Rhoades, 2002). If bosses are supportive, encouraging and let employees to learn
from mistakes, more the employees feel sense of pride in their jobs. Supervisors or the managers of the
organization play a vital role in employee retention (Fatima, 2011). The researchers Ng’eno Williter Chepkemoi
Rop (2014) predicted that employee’s work appreciation, freedom to make job-related decision, mentorship and
career development granted by the supervisor had a high and positive significance with supervisor’s influence on
employees to continue in the firm and hence supervisor-employee relationship is an important attribute that
significantly affects retention of millennial employees at their work places. There exists direct relationship
between supervisor support and turnover decision of faculty member of private universities of Bangladesh
(Joarder et al., 2011). Supervisor support plays a crucial role in increasing the enthusiasm among employees
which leads to job satisfaction and employee retention (Hassan, Razi, Qamar, Jaffir, & Suhail, 2013). Supportive
and competent supervisor positively associated with job retention (Smith, 2005). The above mentioned literature
survey revealed that supervisor support is an important determinant of employee’s retention. Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
1.2.4 Training & Development and Retention
The overall aim of a training programme is to fill the gap between existing and desired pool of knowledge, skills
and aptitudes. The objectives of training express the gap between the present and desired performance levels.
(Gupta, 2010). In order to enhance employees’ performance to meet global challenge managerial learning frame
work is required (Garg & Rastogi, 2006). The more knowledge the employee acquire the more will be their
performance .The necessity of increased skills and efficiencies of employees had been felt by organization and
they are investing on training programmes. The investment on work practices are justified and encouraged as
they are associated with greater productivity and corporate financial performance and lower employee turnover.
(Huselid, 1995). The study by the researcher Ragupathi, (2013) identified that training is the fundamental
consideration for the employee’s retention decision. Training and career development has significant positive
association with intention to stay (Chew & Chan, 2008). Training, its types and direction is a key variable that
lead to job satisfaction and employee retention (Hassan et al., 2013). The finding of the study by Ashar, Ghafoor,
Munir, & Hafeez (2013). Support the notion that affective commitment of employees is highly effected by
perception of training and also depict inverse relationship between affective types of commitment and turn over
intentions. Training & development is contributing strongly in developing employees’ intention to stay with the
organization. (Hussain & Rehman, 2013).
According to Tangthong, Trimetsoontorn, & Rojniruntikul (2014) though training & development does not have a
complete role in determining employee retention, it exerts direct and indirect effects when it is combined with
compensation and reward benefits. Training can be an important tool for retaining employees, but it can see that
the impact of training on compensation of an employee can be very crucial for retention (Anis, Ijaz-Ur-Rehman,
& Safwan, 2011). The researchers Hong, Hao, Kumar, Ramedran, & Kadiresan (2012) while analyzing the
retention effects of variables, found that training & development provided to employees had significant influence.
The study of Huselid (1995) provided broad evidence to the fact that use of high performance work practices
will be reflected better firm performance. Also work practices such as providing training and employment
security by the company are important factors associated with employee turnover. The literature survey revealed
that training is one of the important determinants for job retention.
1.2.5 Objectives of the Study
1) To examines the influence of work life balance & policies, organization commitment, supervisor support, and
training & development (independent variables) on employee retention (dependent variable).
2) To predict their relative significance.
1.2.6 Hypothesis
As discussed above the following hypothesis are proposed in the present study.
H1-There is an association & significant relationship between work life balance & policies and employee
H2-There is an association & significant relationship between organization commitment and employee retention.
H3-There is an association and significant relationship between supervisor support and employee retention.
H4- There is an association and significant relationship between training & development and employee retention.
2. Method
2.1 Sample and Procedure
Respondents in the study were staff of ceramic manufacturing factories in India. Out of 550 self-administrated
questionnaires distributed to the staff of the above factories, 416 usable questionnaires were used in the statistical
analysis representing a response rate of 75% (approx.) from the sample. The selection of the respondent is based
on the simple random sampling.
