Article

Radiofrequency/Microwave Radiation Biological Effects and Safety Standards: A Review

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Several recent studies have implicated microwave radiation exposure from radar and GSM systems for a variety of effects such as body tissue heating (Taki & Watanabe, 2001), burns (Bolen, 1994), and a range of reproductive (e.g., Goldsmith, 1997;Zaroushani, Khavanin & Mortazavi, 2014), cytotoxic and genotoxic (e.g., Garaj-Vrhovac et al., 2011), cardiovascular (Bolen, 1994), carcinogenic (e.g., Atzmon et al., 2016), hematological (e.g., Sarimov et al., 2004), and neurological effects (e.g. Zhi, Wang, & Hu, 2017). ...
... Several recent studies have implicated microwave radiation exposure from radar and GSM systems for a variety of effects such as body tissue heating (Taki & Watanabe, 2001), burns (Bolen, 1994), and a range of reproductive (e.g., Goldsmith, 1997;Zaroushani, Khavanin & Mortazavi, 2014), cytotoxic and genotoxic (e.g., Garaj-Vrhovac et al., 2011), cardiovascular (Bolen, 1994), carcinogenic (e.g., Atzmon et al., 2016), hematological (e.g., Sarimov et al., 2004), and neurological effects (e.g. Zhi, Wang, & Hu, 2017). ...
... Zhi, Wang, & Hu, 2017). Studies have also shown that radar and GSM frequencies can induce cataracts (Goldsmith, 1997), tissue damage (Bolen, 1994), and reduced levels of leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytesblood cells responsible for blood clotting (Goldsmith, 1997). An Australian exposure survey study (Joyner & Bangay, 1986) reported the strong possibility of civilian airport radar workers getting exposed to hazardous MW radiation levels, especially when working on open waveguide or within transmitter cabinets. ...
... The Bolen 1994 report put out by the Rome Laboratory of the U.S. Air Force [5], acknowledged the role of non-thermal effects of microwave EMFs on humans. This report states in the Conclusion section that "Experimental evidence has shown that exposure to low intensity radiation can have a profound effect on biological processes. ...
... The nonthermal effects of RF/MW radiation exposure are becoming important measures of biological interaction of EM fields." Clearly Bolen [5] rejects the claim that only thermal effects occur. So we can see from these four reviews (1,(3)(4)(5), that there was already a well accepted literature on non-thermal effects of microwave frequency EMFs back in the 1970's through the mid-1990's but it is still the case that U.S. and international safety guidelines and standards are based solely on thermal effects. ...
... Clearly Bolen [5] rejects the claim that only thermal effects occur. So we can see from these four reviews (1,(3)(4)(5), that there was already a well accepted literature on non-thermal effects of microwave frequency EMFs back in the 1970's through the mid-1990's but it is still the case that U.S. and international safety guidelines and standards are based solely on thermal effects. 22 additional scientific published reviews have each reviewed various types of non-thermal microwave effects in humans and/or experimental animals in various contexts [2,, as have 26 studies in a recently published book [27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dozens of reviews and thousands of primary literature studies have shown the existence of many different non-thermal health effects of microwave and lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs); however current safety guidelines and standards only recognize thermal effects. This leaves both individuals and companies unprotected, particularly with the very large increases in microwave frequency exposures that are occurring over time. It has recently been shown that many, perhaps even all non-thermal health effects are produced by activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in the plasma membranes of cells, with EMFs activating these channels, producing large increases in intracellular calcium levels [Ca2+]i. The voltage sensor controlling the VGCCs is thought to be extremely sensitive to activation by weak EMFs. Diverse health effects are thought to be produced by downstream effects of increased [Ca2+]i produced by VGCC activation. It is difficult if not impossible to currently predict the biological effects of different EMFs because pulsation patterns, frequencies and EMF polarization each have strong influences on biological effects; there are also windows of exposure producing maximum biological effects within the exposure window. While decreasing exposures on the order of 100 to 1000-fold will no doubt be useful, we also need to have genuine biological measures of damage to allow optimization of both the type of EMF exposures as well as intensities. Biological optimization should be done by studying cells in culture that have high densities of various types of VGCCs, measuring such effects as increases in [Ca2+]i and increases in nitric oxide (NO) production following EMF exposures. Such cell culture-based assessment of biological damage should allow progressive improvement of wireless communication devices and various other electronic devices by choosing designs that lower biological responses.
