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Kinanthropometric comparison between young elite kayakers and canoeists

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The aims of this study were to describe and compare kinanthropometric characteristics of elite young kayakers and canoeists and to compare their proportionality with Olympic paddlers. One hundred and twenty young elite sprint paddlers (66 kayakers and 58 canoeists), aged 13- and 14-years-old, were assessed using a battery of 32 anthropometric dimensions. Somatotypes, Phantom Z-scores and corrected girths were calculated. Comparison between kayakers and canoeists showed that kayakers had greater height, body weight, sitting height, arm span and upper body lengths, breadths and girths than canoeists. Higher proportional humerus breadth and arm girths were also found in kayakers. However, canoeists had higher Z-scores in femur breadth. Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimensions in upper body girths, and biacromial breadth in both disciplines. Mean somatotypes of kayakers were best described as balanced mesomorphs, while canoeists were ecto-mesomorphs. Differences between kayak and canoe paddlers may be explained by the continual need for physical development in kayakers, in order to remain competitive, compared to the young canoeists' need to place much greater emphasis on the development of their technical ability. The data provided in this study could be used as a guideline for talent identification in sprint canoeing and kayaking.
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F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
dler is seated and the force is transmitted to the boat
through the seat and the foot-rest, whereas canoeists are
in a high kneeling position (up on one knee) in the boat.
Fu rthermore, kaya kers propel by means of a double-blade
paddle alternately on both sides of the boat and steering
is accomplished with a rudder attached with cords to a
tiller controlled by the feet, while canoeists do it with a
single-blade paddle always on the same side of the canoe
and use steering strokes to control their direction.
During the last 30 years, a considerable amount of lit-
erature has been published on biomechanical analysis of
paddling technique14–19 and analyzing pacing strate-
gies20 –22 for both canoeing and kayaking. However, only a
few research reports deal with the comparison of anthro-
pometric attributes of elite kayakers and canoeists. In a
review of the science and medicine of canoeing and kaya-
king, Shephard23 reported the results published by Ar-
A con sidera ble amount of liter ature has been publishe d
on anthropometric and body composition differences be-
tween playing positions. Most of these studies were fo-
cused on team sports such as soccer1,2, rugby, Australian
and American football3–5, volleyball6, basketball7–9, and
water-polo10. All pointed out that there were signifi cant
differences between playing position. Furthermore, in in-
dividua l spor ts some d ifferenc es have been found between
athletics disciplines11, swimming styles10 or lightweight
and open-class rowing12,13.
Both sprint kayaking and canoeing differ from rowing
in that rowers sit backwards, facing the stern of the boat
and the oar is attached to the boat sitting on a rowlock,
whereas paddlers move in the direction of the view and
the paddle is not att ached to anyth ing but t he ha nds of the
kayaker or canoeist. There are also some differences be-
tween sprint kayaking and canoeing. In kayak, the pad-
Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119 –126
Original scientifi c paper
Kinanthropometric Comparison between Young Kinanthropometric Comparison between Young
Elite Kayakers and CanoeistsElite Kayakers and Canoeists
Fernando AlacidFernando Alacid1, Michael Marfell-Jones, Michael Marfell-Jones2, José Maria Muyor, José Maria Muyor3, Pedro Ángel López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel López-Miñarro4 and and
Ignacio MartínezIgnacio Martínez5
1 Universidad Católica San Antonio, Department of Physical Activity and Sports, Murcia, Spain
2 The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand
3 Universidad de Almería, Department of Physical Education, Almería, Spain
4 Universidad de Murcia, Department of Physical Education, Murcia, Spain
5 Universidad de Murcia, Department of Physiotherapy, Murcia, Spain
A B S T R A C TABSTRACT
The aims of this study were to describe and compare kinanthropometric characteristics of elite young kayakers and
canoeists and to compare their proportionality with Olympic paddlers. One hundred and twenty young elite sprint pad-
dlers (66 kayakers and 58 canoeists), aged 13- and 14-years-old, were assessed using a battery of 32 anthropometric di-
mensions. Somatotypes, Phantom Z-scores and corrected girths were calculated. Comparison between kayakers and ca-
noeists showed that kayakers had greater height, body weight, sitting height, arm span and upper body lengths, breadths
and girths than canoeists. Higher proportional humerus breadth and arm girths were also found in kayakers. However,
canoeists had higher Z-scores in femur breadth. Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimensions in upper body
girths, and biacromial breadth in both disciplines. Mean somatotypes of kayakers were best described as balanced meso-
morphs, while canoeists were ecto-mesomorphs. Differences between kayak and canoe paddlers may be explained by the
continual need for physical development in kayakers, in order to remain competitive, compared to the young canoeists’
need to place much greater emphasis on the development of their technical ability. The data provided in this study could
be used as a guideline for talent identifi cation in sprint canoeing and kayaking.
