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Virus diseases of vegetable crops in southern Bulgaria



Virus diseases of vegetable crops (mainly tomato, cucumber, pepper and phaseolus bean) were surveyed in 1999 in south-eastern Bulgaria. The most widespread viruses were Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Pepper mild mottle virus 1.2 (PMMV 1.2) for pepper; ToMV, CMV and Tomato spotted wilt virus for tomato; CMV for cucumber; Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) for bean. Using differential cultivars as well as ELISA and PCR, the viruses were classified into pathotypes, strains and subgroups. The CMV isolates were of subgroup I, Iγ and II. The BCMV isolates were identified as temperature-dependent necrotic strains. Bean common mosaic necrosis virus was found in only two samples. PMMV 1.2 was detected in pepper. Clover yellow vein virus in bean and Cucumber leaf spot virus in cucumber are here reported for the first time in Bulgaria. A cucumovirus, different from CMV, was detected in bean. Two unidentified viruses (one with capillovirus-like particles from pepper, and one with 30 nm spherical particles from cucumber) are currently under investigation.
Phytopathol. Mediterr. (2003) 42, 3–8
Vegetable crops are important in Bulgaria. In
recent years about 12,570 ha have been occupied
by vegetables, mainly tomato (22%), pepper (17%),
onion (11%), cucumber (9%) and phaseolus bean
(4.7%). These crops are generally grown in the
open, with a comparatively small acreage in tun-
nels or greenhouses. Most vegetable crops are lo-
cated in south-eastern Bulgaria, the so-called “Bul-
garian vegetable garden”, where mild climate and
Virus diseases of vegetable crops in southern Bulgaria
1 Institute for Horticulture and Canned Food, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
2 Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Strada delle Cacce 73, 10135 Torino, Italy
Summary. Virus diseases of vegetable crops (mainly tomato, cucumber, pepper and phaseolus bean) were surveyed
in 1999 in south-eastern Bulgaria. The most widespread viruses were Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Cucumber mo-
saic virus (CMV) and Pepper mild mottle virus 1.2 (PMMV 1.2) for pepper; ToMV, CMV and Tomato spotted wilt virus
for tomato; CMV for cucumber; Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) for bean. Using differential cultivars as well as
ELISA and PCR, the viruses were classified into pathotypes, strains and subgroups. The CMV isolates were of
subgroup I, Iγ and II. The BCMV isolates were identified as temperature-dependent necrotic strains. Bean common
mosaic necrosis virus was found in only two samples. PMMV 1.2 was detected in pepper. Clover yellow vein virus in
bean and Cucumber leaf spot virus in cucumber are here reported for the first time in Bulgaria. A cucumovirus,
different from CMV, was detected in bean. Two unidentified viruses (one with capillovirus-like particles from pepper,
and one with 30 nm spherical particles from cucumber) are currently under investigation.
Key words: viruses, phaseolus bean, cucumber, pepper, tomato.
Corresponding author: A.M. Vaira
Fax: +39 011 3977285
water availability favour production. Unfortunate-
ly this production is often limited by pests and dis-
eases, among which viruses seem to play an im-
portant role. Earlier surveys on viruses of vegeta-
bles in Bulgaria were conducted by Kovachevski
(1965, 1971), Kovachevski et al. (1977) and Kosto-
va and Dimitrov (1995).
The investigation here reported was carried out
in 1999, mainly on viruses in four crops (cucum-
ber, pepper, phaseolus bean and tomato) grown in
south-eastern Bulgaria. The new data will be used
in the national breeding programme aimed at cre-
ating virus-resistant vegetable lines and cultivars.
Some of the results were briefly reported earlier
(Tsorlianis and Kostova, 2000; Tsorlianis et al.,
2000; Kostova et al., 2001).
4Phytopathologia Mediterranea
D. Kostova et al.
Materials and methods
Collection of virus samples
A total of 102 samples from different crops
were collected; of these 18 were from cucumber,
25 from phaseolus bean, 38 from pepper, 17 from
tomato, three from melon and one from eggplant.