2.2 Profile of the Respondents
Respondents of the study comprises of 25-45 age group (81%) and 57% belongs to 5-15 years of service. As
regards to educational qualification approximately 73% of them possess post graduate and professional
qualification. Majority of the respondents work in production department and they hold middle level managers
2.3 Measurement
The independent variables of the study were work life balance &policies, organization commitment, supervisor Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
support, training & development. Totally 35 questions exists in the questionnaire. There were five questions for
work life balance & policies and eight questions for organization commitment .Another five questions were
floated to measure supervisor support and seven questions for training & development. Dependent variable is
employee retention with 10 questions. Respondents were asked to respond the questionnaire on a Likert- scale
range from 1- 5 with 1 = strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree. Statistical package for the social sciences
(SPSS) has been employed for analyzing the collected data. The researcher developed the questionnaire based on
self-administration and adoption from previous papers (Dockel, 2003; Chew, 2004; Wang, 2012; Sophia, 2007;
Mowday, Steers, & Porter, 1979; Atkinson, 2011; Olafsdottir, 2008).
3. Results & Discussion
Table 1. Mean, standard deviation and Cronbach’s alpha
Va ri a b le s Mean Standard Deviation
o of ite
Cronbach’s alpha
Work life balance & policies 21.46 2.09 50.766
Organization commitmen
34.26 3.32 80.829
Supervisor suppor
21.29 2.21 50.785
Training & developmen
25.11 2.51 70.818
Employee retention 41.50 4.482 10 0.902
Table 1 shows the mean, standard deviation and Cronbach’s alpha for each variable. It depicts the reliability
coefficient of variables which ranges from 0.766 to 0.902 which concurs with minimum acceptable level of 0.70
(Nunnaly, 1994) and also explains the mean value which ranges from 21.29 to 41.50.
Table 2. Correlation coefficient between and dependent and independent variables
Va ri a b le s
Work life
balance &
Training and
Work life balance
& policies 1
commitment 0.687** 1
Supervisor suppor
0.528** 0.654** 1
Training and
development 0.566** 0.603** 0.604** 1
Retention 0.602** 0.634** 0.700** 0.539** 1
** Correlation is significant at the 1% level (2 tailed)
Table 3. Model summary and Anova for regression analysis
Va ri a b le Employee retention
Predictors Work life balance & policies, Organization commitment, Supervisors support, Training &
Multiple R value 0.759
R square value 0.577
F value 140.065
P value 0.000
Table 2 shows the coefficient of correlation between dependent and independent variables. It is observed that all
the variables are positively correlated with each other. The correlation ranges from 54% to 70%.Supervisor
support is highly correlated(70%) with employee retention and other three variables lies between 54% to 63%
proving the acceptance of all the hypothesis H1, H2, H3, H4 and all of them falls under significant at 1% level. Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
Table 4. Variables in the multiple regression analysis
Va ri a b le s Unstandardized coefficients t Sig
βStd. erro
constants 3.065 1.705 1.799 0.073
Work life balance & policies 0.505 0.098 5.152 0.000**
Organization commitmen
0.206 0.069 2.986 0.003
Supervisor suppor
0.895 0.090 9.95 0.000**
Training & developmen
0.069 0.075 0.919 0.359
Dependent variable: employee retention *p<0.05; **p<0.01
Dependent variable=3.065+0.505+0.206+0.895+0.069.
Table 3 and 4 shows that the multiple correlation coefficients is 0.759.It measures the degree of relationship
between the actual values and predicted values of employee retention. Because predicted values are obtained as a
linear combination of independent variables, the coefficient value of 0.759 indicates that the relationship
between the dependent and four independent variables are quite strong and positive. The co-efficient of
determination (R square value) measures the goodness-of fit of the estimated sample regression plan (SRP) in
terms of the proportion of the variation in the dependent variables explained by the fitted sample regression
equation. Thus the value of R square is 0.577. It means that 57.7% of the variation in employee retention is
explained by estimated SRP that uses the work life balance & policies, organization commitment, supervisor
support, training & development as the independent variable and R square value is significant at 1% level.