Key words: anthropometry, adolescent, somatotype, proportionality, canoeing/kayaking
IntroductionIntroduction
Received for publication June 17, 2011
120
F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
mand24, where kayakers were a little taller and 6.0 kg
heavier than canoeists, while Hirata25 found a mean dif-
ference of 3.5 cm in stature and 2.9 kg in body mass be-
tween kayakers and canoeists who won a gold medal at
the Montreal, Tokyo and Munich Olympic Games. Misigoj-
Durakovic & Heimer26 examined the morphological char-
acteristics of 29 sprint paddlers (18 kayakers and 11 ca-
noeists), candidates for the 1987 Universiade, concluding
that there were no signifi cant differences between the two
disciplines. At the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, sprint
and slalom kayak and canoe paddlers were measured in
the Oz2000 Sydney Olympic Rowing, Canoeing and Kay-
aking anthropometry project27,28. Ridge et al.28 compared
12 slalom kayakers with 19 slalom canoeists, and found
that canoe paddlers possessed a greater sum of 8 skinfolds
and consequently higher ratings of endomorphy. There
was also a trend for canoeists to have a greater thigh girth
than kayakers, which could be attributed to a large thigh
skinfold.
In Spain, 13 and 14 year-old paddlers compete over
3000 m in single kayak or canoe in National Cups, and at
the National Championship over 1000 m in single, double
or quadruple boats. Once the competition season has fi n-
ished, National Development Camps are held in order to
facilitate the technical and morphological evolution of the
young paddlers. These camps provide an opportunity to
carry out comprehensive anthropometric investigations.
Therefore, the aims of this study were: to utilize the op-
portunity of the Development Camps (1) to describe and
compare body dimensions, somatotype and proportional-
ity of elite male young kayakers and canoeists; (2) to com-
pare the proportionality of young kayakers and canoeists
with Olympic paddlers; and (3) to establish an anthropo-
metric profi le for 13 and 14 year-old kayakers and canoe-
ists to be used for talent identifi cation and training.
Materials and MethodsMaterials and Methods
ParticipantsParticipants
One hundred and twenty four young elite male sprint
paddlers (66 kayakers and 58 canoeist; 13- and 14-year-
olds) were measured using a battery of 32 anthropometric
dimensions. They were selected by the Royal Spanish Ca-
noeing Federation as the best in their categories to par-
ticipate in the 2006, 2007 and 2008 National Development
Camps. The Institutional Ethical Committee of the Uni-
versity of Murcia approved the study and written informed
consent form was obtained from the parents of all the boys
before participation.
Data collectionData collection
All variables (listed in Table 1) were measured by a
Level 2 anthropometrist certifi ed by the International So-
ciety for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK),
in accordance with the ISAK guidelines29. Variables were
taken twice, or three times (if the difference between the
rst two measures was greater than 5% for skinfolds and
1% for the rest of the dimensions), with the mean or me-
dian values, respectively, used for data analyzis. The tech-
nical error of measurement scores was required to be
within 5% for skinfolds and within 1% for the remaining
variables.
Body mass was measured using a SECA 862 (SECA,
Germany), stretch stature, sitting height, arm span, 2 di-
rect lengths and 7 breadths with a GPM anthropometer
(Siber-Hegner, Switzerland), 11 girths with a metallic
non-extensible tape Lufkin W606PM (Lufkin, USA) and
8 skinfolds with a Harpenden skinfold caliper (British
Indicators, UK).
Data analysisData analysis
Means, standard deviations and Phantom Z-scores
were calculated for all variables. The equations of Carter
& Heath30 were used to calculate anthropometric somato-
types and the Phantom Stratagem31 was used to ca lculate
Z-scores of each raw variables. Body mass index (BMI),
sums of six and eight skinfolds were calculated. Girths
were corrected for the skinfold at the corresponding site
using the formula: corrected girth = girth – (π · skinfold
thickness).
