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Ammatillinen harjoittelu osana asiantuntijuuden kehittymistä ammattikorkeakoulussa

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... Vaihtoehtoina voivat olla PBL (Problem based learning) eli ongelmaperustainen oppiminen tai tutkiva oppiminen. (Tynjälä 1999, Vesterinen 2002, Tynjälä 2003.) Tutkiva työote on esillä myös opetusministeriön (2001) laatimissa ammattikorkeakoulutusta ohjaavissa periaatteissa. ...
... Helakorpi & Olkinuora 1997, Talvitie ym. 1999, Vesterinen 2002) esittävät usein Dreyfus & Dreyfusin (1986) viisivaiheisen mallin asiantuntijuuden kehittymisestä. Siinä noviisi-vaihetta seuraavat kehittyneen aloittelijan, pätevän henkilön, taitajan ja asiantuntijan vaiheet. ...
... Koulutuksen tehtävänä on myös kehittää opiskelijoiden vuorovaikutustaitoja rohkaisemalla opiskelijoita yhteisölliseen toimintaan ja neuvotteluun koulussa sekä harjoitteluissa. (Tynjälä 1999, Vesterinen 2002, Rauste-von Wright ym. 2003 Ammattikorkeakoulussa teorian ja käytännön yhdistämiseen pyritään myös opintoihin kiinteästi liittyvien harjoittelujaksojen avulla. ...
... Ammattikorkeakoulujen harjoittelunohjauksen kehittämisen tarve on todettu ja tunnistettu useissa projekteissa ja hankkeissa (Kaartinen-Koutaniemi 2001;Kantola 2003;Salonen 2005Salonen , 2006Vesterinen 2002). Toisen asteen työssäoppimisen ohjauksen kehittämiseen verrattuna ammattikorkeakoulujen harjoittelujen ohjauksen kehittämistä ei kuitenkaan ole hallinnollisesti resursoitu yhtä runsaasti (Tynjälä, Virtanen & Valkonen 2005). ...
... Ensimmäisessä "aallossa", ammattikorkeakoulujen toimiessa kokeilulain puitteissa väliaikaisina ammattikorkeakouluina, kehittämisen keskiössä olivat muun muassa opetussuunnitelman kehittäminen, koulutuksen tason nostaminen aiempaan opistoasteen koulutukseen nähden ja henkilöstön kouluttaminen (Numminen, Lampinen, Mykkänen & Blom 1999). Tässä vaiheessa monet opettajat tekivät opinnäytteitä ammattikorkeakoulujen harjoittelujen ja opetuksen kehittämiseen liittyen (Kotila 2000;Liimatainen 2002;Raij 2000;Vesterinen 2001;Vesterinen 2002). Alueellinen kehittäminen otti ensi askeleitaan. ...
... Keskeisenä harjoittelujen laatuun vaikuttamisen keinona harjoittelunohjaajien kouluttaminen ja työpaikkaohjauksen laadun kohottaminen on nähty esimerkiksi Helsingin yliopiston, Diakonia-ammattikorkeakoulun ja Lahden ammattikorkeakoulujen benchmarking -projektissa(Kaartinen-Koutaniemi 2001). Yritysten sitouttamista on pidetty keskeisenä laadun tekijänä myös Jyväskylän, Tampereen ja Turun ammattikorkeakoulujen benchmarking -projektissa(Kantola 2003;Vesterinen 2002). Ammattikorkeakoulut ovat hyvin tietoisia harjoittelunohjauksen kehittämisen tarpeellisuudesta, mutta kaikkiin työnantajiin ei kuitenkaan ole onnistuttu luomaan pyrkimysten mukaista suhdetta tiedottamisen tasolla. ...
... T = typical; AT = atypical, adjusted residual > |2|. [183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195][196] (7.4%), and financial goals (3.9%) -that were directed towards evaluating career options and incentives for working for the organization. These seven content categories bore resemblance to the work goal categories identified by Wiese and Salmela- Aro (2008), which also related to the goal taxonomy by Ford and Nichols (1987). ...
... 186K. Hyvönen et al. / Journal of Vocational Behavior 75 (2009)[183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195][196] ...
... 190K. Hyvönen et al. / Journal of Vocational Behavior 75 (2009)[183][184][185][186][187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195][196] ...
... Seuraavissa kappaleissa on kuvattu tämän tutkimuksen lähtökohtina olevat oletukset ammattikorkeakoulusta terveyden edistämisen oppimisympäristönä ja tutkimuksessa käytetystä tutkimusotteesta. (Perälä & Ponkala 1999;Sihvo & Turtiainen 1999;Kotila 2000;Vesterinen 2002) ja kehittämistarpeet näkyvät myös terveyden edistämisen opetuksen alueella (Poskiparta ym. 2001b;Sjögren ym. ...