... The nonthermal effects of RF/MW radiation exposure are becoming important measures of biological interaction of EM fields. " Clearly Bolen (1994) rejects the claim that only thermal effects occur. Bolen (1994) discusses a specific non-thermal neuropsychiatric effect, where anesthetized animals are awakened when the head is irradiated with microwave EMFs. ...
... he Conclusion section that " Experimental evidence has shown that exposure to low intensity radiation can have a profound effect on biological processes. The nonthermal effects of RF/MW radiation exposure are becoming important measures of biological interaction of EM fields. " Clearly Bolen (1994) rejects the claim that only thermal effects occur. Bolen (1994) discusses a specific non-thermal neuropsychiatric effect, where anesthetized animals are awakened when the head is irradiated with microwave EMFs. This suggests a similar mechanism to that acting in humans where such EMFs produce insomnia (see below). ...
Article
Full-text available
Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970's-80's provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression/depressive symptoms, fatigue/tiredness,dysesthesia, concentration/attention dysfunction, memory changes, dizziness, irritability, loss of appetite/body weight, restlessness/anxiety, nausea, skin burning/tingling/dermographism and EEG changes. In summary, then, the mechanism of action of microwave EMFs, the role of the VGCCs in the brain, the impact of non-thermal EMFs on the brain, extensive epidemiological studies performed over the past 50 years, and five criteria testing for causality, all collectively show that various non-thermal microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric effects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
... However, there is still great variation in the level of exposure which can be assessed only by individual measurement in controlled studies. A 1994 US Air Force report 30 gives important insights on early epidemiological evidence: "In response to earlier Soviet reports, the World Health Organization (WHO) decided to conduct a comprehensive study on the biological effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 1976, M. Zaret published the results of the study (reference found in [8]). ...
... Only a few studies investigated the effects of RF-EMF radiation on plants. The RF-EMF radiation is identified to have a biological effect on living organisms, and research over the many years has shown that the biological processes in living organisms are more responsive to low-intensity radiation (Bolen, 1988). Investigations in the field of effects of the weak RF-EMFs and radiation have focused on animals (Eberhardt et al., 2008;Finnie et al., 2009;Gannes et al., 2009;Hirota et al., 2009;Masuda et al., 2009;Nittby et al., 2011;Tang et al., 2015), plants (Gremiaux et al., 2016;Gustavino et al., 2016;Halgamuge et al., 2015;Kumar et al., 2015;Senavirathna et al., 2014a, b), epidemiological evidence (Benson et al., 2013;Hardell et al., 2005Hardell et al., , 2009Johansen et al., 2001;Linet et al., 2006;Schüz et al., 2006), children (Elliott et al., 2010;Li et al., 2012;Sudan et al., 2013a, b), human sleep research (Arnetz et al., 2007;Danker-Hopfe et al., 2010, 2015Leitgeb et al., 2008;Loughran et al., 2012;Lowden et al., 2011;Regel et al., 2007) and cell cultures (Hook et al., 2004;Kazemi et al., 2015;Kim et al., 2015;Koyama et al., 2015;Liu et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants. Subject and methods: In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work. Results: Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p < 0.0001), (ii) 1500 and 2400 MHz (p < 0.0001) and (iii) 3500 and 8000 MHz (p = 0.0161). Conclusion: The available literature on the effect of RF-EMFs on plants to date observed the significant trend of radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress proteins, etc.). This study should be useful as a reference for researchers conducting epidemiological studies and the long-term experiments, using whole organisms, to observe the effects of RF-EMFs.
