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The Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual

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... Maslach et al. (1996) identified burnout as a psychological syndrome characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal inefficacy (Maslach et al., 1996). Emotional exhaustion is relative to the employee's stress experiences and result in decreased physical and emotional resources (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). Maslach et al. (1997) suggested that emotional exhaustion diminished self-initiative and engagement and progressively decreased the capacity for demanding work (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). ...
... Emotional exhaustion is relative to the employee's stress experiences and result in decreased physical and emotional resources (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). Maslach et al. (1997) suggested that emotional exhaustion diminished self-initiative and engagement and progressively decreased the capacity for demanding work (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). Similarly, cynicism is caused by the overload of exhaustion and concerns to reactions of work detachment (Maslach et al., 1996;Portoghese et al., 2014). ...
... Emotional exhaustion is relative to the employee's stress experiences and result in decreased physical and emotional resources (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). Maslach et al. (1997) suggested that emotional exhaustion diminished self-initiative and engagement and progressively decreased the capacity for demanding work (Maslach et al., 1997;Leiter and Maslach, 2005;Taris et al., 2017). Similarly, cynicism is caused by the overload of exhaustion and concerns to reactions of work detachment (Maslach et al., 1996;Portoghese et al., 2014). ...
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Background This study aimed to determine what, how, and under what circumstances individual-focused interventions improve well-being and decrease burnout for critical care healthcare professionals. Method This realist approach, expert opinion interview, was guided by the Realist And Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards II (RAMESES II) guidelines. Semi-structured interviews with critical care experts were conducted to ascertain current and nuanced information on a set of pre-defined individual interventions summarized from a previous umbrella review. The data were appraised, and relationships between context, mechanisms, and outcomes were extracted, which created theory prepositions that refined the initial program theory. Results A total of 21 critical care experts were individually interviewed. By understanding the complex interplay between organizational and personal factors that influenced intervention uptake, it was possible to decipher the most likely implementable intervention for critical care healthcare professionals. The expert recommendation suggested that interventions should be evidence-based, accessible, inclusive, and collaborative, and promote knowledge and skill development. Unique mechanisms were also required to achieve the positive effects of the intervention due to the presence of contextual factors within critical care settings. Mechanisms identified in this study included the facilitation of self-awareness, self-regulation, autonomy, collaboration, acceptance, and inclusion (to enable a larger reach to different social groups). Conclusion This validation of a theoretical understanding of intervention that addressed well-being and burnout in critical care healthcare professionals by expert opinion demonstrated essential mechanisms and contextual factors to consider when designing and implementing interventions. Future research would benefit by piloting individual interventions and integrating these new theoretical findings to understand better their effectiveness for future translation into the “real-world” setting.
... Composite reliability was 0.936 and 0.929 at T1 and T2, respectively. We used a 3-item scale to measure subordinates' emotional exhaustion as derived by Riley et al. (2018) from the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach et al., 1996). A sample item is "I feel emotionally drained from my work." ...
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The main purpose of this study was to investigate reciprocal relationships between abusive supervision, subordinates’ emotional exhaustion, and job neglect, and to examine the mediating role of emotional exhaustion in the cross-lagged relationship between abusive supervision and job neglect. Besides, we tested the moderating role of self-compassion in the cross-lagged relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion. We applied a two-wave cross-lagged panel design with a time lag of six months. Participants were 331 staff nurses of public sector hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire at two points in time. Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to compare nested models. Results of cross-lagged SEM analyses supported the posited reciprocal model, indicating that abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, and job neglect are mutually related. Results of mediation analysis showed that emotional exhaustion partially mediates the cross-lagged relationship between abusive supervision and job neglect. Further, we found that self-compassion attenuates the positive cross-lagged effect of abusive supervision on emotional exhaustion, and the indirect effect of abusive supervision on job neglect was weaker at higher levels of self-compassion. Our findings suggest that subordinates may find themselves in abusive relationships, in part, because their own behavioral responses to abuse can reinforce abusive supervision. Moreover, we identified the stress-buffering effect of self-compassion on emotional exhaustion.
... Emotional exhaustion refers to a negative, job-related (subclinical) psychological quality of experience that occurs when job demands exceed available resources over time (Hobfoll, 1989). Emotional exhaustion is manifested by low energy and chronic fatigue (Maslach et al., 1996;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2015). Research shows that teachers' emotional exhaustion is strongly related to their working conditions (job demands) and, can be predicted by workload, for example (Pogere et al., 2019;Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2015). ...