... Keskeisiksi oppimisen välineiksi harjoittelussa on todettu kokemuksellinen oppiminen, reflektio sekä uudistava oppiminen (Kolb 1984;Mezirow 1981Mezirow , 1991Munnukka 1997;Ruohotie 2000;Vesterinen 2002), jotka liittyvät tässä tutkimuksessa terveyden ja terveyden edistämisen usein tiedostamattomien käsitysten tiedostamiseen, niiden pohtimiseen ja ymmärtämiseen. Ammatillisessa harjoittelussa oppimisen keskeisenä tavoitteena voidaan pitää asiantuntijuuden kehittymistä, missä painotetaan teorian ja käytännön yhdistymistä opiskelijan henkilökohtaisen reflektion kautta (Tynjälä & Collin 2000). ...
... Schön 1983;Benner 1984;Dreyfus & Dreyfus 1986;Engeström 1992;Bereiter & Scardamalia 1993;Launis 1994;Tynjälä ym. 1997;Eteläpelto 1998;Launis & Engeström 1999;Naumanen-Tuomela 2001;Vesterinen 2002). Ammattikorkeakoulun keskeiseksi tehtäväksi on määritelty ammatillisen asiantuntijuuden tuottaminen työelämään ja työelämän kehittäminen (L 255/ 1995), joskaan asiantuntijuuden määrittely ammattikorkeakoulupedagogiikassa ei ole ollut yksiselitteistä (Sihvo & Turtiainen 1999). ...
... However, no known studies have compared the experiences of several groups of students from several educational fields and many UAS. For example, the dissertations by Laitinen-Väänänen (2008), Lähteenmäki (2001) and Vesterinen (2002) explored issues like meaning making in supervising interactions between educators and students in physiotherapy, the development of expertise in problem-oriented physiotherapy education, and the promotion of business students' practical learning at work. Furthermore, in some studies, internships have been discussed as a sub-phenomenon of pedagogy or curricula and in relation to effectiveness with respect to working life (see, e.g., Kotila, 2000;Mikkonen, 2012;Raij, 2000Raij, , 2007. ...
... The combined model in Figure 1 of Article I (p. 292) has some similar characteristics as another model presented in the Finnish context by Vesterinen (2002). The model described by Vesterinen (2002) was constructed as the result of a developmental project regarding practical learning at work. ...
... 292) has some similar characteristics as another model presented in the Finnish context by Vesterinen (2002). The model described by Vesterinen (2002) was constructed as the result of a developmental project regarding practical learning at work. The project was implemented at South Carelia Polytechnic in 2000-2002, and focused on business studies. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This doctoral thesis explores the internships of Finnish universities of applied sciences (UAS). The purpose of the study is to contribute to the discussion on developing internships, and to redefine the concept of connectivity on the basis of the findings. The overarching research questions investigated in this summary are: (1) How do teachers perceive the internship model of learning through work experience with respect to connectivity?; (2) Which practices co-construct and institutionalise the internship model as it is presently organised by the Finnish UAS?; (3) How do graduates perceive the internship practices regarding connective learning?; and (4) How do employers perceive the application of a connective internship model? The dissertation consists of four empirical sub-studies and this summary. The data utilised in the sub-studies include: (1) open-ended interviews conducted with teachers (n = 28); (2) graduates’ views on internships collected through a questionnaire (n = 1,050); (3) collaborative employers’ views collected via a questionnaire (n = 269); and (4) employers’ views collected through an internet questionnaire (n = 169). Fields of education addressed in the study include business administration, technology, social services and health care. The data were analysed through qualitative content analysis, thematic analysis and quantitative statistical methods. The findings revealed internship models to differ considerably with respect to connectivity, i.e., in how they support learning across contexts. Both national networks of teachers and labour market organisations have influenced practices of constructing internship curricula essentially. Major differences between educational fields were reflected in graduates’ internship experience. Graduates from the field of technology were more critical than graduates from other fields. The employer profiles identified in the study were: (i) employers with an employment perspective; (ii) cooperative employers; (iii) employers with multiple goals; and (iv) employers concerned with the development of their own work. Compared to other fields, employers from the fields of social services and health care placed greater emphasis on students’ importance in developing the work community. Critical characteristics influencing the quality of internships, such as curriculum issues, guidance of students and collaboration between various educational institutions, underlined the role of teachers in organising cooperation. In the dissertation, the concept of connectivity has been redefined by emphasising (i) the role of informal communities and career counselling in learning, as well as by investigating (ii) shifts between contexts of learning and types of concepts, (iii) the role of bodies operating outside educational institutions in reviewing curricula, and (iv) how participants co-construct the practices.
... Muun muassa Richardson (1999) on todennut opiskelijoiden samaistuvan helposti työyhteisöjen käytäntöihin. Samoin Vesterinen (2002) havaitsi tutkimuksessaan, että opiskelijoiden oppimiseen käytännön työharjoittelujaksoilla vaikuttaa eniten työyhteisön sosiokulttuurinen vaikutus. ...