Book
Full-text available
Effects [of exposure to 5G] include increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harm- ful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive systems, learning and memory deficits, neu- rological disorders, and negative impacts on general well-being in humans. Living organisms at all levels, the scientists added, are affected by exposure to electro- magnetic fields produced by smartphone devices and transmission towers. Damage is not limited to humans as there is growing evidence of harmful effects in both plant and animal life.
Article
Full-text available
With recent advances in millimeter-wave technology, including the availability of high-power sources in this band, it has become necessary to understand the biological implications of this energy for human beings. This paper gives the millimeter-wave absorption efficiency for the human body with and without clothing. Ninety to ninety-five percent of the incident energy may be absorbed in the skin with dry clothing, with or without an intervening air gap, acting as an impedance transformer. On account of the submillimeter depths of penetration in the skin, superficial SAR'S as high as 65-357 W/Kg have been calculated for power density of incident radiation corresponding to the ANSI guideline of 5 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>. Because most of the millimeter-wave absorption is in the region of the cutaneous thermal receptors (0.1 - 1.0 mm), the sensations of absorbed energy are likely to be similar to those of IR. For the latter, threshold of heat perception is near 0.67 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>, with power densities on the order of 8.7 mW/cm<sup>2</sup> likely to cause sensations of "very warm to hot" with a latency of 1.0+-0.6s. Calculations are made for thresholds of hearing of pulsed millimeter waves. Pulsed energy densities of 143-579 µJ/cm<sup>2</sup> are obtained for the frequency band 30-300 GHz. These are 8-28 times larger than the threshold for microwaves below 3 GHz. The paper also points to the need for evaluation of ocular effects of millimeter-wave irradiation because of high SAR's in the cornea.
Article
Hyperthermia was used in the treatment of cancer in 2000 B. C. Today, computer simulations of hyperthermia are beginning to produce two-dimensional numerical analysis. This paper discusses whole-body hypothermia, regional hypothermia and hypothermia therapy. Computer simulations are used to produce two dimensional models.
Article
The paper summarizes replicable biobehavioral effects including ocular and auditory effects and the low-level efflux of calcium ions from chick and cat cortex tissues exposed to sinusoidally modulated fields. Highlights of studies of long-term and ultra-long-term low-level exposures on rat behavior and blood and urine biochemistry are also given. The new ANSI C95 recommended safety standard and its rationale are presented, as are some of the present and potential medical applications including hyperthermia for cancer therapy. The paper concludes with identified gaps in knowledge where more research is needed. Copyright © 1982 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Article
The thermal response of a human in the near-zone of an antenna was determined by numerical procedures. The approach taken was to modify the heat transfer equations for man in air to account for thermal loading due to the energy absorbed from the radiating antenna. The absorbed power density distribution in the human body was determined by considering the body and antenna to be a coupled system in which the resulting system of equations were solved by moment method procedures. This information was then analyzed by a thermal response model consisting of a series of transient conduction equations with internal heat generation due to metabolism, internal convective heat transfer due to blood flow, external interaction by convection and radiation, and cooling of the skin by sweating and evaporation. Internal heating patterns were calculated for two cases: a human in the near-zone of a quarter-wave monopole and a half-wave dipole operating at 45 and 200 MHz, respectively. It was found that negligible heating occurred for antennas with input power levels of less than 50 W.