The multiple regression equation is employee retention = 3.065 + 0.505 (work life balance & policies) + 0.206
(organization commitment) + 0.895 (supervisor support) + 0.069(training & development). Here, the coefficient
of 0.505 represents the partial effect of work life balance & policies on employee retention holding other three
variables as constants. Estimated positive sign implies that such effect is positive that employee retention would
increase by 0.505 for every unit increase in work life balance & policies and this co-efficient value is significant
at 1% level. The coefficient of organization commitment 0.206 which represents the partial effect of organization
commitment on employee retention holding other variables as constants. The estimated positive sign implies that
such effect is positive that employee retention would increase by 0.206 for every unit increase in organization
commitment this coefficient is significant at 1% level. Similarly coefficient of supervisor support is 0.895. It
represents the partial effect of supervisor support on employee retention holding other three variables as
constants. The estimated positive sign implies that such effect is positive that employee retention would increase
by 0.895 for every unit increase in supervisor support and coefficient value is significant at 1% level. Likewise
the coefficient value of training & development is 0.069.It represents the partial effect of training & development
on employee retention. The estimated positive sign implies such effect is positive that employee retention would
increase by 0.069 for every unit increase in training & development and the coefficient value is not significant at
5% level.
The results derived from correlation matrix revealed that work life balance & policies, organization commitment
supervisor support and training & development were positively related to employee retention. The regression
analysis explored that the three independent variables namely work life balance & policies, organization
commitment and supervisor support had significant influence on employee retention. In other words, out of the
four variables, work life balance & policies, organization commitment and supervisor support were more
predominant factors for the employee retention. The result derived from the data collected predicted that
supervisor support acts as a predominant factor having significance over employee retention which coincides the
previous research studies (Eisenberger et al., 1990; Boxall et al., 2003; Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2014). This
may be due to fact that organization are for their better governance ,decentralized and supervisors are considered
as “mini organizations” and their supportive nature enhances the employee’s confidence and attachment towards
supervisors results in dedicated work. This full fills the organization target, consequently employees were
rewarded. On the other side, if the relationship in rough and turbulent, the employee will have fatigue,
displeasure and may try for change. The next factor which gives considerable influence is work life balance &
policies is coincided with the previous research (Boxall et al., 2003; Richman, 2003). This may due to the fact
that employees–friendly policies fulfill their personnel need and they will be carrying out their job
enthusiastically and without any diversion. Due to this dedication, organization targets can be achieved earlier
and can result in rewards and perks. On the other hand, conflict in work and family life leads to switching over. Asian Social Science Vol. 11, No. 13; 2015
Also as per analysis organization commitment emerged as a significant factor employees retention and this is
consistent with the pervious study (Steers, 1977; Igbaria et al., 1994). And lack of organization commitment
influence intention to quit and this coincided with previous study (Firth et al., 2004).
4. Conclusions
The study revealed that employee’s continuation in firm is significantly related to the relationship that exists
between supervisors and employees. Also the results gives evidence that work life balance & policeis and
organization commitment also have significant relationship with employee retention in ceramic manufacturing
industries in India. Based on this study it is suggested that organizations, while preparing retention strategies
should give special emphasis for the cordial relationship between supervisors and employees. Employee friendly
policies and factors for improving emotional attachment towards the organization also should be taken into
consideration while the retention strategies are prepared.
Like other studies, this study also has its own limitations. The research had been carried out in a specific country
which limits generalization. Further, existence of junior staff among respondents and the assumption that they
also know the organization well and fully is another limitation. In future the research can be tried with different
variables and in different industries for getting more detailed reports.
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... Number of personal factors also lead to employee turnover: personal fulfilment and travel requirements (Hope & Mackin, 2007); lack of training and employment security (Siva & Krishnan, 2015;Gialuisi & Coetzar, 2013); lack of potential to career development (Boudreau, 1998as cited in Chin, 2018Chin, 2018); lack of salary increments (Gialuisi & Coetzar, 2013); and inability to maintain work life balance (Siva & Krishnan, 2015) also lead to high labour turnover. ...
... Number of personal factors also lead to employee turnover: personal fulfilment and travel requirements (Hope & Mackin, 2007); lack of training and employment security (Siva & Krishnan, 2015;Gialuisi & Coetzar, 2013); lack of potential to career development (Boudreau, 1998as cited in Chin, 2018Chin, 2018); lack of salary increments (Gialuisi & Coetzar, 2013); and inability to maintain work life balance (Siva & Krishnan, 2015) also lead to high labour turnover. ...
... According to Siva and Krishnan (2015) long working hours influence labour turnover. Job sharing, part time working, occasionally working at home and leave are affected on work life balance of the employees are important factors determining employee retention. ...
