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The Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual

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... Research has shown that attitudes are not only strong predictors of behaviours towards the target groups, but also predictors of an individual's well-being (Kelly & Barnes-Holmes, 2013;Talmor, Reiter, & Feigin, 2007). In this line of research, studies on caregivers revealed that efforts to overcome negative beliefs and feelings about disability lead to stress (Hayes et al., 2004;Pruett & Chan, 2006), which in the long term can turn into burnout (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984;Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). ...
... For example, a teacher with burnout will no longer be available to his/her students. She/he may develop negative attitudes towards them and no longer feel she/he is a source of progress and positive change for them (Maslach et al., 1996). In sum, attitudes and burnout can be considered as relevant dimensions of the individual's emotional functioning and can also influence one another. ...
... Secondary trauma means that the person who is exposed to a traumatic event is also affected by the event at the same level (18). According to Maslach et al. (1997), occupational burnout is defined as the erosion experienced in integration with work. When the job is ignored and loses its meaning, the energies of the employees are depleted, as well as their competencies are reduced (19,20). ...
... According to Maslach et al. (1997), occupational burnout is defined as the erosion experienced in integration with work. When the job is ignored and loses its meaning, the energies of the employees are depleted, as well as their competencies are reduced (19,20). ...
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Objective: In this study, it is aimed to examine the compassion fatigue on anesthesia workers based on the relationship between patients and anesthesia workers. Method: The research was carried out with 185 anesthesia workers working in 4 different university hospitals in 3 different provinces (Kocaeli, İzmir, Konya) located in 3 different regions (Marmara, Aegean, Central Anatolia) in Turkey. Compassion Fatigue Short Scale developed by Adams et al. was used in the study. Since the obtained data are suitable for normal distribution, t test was used to compare paired groups and Anova test was used to compare more than two groups. Results: Considering the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, it is observed that 56.2% of the participants are women, 49.2% are associate degree graduates, 55.1% are married, and 80.5% are assistant anesthesia health workers. In addition, it is seen that 47.0% of them are between the ages of 28-33, 74.6% of them have a working year between 1-2 years and 51.4% of them work in Konya. Conclusion: As a result of the research, moderate (67,24) compassion fatigue was found in anesthesia workers. In addition, a significant difference was found between the staff status of the participants, the status of being on duty, the province they worked in, the title and the number of weekly operations, and compassion fatigue. In terms of gender, a significant difference was obtained only with the secondary trauma dimension.
... Herbert Freudenberg used the term "burnout" in the mid-1970s to describe the emotional exhaustion and lack of motivation and commitment experienced by volunteers working in alternative care environments (Maslach et al., 1996). Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism or self-detachment and reduced personal achievement that frequently occurs among individuals who do 'people work of some kind (Maslach and Jackson 1981). ...
... Secondary outcomes, which were also planned and a priori, were those thought to be related to the perceived stress of resident physicians including the reflected the causes and consequences of psychological distress suffered by physicians and included multiple well-validated measures: Abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory-9 (MBI) (Maslach et al., 1996), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (Beck et al., 1996), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (Beck & Steer, 1990), UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al., 1980), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (Buysse et al., 1989;Cole et al., 2006). ...
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Physicians are experiencing epidemic levels of work-related stress and burnout. Determine efficacy of mindfulness meditation delivered as a hybrid (in-person and digital) format to reduce perceived stress in pediatric residents. Pediatric residents (n = 66) were block randomized to a hybrid Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) intervention, comprised of one in-person 60–min session and 6-week access to a digitally delivered MAPs curriculum (n = 27) or wait-list control (n = 39). Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered at baseline and post-intervention as the primary outcome measure. A priori secondary outcomes were measured using the Abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory-9, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. After the first session, 58% participated at least one digital session (M = 2.0; SD = 1.3). MAPs participants showed significant decrease in PSS compared to controls, with between-group mean difference of 2.20 (95% CI 0.47–3.93) at post-intervention (effect size 0.91; 0.19–1.62). No secondary outcome group differences were detected. Exposure to a hybrid mindfulness intervention was associated with improvement in perceived stress among pediatric residents. Trial Registration: NCT03613441.
... Burnout is a psychological syndrome characterized by feeling ineffective at work, emotionally depleted, and/or cynical about clients or students (Maslach et al., 1997;Stamm, 2002). Professions requiring interactions with people pose a risk for burnout, and thus, teachers who are engaging with students and staff on a daily basis are at risk. ...