For each crop, except melon and eggplant, sam-
ples were collected in at least four locations. Sam-
ples were collected in June 1999 and consisted
of leaves taken from plants with symptoms sug-
gesting virus infection. Leaves were placed in
plastic bags and stored in a cool bag in the field.
Upon arrival in the laboratory at the Institute
for Horticultural and Canned Food in Plovdiv,
samples were divided in two parts: one was des-
iccated over CaCl2, and the other under vacuum.
All desiccated samples were then taken to the
Istituto di Virologia Vegetale (IVV) (formerly Is-
tituto di Fitovirologia Applicata) in Torino, Ita-
ly, where they were analysed under strict phy-
tosanitary control.
Isolation and host-ranges
To prepare inoculum, the dried samples were
ground in ice-cold 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7,
containing 5 mM Na-DIECA, 5 mM Na-thioglyco-
late, 1 mM Na-EDTA and about 10 mg ml-1 acti-
vated charcoal. The sap was rubbed on carborun-
dum-dusted leaves of Chenopodium quinoa, Nico-
tiana benthamiana, N. clevelandii and ‘White Bur-
ley’ tobacco for all samples, plus Capsicum annu-
um cv. Quadrato d’Asti for pepper samples, Cucu-
mis sativus cv. Marketer and Cucurbita pepo cv.
Genovese for cucumber, Lycopersicum esculentum
cv. Marmande for tomato and Phaseolus vulgaris
cv. Saxa for bean.
Viruses were isolated from mixed infections by
differential reactions of the host plants or, for some
viruses, by thermal inactivation (10 min at 75°C)
of the more unstable virus.
Capsicum spp. differentials (C. annuum ‘Bru-
insma Wonder’, C. frutescens ‘Tabasco’, C. chi-
nense PI 159236 and C. chacoense PI 260409) were
used to pathotype tobamoviruses (Rast, 1988),
and bean differentials (P. vulgaris ‘Widusa’, ‘Ju-
bila’, ‘Amanda’ and IVT 7233) to differentiate
Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) pathotypes
(Morales and Bos, 1988) and to confirm the iden-
tification of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus
Serological tests
Original desiccated samples of each crop were
tested for several viruses by different ELISA pro-
cedures, as indicated in Table 1. ELISAs were per-
formed according to standard procedures (Converse
and Martin, 1990), with dilution of reagents ac-
cording to manufacturer’s instructions or IVV pro-
tocols. Reactions were considered positive when the
infected/healthy ratio was 3 or more.
Agar gel diffusion (done according to Purcifull
and Batchelor, 1977, for the elongated viruses) was
used for the detection of some viruses in sap from
experimentally infected plants. Antisera to BCM-
NV, Broadbean wilt virus-1 and -2 (BBWV-1, -2),
Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) and Tomato bushy
stunt virus, were from the IVV collection; antisera
to Cucumber leaf spot virus (CLSV) was from D.
Gallitelli, Bari, Italy, to Cucumber necrosis virus
from DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany, to Cucum-
ber soil-borne virus from R. Koenig, Braunschweig,
Germany, and to Sowbane mosaic virus (SoMV)
from C.I. Kado, Riverside, CA, USA.
Electron microscopy
Extracts of original desiccated samples and ex-
perimentally infected indicator plants were tested
by negative staining with uranyl acetate.
RT-PCR analysis of CMV isolates
Approximately 0.2 g leaf tissue from experi-
mentally infected test plants of selected samples
were processed with the RNAWIZ reagent (Ambi-
on, Austin, TX, USA) according to manufacturer’s
instructions, to obtain total RNA. The RNA pellets
were resuspended in 40 µl diethyl pyrocarbonate-
treated water and 1 µl was used as template for
reverse transcription. Complementary DNA syn-
thesis and PCR were performed as described in
Anonymous (1998), using 5’CP and 3’CP primers
(Rizos et al., 1992) and MspI digestion of the am-
plicons. After enzymatic digestion, the DNA was
electrophoresed in 3% NuSieve 3:1 agarose (FMC,
Rockland, ME, USA) and stained with ethidium
A total of 102 samples were tested. The viruses
detected, both in the original desiccated material
by ELISA and those recovered from experimental-
Vol. 42, No. 1, April 2003
Viruses of vegetables in Bulgaria
ly infected indicator plants, are listed in Table 2.