... Muun muassa Tynjälän (1999) mukaan työharjoittelussa oppiminen tapahtuu pääasiassa omakohtaisten kokemuksien kautta, niitä reflektoimalla ja autenttisissa tilanteissa työskentelemällä sekä sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa työyhteisön jäsenten kanssa. Myös monet muut tutkimukset vahvistavat opiskelijoiden kokemusta aidoissa ja ohjatuissa asiakastilanteissa parhaiten oppimisesta ja ammatillisen osaamisen kehittymisestä (Luukka 2004;Babyar 2003;Väisänen 2003;Vesterinen 2002;Lähteenmäki 2001). Väisäsen (2003) Yksi opiskelija koki oman asiantuntijuutensa syvemmäksi kuin ohjaajien asiantuntijuuden. ...
... Opiskelija ymmärsi pohtimisen ja suunnittelun kuuluvan työharjoitteluun, koska muuten se olisi "pelkkää työntekoa". Vesterinen (2002) korostaakin työharjoittelun tavoitteiden ajoittaista mieleen palauttamista työharjoittelun aikana, jotta harjoittelujakso ei tunnu pelkältä työltä. Myös toinen opiskelija kertoi aikaisemmasta työharjoittelujaksostaan, mikä tuntui pakolliselta ja täysin turhalta vähäisen neurologisen fysioterapian kiinnostuksen vuoksi. ...
... For example, in accordance with constructive alignment, practical border check issues should not be taught with lectures only, but teaching should aim at improving the practical border checking skills of the students and to assess students based on their practical activities. In border check training, the most important part is the obligatory internship period of six months, the significance of which is also emphasised in pedagogical studies (Vesterinen, 2002). ...
... Constructive alignment pursues deeper learning among students, which means that students should receive feedback from their learning and their learning should be assessed based on the skills they should acquire, not necessarily based on what they can learn by heart (McCann, 2017). Constructive alignment may include both traditional lectures, which have a separate assessment method, and practical exercises, which are assessed based on performance (Wass, 2011;Vesterinen, 2002). ...
Article
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The paper discusses the possibilities and challenges in applying e-learning tools in border check training, comparing the training of legal issues and border check practices. The main research question of the paper is how e-learning is utilised in and comport with border guard training. In pedagogical discussion, one of the most popular strands in the e-learning context is the method called "flipped classroom". In a flipped classroom, part of so-called blended learning, students study e-learning material before they start practicing their skills in simulated situations. We examine in which situations related to border checks flipped learning could be appropriate and beneficial and what sort of skills can best be learned through them. Practical skills are of course crucial, and after classroom learning in border guard training, working practice periods are obligatory for students. With the above-mentioned pedagogical concepts in mind, we first utilise content analysis based on the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, analysing how the online platform supports practical skills. Secondly, we bring the training period into conversation highlighting its importance as a learning method. The empirical material of the paper consists of educational documents, e-learning material used in border check and legal training as well as interviews and observation with trainers and teachers at the Finnish Border and Coast Guard Academy. The paper illustrates that e-learning tools are particularly useful in rehearsing to apply theoretical knowledge in practical situations. Still, the training period cannot be replaced with any methods. However, basing on the tentative analysis of empirical data before training period, flipped learning method seems to be very effective learning method.
... ider development of models for work experience, plus the introduction of, for example, project work as part of the curriculum. In addition, audits on and research into internships were conducted, and individual UASs published their findings (e.g. Ranta-aho 1999;Raij 2000;Kaartinen-Koutaniemi 2001;Liimatainen 2002;Ylipulli-Kairala and Lohiniva 2002;M-L. Vesterinen 2002;Leinonen, Partanen, and Palviainen 2002;Keskitalo 2004;Ahola, Kivelä, and Nieminen 2005;Konkola et al. 2007;Laitinen-Väänänen 2008). From these various publications one can see that teachers in the field of social and health care have been particularly active in conducting research. Such research activity has been of overall benefit to t ...
... On a national level, the Ministry of Education has collected information from all UAS students through the OPALA (Opiskelijapalautejärjestelmä: student feedback system) Internet questionnaire, which includes two questions on placements (Ministry of Education 2010). Studies have shown that the models for organizing internships vary greatly both by field and by UAS (Raij 2000;Vesterinen 2002;Virolainen 2007;Laitinen-Väänänen 2008). Moreover, collecting feedback from employers has not been as routine as it has been for student surveys. ...
Article
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This article examines internships as part of the apprenticeship model of learning adopted in higher education. We focus on employers’ views on internships, which have hitherto received only limited attention. Our study explores employers’ experiences in organizing internships, and their collaboration with one University of Applied Sciences, through data from social and health care employers (n=165), collected via a questionnaire. We conclude that if internships are to be improved as a means of learning from work experience, issues that employers want to raise within the collaborative framework require attention. These themes include relations with students, curriculum issues and the organization of the collaboration. A problem related to underestimating employer views on developing internships is that the resource-intensive nature of collaborative relations is silenced. As a result, targets for developing partnerships are left unrecognized, with adverse effects on the quality management and strategic planning of higher education institutions.
