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An introduction to the special volume on Operations Research in Forestry from the 14th Symposium for Systems Analysis in Forest Resources, held at the Marbella Resort, Maitencillo, Chile, March 8-11, 2011. This volume of the Annals of Operations Research contains some of the papers presented at the Symposium that were submitted for publication and passed the rigorous peer review process. In addition, manuscripts were solicited from the operations research and forest resources communities to enrich the contributions for this special volume.
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Annals of Operations Research
ISSN 0254-5330
Ann Oper Res
DOI 10.1007/s10479-015-1897-2
Brief history of systems analysis in forest
B.Bruce Bare & Andres Weintraub
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Ann Oper Res
DOI 10.1007/s10479-015-1897-2
Brief history of systems analysis in forest resources
B. Bruce Bare1·Andres Weintraub2
© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015
Abstract An introduction to the special volume on Operations Research in Forestry from
the 14th Symposium for Systems Analysis in Forest Resources, held at the Marbella Resort,
Maitencillo, Chile, March 8–11, 2011. This volume of the Annals of Operations Research
contains some of the papers presented at the Symposium that were submitted for publication
and passed the rigorous peer review process. In addition, manuscripts were solicited from
the operations research and forest resources communities to enrich the contributions for this
special volume.
Keywords Symposium proceedings ·SSAFR ·Systems analysis ·OR ·Forest sector
The 14th Symposium for Systems Analysis in Forest Resources was held at the Marbella
Resort, Maitencillo, Chile, March 8–11, 2011. Seventeen keynote talks and 68 contributed
papers were presented within the following general categories: forest environment, long
range planning, transportation and logistics, tactical spatial planning, forest fire, stochastic
models, and stand-level planning. Authors of papers came from 21 countries, making this the
largest of the Systems Analysis in Forest Resources symposia held to date. This volume of
the Annals of Operations Research contains some of the papers presented at the Symposium
that were submitted for publication and passed the rigorous peer review process. In addition,
manuscripts were solicited from the operations research and forest resources communities
to enrich the contributions for this special volume.
Some of the earliest applications of operations research to forest resource problems
occurred in the late 1950s and early 1960s when linear programming (LP) was applied to a
BB. Bruce Bare
Andres Weintraub
1School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle,
WA 98195-2100, USA
2Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
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Ann Oper Res
lumber grade recovery problem (Armizu 1956); plywood production and distribution (Bethel
and Harrell 1957); site rehabilitation analysis (Yoho and Row 1958), and to timber harvest
scheduling problems (Theiler 1959;Curtis 1962;Leak 1964). The first LP of wide use by
the US Forest Service was developed by Navon (1971). The LP model of Ware and Clutter
(1971) was heavily used in the private sector. Later models such as FORPLAN (Johnson
et al. 1986) and SPECTRUM (USDA Forest Service 1995) were introduced to emphasize
land allocation, multiple-use, and environmental considerations over earlier models.
Numerous applications of LP as well as many other operations research techniques (i.e.,
integer programming, goal programming, dynamic programming, nonlinear programming,
simulation, decision theory, AI-expert systems, queuing theory, critical path, and other net-
work methods) quickly followed in both the private and public sectors.
In 1975, the first Systems Analysis and Forest Resource Management Workshop was held
at the University of Georgia, Athens, GA. As shown in Table 1, 38 papers were presented
within the following general categories: multiple-use and land-use planning, timber man-
agement, timber harvesting and transportation, forest fire, and data management. A similar
symposium followed in 1985 and subsequently at intervals of 1–3 years. Locations of the
symposia have varied, with 10 being held in the United States, 3 in Chile, and 1 in Brazil.
The number of papers presented at the symposia has ranged from 31 to 85 and complete
proceedings have been published for 9 of the symposia while selected papers and abstracts
are available for 4 of the symposia. For the 12th Systems Analysis in Forest Resources
Symposium, no proceedings or abstracts have been made available (see Table 1).
Formed in 1972, the Systems Analysis Working Group, Society of American Foresters
was the prime organizer of the early symposia. However, in the 1980s a forestry cluster was
organized under the Energy and Natural Resources section of INFORMS and subsequently
the two groups have promoted the development of operations research models for helping
solve many forestry and forest industry problems. Typically, the forestry cluster organizes
sessions at the INFORMS bi-annual meetings and occasionally at the International Federation
of Operational Research Societies meetings.