Most data obtained on the original material by
ELISA could be confirmed by infectivity tests, with
the possible exception of Alfalfa mosaic virus
(AMV), for which no good correlation between ELI-
SA and infectivity was found. No appreciable dif-
ference was found between samples desiccated
under vacuum and those treated with CaCl2. A
number of samples were negative by ELISA for the
viruses tested, but infectivity tests showed them
to be infected with other viruses such as BBWV-1,
ClYVV, or two unidentified viruses. Some viruses,
especially potyviruses such as Potato virus Y (PVY),
Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) in one case, or an
unidentified potyvirus detected in eggplant by
ELISA, could not be isolated on the indicators. As
expected, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infec-
tivity did not survive in the desiccated leaves. About
Table 1. Antisera or antibodies used to detect viruses by ELISA in the original desiccated samples.
Crop Virus Type of ELISA and reagents
Cucumber Cucumber mosaic (CMV)TAS, coating: sera to subgroup I + IIa; Mabs: 2+85b; Mabs subgroup I/IIc
and melon Cucurbit aphid-borne yellowing DAS, kit supplied by H. Lecoq, Montfavet, France
Moroccan watermelon mosaic DAS, serum supplied by Dr S. Winter, Brauschweig, Germany,
purified and conjugated at IVV
Papaya ringspot DASa
Tobacco necrosis (TNV) DASd
Squash mosaic DAS, Loewe Biochemica GmbH, Sauerlach, Germany
Watermelon mosaic (WMV) DASa
Zucchini yellow fleck DASa
Zucchini yellow mosaic DASa
Watermelon silver mottle TAS, coatinga, Mab 1B4e
Bean Alfalfa mosaic (AMV) DAS, Loewe Biochemica GmbH
Bean common mosaic (BCMV) DASa
Bean yellow mosaic DAS, Loewe Biochemica GmbH
CMV TAS, coating: sera to subgroup I + IIa; Mabs: 2+85b; Mabs subgroup I/IIc
Cucumovirus Ch39 DASa
Pepper AMV DAS, Loewe Biochemica GmbH
CMV TAS, coating: sera to subgroup I + IIa; Mabs: 2+85b; Mabs subgroup I/IIc
Pepper mild mottle (PMMV) 1,2,3 DASa f
Potato virus Y (PVY) DASa
Tomato mosaic (ToMV) DASa g
Tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) TAS, coating: sera a; Mab NUV2e
Tomato As for pepper, plus
Tomato infectious chlorosis DASa h
Parietaria mottle-T ACPa i
aCollection of the Istituto di Virologia Vegetale, CNR, Torino, Italy.
bGrassi et al., 1995.
cAGDIA kit able to differentiate CMV subgroups I and II.
dRoggero and Lisa, 1995.
eRoggero et al., 1998.
fSerum able to detect all pepper tobamoviruses except P 1.
gSerum able to detect pepper tobamovirus P 0.
hDellavalle et al., 1995.
iLisa et al., 1998.
6Phytopathologia Mediterranea
D. Kostova et al.
19% of the samples were infected by two or more
viruses, while 23% of samples were negative both
in ELISA and in the infectivity tests.
Of the 22 CMV isolates detected by ELISA and
the infectivity tests (Table 2), seven were further
characterised by RT-PCR. Of these, five were iden-
tified as subgroup I and two as subgroup Iγ (Anon-
ymous, 1998). In four bean samples, a cucumovi-
rus similar to the undescribed “cucumovirus Ch39”,
found in 1990 in bean in northern China, was de-
tected by ELISA. This virus was related to, but
different from CMV and from a strain of Peanut
stunt virus and Tomato aspermy virus (P. Roggero,
G. Dellavalle, V. Lisa and F. Morales, unpublished
data). In two of these isolates tested by RT-PCR,
the 870 bp amplicon expected for CMV samples was
not obtained.
Tobamoviruses infecting pepper and tomato
were identified as Pepper mild mottle virus 1.2
(PMMV 1.2) or Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). BCMV
was the commonest potyvirus detected in bean.