Article
Manifestations of teacher burnout have been negatively associated with students' academic achievement, school satisfaction, and perceived teacher support. The 2020–2021 school year presented unique challenges for teachers, who had to find new ways to support their students, their families, and themselves. This study examined teachers' experiences with secondary trauma, burnout, and self‐care during COVID‐19 at one K‐5 trauma‐informed school, the Wellington (pseudonym). We chose a mixed‐methods convergent design utilizing both qualitative and quantitative data to support the findings. Using three measures, the Professional Quality of Life Scale, Mindful Self‐Care Scale, and Teaching Self‐Efficacy Scale, in fall 2020 and spring 2021, we examined 19 faculty and educational staff members' perceptions of and experiences with secondary trauma, burnout, and self‐care. In spring 2021 we interviewed 13 of these teachers. Teachers noted how COVID‐19 brought increased responsibilities at home and school, as well as disrupted self‐care routines. However, data indicate stable compassion satisfaction, low secondary trauma, and average range burnout. Notably, faculty reported self‐care in the form of supportive relationships and sense of purpose. These findings suggest that a trauma‐informed approach may foster a supportive work environment, mitigating burnout. During the first year of COVID‐19, teachers and staff that embraced a trauma‐informed approach reported low to average burnout and high compassion satisfaction. At this school, a common understanding of the effect of trauma on students contributed to a supportive work environment consistent with collective self‐care. However, a fixed school schedule made attending to individual self‐care difficult for classroom teachers. During the first year of COVID19, teachers and staff that embraced a trauma‐informed approach reported low to average burnout and high compassion satisfaction. A common understanding of the effects of trauma on students contributed to a supportive work environment consistent with collective, relational self‐care. A fixed school schedule made attending to basic needs and engaging in individual self‐care acts difficult for classroom teachers. During the first year of COVID19, teachers and staff that embraced a trauma‐informed approach reported low to average burnout and high compassion satisfaction. A common understanding of the effects of trauma on students contributed to a supportive work environment consistent with collective, relational self‐care. A fixed school schedule made attending to basic needs and engaging in individual self‐care acts difficult for classroom teachers.
Chapter
When people talk about “spillover” work, the first thing they think of is the number of hours of overtime worked per week, compared to what is set out in the employment contract. The duration of the spillover could range from a few minutes to several hours per week or even per day. Clark's boundary theory is a theory about the balance between work and family domains. This chapter analyzes some characteristics of the organization or work that might encourage spillover work, based on the work of researchers. It discusses the impact of spillover, via technologies, on health. It then focuses on the impact of spillover on psychological health, and in particular on the issues of hyperconnection and addiction to connection, the need for recovery and burnout. The expressions continuous connection, telepressure, hyperconnection or mobiquity are used to describe situations in which there is a high reliance on information and communication technology.
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Aim The aim of this study was to assess the influence of perceived work environment, empowerment and psychological stress on job burnout among nurses working at the time of the COVID‐19 pandemic. Background Nurses experienced high levels of job burnout during the pandemic, which impacted their mental health and well‐being. Studies investigating the influence of work environment, empowerment and stress on burnout during the time of COVID‐19 are limited. Design The study utilized a cross‐sectional design. Methods Data were collected from 351 nurses in Oman between January and March 2021. The Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale were used to assess study variables. Results About two‐thirds of the nurses (65.6%) reported high levels of job burnout. Nurse managers' ability, leadership and support; staffing and resources adequacy; and nurses' access to support were significant factors associated with a reduced level of burnout. Conclusion Supporting nurses during the crisis, ensuring adequate staffing levels and providing sufficient resources are critical to lower job burnout. Creating a positive and empowered work environment is vital to enhance nurses' retention during the pandemic.
Article
Job burnout is a pressing issue for organizations, and this study explores the new Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT), which provides a robust calculation of burnt‐out risk. Next, the odds of high turnover intentions from burnt‐out risk are calculated using two samples: (1) N = 709 employees and (2) N = 313 managers. Analysis shows the odds of burnt‐out risk are higher for managers (17%) than employees (8%). High burnt‐out risk in employees shows a 47% likelihood of high turnover intent versus 13% for employees with nonburnt‐out risk. High burnt‐out risk in managers shows a 51% likelihood of high turnover intent versus 12% for managers with nonburnt‐out risk. Furthermore, moderating effects of supervisor organizational embodiment were found to interact with burnt‐out risk for employees only, showing the highest turnover intent when embodiment is high, reflecting the potential backlash against the organization. Burnout is a critical factor in turnover intentions, but the most popular measure has been widely critiqued. This study uses the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT), which more accurately captures employee burnout. It is the only burnout measure to provide a high burnt‐out risk calculation. Finding's show burnt‐out risk is higher for managers than employees. High burnt‐out risk is critical to high turnover intent, even after controlling for many common factors. Organizational implications highlight the importance of using BAT to test for burnout risk, especially among managers. Burnout is a critical factor in turnover intentions, but the most popular measure has been widely critiqued. This study uses the Burnout Assessment Tool (BAT), which more accurately captures employee burnout. It is the only burnout measure to provide a high burnt‐out risk calculation. Finding's show burnt‐out risk is higher for managers than employees. High burnt‐out risk is critical to high turnover intent, even after controlling for many common factors. Organizational implications highlight the importance of using BAT to test for burnout risk, especially among managers.
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