Conference Paper
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This study explores the employee turnover of a tea manufacturing company in Sri Lanka (MND). This study identifies the factors that contribute to the labour turnover of MND and propose strategies to overcome the high employee turnover through incorporating a qualitative case study approach, adopting Person Environment Fit Theory (PEFT). The factors which affect labour turnover are: heavy work load and high work pressure, low wage rate, long working hours, unclear job roles, less appealing work environment, lack of opportunity for career development, lack of fringe benefits, weak relationship with supervisors and weak relationship with peers. Among the above factors the working environment; relationships with supervisors and team members did not have a major impact on triggering employee turnover. This study also illuminates the strategies that to overcome the high employee turnover: easing off the pressure put on employees to reach targets by hiring the required number of employees; paying an industry par wage rate; giving appropriate breaks for employees to ensure that they are not over worked; and offering a job role for employees specifying the tasks expected by them. To strengthen person organization fit, MND could improve the work environment, provide opportunities for employees to develop their career, providing more fringe benefits. However, our study identified that person team fit and person supervisor fit did not have a significant impact in the increase of labour turnover at MND. 2
... Talented, high potential and high ability employees should be treated as the greatest assets within an organisation in order to achieve business results in today's highly competitive environment (Hassan et al, 2011;Hsu, 2012;Jansink, 2015;Malik et al, 2013;Ricco, 2010;Ward & Jacobsen, 2011). It is becoming harder to find talented and knowledgeable individuals than ever before, especially in these challenging and tough times, and it is even harder to secure and retain these talented employees (Caplan, 2011;Marsh, 2011;Pillay, 2011;Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015;Verma et al., 2015). According to Cantrell and Smith (2010), in order to win this battle for talent it is imperative for organisations to build a solid talent mind-set; and specially to start by hiring the best, then by incentivising top performers well, identifying, developing and retaining superstars and investing immensely in them in every way that meets their vital needs. ...
... It is imperative for the organisation to provide its employees with growth and development opportunities in order to retain highly talented individuals in this technological and globalised business environment. Ultimately, it is entirely the responsibility of the employees to build their own intellectual capital and transferable skills that will ensure their continued employability (Chopra & Rodriques, 2016;Mathur, 2016;Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). ...
... Research suggests that work-life policies and quality of life are essential factors that attract and retain superior talent (Amiani, 2014;Coetzee & Pauw, 2013;Dadie, 2015;Mehta et al., 2014;Narang, 2013). Organisations should give their employees more flexibility to balance their work and their personal lives, especially as regards flexible work scheduling, familyleave policies and child-care assistance (Deery & Jago, 2015;Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). Organisations will gain better performances and higher retention-rates in return (Dockel, 2003;Coetzee & Pauw, 2013;Liang, 2013;Magnusson & Silfverberg, 2013;Narang, 2013;Shakeel, 2015). ...
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The research focuses on investigating the relationship between individuals’ career adaptability, employability attributes and retention factors within the context of talent retention in the 21st century workplace. A quantitative research approach was followed, and a probability sample of (N = 337) of single (42.7%), African (53.4%), female (65.9%), individuals between the ages of 26-40 years (57.4%), who are part time employees (50.7%), mostly at staff level (54.0%) were utilised. Correlational analysis indicated differences between the variables of CAI, EAS and RFMS. Inferential statistics showed a strong relationship between the variables of career adaptability, employability attributes and retention factors. Stepwise hierarchical regression analysis showed that age, gender, race, marital status and job level, their career adaptability and employability attributes significantly and positively predict retention factors. Test for mean differences revealed that males and females differed significantly in terms of their career adaptability, employability attributes and retention factors. Recommendations are suggested for use by human resource professionals in terms of retention practices.
... In the practice of human resource management, employee satisfaction remains a very complex topic to research, due to differences in countries and cultures, as well as various influencing factors (Ali, 2016;Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). Research conducted by Pan (2015) found that job satisfaction is subjective and specific to each individual, therefore the satisfaction felt by one employee may not meet the needs of other employees. ...
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Job satisfaction is the main variable that must be considered in managing human resource practices. Job satisfaction discusses the extent to which employees are satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs are caused by several factors that motivate them. This study aims to dig deeper into job satisfaction variable. In achieving this goal, the researchers used a systematic review using PRISMA method and bibliometric analysis techniques which took journals from Science Direct and Emerald during 2017-2022. The results of the screening on the PRISMA method produced 30 (thirty) articles written by 95 (ninety five) authors. Based on the 30 (thirty) articles collected, the results of this study found that there are 4 (four) categories that explain several variables that related to job satisfaction, including leadership, salary, organizational commitment, and job stress. Overall, the research is expected to be the right reference for further research, especially researchers who will examine titles that related to job satisfaction.
