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The economic importance and impacts of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in Sudan

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The economic importance and impacts of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in Sudan Abstract This paper explains the importance of IPRs and examines the factors hindering and those contributing toward enhancing IPRs in Sudan. We find that the inadequacy of IPRs protection in Sudan is attributed to low integration in the international institutions, lack of legal issues, lack of government concern, lack of private sector concern, weak institutions setting, lack of public awareness, lack of resources, a weak culture for IPRs, lack of cooperation between universities and industry and lack of coordination. The inadequate IPRs protection in Sudan leads to poor national system of innovation, hindering Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and hindering transfer of technology. The factors contributing toward enhancing IPRs in Sudan include promotion of adequate IPRs legislations and enforcement; planning, commitment to international IPRs agreements; finance, investment and resources; social partnership to encourage IPRs protection, increasing government concern, increasing private sector concern, improvement of public awareness, encouragement of cooperation between universities and industry, and improvement of institutions setting, coordination and culture for IPRs protection.

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In this article, I will present and examine personality-based, rule-utilitarian, and Lockean justifications for intellectual property. Care is needed so that we do not confuse moral claims with legal ones. The brief sketch of Anglo-American and Continental systems of intellectual property below, focuses on legal conceptions and rights while the arguments that follow — personality based, utilitarian, and Lockean — are essentially moral. I will argue that there are justified moral claims to intellectual works — claims that are strong enough to warrant legal protection.
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Proefschrift Universiteit Maastricht. Met lit. opg. - Met samenvatting in het Nederlands.
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In IFC Discussion Paper 19, the author found that the strength or weakness of a country's system of intellectual property protection seems to have a substantial effect, particularly in high-technology industries, on the kinds of technology transferred by many US firms to that country. Also, this factor seems to influence the composition and extent of US direct investment there, although the size of the effects seem to differ from industry to industry. The present paper extends these results in two ways. First, the survey findings are expanded to include Japanese and German firms, which, of course, are responsible for massive direct investments in developing countries. Second, an econometric model is constructed to estimate the effects of the strength or weakness of intellectual property protection in a developing country on the amount of US direct investment there. The findings indicate that, in relatively high-technology industries, a country's system of intellectual property protection often has a significant effect on the amount and kinds of technology transfer and direct investment to that country by Japanese and German, as well as US firms. -from Author
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