Data were a nalyz ed separately for kayakers a nd canoe-
ists. The hypotheses of normality and homogeneity of the
variance were analyzed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov and
Levene tests, respectively. Parametric analysis was per-
formed because the data were normally distributed. An
independent t-test was conducted to examine differences
between both groups (kayakers and canoeists) for all de-
pendent vari ables. p va lues le ss tha n 0.05 were c onsidered
statistically signi cant. Analyses were performed using
the SPSS 15.0 statistical software package.
Results and DiscussionResults and Discussion
Absolute body sizeAbsolute body size
Table 1 presents the anthropometric absolute size of
the two groups. Comparison between kayakers and canoe-
ists revealed that kayakers had higher values in all the
variables analyzed, with the same chronological age. Sig-
nifi cant differences were found in body mass, stretch stat-
ure, sitting height, arm span, arm length, all the breadths
except for the transverse chest and femur breadths and all
the girths with the exceptions of the upper- and mid-thigh
girths. The ndings of the current study were consistent
with those of Shephard23 who r epor ted a higher body mass
and stretch stature in elite kayakers and contrast with
those of Misigoj-Durakovic & Heimer26. Another impor-
tant fi nding was that the greatest differences between
kayakers and canoeists were found in upper body mea-
sures such as trunk and arm breadths and girths. Prior
studies had noted the importance of these measures and
their relationships with race performance in kayaking32–34.
However these associations had not previously been de-
scribed in canoeing. In terms of sums of six and eight
skinfolds, the results obtained by kayakers and canoeists
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F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
were similar. These results differed from Ridge et al.28 who
found a greater sum of six and eight skinfolds in elite
slalom canoeists (kayakers: 31.3±5.7 mm and 45.8±9.0
mm, respectively; canoeists: 38.1±5.5 mm and 57.1±9.4
mm, respectively), but they were broadly consistent with
those reported by Misigoj-Durakovic & Heimer26 in sprint
paddlers (sum of fi ve skinfolds: kayakers: 29.8±8.0 mm;
canoeists: 31.9±7.7 mm).
These results may be explained by the fact that those
beginning paddling activities usually start in kayaking,
because it is easier to keep the s tabi lity i n lear ner k ayak s.
Subsequently some paddlers change to canoeing as their
competitive discipline, though most of them keep on kaya-
king and do not change. Those who continue as kayakers
mus t continue to i mprove thei r strength in ord er to rem ain
competitive. Those who change to canoeing, however, need
to adapt to an event which places far greater emphasis on
technique since canoeists paddle without the help of a rud-
der and on only one side of the canoe. It is diffi cult to keep
the canoe going in the right direction in good conditions
and much more diffi cult in windy conditions. Therefore,
particularly in young canoeists, paddling technique is far
more important than physical development in order to
achieve good results.
Furthermore, the ratio of kayakers to canoeists in the
National Competitions run by the Royal Spanish Canoe-
ing Federation in the seasons 2006, 2007 and 2008 was
approximately 3:1. Thus, it is easier to be selected for the
Annual National Development Camps in canoeing (than
in kayaking) because there are only a third as many com-
petitors. This difference in the number of competitors in
each discipline could be considered as a limitation of this
study.
ProportionalityProportionality
Body mass index did not show any signi cant differ-
ence between kayakers (20.97±2.35 kg m2) and canoeists
(20.34±3.09 kg·m2).
Table 2 shows that the kayakers possessed signifi cant
higher proportional humerus breadth and arm relaxed,
exed and tensed, and corrected arm and forearm girths
than canoeists. Nevertheless, canoeists had higher Z-
scores in femur breadth. This result may be explained by
the fact that the implication of leg muscles in the paddling
movement in canoeing is greater than in kayaking17. No
signifi cant di fferences were found in proportional charac-
teristics in the rest of the measures.
The proportionality characteristics of young kayakers
and canoeists compared to Olympic paddlers27 are dis-
playe d in Fig ure 1. The dif ferences between the y oung a nd
word-class paddlers were similar in both disciplines. As
expected, the Olympic paddlers were proportionally larger
in all measures except the sum of eight skinfolds and fe-
mur breadth. The larger proportional skinfold sum in the
young con rmed the pr opor tiona lly leaner physique of t he
elite paddlers, whereas the larger proportional femur
breadth typi ed the morphology of 13 and 14 year old boys
(as compared to fi t adu lts) whether they be padd lers or not.
