Performance and Economics of Production of Laying
Hens Fed Dried Bakery Waste
, O.A. Olafadehan* and J.B. Fapohunda
Department of Animal Science, University of Abuja
(Received April 04, 2009)
Olafadehan, O.O., Olafadehan, O.A. and Fapohunda, J.B. 2010. Performance and economics of production
of laying hens fed dried bakery waste. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 10: 169-175.
The response of laying hens fed graded levels of dried bakery waste (DBW) as partial replacement
of maize was investigated in an 8-week experiment using completely randomized design. Sixty four, 35
weeks old Isa brown layers were divided into four treatment groups of two replicates each consisting of
8 birds per replicate and assigned to four diets were formulated to containing 0% (control), 10, 20 and
30% levels of DBW. Feed intake, body weight gain, protein intake and egg weight did not differ
significantly (P>0.05) among the dietary treatments. Hen day production was higher (P<0.05) in 20
and 30% DBW diets than in 10% DBW and control. Efficiency of conversion feed to eggs was superior
(P<0.05) in DBW diets as compared with control; even among the DBW diets, it was better in 20 and
30% DBW than 10% DBW. Cost of feed consumed/day and feed cost/dozen egg were lower (P<0.05)
in DBW diets than the control and least in 30% DBW diet, though 20% DBW diet has an intermediate
position between 10 and 30% DBW diets. Savings on feed cost and feed cost/dozen egg were significantly
higher with 30% DBW followed by 20 and 10% DBW diets, respectively. Birds fed 30% DBW diets
exhibited best performance and the diet was most cost effective.
Key words : Bakery waste, Cost, Laying hens, Performance
The need to circumvent the problem of scarcity of feed of conventional ingredients
broadens the ingredient base of poultry feeds and reduces high cost of poultry feeds. The
growth of poultry industry in Nigeria has been militated against by scarcity and escalating
cost of conventional basal feedstuffs, notably maize. The exorbitant price of maize, the
major conventional energy source in poultry rations, has forced many farmers out of
Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology (2010) 10 : 169-175
Reprint request: Dr. O.A. Olafadehan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Animal Production Technology, Federal College of Wildlife Management, PMB 268, New
Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria
Federal College of Animal Health and Production, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria
production and this has further exacerbated animal protein consumption problem. This
is simply due to the keen competition between animals and humans, who extensively
utilize maize as a staple food as well as raw material in the brewery and confectionary
industries. This scenario therefore necessitates research into the utilization of relatively
cheap and available non-conventional basal energy source in order to avert the problem
of scarcity of maize and reduce the ever soaring cost of poultry production, mostly due
to high cost of feeding which has been reputed to account for 70% of cost of production
of eggs and poultry meat (Oluyemi and Robert, 2000). Efforts have been intensified in
the past few years into the use of cheaper industrial by-products and wastes at various
dietary inclusion levels for poultry to determine their efficiency of utilization in terms
of growth and production performances (Longe and Adetola, 1983; Adeniji and Balogun,
2002; Olayeni et al., 2007). Replacement of maize with dried bakery waste (DBW), one
of the industrial waste products, becomes justifiable, as many alternative sources had
been ventured into.
In Nigeria, DBW product is a mixture of large quantity of bread and small amounts
of cookies, cakes, flours and dough which have been mechanically separated from non-
edible materials artificially, dried and ground. Many years ago bakery by-product was
used in the west. Early in 1965, Damron and others provided evidence that DBW can
be included in broiler diets without adversely affecting their performance. Patrick and
Schaible (1980) reported that bakery products might be used to replace part of the grain
fed to poultry as energy source. Thomas et al. (1981) observed high variation in the
nutrient content of DBW samples produced at different plants. Recent studies in the
tropics on the inclusion of DBW in poultry diet, particularly laying hens, are scanty. The
study was therefore designed to investigate the replacement value of DBW for maize in
the diet of egg laying type of bird.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study area
The study was conducted at the poultry unit of the Federal College of Animal
Health and Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training,
Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Nigeria (Latitude 7
and Longitude 3
E). The area has a tropical humid climate with mean annual rainfall of 1415 mm and
the average daily temperature of between 28
C and 35
Experimental birds’ management
Sixty four Isa brown layers, with initial body weight of 1.74 ± 0.03 and balanced
for their weight, at 35 weeks of age raised in deep litter system were randomly allotted
to four treatments comprising 2 replicates each having 8 birds per replicate in a completely
randomized design in an 8-week experiment. Prior to the commencement of the experiment,
the pens were properly washed with detergent and disinfected with Morigad Lysol and
the floor was covered with new wood shavings. Enough feeders and drinkers were
provided. The birds were offered feed and water ad libitum. The initial and final weights
Olafadehan et al.
of the birds were taken at the beginning and the end of the experiment, respectively.
Feed intake and egg production were measured daily. The birds were weighed weekly
to determine changes in weight. Protein intake, efficiency of conversion of feed to eggs,
feed cost per dozen eggs and percent hen-day production were calculated.