Heat inactivation of CMV or WMV in doubly-
infected indicators permitted the isolation of CLSV
and of an unidentified virus from cucumber with
spherical 30 nm particles, currently under study
at IVV.
A virus with a flexuous capillovirus-like struc-
ture, not yet identified, was found in pepper. In
experimental conditions this virus caused lethal
necrosis on every Capsicum species or C. annuum
cultivar tested. This virus is also currently under
study at IVV.
The viruses detected on vegetables in Bulgaria
in this investigation are generally common and
widespread in temperate regions. Some of them,
such as BCMV in bean, or ToMV in pepper and
tomato, were also found to be widespread in the
same crops in Bulgaria by Kovachevski (1965) and
Kowachevski et al. (1977), indicating that some of
the virus problems have not changed substantial-
ly over the last 30 years.
Considering the different crops, the common-
est virus in phaseolus beans in our samples was
Table 2. Viruses detected in 1999 in the desiccated field samples by ELISA and recovered on experimentally infected
plants. Several samples were infected with two viruses.
Desiccated samples (detection by ELISA) Isolation on test plants
Crop No.aVirusbNo.aVirus b
Cucumber 18 CMV c (13), WMV (3), negative (4) 18 CMV (12), CLSV (3), WMV (1), SoMV (1), unidentified
30 nm virus (2), negative (3)
Bean 25 BCMV (11), CMV (7), 25 AMV (2), BCMV (13), BCMNV (2), CMV (6), ClYVV (1),
cucumovirus Ch39 (4), negative (8) cucumovirus Ch39 (4), negative (3)
Pepper 38 AMV (7), CMV (5), tobamoviruses 38 AMV (1), BBWV1 (3), CMV (3), PMMV 1.2 (4), ToMV (15),
(15), TSWV (4), negative (9) unidentified capillo-like virus (1), negative (13)
Tomato 17 CMV (1), PVY (2), ToMV (3), 13 CMV (1), ToMV (4), unidentified carla-like virus (2),
TSWV (7) negative (6)
Melon 03CMV (1) 02Negative (2)
Eggplant 01AMV, unidentified potyvirus 01AMV
aNo. of samples tested.
bIn brackets No. of samples found infected or negative.
cCMV, Cucumber mosaic virus; WMV, Watermelon mosaic virus; CLSV, Cucumber leaf spot virus; SoMV, Sowbane mosaic virus;
BCMV, Bean common mosaic virus; AMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus; BCMNV, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus; ClYVV, Clover yellow
vein virus; BBWV1, Broad bean wilt virus 1; TSWV, Tomato spotted wilt virus; PMMV 1.2, Pepper mild mottle virus 1.2; ToMV,
Tomato mosaic virus; PVY, Potato virus Y.
Vol. 42, No. 1, April 2003
Viruses of vegetables in Bulgaria
BCMV, followed by CMV, BCMNV and AMV. Such
a virus-distribution for bean has already been re-
ported in Bulgaria (Kostova et al., 1995). BCMV
and BCMNV isolates detected in this study were
further studied at IHCF (Tsorlianis and Kostova,
2000). The BCMV isolates were identified as tem-
perature-dependent necrotic strains, but were con-
sidered to be unique on the basis of their pheno-
typic expression on bean differential varieties. The
BCMNV isolates were similar to the former VIa
pathotype of BCMV (Morales and Bos, 1988). Based
on PCR results, CMV bean isolates were assigned
to subgroup I and subgroup Iγ. The first isolate of
CMV from bean to be assigned to subgroup Iγ was
also from Bulgaria (Anonymous, 1998). The find-
ing of more Bulgarian CMV isolates belonging to
this subgroup suggests that this virus may be en-
demic in the area, as already noted by Tsorlianis
et al. (2000). The finding of a cucumovirus similar
to isolate Ch39, found in 1990 in northern China,
is also of interest. In field beans this virus was asso-
ciated with severe disease, and it should be fur-
ther studied. The detection of ClYVV is a new
record for Bulgaria.