SomatotypeSomatotype
Individual and mean somatoplots for young kayakers
and canoeists are presented in Figure 2. With mean so-
TABLE 1TABLE 1
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ABSOLUTE SIZE OF
YOUNG SPRINT K AYAKERS AND CA NOEISTS
Var i able Kayakers
(N=66)
Canoeists
(N=58)
Age (years) 13.69±0.58 13.65±0.62
Paddling experience (years) 3.92±1.89** 2.97±1.40
Weekly training (hours) 7.20±1.55 7.16±1.44
Body mass (kg) 59.96±9.31* 55.08±12.06
Sum 6 skinfoldsa (mm) 64.86±23.67 64.70±37.76
Sum 8 skinfoldsb (mm) 82.13±30.55 80.57±47.64
Stretch stature (cm) 168.75±6.58** 163.71±8.72
Sitting height (cm)
88.29±4.23**
85.07±5.30
Arm span (cm) 172.82±8.19** 167.87±11.00
Arm length (cm) 31.38±1.59** 30.46±1.91
Forearm length (cm) 24.28±1.51 23.80±2.11
Biacromial breadth (cm) 37.63±2.06** 36.13±2.63
Biiliocristal breadth (cm) 29.18±2.67* 28.16±2.61
A-P chest depth (cm) 19.09±1.48* 18.38±1.81
Transverse chest breadth (cm) 27.42±2.06 26.72±2.58
Humerus breadth (cm)
6.93±0.34**
6.59±0.53
Femur breadth (cm) 9.73±0.50 9.64±0.60
Wrist breadth (cm)
5.62±0.30**
5.40±0.38
Arm girth relaxed (cm) 26.67±2.70** 24.98±2.82
Corrected arm girth (cm)
23.55±2.26**
21.85±2.20
Arm girth exed and tensed (cm)
29.62.72** 27.57±2.75
Forearm girth (cm) 25.03±1.87** 23.53±1.95
Wrist girth (cm)
16.23±0.89**
15.64±1.17
Chest girth (cm) 86.16±5.87** 82.75±8.35
Waist girth (cm) 73.80±6.50* 70.69±8.92
Hip girth (cm) 87.95±6.21* 85.27±7.44
Upper-thigh girth (cm) 53.50±5.11 51.69±5.49
Mid-thigh girth (cm) 47.84±4.06 46.29±4.76
Corrected mid-thigh girth (cm) 43.42±3.15* 41.77±3.89
Calf girth (cm) 33.62±2.54* 32.48±3.05
Corrected calf girth (cm) 30.41±2.08** 28.95±2.78
Ankle girth (cm) 22.47±1.40* 21.83±1.85
aSum of triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh
and medial calf
bSum of triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, ab-
dominal, front thigh and medial calf
Signifi cant difference from canoeists (*p<0.05; **p<0.01)
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F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
matotypes of 2.7–4.8–3.1, the kayakers were best de-
scribed as balanced mesomorphs, while the canoeists, at
2.6–4.5–3.2, were ecto-mesomorphs. The somatotype at-
titudinal mean (SAM), as a measure of the average disper-
sion of individual somatotypes from the group mean, in-
dicated a higher homogeneity in kayakers (1.49) than in
canoeists (1.71).
The young male paddlers were less lean, robust mus-
culoskeletally and compact than Olympic sprint (1.6–5.7–
2.2) and slalom (1.7–5.4–2.5) paddlers27, 28. The somato-
type for both disciplines was similar in kayakers and
canoeists. The main difference with respect to Olympic
paddlers’ somatotype lays in a lower mesomorphy, as was
to be expected because of signi cant age difference. The
variation from the mean somatotype was higher in young
paddlers than in Olympic sprint paddlers27, with SAM
values of 1.1.