... Äidin demokraattinen kasvatusasenne näyttää vaikuttavan poikien suoriutumiseen, kun taas tytöt suoriutuvat paremmin autoritaarisen äidin kasvatuksessa. (Pierce & Bowman 1965, 250-252;Sutherland 1965aSutherland , 365-375 ja 1965b Sen sijaan Morrowin ja Wilsonin tutkimus (1965,(188)(189)(190)(191)(192)(193)(194)(195)(196)(197)(198) ei tukenut aikaisempia väitteitä, että alisuoriutujien kotikasvatus olisi ylisuojelevaa tai vanhempien odotukset olisivat ristiriitaisia tai liian vaativia tai että heidän perhe-elämänsä olisi riitaisaa tai epäsäännöllistä. Koulussa suoriutumiseen näytti vaikuttavan myönteisesti ennen kaikkea vanhempien luottamus lapsiin sekä kiinnostus koulusuorituksista ja rohkaisu. ...
... Niinpä kokemus saattaa sisältää erilaisia tunteita ja elämyksiä, joita on vaikea kuvata sanoin, mutta voivat vaikuttaa kokijaan syvästikin. Turunen (1999,(195)(196)(197)(198)(199)(200) puhuu tuntokulttuurista ja elämyskentästä. Tuntokulttuurilla hän tarkoittaa sitä, että saman kulttuurin tai yhteisön jäsenet näyttävät liittävän samoihin ilmiöihin ja tapahtumiin likimain samoja tuntoja. ...
... Nämä kilpailevat lähestymistavat voidaan luokitella turvallisuuskeskeiseksi lähestymistavaksi (puolustuksellinen realismi), valtakeskeiseksi lähestymistavaksi (hyökkäyksellinen realismi) ja hyvinvointikeskeiseksi lähestymistavaksi (neoliberalismi). 196 Schimmelfennig (2003) esittää, että turvallisuuskeskeinen lähestymistapa, missä hakijamaat tavoittelevat uhkatasapainon aikaansaamista tarjoavat vakuuttavimman selityksen sille miksi CEE-maat halusivat liittyä Natoon. Se selittää oman logiikkansa mukaisesti CEE-maiden kiinnostuksen Nato-jäsenyyteen ainoana tehokkaana vastauksena potentiaaliseen tai väitettyyn Venäjä-uhkaan, joka kohdistuu heidän itsenäisyyttään kohtaan. ...
... 195 Emt. 196 Emt., 27 viitaten Benjamin Frankeliin, 1996b ja Joseph Griecoon 1997, 186 -191. 197 Emt., 37 -43. ...
... Runsaista ponnisteluista huolimatta toimintatutkimuksen konventiot eivät ole vakiintuneet. Toimintatutkimukselle ei ole sellaista määritelmää, jolla sen voisi helposti ottaa haltuun (Vesterinen 2002, 62-63, Katila & Meriläinen 2006. ...
... Oppipoikainstituution moderni ulottuvuus on ammatillinen harjoittelu (Vesterinen 2002), joka tapahtuu ohjatusti ammattilaisten yhteisön osana. Tästä ammattilaisten yhteisöstä käyttävät Lave ja Wenger (1996) ilmaisua 'käytännön yhteisö' (community of practice) erotuksena oppilaitoskontekstissa tapahtuvalle 'oppijoiden yhteisölle' ...
... The chapter Manners of Politics was published first in Yale Review (March 1962), but the original version did not include the discussion of dépolitisation (cf. NP,(191)(192)(193)(194)(195)(196)(197)(198)(199)(200)(201). For The Pure Theory he had written a new beginning which studied what kind of cruel game politics is or can be. ...
Article
Tiivistelmä: Pelkistyksen retoriikka : Bertrand de Jouvenelin politiikan puhdas teoria suostutteluna. Diss. -- Jyväskylän yliopisto.
... He kokevat tähän saakka hankittujen ohjaustaitojensa kehittymisen olleen heidän oman aktiivisuutensa varassa ja haluaisivat saada koulutusta ohjauksen ja pedagogisten taitojensa tueksi. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa (Gray & Smith 2000;Vesterinen 2002) onkin todettu, että ohjaajien ohjaustaidoissa on parantamisen varaa, ja pedagogisten taitojen olevan puutteellisia. Sairaanhoitajat tarvitsisivat tukea oman ammatillisen kehittymisensä tueksi (Mäenpää & Nurminen 2003, 48). ...