Many operations research techniques have been used to study a variety of forest resource
management problems over the 36 years since the symposia began. Advances in algorith-
mic efficiency, increased computational capabilities, and comprehensive and easily updated
information systems have allowed researchers and analysts to develop ever more complex
and realistic models. In addition, while forest planning, transportation, fire and fuel man-
agement, and timber harvest scheduling remain important areas of study, it is clear that
new applications of operations research are moving forward as well. For example, recent
symposia have included papers dealing with the maintenance or enhancement of biodiver-
sity, spatial forest planning, risk assessment, ecological management, carbon sequestration,
and other environmental services and forest assessments. This clearly demonstrates that
forest researchers and analysts are orienting their modeling efforts to address contem-
porary forest management issues of importance to the forestry profession as well as to
Since the early days of operations research, applications of operations research to forestry
problems have expanded from the use of single objective models to include a variety of
multiple objective as well as fuzzy programming models. This necessarily reflects society’s
perception that forests are used for multiple purposes which are supported by multiple user
groups. Incorporating uncertainty and risk into these models has proved to be a daunting task
resulting in fewer applications in this area (Martell et al. 1998;Badilla-Veliz et al. 2014).
However, working with the long time frames associated with forest systems, it is clear that
additional effort should be devoted to this area of research. Perhaps one reason for the lack
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Tab le 1 History of Systems Analysis in Forest Resources Symposia
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
1 August 11–13,
University of
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
38 Yes Systems Analysis and
Forest Resource
Society of American
John Meadows
Athens, GA SE For Expt Sta, USFS Bruce Bare
Schl For Res, U of GA Ken Ware
Clark Row
2 December 9–11,
University of
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
49 Yes 1985 Symposium on
Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
GA Ctr for Continuing
Educ. (1987)
Peter Dress
Athens, GA Schl For Res, U of GA Richard Field
USDA, Forest Service
3 March 29–April
1, 1988
Asilomar Conf.
Dept of Forestry & Res.
Mgt, U of CA
40 Yes 1988 Symposium on
Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
USDA, FS, Rocky Brian Kent
Pacific Grove,
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
Mtn For Expt Sta, Larry Davis
USDA, Rocky Mtn For
Expt Sta
USDA, Land Mgt
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Tab le 1 continued
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
4 March 3–6,
Charleston, SC Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
65 Yes 1991 Symposium on
Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
USDA, FS, SE Marilyn
USDA, SE For Expt Sta For Expt Sta
Westvaco GTR-SE-74
NC State University (1991)
For Products Res
Society http://treesearch.fs.fed.
5 March 9–12,
Villa del Rio
Conf. Ctr
For Mgt Inst.,Univ.
Austral of Chile
48 Yes Int’l Symposium on
Systems Analysis and
Mgt Decisions in For
Austral Univ Gonzalo
Valdivia, CL Dept of Ind Engr, Univ.
Of Chile
Valdivia, Chile (1994)
6 September 6–9,
Asilomar Conf.
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
49 Yes 1994 Symposium on
Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
Society of American
John Sessions
Pacific Grove,
Dept of For Engr and
For Res, OR St Univ
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Tab le 1 continued
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
7 May 28–31,
Shanty Creek
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
65 Yes Seventh Symposium on
Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
USDA, FS, NC Michael
Traverse City,
MI St University For Expt Sta Jeremy Fried
USDA, NC For Expt Sta GTR-NC-205 Larry Leefers
8 September
27–30, 2000
Snow Mass
Systems Analysis
Working Group, SAF
31 Yes Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources
Kluwer Academic
Publishers, The
Netherlands, (2003)
Greg Arthaud
Aspen, CO USDA, Pac SW For
Expt Sta, Fire Lab http://www.springer.
978-90- 481-6280-2
Tara Barrett
USDA, Rocky Mtn For
Expt Sta
Yale School of For and
For Expt Sta
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Tab le 1 continued
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
9 March 4–7,
Punta de Tracla,
IFORS 51 Yes (select
Symposium on Models
and Systems in
Int’l J of OR Vol 10(5):
409–542 (2003)
Robert Haight
IUFRO (Sec 5.13) http://www.dii.uchile.