CMV appeared to be the most widespread virus
in cucumber. All isolates tested by RT-PCR be-
longed to CMV subgroup I. WMV, found in cucum-
ber and in one zucchini sample (data not shown),
was already reported in Bulgaria by Dikova et al.
(1984). Two viruses new for Bulgaria on cucumber
were identified by this study: CLSV (Kostova et
al., 2001) and SoMV. SoMV can be considered an
occasional infection since it occurs commonly in
weeds. Four original cucurbit samples showing
yellowing were tested for cucurbit criniviruses (Cu-
curbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Lettuce
infectious yellows virus) by RT-PCR with specific
primers and found to be negative (A.M. Vaira, data
not shown).
In pepper and tomato samples, tobamoviruses,
particularly ToMV, and TSWV, were the viruses
most frequently detected. ToMV appeared to be a
serious problem particularly for pepper, being iden-
tified in about 50% of samples. In both these crops
CMV was also detected. ELISA of CMV isolates
revealed both subgroups, I and II. In pepper, AMV,
BBWV-1 and PMMV-1.2 were also identified, at
lower percentages. These viruses have already been
reported in Bulgaria (Kovachevski, 1976; Yanku-
lova and Kaitazova, 1979; Kostova et al., 1995).
The relatively high number of samples nega-
tive both by ELISA done on original material and
by the infectivity tests (23%) can be explained by
considering that sampling was done early in the
season, after an unusually cold spring that had
delayed the transplanting of seedlings to the field.
Particularly in pepper and tomato crops, the plants
were rather young and the symptoms sometimes
uncertain. Furthermore, viruses not sap-transmis-
sible to indicators, or for which no detection kit
was available at IVV, may have escaped detection.
This work was done in the framework of the
XIV Protocol of Scientific and Technological Coop-
eration between Italy (Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
and Bulgaria (Ministry of Education), and we grate-
fully acknowledge the support of both Institutions.
We also thank all those who contributed with an-
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... They were present in 24 and 29 % of tested pepper samples (Svoboda and Svoboda-Leisová, 2012). Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), CMV, PMMoV (Kostova et al., 2003) and TSWV (Neshev, 2008) proved to be widespread viruses on peppers in Bulgaria as well. In Hungary the most frequent and significant viral pathogens of pepper during the last decade are TMV, PMMoV TSWV, found in protected cultivation, while the aphid-transmitted CMV and PVY are dominantly found in open fields (Tóbiás et al., 2017). ...
The aim of this work was to create an easy, fast and sensitive method for the simultaneous detection of the most frequent viruses known to infect pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) crops. A multiplex RT-PCR assay was developed that successfully achieved this aim. Using specifically designed primer pairs, the assay could simultaneously amplify the genomes of members of the two subgroups (I and II) of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), two tobamoviruses, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), potato virus Y (PVY), and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a single assay. The multiplex RT-PCR assay was found to be a sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of the viruses from the leaves and fruits of naturally infected pepper plants. This assay would provide prompt disease status information for pepper breeders.
... Previous studies reported that the incidences of BCMNV strains is lower than those of BCMV strains in most bean production areas of the world (Berger et al., 1997;Kostova et al., 2003;Petrović et al., 2010), but our two year survey in Urmia bean-producing regions indicated that BCMNV is prevalent in most regions. ...
Full-text available
p> Bean is considered as one of the most important legumes around the world. Viral diseases are a major yield reducing factor in bean production. Bean samples with virus-like symptoms like severe or mild mosaic, vein banding, leaf curling, blistering and necrosis were collected from different bean fields in Urmia (Northwest of Iran) during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV), Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) were detected by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay. Mixed infection of BCMV and BCMNV were found. BCMNV was the most frequent virus in this region whereas BYMV and TYLCV were each detected just in one sample. This is the first report of BCMNV, BCMV, BYMV, TSWV, TMV and TYLCV incidence on bean in Urmia, Iran. </p
... BCMV and BCMNV are the most prevalent viruses in common bean areas in the world. Previous studies also reported that the incidences of BCMNV strains is lower than those of BCMV strains in most bean production areas of the world (Berger et al. 1997;Kostova et al. 2003;Petrovic et al. 2010). However, BCMNV strains are reported to be predominant in bean fields in eastern and southern Africa (Spence and Walkey 1991;Omunyin et al. 1995;Spence and Walkey 1995;Morales 2003) and some parts of Mexico (Lepe-Soltero et al. 2012). ...