... . Terveyden edistämisen oppiminen yksilötasolla ymmärretään tässä tutkimuksessa yksilön terveyden edistämistä koskevien henkilökohtaisten käsitysten ja niiden taustalla olevien tietorakenteiden eli skeemojen muutokseksi, joka ilmenee myös käyttäytymisen muutoksena (Tynjälä 2000). Keskeiseksi oppimisen välineeksi nousee tällöin kokemuksellinen oppiminen, reflektio sekä uudistava oppiminen, jotka liittyvät terveyden ja terveyden edistämisen tiedostamattomien käsitysten tiedostamiseen, pohtimiseen ja ymmärtämiseen (Kolb 1984, Mezirow 1995, Ruohotie 2000, Vesterinen 2002. Kokemuksellisessa oppimisessa terveyden tiedonmuodostus tapahtuu vaiheittain edeten omakohtaisesta pohdiskelevasta havainnoinnista reflektoinnin kautta tapahtuvaa käsitteellistämiseen ja päätyen aktiiviseen toimintaan (Järvinen ym. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study approaches process consulting work as conversation. The commonly shared ideal of process consulting is to help clients to help themselves. To follow this ideal, active client participation and collaborative work between the consultant and the clients in handling the client’s problems are needed. The aim of this thesis is to find out how this is done through talk: what kind of talk is used in process consulting interaction and how is this achieved during multi-party consulting conversations. More specifically, it is asked what kind of discursive activity was used in multi-party settings to bring about active client participation, to facilitate learning and change by bringing about and handling criticism and blame, and to make preferred outcomes noticed within the participating group. Using the perspectives and methods of Discursive Psychology and Conversational Analysis, it is asked how this is done in an authentic process consultation case. This thesis consists of three articles in which situated discursive practices of process consulting are analyzed in detail. Findings of this case study show the rich variety of discursive means that were utilized in multi-party consulting settings to bring about talk, which is needed to put into practice the process consultation ideal of helping clients to help themselves. These are: conversational structures requiring participant’s turn-by-turn responses with which some talk was marked as preferred and this preferred talk was invited; and conversational means like “fishing” or “factualising devices”, which were used e.g. to strengthen the reliability of speakers and to construct the factuality of descriptions about witnessed change and outcomes of the consulting process. This thesis focuses on multi-party settings of process consulting practices and as such, it highlights the significance of client-consultant collaboration and the role of the audience. I claim that, the interactive audience of this case was used as a method in implementing the process consulting ideals and bringing about the needed talk. In doing this, it is suggested that there is a need to construct and establish conversational norms that deviate from more mundane multiparty conversational settings. In this thesis it is shown how the norm of displaying ownership and the norm of not avoiding face-issues were constructed and utilized for consulting purposes of this case. This study describes in detail the actual discursive practices of process consulting in a way that has not been done before. The findings about what was done in this case are situated and case-specific, but, the findings about how what was done was done can have transportability across other consulting and organization development settings. They can be used in developing the practices and procedures of process consulting work. In addition to that, the findings of this thesis are of interest in depicting the picture of process consulting work as a professional institution and, in conceptualizations of client-consultant role in general.
Article
The study is part of the larger research project WORKLEARN (see www.peda.net/veraja/worklearn), funded by the Academy of Finland. The study also received financial support from the Ministry of Education, Finland. This article is based on a paper presented at Seventh International Conference on HRD Research and Practice Across Europe, hosted by the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Tilburg University, May 22‐24, 2006. The author is grateful to anonymous reviewers for critical comments and to editor for support. They all helped in substantially improving the argumentation of the paper. The author wishes to thank Adjunct Professor Marja‐Leena Stenström and Professor Päivi Tynjälä for their kind reviews and encouraging comments on early versions of the paper.
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Chapter
This chapter discusses the role of the connective model of work experience (Griffiths & Guile, 2004; Guile & Griffiths, 2001) in the context of higher education and identifies some of the limits and challenges that may be encountered in seeking to implement connectivity in practice. The question considered here is that of organising placements through cooperation between working life and the polytechnics1 in Finland. The process of introducing connective links appears to be somewhat contradictory but nevertheless negotiable, with plenty of room for improvement. As one teacher in social and health care put it: "Our students, when they go on a placement and they have been given the task, like, to figure out the central processes of the workplace, those main rehabilitation processes, this is a task the existing employees would not be able to do. That's what it is . . .And our students will have to, they won't get any guidance at the workplace, they will have to invent and think and that is what it is all about. And when we ask the employees, they say that students' competences don't meet their requirements, and our students are thinking about completely different things. They are thinking holistically about processes and actions at the workplace and then they are expected to open doors, and serve food and that sort of mechanical work." This chapter seeks to scrutinise the contradictions in the relationship between polytechnics and working life. The question to be examined here is: How does the model of connectivity conform to the patterns of professional higher education? In order to get a multivalent picture of the relations between working life and polytechnics the theme is approached from the following perspectives. First, the relevance of paying attention to the model of connectivity on the level of higher education is discussed. The connective model and arguments for and against it on the level of higher education are briefly described. The demands set by the global economy for the innovative systems and capacities of the nation state are taken as the most serious argument in support of the importance of connectivity in higher education. The value of the model of connectivity is seen especially in the emphasis it places on the question of the quality of interaction in organising relations between working life and educational institutions: how to move on from adaptation to a more active and progressive approach both on the student and institutional levels. Second, the concepts of integration and transformation are specified. The differences between them are found to be important because they are related to genuine, long-standing questions regarding differences in learning at school and learning at work (see e.g. Lewis, 2005). They describe how the confluence of learning at work and learning at school, and how the confluence of theory and practice take place. They inherently anchor the discussion on either the individual or organisational level. Third, the framework of organising placements in the interface of school and work in the Finnish polytechnics is discussed from two points of view: first, the national development and, second, research results on the experiences of polytechnics, workplace supervisors and students. The latter includes results from both the national follow-up organised by the Ministry of Education and studies completed by Institute for Educational Research. Finally the connective model is discussed in relation to these results. The further exploration and elaboration of the model with an emphasis on actors and actor network is recommended.