Dept of Ind Engr, Univ.
of Chile
Ctr for Math Modeling,
Univ. of Chile
10 October 7–9,
Skamania Lodge Systems Anal, For
Econ, Policy, Law,
42 Yes Systems Analysis in
Forest Resources:
Proceedings of the
2003 Symposium
USDA, FS, PNW Michael
Stevenson, WA Tech Assessment and
Future Anal
For Expt Sta Tara Barrett
Working Groups, SAF GTR-PNW-656
IUFRO (2005)
College of Forestry and
Dept of Stat, OSU
Western For and Cons
Expt Sta, FIA Unit
Rocky Mth For Expt Sta
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Tab le 1 continued
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
11 September
18–21, 2005
Recanto das
58 Yes (partial w/abs) Proceedings of the 3rd
Iberian Am.
Symposium on For
Management and
Economics and 11th
Serie Tecnica, Inst. Luiz
Ubatuba, Brazil de Pesquisas e
Estudos Florestals,
Issue No. 35
12 September 5–8,
Inn at Essex Arkansas Forest
Resources Center
45 No 12th Symposium for
Sys Anal in Forest
List of papers:
Burlington, VT http://faculty.
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Tab le 1 continued
Number Date Location Sponsor(s) Number of
Proceedings Title Published by Editors
13 May 26–29,
Frances Marion
Society of American
35 Yes (four select papers) Int’l J of Math and
Computational For
and Nat’l-Res Sci Vol
2, Nos. 1 and 2
Marc McDill
Charleston, SC ArborGen
North Carolina State
14 March 8–11,
Marbella Resort Instituto Sistemas
Complejos de
85 Yes (abstracts only)
(selected papers in
Annals of Operations
14th Symposium for
Presentations at: Andres
Weintraub et al.
Iniciativa Cientifica
Analysis in Forest
Resources http://faculty.
Comision Nacional de
Centifica Tecnologica
Facultad de Ciencias
Fisicas Matematicas
and Ingenieria
Industrial, Univ. de
Forestal Mininco
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of application of such tools is the difficulty forest resource managers have interpreting model
results that yield a distribution of model outputs instead of a single numerical result.
To reduce problem size, as well as to better represent real-world decision environments,
many varieties of hierarchical planning models have been developed. Typically, feedback
linkages are developed between the strategic and tactical planning models to facilitate model
solutions. Many tactical planning models incorporate binary decision variables in recognition
of the requirement to: (a) schedule treatments on whole land units, (b) not treat adjacent land
units in the same or subsequent time period, (c) allow only a certain area of contiguous
land to be treated in a given time period, or (d) to facilitate incorporation of road building
activities into the model. Because integer models are inherently difficult to solve to optimality,
many heuristic algorithms have been introduced to derive good—satisfactory solutions when
measured against an LP upper bound. These heuristic algorithms allow analysts to develop
more realistic models than some of the earlier applications that could be solved to optimality.
A rich collection of survey articles and bibliographies exists to guide the interested reader
into the history of the application of operations research techniques to a large array of forestry
and natural resource problems. A selection of these studies is located at the conclusion of
this introduction.
Armizu, T. (1956). Application of linear programming to forestry. Tokyo University Forest,11, 49–76.
Badilla-Veliz, F., Watson, J.-P., Weintraub, A., Wets, R. J.-B., & Woodruff, D. L. (2014). Stochastic optimiza-
tion models in forest planning: A progressive hedging solution approach. Annals of Operations Research,.
Bethel, J. S., & Harrell, C. (1957). The application of linear programming to plywood production and distri-
bution. Forest Products Journal,7, 221–227.
Curtis, F. H. (1962). Linear programming the management of a forest property. Journal of Forestry,60,
Johnson, K. N., Stuart, T., & Crim, S. A. (1986). FORPLAN, version 2: An overview. Washington, DC: USDA
Forest Service, Land Management Planning Systems Section.
Leak, W. B. (1964). Estimating maximum allowable timber yields by linear programming. USDA Forest
Service, RP-NE-17, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.
Martell, D. L., Gunn, E. A., & Weintraub,A. (1998). Forest management challenges for operational researchers.
European Journal of Operational Research,104(1), 1–17.
Navon, D. I. (1971). Timber-RAM, a long range planning method for commercial timber lands under multiple-
use management. USDA Forest Service, RP-PSW-70, Pacific Southwest Forest Experiment Station,
Berkeley, CA.