Article
Research on biological effects of RF radiation has undergone a turbulent series of swings in the United States during the last three decades. A peak of activity during the Tri‐Service era of the late 1950s and early 1960s was followed by a nadir—in 1965, not a single federal agency was supporting research in the area. The resurgence of research during the past decade—13 federal agencies or departments are now annually supporting a multi‐million dollar effort—is examined in the light of two related projects involving NASA: the proposed Space Power Station (SPS) and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). Interwoven in the complex of technological, economic, and political considerations that affect both projects is the eventuation of a new pragmatism—a moral retrenchment—that the author sees as a potential decline in the national spirit of outreach and enterprise. In the entirely justifiable search for bread and energy, the US may also be pursuing a course that starves and chills its national soul. This paper is not subject to U.S.
Article
The dynamics and complexity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) make it a very difficult system for study. The variety of techniques employed to assess microwave effects on the barrier all appear subject to limitations in either sensitivity or applicability. Inconsistencies in tracer characteristics, experimental design, and in the microwave parameters employed, i.e., microwave system used (pulsed or continuous wave), field orientation relative to the exposed animal, frequency, power density, and duration of exposure, anesthesia or physical restraint, all have lead to difficulties in interpreting results and replication of experiments. Therefore, the technical approach, as well as data obtained, must be carefully scrutinized to avoid misinterpretation of results that may lead to erroneous conclusions. Recent studies by Williams et al. have endeavored to consolidate various technical approaches within a single study in order to more clearly interpret potential microwave-blood-brain barrier interactions and to minimize extraneous factors which may confound these effects. Our findings, as well as those of other investigators, fail to confirm previously published reports of increased blood-brain barrier permeability in rats following exposure to microwaves. Our findings, however, support the conclusion that suppression of BBB permeability occurs, and that this effect is mediated by temperature-dependent changes in endothelial cell function, and not by qualities unique to microwave energy.
Article
Numerical calculations of absorbed energy deposition have been made for a block model of man that is defined with careful attention given to the biometric and anatomical features of a human being. CalcuIated post-resonant absorption and distribution of energy deposition through the body have better agreement with experimental results than previous calculations made using less realistic models.
Article
We have used numerical solutions and experiments with phantom models of man, and experiments with the Long Evans rat to show the existence of head resonance. Greatest absorption in the head region of man occurs at a frequency of about 375 MHz. Absorption is stronger for wave propagation from head to toe than it is when the electric field is parallel to the long axis. The highest absorption cross section for the human head is projected to be approximately 3.5 times its physical cross section. Copyright © 1979 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Article
Patterns of thermalized energy of rat carcasses exposed to 918-MHz CW radiation in the near zone have been determined using a computerized thermograph. Peak absorption of energy in the body was estimated to be 0.9 W/kg per mW/cm<sup>2</sup> of incident energy. Operant responses of irradiated rats to schedules of fixed-ratio (food) reinforcement under the same conditions as the dosimetric test were observed to occur at averaged power densities of 30-40 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>. This range of densities corresponds to absorbed peaks of energy of 27-36 W/kg. No change in behavior was observed for incident power densities and peaks of absorbed energy to 20-30 mW/cm<sup>2</sup> and to 18-27 W/kg, respectively, and all changes at higher values were reversible.
Article
The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured in over 650 locations in a full-scale model of man exposed in the far and near field of antennas at 350 and 915 MHz. The whole-body average, the body-parts average, and the distributions of the SAR’s are compared for three wave polarizations for the far and the near-field exposures. Effects on the energy deposition of the antenna type, gain, and location in the near field are discussed. Copyright © 1985 by The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
Article
Recent evidence indicates that neuroendocrine effects are induced by microwave exposure with a threshold intensity required for the onset of the response. The level of that threshold is dependent upon intensity and duration of exposure. The threshold can vary with the given endocrine parameter studied. The level of that threshold is yet unclear due to conflicting reports of effect in chronic or repeatedly exposed populations of man or experimental animals. The response of the endocrine systems appears to be a nonspecific stress reaction in the case of adrenocortical and growth hormone changes, but it is apparently a metabolically specific response to increased energy input in the case of pituitary-thyroid changes.