Bakery waste products were obtained from local commercial bakeries in Ibadan
metropolis of Nigeria. Dirt and debris were removed manually. The resulting bakery
waste was collected and dried to a constant weight and tagged dried bakery waste
(DBW). This by-product was then ground (particle size 6mm) using Europe mill machine
and incorporated at 0, 25, 50 and 75% replacement for maize which corresponded to
graded inclusion levels of 0 (control), 10, 20 and 30% DBW in a practical layers diet.
The variable cost of feeding the layers was considered as the cost of the feeds as
all other costs (ie labour, capital investment, housing) were the same for all the treatments.
The cost of processing the DBW was included as the feed cost.
Chemical and statistical analyses
The proximate compositions of the DBW and experimental diets were determined
according to AOAC (1990) procedures. All the data collected were subjected to one way
analysis of variance procedure (Steel and Torrie, 1980) and treatment means were ranked
using Duncan’s multiple range test (1955). The statistical model focused primarily on
the effect of graded levels of DBW as the main treatment since birds are of the same
age and differences weight were balanced prior to commencement of the experiment.
The following model was thus used:
= ì + BW
dependent variable; ì = general mean; BW
= fixed effect of graded levels of
dried bakery waste and e
= random error.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chemical composition of the experimental diets is presented in Table 1.
Proximate analysis of DBW showed that it contained 87.46% dry matter, 9.50% crude
protein, 1.04% crude fibre, 1.62% ether extract, 2.03% ash and true metabolizable
), 3886 kcal/kg. True metabolizable energy was determined by equation
) (kcal/kg) = 4340 – 100 (CF) - 40 (Ash) - 30 (CP) + 10 (EE) as per Dale et
al. (1990). The CP of the DBW was lower than the CP range of 10.6 to 12.53% reported
for the same product elsewhere (Dale et al., 1990; Saleh et al., 1996; Al-Tulaihan et
al., 2004). The crude fibre content was much higher than the value of 0.18% reported
by Al-Tulaihan et al. (2004) but lower than the values of 2.25 and 2.50 reported by Dale
et al. (1990) and Saleh et al. (1996), respectively. The ether extract and ash contents
were fairly similar to the values of 1.6% and 1.83% indicated by Al-Tulaihan et al.
Performance of laying hens fed bakery waste
(2004), but were much lower than the values of 11.1% and 4.8% and 11.04 and 4.48%
observed by Dale et al. (1990) and Saleh et al. (1996), respectively. While the true
metabolizable energy was similar with the value (3859 kcal/kg) reported by Al-Tulaihan
et al. (2004), it was higher than the values (3630 kcal/kg and 3670 kcal/kg) reported by
Dale et al. (1990) and Saleh et al. (1996), respectively. The variations in the chemical
composition of DBW may be due to differences in ingredients composition and processing
methods. Al-Tulaihan et al. (2004) earlier reported lower fat and fibre contents of DBW
in Saudi Arabia because majority of the products in the Saudi bakeries are different kinds
of breads which are usually low in fat and fibre contents.
Table 1. Ingredients and composition of the experimental diets (%)
Dried bakery waste (%)
Maize 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00
Breadcrumbs 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00
Groundnut cake 13.00 13.00 13.00 13.00
Fish meal 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Corn bran 19.00 19.00 19.00 19.00
Palm kernel cake 14.50 14.50 14.50 14.50
Bone meal 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75
Oyster shell 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00
Methionine 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Lysine 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25
Salt 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30
Dry matter 90.73 91.39 91.18 90.89
Crude protein 16.89 17.06 17.21 17.35
Crude fibre 4.31 4.19 4.22 4.41
Ether extract 2.93 3.09 3.17 3.29
Ash 6.31 6.29 6.43 6.61
NFE 69.56 69.37 68.97 68.34
Methionine 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41
Lysine 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.69
Ca 3.72 3.76 3.76 3.78
P 0.60 0.62 0.65 0.68
ME (kcal/kg) 2603.85 2650.45 2697.05 2743.65
Contained per Kg diet: Vitamin A, 12,000,000 IU; Vitamin D3 2, 000, 000 IU; Vitamin E 7,000 IU; Vitamin
B2 4,000 mg; Nicotinic acid 15,000 mg; Calcium pantothenate 8,000 mg; Biotin 40 mg; Vitamin B12 10 mg;
Mn 20,000 mg; Fe 50,000 mg; Zn 100,000 mg; Cu 10,000 mg; Iodine 750 mg; Co 3000 mg.
Determined values except the methionine, lysine, calcium, phosphorus and ME which were calculated.
Olafadehan et al.
The performance of layers fed graded levels of DBW is presented in Table 3.