Thesis
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Dissertation consists of six internationally published articles which were originally published as book chapters and journal articles. Three articles were written by the author of the dissertation (Max Horkheimer on the Mimetic Element in Education, What it means to be a Stranger to Oneself, and As Heard in Silence – Listening and to-be-heard in Education) and two (Hope and Education in the Era of Globalization, Critical Pedagogy and Ideology Critique as Zeitgeist Analysis) were joint articles with professor Juha Suoranta (University of Tampere) and one (Don’t You See, How the Wind Blows?) with Suoranta and lecturer Robert FitzSimmons (University of Lapland). In each joint article, Moisio was the first author. To frame the point of reference in this dissertation we can use the concept of critical analysis of our times (critical Zeitgeist analysis). It is argued that in education we need an attitude that is sufficiently open to the given historical situation. One question that educational sciences should address is the question of the potential of education in addressing various social maladies of the present era. Methodologically, critical Zeitgeist analysis is argued to be of value in demonstrating how to both utilize and expand the possibilities of writing normative social and educational theory. One of the central themes in critical analysis of the given times is to reflect critically on the state of the present historical world. In this task it has always combined analytical, political and moral languages, as well as the languages of critique and hope. It is argued that education should be aimed at change and this is methodologically done in the form of critical knowledge of the present age. This means that the relationship between teacher and student should be seen from the viewpoint of care and respect of student’s person and corporeal being. Also teaching material becomes practical when teaching and learning are seen as fundamentally cooperative processes. With these we are able to promote autonomous and critical thinking. But as the articles show this aim of critical educational philosophy is filled with paradoxes that must be met when thinking about the possibility to promote the autonomy and full development of an individual human being. Keywords: radical pedagogy, critical pedagogy, philosophy of education, critical theory, pedagogical paradox, zeitgeist analysis, concept of hope, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Erich Fromm, Max Horkheimer.
Thesis
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Lautamo, Tiina Play Assessment for Group Settings (PAGS): Validating a measurement tool for assessment of children’s play performance in the day-care context. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä, 2012, 69 p. (Jyväskylä Studies in Education, Psychology and Social Research ISSN 0075-4625; 450) ISBN 978-951-39-4889-4 (nid.) ISBN 978-951-39-4890-0 (PDF) Yhteenveto Diss. The primary aim of this thesis was to evaluate aspects of validity and reliability of the PAGS play performance scale. The PAGS is an observation-based evaluation of the quality of children’s play performance when children are playing in groups. The data were collected by observing children aged 1 year 8 months to 8 years 9 months in free play situations in Finnish day-care centers. In studies I and II the twofaceted Rasch model was used to examine the internal scale validity and the person response processes of the PAGS. In study II differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was also conducted to identify possible group-specific items between children with specific language impairment (SLI) as a potential comparison group for typically developing children (TD). The effect of the differentially functioning items on the mean play performance measurements between the two subgroups of children was controlled with independent samples t-tests. In studies III and IV the three-faceted Rasch model was used to study the rater consistency and severity estimates. In study IV the stability of the individual measures of the children’s play performance was also investigated with intra-class correlation (ICC). The results supported the internal scale validity for the PAGS. We found that the PAGS separated the children with low play performance ability from those with high play performance ability despite the seven differentially functioning items. The majority of the raters scored the PAGS in reliable way. Only slight differences were observed in rater severity. The ICC for single measures of the children’s play performance separated by a one-week interval was fairly weak. This indicates that play is a phenomenon that varies from one time to another and cannot be assessed by shortterm observation without controlling for environmental effects. We concluded that the PAGS is a valid tool for identifying children who experience challenges in their play performance, and hence can be used for practical purposes. Overall the results indicated that the raters scored the PAGS in a reliable way, and that they behaved like independent experts. However, the slight variability reveals that DIF should be controlled for when using the PAGS to compare play performance across different subgroups of children. The children’s response processes also warrant further study. Keywords: Play Assessment for Group Settings (PAGS), play performance, specific language impairment (SLI), internal scale validity, person response validity, differential item functioning (DIF), inter-rater reliability, test-retest reliability, instrument development
Article
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Abstract: Gender and subjectivity in social work : interpreting women workers' memories. Diss. -- Jyväskylän yliopisto.