Article
Experimental investigations of microwave cataractogenesis, as well as the application of theoretical methods, suggest the involvement of thermal damage. Time-intensity cataract thresholds for acute exposures of rabbits indicate dose reciprocity. The induction of lens opacification following repeated exposure at intensities below the threshold for single-dose exposures suggests a cumulative component of lens damage and the existence of repair mechanisms. Repair mechanisms are also indicated, in experimental biochemical studies of microwave effects on rabbit lens epithelial cells with a 10-20-day cellular recovery period. Experimental studies have revealed a relationship between the site of ocular damage and radiation wavelength. Cataract induction has also been reported in humans accidentally overexposed to microwave radiation. Although dosimetric data is not adequate to specify exposure thresholds, acute lens opacification in humans appears to involve thermally induced lens damage that occurs at exposure intensities of 100 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>or greater. Epidemiological studies of workers have in some instances suggested that occupational microwave exposure may result in lens alterations but there is no evidence that such effects are associated with visual impairment or cataract formation.
Article
The paper gives the EM absorbed dose for man and animals at various frequencies for the plane wave irradiation condition for different orientations of the body relative to incident fields. Also included are the results for the whole-body absorption for conditions of electrical contact with ground and in the presence of reflecting surfaces of high conductivity and multiple animals. The data are given for the ditribution of power deposition in man models for the resonance conditions of highest whole-body electromagnetic absorption. The highlights of the results obtained with proportionately scaled saline- and biological-phantom-filled models of man have been confirmed by experiments with small laboratory animals, from 25-g mice to 2250-g rabbits.
Article
Effects of nonionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields that raise tissue temperature in general differ very little from effects of hyperthermia induced by other means. However, fields raising tissue temperature orders of magnitude less than 0.1°C may result in major physiological changes not attributable to raised temperature per se. These weak fields have been observed to produce chemical, physiological, and behavioral changes only within windows in frequency and incident energy. For brain tissue, a maximum frequency sensitivity occurs between 6 and 20 Hz. Two different intensity windows have been seen, one for ELF tissue gradients around 10<sup>-7</sup>V/cm, and one for amplitude modulated RF and microwave gradients around 10<sup>-1</sup>V/cm. The former is at the level associated with navigation and prey detection in marine vertebrates and with control of human biological rhythms; the latter is at the level of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in brain tissue. Coupling to living cells appears to require amplifying mechanisms that may be based on nonequilibrium processes, with long-range resonant molecular interactions. These cooperative processes are now recognized as important in immune and hormonal responses, as well as in nerve cell excitation. Polyanionic proteinaceous material forming a sheet on cell membrane surfaces appears to be the site of detection of these weak molecular and neuroelectric stimuli.
Article
When human subjects are exposed to rectangular pulses of microwave radiation, an audible sound occurs which appears to originate from within or behind the head. It has been shown that electrophysiological auditory activity may be elicited by exposing the brains of laboratory animals to rectangular pulses of microwave energy. These results suggest that a microwave auditory phenomenon is evoked by a mechanism similar to that responsible for conventional sound reception and that the primary site of interaction resides peripheral to the cochlea. A comparison of the pressure amplitudes, such as those produced in a homogeneous planar layer of brain matter that is irradiated by a microwave pulse, indicates that the peak pressure due to thermal expansion is much greater than either radiation pressure or electrostriction. Theoretical analyses for a spherical brain based on the thermoelastic mechanism of interaction were found to agree with experimentally observed characteristics and indicate also that the induced sound frequency is only a function of the size and acoustic property of the brain. A few suggestions have been made for future research aimed at furthering our knowledge on microwave auditory effect and its health implications.
Article
A large amount of literature on the biological effects of microwave radiation has been obtained from the Soviet Union and other Eastern European countries since 1973. This literature reports changes in almost all biological systems at exposure power densities less than 10 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>. Since 1976 an increased amount of data using long-term microwave exposures at power density levels below 10 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>has been published. An overview of research results reported since 1976 are presented in this paper.