Though not significant (P>0.05), the feed intake declined progressively with increasing
levels of DBW in the diets. This is probably due to increasing energy and decreasing
CF levels of the diets and since birds eat primarily to satisfy their energy requirements,
this indicates that birds fed the control diet ate more to meet the energy demands for
egg production and body weight increase. The present result disagrees with the previous
report of Al-Tulaihan et al. (2004) and Anyanwu and Okoro (2006) who reported
significantly different feed intake among broilers fed dried bakery by-product and bread
waste, respectively. Protein intake showed the same pattern as the feed intake; it was
not significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments and declined progressively
with increasing levels of DBW in the diets. This is because nutrient intake is a function
of the feed intake as long as the nutrient composition of the diets is either the same or
within a close range. The crude protein content of the experimental diets in this study
was comparable (isonitrogenous). Though body weight gain of the layers was not significant
(P>0.05), it was numerically higher in birds fed DBW diets and increased with increasing
levels of bakery waste in the diets indicating that the bakery waste was efficiently utilized
by the birds. Egg weight was not significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the dietary
treatments. The present results are in consonance with the observation of Olayeni et al.
Table 2. Performance and comparative cost advantage of layers fed graded levels of dried bakery waste
Dried bakery waste (%)
Initial weight (kg) 1.72 1.75 1.78 1.70 0.03
Final weight (kg) 1.87 1.92 1.97 1.92 0.04
Body weight gain (kg) 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.03
Feed intake (kg) 7.44 7.10 6.90 6.67 0.51
Daily feed intake (g/day) 132.8 126.7 123.3 119.1 6.98
Protein intake (g/day) 22.43 21.62 21.22 20.66 0.95
Egg weight (g) 59.7 59.2 58.9 60.2 2.94
Hen day production (%) 70.23
Feed conversion (kg/dozen egg) 2.27
Mortality (%) 0.00 0.00 6.25 0.00 0.00
Cost/kg feed (N) 28.74 28.01 27.32 26.61
Cost of feed consumed/day (N) 3.84
Feed cost/dozen of egg (N/kg) 65.24
Saving on feed cost (%) - 7.55
Saving on feed/dozen egg (%) - 9.41
Means with different superscripts in the same row differ significantly, P<0.05.
Cost was determined using prevailing market price at the time of the experiment (April, 2003) 1USD= N120.
Performance of laying hens fed bakery waste
(2007) who indicated similar egg weight for birds fed biscuit waste diets. The non-
significant difference in the egg weight could be attributed to the similar age and weight
of the experimental birds because egg size and the proportion of its components are
strongly influenced by the age of the hen (Abdullah et al., 2003). Hen day production
(HDP) was higher (P<0.05) in birds fed 20 and 30% DBW diets than the control and
10% DBW diets which had similar values. The present results, which suggest better
utilization of DBW diets for improved productivity, indicate that DBW has a superior
nutritive value compared to maize. Various ingredients mixed together in course of
bakery products production must have undoubtedly enhanced their nutritive value as
compared to the whole grain. The HDP was higher than the value of 62.41–67.05%
noted by Akinola and Oruwari (2007) who evaluated replacement of maize with another
non-conventional energy ingredient, cassava, for laying hens. Olayeni et al. (2007) also
reported a much lower HDP of 55.35–61.00% for laying hens fed graded levels of
biscuit waste in replacement for maize. The differences in HDP in present study and that
of other studies may be due to variations in breed or strain of layers used, age, experimental
diets, environmental conditions and season of the experiment. Feed consumed/dozen egg
showed similar trend as the HDP; it was similar for birds fed 20 and 30% DBW but
better (P<0.05) in these diets than the control and 10% DBW diets which were
comparable. This implies that the birds fed 20 and 30% DBW consumed less feed to
produce more eggs than the control. Mortality record shows that only one bird was lost
and that was in birds fed 20% DBW diet. When expressed in percentage, this translated
to 6.25% mortality. However, this mortality was not due to the dietary inclusion of
DBW since postmortem examination showed no clinical signs and even the birds fed
higher level of DBW did not record any mortality.
The result of comparative cost advantage of inclusion DBW in layers diets is
shown in Table 2. The feed cost shows a reduction of N
730, N 1420 and N 2130/tonne
from the control to the 10, 20 and 30% DBW diets, respectively. Cost of feed consumed/
day and feed cost/dozen egg showed similar trend; they were higher (P<0.05) in the
control diet than the DBW diets and even among the DBW diets, they were higher
(P<0.05) in 10% than 30% DBW diet. The result shows that it is cheaper and more
economical to produce a dozen of eggs by feeding DBW and that even among the DBW
diets, 30% DBW was more cost effective than 10% DBW. This appears plausible
considering the better feed consumed/dozen egg and lower cost of DBW diets than the
control. Saving on feed cost and saving on feed cost/dozen egg relative to the control
showed a parallel trend and were significantly (P< 0.05) different among the DBW diets
in the following order: 30% > 20% > 10%. Inclusion of 30% DBW, which corresponded
to 75% replacement of maize with DBW, resulted in saving of 24.73% of the feed cost/
dozen egg produced as compared to the control diet.
It is thus concluded that DBW could be included at 30% in layers diet, which
is equivalent to 75% replacement of maize, without compromising performance but
rather improving it and benefits accruable to farmers. However, future study on 100%
Olafadehan et al.
replacement of maize with DBW, nutrient retention and even amino acid profile of DBW
which could have possibly enhanced the performance of the birds should be investigated.
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Performance of laying hens fed bakery waste