The somatotype attitudinal distance (SAD) between
the mean somatotype of young paddlers and Olympic
TABLE 2TABLE 2
RELATIVE SIZE CHA RACTERISTICS F ROM PHANTOM
Z-SCORES OF YOUNG SPRINT K AYAKERS AND CA NOEISTS
Var i able Kayakers
(N=66)
Canoeists
(N=58)
Z Body mass –0.39±0.75 –0.40±0.94
Z Sum 6 skinfoldsa–1.47±0.67 –1.42±1.10
Z Sum 8 skinfoldsb–1.47±0.69 –1.45±1.10
Z Sitting height –0.20±0.45 –0.33±0.65
Z Arm span 0.26±0.54 0.28±0.69
Z Arm length –0.50±0.62 –0.49±0.57
Z Forearm length 0.06±0.86 0.11±0.94
Z Biacromial breadth –0.05±0.74 0.26±0.83
Z Biiliocristal breadth 0.32±1.23 0.24±1.14
Z A-P chest depth 1.26±0.90 1.17±1.22
Z Transverse chest breadth –0.15±1.07 –0.10±1.08
Z Humerus breadth 1.45±0.83* 1.06±1.02
Z Femur breadth 0.62±1.00* 1.07±1.04
Z Wrist breadth 1.63±0.99 1.45±0.96
Z Arm girth relaxed 0.00±1.03* 0.41±1.00
Z Corrected arm girth 0.88±1.00** 0.34±0.89
Z Arm girth fl exed and tensed
0.18±0.97** –0.33±0.91
Z Forearm girth 0.07±1.11** –0.48±1.06
Z Wrist girth 0.03±1.06 0.14±1.15
Z Chest girth –0.19±0.90 –0.37±1.24
Z Waist girth 0.56±1.28 0.36±1.89
Z Hip girth –1.07±0.88 –1.09±0.96
Z Upper-thigh girth –0.44±1.09 0.50±1.11
Z Mid-thigh girth –1.09±0.77 –1.12±0.83
Z Corrected mid-thigh girth 0.90.71 –1.10±0.78
Z Calf girth –0.58±1.02 0.65±1.04
Z Corrected calf girth 0.23±0.95 0.07±1.13
Z Ankle girth 0.72±0.99 0.73±1.03
aSum of triceps, subscapular, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh
and medial calf
bSum of triceps, subscapular, biceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, ab-
dominal, front thigh and medial calf
Signifi cant difference from canoeists (*p<0.05; **p<0.01)
Fig. 1. Proportionality (Phantom Z-Scores) of young kayakers
and canoeists comparing with Olympic paddlers27.
Fig 2. Somatoplots of sprint kayakers and canoeists. Large
circle = mean profi le each group.
123
F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
sprint paddlers was 1.7 and 1.9 for kayakers and canoeists,
respectively. Furthermore, the lower heterogeneity and
values of SAD from the somatotype of Olympic paddlers
and the higher mesomorphy could be related with the ne-
cessity of a greater physical development to achieve a good
result and for being selected in National Development
Camps in young kayakers.
ConclusionsConclusions
One of the more signifi cant fi ndings emerging from
this study is that young kayakers were heavier, taller,
with greater sitting height, arm span, arm length, upper
body breadths and girths than canoeists. These differ-
ences may be explained by the continued need for physical
development in kayakers, in order to remain competitive,
whereas young canoeists need to place a much greater
emphasis on the development of their technical ability.
Mean somatotypes of both kayakers and canoeists were
very similar, although kayakers were best described as
balanced mesomorphs, while canoeists were ecto-meso-
morphs. Proportionality is a useful tool for talent identi-
cation; Olympic paddlers had higher proportional dimen-
sions in arm fl exed and tensed, chest and waist girths, and
biacromial breadth than young paddlers. This study offers
the anthropometric profi le of the young elite kayakers and
canoeists, which could be used as a guideline for talent
identi cation in sprint canoeing and kayaking.
AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements
This study was supported by grant nº 11951/PI/09
(Evolution of sagittal spinal curvatures, hamstring exten-
sibility, low back pain, and anthropometric characteristics
in elite paddlers) from the Fundación Séneca-Agencia de
Ciencia y Tecnología de la Región de Murcia (II PCTRM
2007–2010).
We thank the collaboration of the Royal Spanish Ca-
noeing Federation and the paddlers who participated in
this study.