... Pada penelitian lain, Garg (2016) menyatakan bahwa keseimbangan antara tanggung jawab kerja dan keluarga berpengaruh positif terhadap retensi karyawan. Hal tersebut konsisten dengan studi yang meneliti pada 550 responden di industri manufaktur keramik di India yang diteliti oleh Umamaheswari et al (2015) mengindikasikan adanya korelasi positif antara pelaksanaan work-life balance dengan tingkat retensi karyawan. Studi yang dilakukan oleh Adriano & Callaghan (2020) juga menemukan bahwa perusahaan sebaiknya mempunyai regulasi worklife balance yang dapat mengakomodasi adanya dampak dari konflik work-life, sehingga dapat membantu organisasi dalam meretensi karyawannya. ...
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Employee retention helps companies in managing qualified employees to stay in the company by motivating and encouraging them to contribute optimally, during a long period of work. This study aims to examine and identify the effect of Talent Management, and Work-Life Balance on Employee Retention, with the mediating by Organizational Support. This research uses a survey strategy and the data collection by distributing questionnaires to PT. Bank SulutGo employees as respondents. The hypothesis test was conducted by using SPSS with multi linear regression approach and the results of this study indicate that: 1. Talent Management affects Employee Retention; 2. Work-Life Balance does not affect Employee Retention; 3. Organizational Support affects Employee Retention; 4. Talent Management affects Organizational Support; 5. Organizational Support mediates the relationship between Talent Management and Employee Retention; 6. Work-Life Balance affects Organizational Support; 7. Organizational Support mediates the relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employee Retention. This study concludes that Talent Management and Organizational Support affect employee retention, while Work-Life Balance does not affect employee retention. Other conclusions also show that Organizational Support can act as a mediator in the relationship between Talent Management and Employee Retention and the relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employee Retention. Keywords: employee retention; talent management; work-life balance; organizational support. ABSTRAK Retensi karyawan dapat membantu perusahaan dalam mengelola karyawan yang berkualitas sehingga karyawan yang ada tidak meninggalkan perusahaan dengan mendorong karyawan agar dapat secara optimal berkontribusi, dalam periode kerja yang lama. Penelitian ini bertujuan menguji dan mengidentifikasi pengaruh dari Talent Management, Work-Life Balance terhadap Retensi Karyawan yang dimediasi oleh Dukungan Organisasi. Penelitian dilakukan dengan strategi survei dan pengumpulan data dengan membagikan kuisioner pada karyawan PT. Bank SulutGo sebagai responden. Pengujian hipotesis penelitian ini menggunakan aplikasi SPSS dengan pendekatan regresi liner berganda dan hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan: 1. Talent Management berpengaruh terhadap Retensi Karyawan; 2. Work-Life Balance tidak berpengaruh terhadap Retensi Karyawan; 3. Dukungan Organisasi berpengaruh terhadap Retensi Karyawan; 4. Talent Management berpengaruh terhadap Dukungan Organisasi; 5. Dukungan Organisasi memediasi hubungan antara Talent Management dengan Retensi Karyawan; 6. Work-Life Balance berpengaruh terhadap Dukungan Organisasi; 7. Dukungan Organisasi memediasi hubungan antara Work-Life Balance dengan Retensi Karyawan. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah Talent Management dan Dukungan Organisasi berpengaruh terhadap Retensi Karyawan, sedangkan Work-Life Balance tidak berpengaruh terhadap retensi karyawan. Kesimpulan lainnya juga menunjukkan Dukungan Organisasi dapat berperan sebagai mediator terhadap hubungan antara Talent Management dan Retensi Karyawan dan dalam hubungan antara Work-Life Balance dan Retensi Karyawan. Kata kunci: retensi karyawan; talent management; work-life balance; dukungan organisasi.