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The worldwide imposed lockdowns forced schools and universities to digitise conventional teaching in a very short time and to convert teaching and learning formats partially or completely to Distance Learning. The changes in everyday teaching brought by Distance Learning were felt worldwide. With 22 double blind peerreviewed articles of researchers reporting on 17 different countries, the editors of this book want to shed light on the effects of Distance Learning in different regions of the world. This will allow for a value-free comparison of how the COVID-19 pandemic has been addressed in education in different parts of the world and what impacts it has had, is having or may have in the future. The book is fully available here: https://doi.org/10.56560/isbn.978-3-7011-0496-3
... decreased, absent from work experiencing illness or suffering from an illness. Burnout is allowed to continue to have a bad impact on the company, as Maslach (1996) argues, if burnout has been symptomatic among employees, there will be a phenomenon of employees who are explosive and easily emotional, which will be very detrimental to the company. ...
... Kerbela Mutasarrıflığından Menteşe Mutasarrıfına 7 Ağustos 1916 tarihinde tayin olunan 96 Asaf Bey, Dahiliye Nezaretine gönderdiği bir yazıda Muğla taburunun orduya çok jandarma gönderdiği ve yine bir başçavuş ile on sekiz neferin Aydın Jandarma taburu tarafından istenildiğini belirterek sancağa gerekli olan jandarma sayısının tamamlanabilmesi için bu askerlerin tekrar Menteşe'ye gönderilmesini talep etmişti. 97 Mutasarrıf Asaf Bey başka bir yazısında da Köyceğiz kazasında bir zamandan beri eşkıyalık yapan asker firarilerinden Espiro ile Belikırık İbrahim çetesi avanesinden Mestilli isminde iki eşkıyanın yakalandığını, diğer üç eşkıyanın kaçtığını belirterek takibata devam edildiğini beyan etmişti. Asaf Bey eşkıya faaliyetlerinin bu bölgede oldukça yoğun olduğunu belirterek Menteşe dahilindeki jandarmaların çoğunluğunun ordu emrine alınmasıyla eşkıya takibini "bir takım acezeden ibaret bulunan ikmal efradıyla" icra ettiklerini ve bunun da bir sonuç vermediğini belirtiyordu. ...
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Sosyal belediyecilik sosyal devlet anlayışının bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkmıştır ve günümüz belediyecilik anlayışının temelini oluşturmuştur. Bu anlayışa sahip belediyeler hizmetlerini gerçekleştirirken dezavantajlı grupları ön planda tutmuştur. Topluma adapte olmakta zorlanan dezavantajlı gruplar Covid-19 salgınından büyük ölçüde etkilenmiştir. Belediyeler dezavantajlı grupların karşılaştıkları olumsuz etkileri ortadan kaldırmak, bireylerin kent yaşamından uzaklaşmamalarını sağlamak ve ihtiyaçlarını gidermek için büyük emek sarf etmiştir. Belediyelerin sunduğu hizmetleri daha yakından gözlemleyebilmek için iki il belediyesi örnekleminde bu çalışma yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada kapsamında, Yalova Belediyesi ve Kırşehir Belediyesinin dezavantajlı gruplar için gerçekleştirdiği hizmet sunumları ve söz konusu hizmetlerin sunulabilmesi için ayrılan bütçeler, hizmetlerin ve bütçelerin mukayesesi, Covid-19 döneminde meydana gelen değişiklikler ele alınmıştır.
Article
When we think about the issues currently confronted by those who work in schools, stress and burnout among teachers and other practitioners is recognized as a widespread concern due to the adverse effects on students, schools, and communities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of job stress on the experienced burnout of teachers, and to examine the variability in burnout attributable to a specific psychological resource, namely, an individual's work‐related sense of coherence (Work‐SoC). A descriptive, cross‐sectional analysis was conducted using data collected through an online survey from 231 primary and secondary school teachers in the United States. Results from correlational and regression analyses demonstrate that two forms of work stress—perceived quantity and perceived quality—are important predictors of burnout. Further, Work‐SoC contributes to variability in teacher burnout even after accounting for perceived work and life stress, suggesting its important role in buffering teachers from the experience of burnout. Implications for practitioners for reducing teacher stress and burnout are discussed. 1. Educators across the United States experience job stress and burnout differently. 2. One set of factors that negatively impacts job stress and burnout are personal, individual characteristics which includes age, sex, and tenure status. 3. Another set of factors that negatively impact job stress are centered on the context of the school and community and includes percentage of non‐white students, Title I status, and “failing” school status. Educators across the United States experience job stress and burnout differently. One set of factors that negatively impacts job stress and burnout are personal, individual characteristics which includes age, sex, and tenure status. Another set of factors that negatively impact job stress are centered on the context of the school and community and includes percentage of non‐white students, Title I status, and “failing” school status.