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F. Alacid
Universidad Católica San Antonio, Department of Physical Activity and Sports, Campus de los Jerónimos s/n, 30107
Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain
e-mail: falacid@ucam.edu
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F. Alacid et al.: Anthropometry of Young Kayakers and Canoeists, Coll. Antropol. 39 (2015) 1: 119–126
KINANTROPOMETRIJSKE USPOREDBE IZMEĐU MLADIH VRHUNSKIH KAJAKAŠA I KANUISTAKINANTROPOMETRIJSKE USPOREDBE IZMEĐU MLADIH VRHUNSKIH KAJAKAŠA I KANUISTA
S A Ž E T A KSAŽETAK
Ciljevi ovog istrivanja bili su opisati i usporediti kinanthropometrijske karakteristike vrhunskih mladih kajaka
i kanuista te usporediti njihovu proporcionalnost s olimpijskim veslačima. Stotinu i dvadeset mladih vrhunskih sprint
veslača (66 kajakaša i 58 kanuista), u dobi od 13 i 14 godina, ocijenjeni su pomoću baterije s 32 antropometrijske mjere.
Izračunati su somatotipovi, Z-rezultat i ispravljeni omjeri. Usporedba izmu kajaka i kanuista pokazala je da su
kajakaši viši, imaju veću tjelesnu težinu, sjedaću visinu, raspon ruku i dužinu gornjeg tijela, duljine, širine i opsege nego
kanuisti. Viša proporcionalna širina humerusa i opsega ruke su također u kajakaša. Međutim, kanuisti imaju veće Z-
rezultate u širini bedrene kosti. Olimpijski veslači su veći u proporcionalni dimenzijama gornji dijela tijela, opsega i
biakromijalne širine, u obje discipline. Srednji somatotipovi za kajakaše najbolje je opisati kao uravnoteženi mezomor-
fni, dok su kanuisti su ekto-mezomorfni. Razlike između veslača kajaka i kanua mogu objasniti trajne potrebe za tjele-
snim razvojem u kajakaša, kako bi ostali konkurentni, u usporedbi s mladim kanuistima, gdje su potrebe i puno veći
naglasak na razvoj njihove tehničke sposobnosti. Podaci u ovoj studiji mogu se koristiti kao smjernica za otkrivanje
talenta u sprint veslanju kanua i kajaka.
... All the aforementioned differences along with the fact that canoeists usually start specialising late in their sport careers after a certain time in kayaking (Alacid et al., 2015;López-Plaza et al., 2017) imply a major technical challenge for these young athletes. Since the level of paddling technique is related to energy cost and overall propelling efficiency, the development and domain of a proper canoeing technique especially in paddlers with limited experience become determinant in the pursuit of optimal results (Alacid et al., 2015;Zamparo et al., 1999). ...
... All the aforementioned differences along with the fact that canoeists usually start specialising late in their sport careers after a certain time in kayaking (Alacid et al., 2015;López-Plaza et al., 2017) imply a major technical challenge for these young athletes. Since the level of paddling technique is related to energy cost and overall propelling efficiency, the development and domain of a proper canoeing technique especially in paddlers with limited experience become determinant in the pursuit of optimal results (Alacid et al., 2015;Zamparo et al., 1999). ...
Article
Traditionally, canoeing analyses have always been carried out by calculating mean values over a certain distance. However, a simple analysis of mean values in cyclic actions, such as canoe paddling, can lead to the loss of decisive data. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between the periods of consecutive strokes can be an important aspect in all-out 200-m canoeing performance. A total of 22 young male canoeists aged 13.51 ± 0.43 years old voluntarily participated in the present study. Lateral recordings were taken from all participants when performing an all-out 200 m to subsequently analyse the kinematic variables of time, speed and cycle frequency, length and index. The time of each stroke was calculated by the frame differencesbetween two successive paddles. Likewise, short-term and long-term steadiness of consecutive strokes were analysed. Positive correlations were observed between all-out 200-m time and inter-stroke steadiness, identifying significant associations with long-term (r ≈ 0.8; p < 0.05) and short-term steadiness (r ≈ 0.7; p < 0.05). In conclusion, the present investigation defines and identifies inter-stroke steadiness as a new original kinematic variable that might be considered for performance analysis since it seems to be a key factor in all-out 200-m canoeing.