Theiler, T. (1959). Linear programming and optimal cutting practices. American Paper Industries,41(6),
USDA Forest Service. (1995). Ecosystem management, strategic planning and SPECTRUM. Analysis Notes,
5(1), 1–4.
Ware, G. O., & Clutter, J. L. (1971). A mathematical programming system for the management of industrial
forests. Forest Science,17, 428–445.
Yoho, J. G., Row, C. H. (1958). Methods for evaluating rehabilitation programs by linear programming. In
3rd Conference on Industrial Forest Management, Duke University (pp. 92–104).
Surveys of applications of operations research in forestry and the forest
Bare, B. B. (1971). Applications of operations research in forest management: A survey.Center for Quantitative
Science in Forestry, Fisheries and Wildlife, Quantitative Science Paper 26, University of Washington,
Seattle, WA.
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Bare, B. B., Briggs, D. G., Roise, J. P., & Schreuder, G. F. (1984). A survey of systems analysis in forestry
and the forest products industries. European Journal of Operational Research,18(1), 1–18.
Dykstra, D. P. (1984). Mathematical programming for natural resource management. McGraw-Hill series in
forest resources. New York: McGraw-Hill.
de Steiguer, J. E., Liberti, L., Schuler, A., & Hansen, B. (2003). Multi-criteria decision models for forestry
and natural resources management: An annotated bibliography. USDA Forest Service GTR-NE-307,
Northeastern Experiment Station, Newton Square, PA.
Gordon, S.N., Johnson, K.N., Reynolds, K.M., Crist, P., Brown, N. (2004). Decision support systems
for forest biodiversity evaluation of current systems and future needs. Final Report-Project A-10,
National Commission on Science and Sustainable Forestry. (
Harrison, T. P., & de Kluyver, C. A. (1984). MS/OR and the forest products industry. Interfaces,14(5), 1–7.
Helles, F., Anderson, P. H., & Wichmann, L. (Eds.). (1999). Multiple use of forests and other natural resources
(Vol. 61), Forestry Sciences. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publication.
Hof, J. (1993). Coactive forest management. London: Academic Press.
Hof, J., & Bevers, M. (1998). Spatial optimization for managed ecosystems. Complexity in ecological systems
series. New York: Columbia University Press.
Kallio, M., Anderson, A. E., Seppala, R., & Morgan, A. (Eds.). (1986). Systems analysis in forestry and forest
industries .(Vol. 21), Studies in the management sciences. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publication.
Martell, D. A. (1982). A review of operational research studies in forest fire management. Canadian Journal
of Forest Research,12(2), 119–140.
Martell, D. L. (2007). Fifty years of OR in forestry preface to the special forestry issue of INFOR. INFOR:
Informational systems and Operational Research,45(1), 5–7.
Martell, D. L. (2007). Forest fire management: Current practices and new challenges for operational
researchers. In A. Weintraub, C. Romero, T. Bjørndal, R. Epstein, & J. Miranda (Eds.), Handbook
of operations research in natural resources (Vol. 99, pp. 489–509), International series in operations
research and management science. New York: Springer.
Martell, D. L. (2009). The development and implementation of forest fire management decision support
systems in Ontario, CA: Personal reflections on past practices and emerging challenges. Mathematical
and Computational Forestry and Natural-Resource Sciences,3(1), 18–26.
Martin, A. J., Sendak, P. J. (1973). Operations research in forestry: A bibliography. USDA Forest Service,
GTR-NE-8, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Upper Darby, PA.
Mowrer, H.T. (ed). (1997). Decision support systems for ecosystem management: An evaluation of existing
systems. USDA Forest Service GTR-RM-296, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station,
Fort Collins CO.
Romero, C., & Rehman, T. (1987). Natural resource management and the use of multiple criteria decision-
making techniques: A review. European Review of Agricultural Economics,14(1), 61–89.
Row, C., & Schmelling, B. (1971). Resource information planning systems: A catalog of computerized systems
in the USDA forest service. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service.
Schopfer, W., & Hofle, H. (1970). Operations research: A bibliography of applications in forest manage-
ment and forest products manufacturing. Der Baden-Wurttembergischen. Forstlichen Versuchs-und
Forschungsanstalt, Heft 25.