Article
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Nowadays various Earth observation satellite systems are widely used in solving of different scientific and applied problems. One of the biggest areas of their use is the development of various dedicated remote monitoring information systems aimed at continual acquisition of information about different processes, objects and phenomena. A significant number of studies on the development, implementation and support of such systems have been conducted in Space Research Institute RAS (IKI RAS) over the last twenty years. These years resulted both in dozens of successfully developed and implemented systems and creation of original technologies for such system development and implementation. The paper describes and analyzes general features and trends of current remote monitoring systems evolution based on IKI RAS experience. Basic blocks and subsystems design features and specifics are described, the possibilities of modern technologies application for their development are stated. Also the paper discusses current features of technologies developed by IKI RAS and aimed at elaboration of various blocks of remote monitoring systems. The described technologies are used in many remote monitoring systems operated today in Russia. The paper discusses development prospects of the described technologies and approaches in view of both fast evolution of satellite Earth observation systems and emergence of new information systems development methods and technologies enabling their interoperation with very large, distributed continuous data archives.
Article
Moderni syntyi läntisessä Euroopassa renessanssin muodossa, tieteellisten keksintöjen ja järjenmukaisuuden aikana. Välineellisestä rationalismista tuli uuden ajan perusta. Se synnytti industrialismin, kapitalismin sekä uskon kehitykseen ja järjestelmän ylivoimaisuuteen. Siihen ankkuroitui myös opettajan asiantuntemukseen ja auktoriteettiin sekä totuuden olemassaoloon pohjautuva käsitys oppimisesta. Nyt moderni kyseenalaistetaan kautta koko läntisen maailman. Elämme myöhäisen modernin aikaa, missä joitakin postmodernin ajan piirteitä alkaa tulla esille. Todellisuudesta itsestään on tullut ongelma ja elämässä on vähemmän varmuuksia. Sen myötä käsitys oppimisesta oikeiden vastausten omaksumisena on joutunut kyseenalaiseksi. Artikkelissa kuvataan muutamia tällaisia ajallemme ominaisia oppimisen paradokseja.
Article
- This paper describes the process of inducting theory using case studies from specifying the research questions to reaching closure. Some features of the process, such as problem definition and construct validation, are similar to hypothesis-testing research. Others, such as within-case analysis and replication logic, are unique to the inductive, case-oriented process. Overall, the process described here is highly iterative and tightly linked to data. This research approach is especially appropriate in new topic areas. The resultant theory is often novel, testable, and empirically valid. Finally, framebreaking insights, the tests of good theory (e.g., parsimony, logical coherence), and convincing grounding in the evidence are the key criteria for evaluating this type of research.
Chapter
The significance of core skills (or key qualifications) in vocational education and training and at work is a central theme of this book. However, when, where and how such core skills should be developed has been a matter of considerable debate. In England and Wales, for example, the degree of emphasis given to core skills development has varied greatly over the past fifteen years. In the early 1980s a major development program, with national government and matched European funding, was undertaken, focusing on the significance of core skills for work-based learning (Levy, 1987). Core skills were an essential element of government training programs (Evans et al, 1987). However, in the middle to late 1980s there was a major shift in direction. The emphasis of government training programs became more narrowly focused upon the development of occupational skills and, at the same time, the introduction of a system of National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) heralded a concern with specifying in great detail the criteria associated with occupational competence (Jessup, 1991).
Chapter
In this chapter the subject of key qualifications in work and education, as discussed in the various parts of this volume, will be reviewed, with special attention being paid to a) the factors of upheaval mentioned in the European Commission’s White Paper “Training and Learning, Towards the Learning Society” (1996): the impact of scientific and technological knowledge, the impact of the information society, the impact of internationalisation and added to these, factors from other sources (e.g. IRDAC, 1991; Nijhof & Streumer, 1994) the impact of workforce demographics; b) organisational change and profound changes in the nature of the workplace and work as a consequence of the factors mentioned under a. c) the responsiveness of vocational education and training to the factors mentioned under a. and b., leading to major reforms in vocational education and training in terms of new qualification structures, pathways and programmes, and the emphasis on the flexible qualification potential of (future) employees.
Article
Excerpts available on Google Books. For more info, go to publisher's website : http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415185288/
Article
SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Included in this packet are materials touching on themes I will address during my session. I will not go through these sequentially, nor will I address all of them. They are there simply for reference purposes.
Book
Prologue Part I. Practice: Introduction I 1. Meaning 2. Community 3. Learning 4. Boundary 5. Locality Coda I. Knowing in practice Part II. Identity: Introduction II 6. Identity in practice 7. Participation and non-participation 8. Modes of belonging 9. Identification and negotiability Coda II. Learning communities Conclusion: Introduction III 10. Learning architectures 11. Organizations 12. Education Epilogue.