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We examined well‐being profiles among Finnish employees before and during the COVID‐19 pandemic and their links with personality trait profiles. Longitudinal survey data were collected in 2019–2021, and 733 respondents participated in all five surveys. The data were analyzed with a person‐centered approach using latent profile analysis (LPA). Measures included burnout, work engagement, psychological distress; and Big Five personality traits. Six well‐being profiles: Disengaged, Declined, Engaged, Fluctuated, Stable, and Burned‐out, and four personality profiles: Ordinary, Reserved, Resilient, and Overcontrolled were identified. Resilient participants typically belonged to the Engaged well‐being profile and Reserved to Burned‐out and Fluctuated well‐being profiles. Although some separation in developmental well‐being profiles existed, overall, well‐being was rather stable. Personality trait profiles played a crucial role in maintaining well‐being.
Article
The most important factor in organizations is to get as much efficiency from human resources as possible and to benefit from trained manpower. While high motivation levels in employees provide individual benefits such as job satisfaction, being productive, and achieving success; It also contributes greatly to businesses with its aspects such as increasing productivity, having a low personnel turnover rate, and employing qualified personnel. For this, it is extremely important to develop and implement human resources strategies and to increase the motivation of employees. Motivation can be achieved by choosing different goals or motives in work environments. The choice of different goals and motives may be related to the level of burnout syndrome. In this study, the dark triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and their relations with the motivation mechanisms experienced by the employees at the workplace and the level of burnout, and the mediating role of motivation in the relationship between the dark triad personality traits and burnout were examined. The "Short Dark Triad Personality Test", "Motivation Sources Inventory" and "Burnout Inventory" scales were used to measure the employees' dark triad personality traits, work motivation, and burnout levels. The population of the research consists of employees working in various branches of a private bank operating in the Marmara Region; the sample consisted of Human Resources (HR) recruiters. The research was completed with the participation of 250 people. It was predicted that the dark triad personality traits would predict the development of certain sources of motivation in the workplace and to some extent be related to the burnout syndrome among HR recruiters. In addition, the mediating role of motivation in the relationship between dark triad personality traits and burnout was investigated. As a result; It was determined that there was a significant relationship between dark triad personality traits and motivation, between motivation and burnout, and motivation had a mediating role in the relationship between dark triad personality traits and burnout.
Article
Objetivo: discutir os desafios para a construção de uma política pública de segurança do paciente na Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) brasileira frente ao crescimento da síndrome de burnout entre seus profissionais. Metodologia: pesquisa bibliográfica e documental sobre a segurança do paciente e o burnout entre trabalhadores da APS utilizando o referencial dos direitos humanos e a matriz teórica de Maslach e Jackson. Resultados: o burnout possui implicações sanitárias severas nos profissionais da APS e repercute sobre o processo de trabalho das equipes, gerando prejuízos nas ações e estratégias de segurança do paciente. As políticas de segurança do paciente e de saúde do trabalhador no Brasil são dialógicas e complementares, mas mostram-se insuficientes para impactar o cenário do burnout na APS frente à estagnação e retrocessos vivenciados recentemente nesse nível de atenção. Considerações finais: a resposta institucional para a abordagem da síndrome de burnout na APS tem sido insatisfatória. Para além do arcabouço das políticas preexistentes, mostra-se urgente a realização de mudanças no financiamento da APS e no aporte de equipes multiprofissionais para a melhoria das condições de trabalho que, em última instância, refletem na segurança do paciente na rede primária.
Article
Objectives: Burnout occurs frequently in emergency medicine (EM) residents and has been shown to have a negative impact on patient care. The specific effects of burnout on patient care are less well understood. This study qualitatively explores how burnout may change the way EM residents provide patient care. Methods: Qualitative data were obtained from a sample of 29 EM residents in four semistructured focus groups across four institutions in the United States in early 2019. Transcripts were coded and organized into major patient care themes. Results: Residents described many ways in which feelings of burnout negatively impacted patient care. These detrimental effects most often fit into one of four main themes: reduced motivation to care for patients, poor communication with patients, difficult interactions with health care colleagues, and impaired decision making. Conclusions: According to EM residents, burnout negatively impacts several important aspects of patient care. Resident engagement with clinical care, communication with patients and colleagues, and clinical care may suffer as a result of burnout.
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