Schuster, E. G., Leefers, L. A., & Thompson, J. E. (1993). A guide to computer-based analytical tools for
implementing national forest plans. USDA Forest Service GTR-INT-296, Intermountain Research Sta-
tion, Ogden, UT.
Weintraub, A., & Romero, C. (2006). Operations research models and the management of agricultural and
forestry resources. Interfaces,36(5), 446–457.
Weintraub, A., & Bare, B. B. (1996). New issues in forest land management from an operations research
perspective. Interfaces,26(5), 9–25.
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... Faustmann's was the first long term decision model, and it has been followed by many more that we can refer to in numerous works (Kangas and Kangas, 2005;Gilliams et al., 2005;Johnson et al., 2007;Reynolds et al., 2008;Díaz-Balteiro and Romero, 2008;Hanewinkel, 2009;Gardiner and Quine, 2000;Pasalodos-Tato et al., Autor: Jorge Del Río San José Universidad de Valladolid. Doctorado en Conservación y Uso Sostenible de Sistemas Forestales 2013; Segura et al., 2014;Bare and Weintraub, 2015;Nobre et al., 2016;Grêt-Regamey et al., 2017). These models have evolved in order to adapt to the new drivers and goals of forestry management (Vacik and Lexer, 2014;Masiero et al., 2015;Nobre et al., 2016). ...
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El micro-riego (o riego deficitario y localizado) es conocido desde hace más de dos mil años por las culturas fenicia, romana y china, aplicado a cultivos de huerta y a árboles frutales. Desde entonces y hasta nuestros días, ha ido extendiéndose y evolucionando tanto en el sector agrícola como en el sector forestal. En este último encuentra su principal aplicación en el establecimiento de brinzales, cuando la causa mayoritaria de mortalidad de las plantas sea el estrés hídrico. Las dudas técnicas y económicas que su aplicación suscita deben ser estudiadas y respondidas. La presente tesis doctoral realiza una exhaustiva revisión bibliográfica de los distintos sistemas de micro-riego forestal existentes, clasificándolos en base a su principio hidráulico de funcionamiento y su eficiencia técnica. Seguidamente, se desarrolla un modelo matemático con el que se obtiene el umbral de marras a partir del cual el micro-riego resulta ventajoso desde el punto de vista económico frente a la tradicional reposición de planta. El modelo se informatiza y se aplica a un amplio conjunto de casos de estudio de repoblación para analizar su utilidad y determinar la sensibilidad de sus diferentes parámetros de entrada. A continuación, se estima el tamaño y evolución del mercado internacional del micro-riego. Los resultados obtenidos con el modelo permiten al repoblador adoptar una decisión razonada respecto a la conveniencia (o no) de incluir riegos de apoyo en sus proyectos. También pueden orientar al fabricante de sistemas de micro-riego para fijar una oferta de precios que resulte atractiva al selvicultor.
... For models focused on timber production, a trend is to decompose large problems into linked subproblems with multiple market shipping locations [3]. Recent applications and studies have been many, with model similarities across much of the globe [4,5]. Decision support systems based on forest optimization are mainly focused on technical and market economic factors with a need for stronger emphasis on environmental services and collaborative decision making involving multiple decision makers [6], yet data limitations are a serious consideration. ...
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Purpose of Review The aim is to help identify how spatial facets of forest management can be analyzed and better understood in strategic forest management planning. Focus is on stand-level spatial interdependencies potentially related to a wide range of considerations including wildlife habitat, invasive species, forest management regulations, and cost of harvest operations. Spatial facets addressed include adjacency and harvest area limitations, habitat connectivity, edge impacts, proximity considerations, and management options for restructuring stand shapes and sizes. Emphasis is on recent studies with direct connections to both forest management planning and problem structures of operations research. Recent Findings Models related to explicit spatial facets of forest management are increasing in number, size, and complexity. Specialized approaches have been developed that are tailored to spatial facets of forestry problems. Improvements have also been made in ways of solving existing spatial models. Uncertainty is also being addressed in applications, and most recent studies tend to address multiple forest objectives. Summary Spatial interrelationships between stands are important considerations in forest planning. Operation research models can help explore the complex combinatorial nature of the situation. The need to better integrate multiple objectives over large landscapes is commonly suggested. Tradeoff analyses are important for decision makers to better understand forest-wide opportunities. New technology including parallel processing will help increase the practicality of model applications.