Article
The dominant workplace training model in North America is the behavioural approach which is well matched to the dominant concept of Taylorism in management. Nevertheless, this paradigm has been increasingly challenged by the worker‐centred model which is dissatisfied with the management‐centred tenet within the behavioural approach. Four factors can be attributed to the declining popularity of the behavioural model: social changes, new needs of capitalism, the importance of worker ownership, and attitudinal changes in mangement. Three emerging alternatives to the behavioural model are examined: action regulation theory, critical reflectivity perspective and ‘working‐class adult eduction’ approach. Though under strong challenge, the behavioural model is still influential.
Article
Learning in the workplace has traditionally been understood primarily in terms of behaviorism, a perspective compatible with the machine-like design of organizations when training and development emerged as a field of practice. Adult educators have not challenged the desirability of that perspective directly, although various theorists suggest its modification through greater learner participation, problem-centeredness, experience basing, and concern for different learning styles. This article raises questions about the universal valuing of behaviorism in workplace learning based on a review of trends in organizations in the post-industrial era and analysis of theorists within and outside the field who emphasize the importance of reflectivity and critical reflectivity in learning. The author then describes emerging characteristics of a new paradigm for understanding workplace learning and concludes with a discussion of its limits.
Article
Although many employers recruit graduates, often on an any discipline basis, there is an apparent mismatch between employer needs and educational response.Possession of a degree indicates ability to think at a certain level, but is insufficient. Selection criteria, advertisements and training courses run to make graduates fully effective show that employers need skills in communication, co‐operation and teamwork, and positive personal qualities such as the will to set and meet objectives and to be innovative also.American experience indicates that although there is no complete and generally accepted classification of generic intellectual and personal skills, at least some are identifiable and are developed in the process of higher education. The College Outcomes Measures Project identified three ‘process areas’ (communicating, solving problems and clarifying values). The American Programme Evaluation Project identified communication, quantification, analytic and synthesising skills and values clarification. Some individual institutions have developed their own, useful, classifications and curricula which develop them. Efforts to improve these skills enhance both the academic work of the students and their employabil‐ity.Interest in these areas in the UK is less advanced than in the United States and is piecemeal, but the UGC and NAB regard them as important.
Article
In this paper, the authors outline how quality can be judged in “the typical product of alternative paradigm inquiry,” the case report. Their earlier work has focused on judging the quality of the inquiry process; this paper focuses on the product. They propose and discuss four criteria: resonance, rhetoric, empowerment, and applicability.
Article
In this article we develop a theoretical framework for understanding informal and incidental learning that is, while not empirically tested, at least in part empirically derived. Informal and incidental learning can be characterized by the following: (1) based on learning from experience; (2) embedded in the organizational context; (3) oriented to a focus on action; (4) governed by non‐routine conditions; (5) concerned with tacit dimensions that must be made explicit; (6) delimited by the nature of the task, the way in which problems are framed, and the work capacity of the individual undertaking the task; and (7) enhanced by proactivity, critical reflectivity and creativity. We first identify why our theory is important for recent trends toward continuous learning for continuous improvement. We illustrate our theory, discuss other uses of the concepts of informal and incidental learning, expand on our definition in terms of the above seven characteristics, and further discuss implications in light of current trends.*Based on a paper previously submitted at the Adult Education Research Conference, The University of Georgia, May 1990, and the Center for Creative Leadership, July 1990. These ideas are also more fully explicated in Informal and Incidental Learning in the Workplace, Routledge, 1990.
Article
This article is based upon research from an interlocking series of projects funded by the Anglo‐German Foundation and the Leverhulme Trust over the last five years. Our Anglo‐German comparative analysis leads us to promulgate a policy for our vocational education and training which differs significantly from the German. This is because we believe that rather than copying parts of the system, we should focus upon trying to develop underlying values supportive of a training culture. We argue that while an employer‐led approach may help maintain a high skills equilibrium, an education‐driven strategy is necessary to move England and Wales from its current low skills equilibrium. One final caution is that in places the style may appear prescriptive about, for example, German practice. Such comments are underpinned by research evidence, which is reported in detail elsewhere (Bynner and Roberts, 1991, Evans and Heinz, 1993). They provide a broad canvas for our argument for a re‐orientation of our vocational education and training. The argument here is boldly stated. We hope it stimulates debate.
Article
In a conventional system of planning and implementation of educational reforms, evaluation generally appears only at the end of the process. While such a summative evaluation is necessary, the author argues for a more effective use of evaluation procedures for efficient planning, implementation and assimilation of reform projects. In order to use monitoring and evaluation procedures for contributing substantially towards the optimization of immediate outcomes and long-range effects of any reform project or programme, it is essential to follow a built-in, comprehensive and development-oriented approach. Such an evaluation procedure should take into account both extra-educational factors and intra-educational variables that influence the processes and outcomes of an educational reform. An EIPOL grid which combines five major dimensions of a broad-based evaluation system with different steps of a project cycle provides a basic operational framework for designing and adopting a more functional system of reform evaluation.