... al. (2016) emphasize the importance of building good relationships among employees in the workplace and suggested that the supervisor and employees' quality of relationship exchanges reinforce job satisfaction and increase job commitment that adds value to the employee and the company. Higher job satisfaction by employees' results in preserving their jobs, increased organizational commitment, increased customer retention, and reduces turnover intentions (Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). Furthermore, Ali (2016) ironed out that although motivation and job satisfaction remain different they are interconnected. ...
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This study primarily investigates the impact of motivational factors on job satisfaction of employees in the two manufacturing companies in Hanoi, Vietnam. It also examines the level of job satisfaction and the significant relationship between the respondents' demographic profile vis a vis job satisfaction. The study utilized the quantitative research method with survey questionnaires as a data-gathering instrument to a sample of 200 respondents selected through convenience sampling. Data were analyzed with the use of SPSS version 21. Key results revealed that motivational factors significantly influenced job satisfaction and variables such as promotion, salaries/benefits, work-itself, working conditions, and recognition are significant positive predictors while no significant relationship of personal growth, achievement, relationship with co-workers, and job security. On demographic variables, position, age, education, and years of service significantly influenced job satisfaction either positively and negatively. Based on these findings, recommendations suggest that top management should consider giving more attention to those factors or variables that significantly impact job satisfaction.
... Therefore, organization nowadays should find not only the way to attract the best talent but also the strategy to keep and maintain them as long as possible in the organization. The organization should know what factors determined employees intention to stay in the organization, especially in manufacturing industries ICIEHI since industrialization provides a wider scope for employees to mobilize towards better opportunities and creating a deficit in the workforce required in a company (Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). ...
Full-text available
Turnover is an organizational problem that should be kept low by the company, as hiring the employees is costly and time-consuming. There are many available strategies which organizatns can use to retain employees. The manufacturing industry in particular has trouble with employee retention, and has developed a number of standard operating procedures to address this issue. This study is focusing on ascertaining three things. First, what factors can lead employees to stay in the manufacturing industry? Second, what is the dominant factor lead employees to stay in the manufacturing industry? Data was taken by questionnaire from 104 respondents out of a total of 146 employees of PT Pamolite Adhesive Industry. The data was then analysed using confirmatory factor analysis with the Partial Least Square (PLS) technique. The results show that there are thirteen factors that contribute to manufacturing employees staying in their jobs, namely: recognition and appreciation factors; financial compensation; relationships with colleagues; relationship with supervisor; initial training; career development; work challenges; working hours; work conditions; workload; safety; health facilities; and job security. Additionally, the descriptive analysis shows that respondents' perceptions of those factors are relatively in good condition, however career development is the dominant factor in shaping the intention to stay amongst manufacturing employees. This study confirms a result study conducted in India which suggested that the intention to stay is determined by a cluster of factors not only by a single factor. Keywords: Intention to Stay, Confirmatory Factors Analysis, Partial Least Square
... The contributions to job satisfaction and the results of employees liking their jobs remain broad. Umamaheswari and Krishnan (2015) suggested employee satisfaction could contribute to increased organizational commitment, reduced intent to quit, and ultimately increased retention rates. Various issues contribute to each of these factors. ...
Full-text available
... Permasalahan tingkat retensi karyawan terjadi pada beberapa industri salah satunya adalah industri manufaktur. Setiap perusahaan manufaktur memiliki tingkat retensi yang berbeda, hal ini disebabkan karena perbedaan penerapan jaminan kesejahteraan, standar gaji, dan kepuasaan karyawan (Umamaheswari & Krishnan, 2015). Retensi karyawan relatif rendah ditandai dengan meningkatnya turnover karyawan. ...
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Purpose - The purpose of this study is to see the description of social work environment, financial reward and employee retentionDesign/methodology/approachh - The design of this study was cross sectional. This research uses descriptive approach with explanatory survey method. A total of 86 respondents were selected using probability sampling. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to collect data from respondents. Analytical technique used is descriptive technique by using frequency tableFindings - Based on the results of the research using descriptive analysis, the results obtained that the social work environment is in the good category with a score of respectively 79%, financial reward is in the good category with a score of respectively 78%, employee retention is in the high category with a score of respectively 80%Originality/value - This study provides a basis for understanding social work environment issues, financial reward, employee retention. The difference of this study with previous research is focused on the social work environment, financial rewards.