Article
Evidence of teratogenesis after exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) fields has been sought in investigations of several species. This review summarizes reports of teratogenic effects in mammals. Investigations performed on the laboratory mouse and rat have revealed that exposure to intense RF fields can result in reduced body mass, in specific anatomical abnormalities (especially exencephaly), and in an increase in resorptions of the fetus. The small number of investigations and clinical reports on human subjects is inconclusive. Whether the reported teratogenesis in infrahuman mammals is derived primarily from thermal stress or results from interactions involving field specific effects and heating has not been determined. The data to date do indicate that there is a marked dose-response relation such that only intense fields that result in significant heating are associated with reliable induction of teratogenesis.
Article
Electromagnetic waves from the lower radio frequencies up through the optical spectrum can generate a myriad of effects and responses in biological specimens. Some of these effects can be harmful to man at high radiation intensities, producing burns, cataracts, chemical changes, etc. Biological effects have been reported at lower radiation intensities, but it is not now known if low-level effects are harmful. Even behavioral changes have been reported. Most of the effects are not harmful under controlled conditions, and can thereby be used for therapeutic purposes and to make useful diagnostic measurements. The problem of microwave penetration into the body with resultant internal power absorption is approached from both the theoretical and the experimental viewpoints. The results are discussed in terms of therapeutic warming of tissues and possible hazards caused by internal "hot spots." The absorption and scattering effects of light in biological tissues are reviewed. Molecular absorption peaks in the optical spectrum are useful for making molecular concentration measurements by spectroscopy. Much of the related work in the literature is summarized, some new results are presented, and several useful applications of wave energy and medical instruments are discussed.
Carcinogenic Properties of Non-ionizing Radiation; Volume H -Microwave and Radiofrequency Radiation
  • M J Dwyer
  • D B Leeper
M. J. Dwyer and D. B. Leeper, 'Carcinogenic Properties of Non-ionizing Radiation; Volume H -Microwave and Radiofrequency Radiation", National Institute for Occupational Safety Technical Report, published by The U. S. Department of Health, Education & Welfare, NIOSH Contract Number 210-76-0145, Cincinnati, March 1978.
Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation
Occupational Health; Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation, AFOSH Standard 161-9 enacted 12 February 1987.
14 -The Tri-Service Program -A Tribute to George M. Knauf USAF (MC)
  • Disuion With Capt Richard Speer
  • Usaf Brooks
Disuion with Capt Richard Speer, USAF, Brooks AFB, April 1988. [14 -The Tri-Service Program -A Tribute to George M. Knauf USAF (MC)", IEEE Transactions Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MrI-19, pp. 131-146, 1971.
Analeptic Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Experimental Animals
  • R D Mcafee
R. D. McAfee, "Analeptic Effect of Microwave Irradiation on Experimental Animals", IEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. MTT-19, pp. 251-252, 1971.
Effects of Chronic Microwave Irradiation on Mice
'Effects of Chronic Microwave Irradiation on Mice", IRE Transactions Biomedical Engineering, pp. 104-108, 1962.
Noniozing Radiation Damage in the Eye
  • R L Mccally
  • R A Farrell
  • C B Bargcron
  • H A Kues
  • B F Hochheimer
R. L. McCally, R. A. Farrell, C. B. Bargcron, H. A. Kues, and B. F. Hochheimer, "Noniozing Radiation Damage in the Eye', Johns Hopkins APL Technologies Digest, vol. 7, pp. 73-91, 1986.
Electricity and Cancer: Coincidence or Reality?
  • Glenn Coin
Glenn Coin, "Electricity and Cancer: Coincidence or Reality?", The Observer Dispatch, pp 5B, Jan 24, 1993.
An Invisible Intruder
  • Glenn Coin
Glenn Coin, 'An Invisible Intruder', The Observer Dispatch, pp IB & 5B, Jan 24, 1993.