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Abstract Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are well-known legume-infecting potyviruses. The incidences of BCMV and BCMNV infections were determined by ELISA in 367 seed and leaf samples which were collected in 15 common bean-growing provinces of Turkey. Of the samples tested, 67 (18.2 %) occurred to be infected with BCMV, however only 5 (1.4 %) were infected with BCMNV. A total of 45 ELISA-positive samples were selected from single-virus infected ones to determine BCMV and BCMNV pathogenicity groups (PGs) by using a set of bean cultivars that contain different combinations of resistance genes. Some BCMV populations exhibiting unusual pathogenicity were identified. One of them, named TR-180, was found to overcome resistance conferred by bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2 and bc-2 2 recessive alleles in common bean and assigned to PG VII. This isolate shared high (99 %) sequence identity with previously identified BCMV RU-1 and RU-1-related strains (RU1-OR-B and RU1-OR-C) according to a BLAST analysis of the nucleotide sequences of RT-PCR amplified products comprising the complete coat protein and 3′ partial NIb regions. The isolates TR-203 and TR-256 produced a distinctive reaction pattern in the dominant I gene-bearing bean cultivars Amanda and Isabella at lower (<30 °C) temperatures and were classified into PG IVb. These isolates were found to be 99 % identical to US-1 strain based on 3′ terminal nucleotide sequences of the BCMV genome. A fourth isolate, TR-243, involved mixed BCMV populations, as confirmed by partial nucleotide sequence analysis; one was classified as belonging to PG VII being similar to TR-180, and another was assigned to PG IVb. In conclusion, on the basis of both the reactions of differential bean cultivars and ELISA results, most of BCMV isolates were assigned to pathogroup PG VII and BCMNV isolates to PG VIb. This study is the first to show that four recessive resistance alleles of common bean can be overcome by a single field isolate of BCMV, and that a wide range of BCMV pathogroups are present in Turkey.
... The highest loss of pepper production in Slovenia, nearly 100%, was caused also by BBWV-1 (Mehle et al. 2008 TSWV (Vozelj et al. 2003) like in Serbia (Petrovic et al. 2010). Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), CMV and PMMoV (Kostova et al. 2003) and TSWV (Neshev 2008) are the most widespread viruses on peppers in Bulgaria. Each year TMV, CMV, PVY and AMV infections had been reported in Hungary (Kiss et al. 2003), where TSWV also significantly reduced pepper yields (Jenser et al. 1996). ...
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Svoboda J., Svobodová-Leišová L., 2012. Occurrence of viruses on pepper plantations in the Czech Republic – Short communication. Hort. Sci. (Prague), 39: 139–143. A survey of viruses on capsicum plants in the Czech Republic was carried out in the years 2006–2010. Altogether, 375 leaf samples with symptoms suggesting viral infection were collected both from open fields and greenhouses. These samples were examined for the presence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV-1), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and To-mato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) by ELISA. Viruses detected in the samples were AMV, BBWV-1, CMV and PVY. The most prevalent were CMV and PVY which were present in 24 and 29% of tested samples, respectively. In some cases a complex infection of two viruses was detected. Gene sources of resistance against CMV and PVY are mentioned. The relation of virus occurrence on aphid incidence is discussed.
... In Greece, high incidences of cucurbit-infecting viruses have also been reported, including WMV (67%), ZYMV (27%), CMV (20%), CABYV (20%), PRSVW (3%) and SqMV (2%) (Papvassiliou et al., 2002). WMV and CMV appeared to be the most widespread viruses in cucumber and zucchini samples in Bulgaria (Kostova et al., 2003). ...