The 17th Symposium on Systems Analysis in Forest Resources was held in Suquamish, Washington, United States on August 27–30, 2017. The goal of this international meeting was to bring together operations researchers, remote sensing scientists, and the government to facilitate the exchange and implementation of systems science in forestry and conservation. The essay that follows is a summary of the outcome of the Symposium, as well as an introduction to the eight research articles that were selected for publication in this Special Issue. Each of the papers was presented at the Symposium and has undergone rigorous peer review. The papers represent a broad disciplinary scope within system analysis ranging from forest economics and management science to remote sensing. The problems addressed within these disciplines also vary, from wildfire mitigation, supply-chain optimization, bioenergy logistics, and participatory forest planning to fuel assessment. The technical tools the authors applied to these problems are equally diverse: game theory, dynamic programming, stochastic optimization, multiobjective decision theory, structure-from-motion, and airborne laser scanning.
Optimal forest harvesting is a problem that dates back many centuries. Modern forest-management needs models taking into account the relatively long rotation, the multiaged structure, the age-dependent timber content of trees, and the multiple services forests provide. Approaches to characterize the optimal management policy range from models that represent the forest by a unique state variable that can usually be solved analytically (i.e., models that consider forests composed by a unique even-aged stand or allow a uneven aged forest but only consider its total biomass), to much more sophisticated linear and integer programming harvest scheduling models. In this survey, we focus on dynamic optimization problems where the forest is represented with an age-class structure. These models present richer dynamics than one-variable models while preserving their analytic tractability to some extent.
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Foresters and natural resource managers must balance conflicting objectives when developing land-management plans. Conflicts may encompass economic, environmental, social, cultural, technical, and aesthetic objectives. Selecting the best combination of management uses from numerous objectives is difficult and challenging. Multi-Criteria Decision Models (MCDM) provide a systematic means for comparing tradeoffs and selecting alternatives that best satisfy the decisionmaker's objectives. First developed during World War II by the U.S. military for strategic decisionmaking, MCDM have since been applied to such diverse fields as energy and financial planning, manufacturing, real estate investment, reservoir control, solid waste management, and water distribution. In recent years, the use of MCDM in forestry and natural resources management has generated a substantial body of literature. This annotated bibliography includes 124 important references ranging from theoretical studies to real-world applications of MCDM.
Forest fire managers in the province of Ontario, Canada have used computer-based decision support systems (DSSs) and actively supported their development since the late 1970's. I describe four DSS projects in which I was involved and discuss factors that I believe contributed to the success and failure of those initiatives. I then outline some emerging fire management challenges and present some recommendations concerning the development and implementation of forest and wildland fire management DSSs. © 2011 Publisher of the Mathematical and Computational Forestry & Natural-Resource Sciences.
We consider the important problem of medium term forest planning with an integrated approach considering both harvesting and road construction decisions in the presence of uncertainty modeled as a multi-stage problem. We give strengthening methods that enable the solution of problems with many more scenarios than previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a scenario-based decomposition method (Progressive Hedging) is competitive with direct solution of the extensive form, even on a serial computer. Computational results based on a real-world example are presented.
Forest fire management systems share much in common with urban fire, police and ambulance systems, but the spatial and temporal variability of forest fire occurrence processes and the comparatively long distances over which forest fire management takes place pose special challenges to operational researchers. This chapter describes the basic structure of a forest fire management system and the decision-making problems faced by fire managers. It describes how operations research (OR) has been applied to forest fire prevention, detection, deployment and initial attack dispatch decision-making problems; large fire management, strategic planning and fuel management, and it identifies new challenges that are amenable to OR approaches.
The guide presents results of an inventory of 250 computer-based tools that can be used to implement National Forest Plans, including tools used in budgeting, cumulative effects analysis, economic/financial analysis, ecosystem analysis, legal documentation, logging systems analysis, monitoring, resource effects or production estimation, resource scheduling, spatial analysis, and transportation analysis. A description provided for each tool includes its purpose, computer requirements, and other details. Five indexes help identify tools for particular types of analysis.
A comprehensive review of operational research studies during the years 1961 through 1981. It includes a brief discussion of fire management decision making, summaries of and comments regarding the practical merits of the work that has been done, and suggestions concerning future efforts in this field.-Author