This paper evaluates the impact of compensation, work life balance and work environment towards organization commitment of nurses who belong to less attended medium size health care units in and around Chennai City in India. It also deals with the impact of organization commitment towards retention of nurses. From the findings it is evident that the commitment of nurses in the hospital increases their likelihood of continuation. Also it reveals that compensation is the predominant factor followed by work life balance and work environment in enhancing organization commitment.
This paper explores the advantage of machine learning algorithm in the prediction of employee retention in manufacturing industries in India. The effect of different work-related and personal features on the retention of employees is discussed in detail. Further the main features that contribute to the retention of employees are also found. Using the best machine learning algorithm, prediction model to predict the retention of employees is proposed. Real-time data set collected from Ceramic Manufacturing sector in India is used to analyse the employee retention. Statistical parameters such as percentage analysis and correlation matrix are used to obtain the correlation and contribution of each feature on employee retention. The parameters such as accuracy, F1 score, precision and recall were used to identify the best prediction model. Results indicate that Support Vector Machine (SVM) is the best machine learning algorithm that can be used to build the employee retention prediction model that can help the organization to take required steps and decisions to retain their employees.KeywordsEmployeesRetentionMachine learningSupport vector machineSupervised learningPredictionFeature selection
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This study examines the relationship between the human resource management practices implemented by the organization and employees' motivated intention to stay and work effectively for the organization. Human resource management practices deployed in study are training and Development, development of teams, performance appraisal, internal communication system, employment security, person-organization fit, employee empowerment and reward and compensation. Four hundred questionnaires were distributed among the middle management cadre employees of textile industry, out of which, 303 questionnaires completed in all respects were received back with a response rate of 75.75%. It is explored that four human resource management practices: person-organization fit, employment security, communication and training and development are contributing strongly (adjusted R2 = 0.782) in developing the employees' intentions to stay with organization. Further, strong positive inter-relationships were found between human resource management practices and employees' retention. It is concluded that adoption of human resource management practices enhances employees' retain ability of organizations.
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Retaining talented work force is a major task experienced by the organizations. Hence, special attention is being given for employee retention and therefore variables influencing are needed to be analyzed. Apart from financial benefits, other factors such as supervisor support, training and development, leadership skills, satisfaction over performance appraisal are also exert major impact on employee retention. In this study, 4 non-financial variables and their competitive significance over employee retention in manufacturing ceramic industries is analyzed with the aid of statistical tools. The analysis concluded that all the 4 variables are correlated with employee retention. The study also revealed that the determinants, such as supervisor support, leadership skills and satisfaction over performance appraisal have significance influence with employee retention.
To survive in highly competitive business environment organizations are focusing on capitalizing its human recourses. These resources are very difficult to imitate and combination with other resources also help to gain edge over competitors. The objective of our study is to investigate relationship of two most important perceptions of training with affective commitment. These perceptions of training include perceived availability of training and perceived supervisor support for training. Later on we investigate relationship of affective commitment with employee turnover intentions. For this purpose questionnaire were considered as a tool to get responses from telecom and banking sector of Pakistan. Total 150 questionnaires were distributed and 123 useful questionnaires were received at a response rate of 82%. Statistical tools that used to analyze the relationships were Pearson moment quotient and linear regression. The result shows significant positive association of both training perceptions with affective commitment. The finding also shows significant negative association of affective commitment with employee turnover intention. This study helps managers to understand training-attitude-organizational performance relationship. Key Words: Training Perceptions, Affective Commitment, Turnover Intention, HR Practices
Human resource in biotechnology meets creative thinking and advanced knowledge of the field. Programmes that impart both industrial training and research aptitude alone can provide suitable manpower for this unique industry. Therefore a concerted effort from all stake holders in general and DBT in particular is needed to make this programme a success in India.
Employees are an asset to an organisation where they could be the determinant behind organisational's success or failure in an industry. In this study, the relationship between perceived organisational support (POS), perceived supervisor support (PSS), and organisational commitment (OC) with employee's intention to stay with their current jobs were studied. For that purpose, 717 questionnaires were collected among casual dining restaurants employees in Klang Valley area and analyses Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were run by using SPSS version 21. The results suggest that POS, PSS, and OC were positively correlated with employee's intention to stay with their current job. Furthermore, OC was also found to be the most influential factor in affecting employees' staying intention. The finding is hoped to have important implications where the management can formulate strategies to retain employees in restaurant industry in Malaysia.