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A survey of viruses in the major cucurbit-growing areas of 17 provinces in Iran was conducted in 2005 and 2006. A total of 1699 leaf samples were collected from melon, squash, cucumber and watermelon plants showing various virus-like symptoms. Screening for 11 cucurbit viruses by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR, found that 71% of the samples were infected by at least one virus, of which Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) was the most common overall, occurring in 49, 47, 40, and 33% of cucumber, squash, melon, and watermelon samples respectively. The second most common virus on melon and watermelon was Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) (incidence 30-33%); on cucumber, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV)(33%); and on squash, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV)(38%). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) and Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV) in Iran. Mixed infections occurred in 49% of symptomatic samples. Mixed infections were relatively frequent in squash (58%) and melon (55%). The most frequent double infections were WMV+CABYV and ZYMV+CABYV in melon, squash and cucumber, followed by WMV+ZYMV. In watermelon, the most frequent double infection was WMV+ZYMV, followed by WMV+CABYV. The high frequency of CABYV, WMV and ZYMV in the samples assayed on all four cucurbit crops and in all areas surveyed, as well as the detection of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV) in northern and southern Iran, suggest that these viruses represent a potential threat to cucurbit crops in Iran.
A total of one-hundred and fourteen Capsicum annum L. samples were collected from Qassim and Al-Baha regions, Saudi Arabia in the growing season of 2021–2022, showing virus like symptoms including, mottling, mosaic, chlorosis, leaf distortion, stunted growth, and necrotic lesions, dwarfing of leaves and fruits. These samples were tested against important viruses infecting pepper using ELISA kits. According to ELISA results, 80/114 (70%) samples were found to be infected with one or more of the tested viruses. However, incidence of the PMMoV was observed in 18/21 (85.7%) and 23/59 (38.98%) from Al-Baha and Qassim regions respectively. Based on highly positive ELISA samples of PMMoV three samples were selected for biological detection using mechanical inoculation with sap prepared and the results showed that systemic mosaic, mottling, necrotic spots, yellowing on N. tabacum, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, Solanum nigrum and necrotic and chlorotic spots on Chenopodium quinoa and C. amranticolor, while local lesions symptoms were produced on Datura stramonium. According to the ELISA results, positive samples from Qassim and Al-Baha regions were amplified by RT-PCR analysis, and 474-bp fragment was amplified using PMMoV specific primers. Two directional sequencing was done for the amplified products and the sequences of the virus isolates were submitted in the NCBI database with the following accession numbers, OP723368, OP723369, OP723370, OP723371, OP723372. The phylogenetic analysis showed the close relationship our isolates with other isolation of PMMoV and pairwise nucleotide sequence identity analysis revealed that these PMMoV isolates shared their identity between 92.5 and 100% with PMMoV isolates available in the databases. This study provides comprehensive report regarding the diagnosis of chili infecting viruses through serological and characterization of PMMoV through serological, biological, and molecular methods in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
This datasheet on Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus covers Identity, Overview, Distribution, Dispersal, Hosts/Species Affected, Vectors & Intermediate Hosts, Diagnosis, Biology & Ecology, Environmental Requirements, Seedborne Aspects, Impacts, Uses, Prevention/Control, Further Information.
This study was carried out to identify 25 CMV isolates from Musa spp. and associated vegetable crops using biological, serological and molecular techniques. The CMV isolates were from 20 Musa spp., 2 Dioscorea spp., 2 Capsicum sp. and 1 Occimum sp., crops indexed from a total of 85 leaf samples collected from 31 locations within 5 states in Southern Nigeria in 2004. Seven of the isolates transmitted to indicator plants all belonged to CMV subgroup 1b by inducing necrotic local lesions on Vigna unguiculata (TVu 76) and mosaic symptoms on Nicotiana glutinosa. None of the isolates reacted with monoclonal antibody 489 with affinity for CMV I while monoclonal antibody 490 with affinity for CMV II isolates reacted with 5 CMV isolates from Musa spp. and Occimum sp. The monoclonal antibodies used showed a narrow specificity for the CMV isolates as such could not be used to differentiate all the isolates. Thirteen cDNA corresponding to the coat protein gene of CMV were amplified in IC-RT-PCR of which 11 of the isolates showed restriction pattern typical of CMV 1 after digestion with Msp1 and EcoR1 restriction endonucleases. Two isolates were distinct in that they did not react with either of the enzymes. Restriction enzyme digest patterns showed that the CMV isolates all belong to subgroup 1.
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SUMMARY The detectability and biodiversity of 44 isolates of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), one isolate of peanut stunt virus (PSV) and one of tomato aspermy virus (TAV), all cucumoviruses, were compared by RT-PCR, variants of ELISA using polyclonal and monoclonal an- tibodies (Pabs and Mabs) and host plant reactions. The comparisons were made during a Ringtest on zucchini viruses held at the Istituto di Fitovirologia Applicata, CNR, Torino, Italy, in October 1996 in the framework of the European Union action COST-823 «New tech- nologies to improve phytodiagnosis». The isolates originated from 9 European countries, America, Asia and Australia and their natural hosts were mainly cucurbits. Some of the isolates had been characterized previously. RT-PCR with primers specific for CMV RNA 3 fol- lowed by digestion with MspI allowed the classification of 19 isolates within subgroup I (S-I) and 13 in sub- group II (S-II). Three distinct and different S-I-like pat- terns were found for 8 isolates, while 3 isolates dis- played a new pattern called S nonI-nonII. PSV, TAV and one isolate were not amplified with this primer set. Three RNA 2-based sets of primers, specific for S-I, S- II or both, substantiated the above results. In DAS ELISA Pabs produced against S-I detected most of CMV isolates, but not PSV and TAV, whereas Pabs produced against S-II isolates detected mainly those. In ACP ELISA, two Pabs detected all the cucu- moviruses tested. In TAS ELISA, 7 Mabs reacted with most of the isolates and none of them reacted with PSV and TAV. Two Mabs were specific for S-I and two for S-II, confirming the PCR results.
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A procedure based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been developed to classify cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) isolates accurately into two subgroups. Two CMV-specific primers that flank the CMV capsid protein gene were used to amplify a DNA fragment of approximately 870 bp. Restriction enzyme analysis of this fragment produces distinct restriction patterns that assign the CMV isolate into one of two subgroups. These two restriction groups correlate with the previously established CMV subgroupings; this PCR-based method may provide a simple alternative to the serological assays used for typing CMV isolates.
Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV) was isolated from glasshouse zucchini plants in Liguria, northern Italy, showing yellow spots on young leaves and necrotic symptoms on older leaves, petioles and stems. No other viruses were present in these plants. Experimentally, the virus systemically infected zucchini seedlings grown in naturally infected soil but only local infections were induced when leaves and roots were mechanically inoculated. The virus was identified as serotype D, devoid of satellite particles. This appears to be the first report of TNV in zucchini. Three ELISA procedures for field detection of TNV using polyclonal antibodies for serotype D were compared. Antibodies were conjugated with I) alkaline phosphatase (AP‐AB);2) N‐Hydroxy‐succinimid obiotin (BNHS‐Ab); 3) N‐biotinyl‐6‐aminocaproic hydrazide (BACH‐Ab). The procedure using BNHS‐Ab detected the lowest concentration of the homologous virus, followed by BACH‐Ab and AP‐Ab. Only with biotinylated antibodies. TNV serotype A was also detected.
Watermelon mosaic virus on cucumbers. Gradinarska I
  • B Dikova
  • P Kaitazova
  • M Markov
Dikova B., P. Kaitazova and M. Markov, 1984. Watermelon mosaic virus on cucumbers. Gradinarska I Lozarska Nauka 21(2) 66-72 (in Bulgarian).
Applicazione degli anticorpi monoclonali nell'epidemiologia del CMV e del PVY su pomodoro da industria nel Mezzogiorno
  • G Grassi
  • A Moschella
  • L Roncuzzi
  • I Giordano
  • P Roggero
  • E Ramasso
Grassi G., A. Moschella, L. Roncuzzi, I. Giordano, P. Roggero and E. Ramasso, 1995. Applicazione degli anticorpi monoclonali nell'epidemiologia del CMV e del PVY su pomodoro da industria nel Mezzogiorno. Petria 5, Suppl. 1, 46-47.