... By determining sizes of individual components of the somatotype, identification of individual anthropometric characteristics and assessment of the structure of the body, both in its entirety and in its components (McArdle & Katch, 1991), is carried out. Alacid, Marfell-Jones, Muyor, Angel Lopez-Minarro & Martinez (2015) analyzed kayakers and canoeists and came to the conclusion that the middle somatotype for kayakers is best described as balanced mesomorphic, while canoeists are ectomesomorphic. Analyzing a large number of swimmers aged 14 to 16 (Leko, Šiljeg & Mikulić, 2011) found that the ectomorphic component of somatotype has negative correlation with results of swimming in all four techniques. ...
Research
Full-text available
Somatotype reflects the overall appearance of the body and gives significance to its overall morphological status and may be significant for selection in sports activities and maybe may lead to avoiding mistakes for selection of potential athletes and rejecting of some children or incorrectly selecting. A puberty period of boys is characterized by changes of somatotype because of accelerated skeletal growth and increase of muscle mass what is directly connected with increasing the maximum oxygen supply and improving endurance in sports. Because the training for running on middle distances aim at improving aerobic energy systems can lead to increase endurance, this research was conducted to determine the effects of the training process for runners on the middle distances on the somatotype to obtain guidelines for selection in the youth age of the male population and to avoid possible errors in determining talent and directing into a wrong sports branch. The male subjects aged 16 years were divided into two groups-the experimental group consisted of 86 respondents and the control group of 82 respondents. After eight weeks of the training program, there were positive effects on values of variables VO2max and running on 1500m. The training process for runners on middle distances had positive effects on the somatotype of respondents and can be used to change the somatotype because the statistical analysis of the χ2 test showed a statistically significant difference between the initial and final state of somatotype distribution of the experimental group after the training process increased the percentage of respondents who have a talent for sport, then those who have predispositions for endurance sports and predispositions for sports.
... With the introduction of T/20, the physical demand for cricket increased dramatically. According to game format and specialized role physical demands also vary which taxes on body type [3]. Professional cricketers have a tall, athletic built body structure, with definite morphological differences existing between batsmen, bowlers and all-rounders [4][5][6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Heath-Carter somatotypes were sketched on 40 regional junior male cricketers of West Bengal to understand the structural differences according to specialization. The anthropometric profiles included the measurement of five skinfolds, two breadths, two girths along with height and weight. A significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) has been observed in height and humerus breadth among batsmen and bowlers according to Welch’s t-test. Batsmen are endomorphic mesomorph (3.2 – 3.4 – 2.9) and bowlers are mesomorph ectomorph (3.2 – 3.5 – 3.5). The overall mean somatotype of the Cricketers has been found balanced mesomorph (3.2 – 3.5 – 3.2). The study revealed that bowlers have relatively greater humerus breadth to support, generate maximum power from elbow joint during bowling. A lower value of relative segments (except arm girth) has been observed in cricketers compared to Phantom scores. The study suggests specific physical training of the regional cricketers according to specialization to develop mesomorphic components. The study will help coaches, trainers, nutritionists, practitioners to implement effective training, diet schedules accordingly and data can be used as reference values for future investigations.
... diameter of male kayakers and canoers of our present study was noted to be shorter than their international counterparts as shown in table 3. Calf circumference (cm) of male kayakers and canoers (34.1±2.57), (33.6±2.45) are lesser than previous research as shown in table 3 (Alacid et al. 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Objetivo: Comparar los parámetros antropométricos y físicos de los jóvenes remeros, kayakistas, canoeros y la población de control. Métodos: Nuestro estudio se llevó a cabo en 173 niños (n=53 remeros, edad=16,24±1,51 años; n=38 kayakistas, edad= 17,0±3,99 años; n= 37 canoeros, edad= 15,1±0,53 años; y grupo control, n=45, edad=15,0±0,46). Varios bioparámetros, altura corporal (cm), peso corporal (kg) e (índice de masa corporal) (kg/m2), grosor del pliegue cutáneo (mm) bíceps, tríceps, subescapular, suprailíaco y pantorrilla, diámetros de humorístico y fémur (cm), longitud del brazo (cm), longitud del brazo (cm), longitud de la parte delantera de la pierna (cm), longitud del muslo (cm), longitud del pie (cm), longitud de la parte superior del brazo, longitud del antebrazo (cm), hombro Se midieron la anchura (cm), la longitud del tronco (cm), la circunferencia del muslo y la pantorrilla (cm), el porcentaje de grasa corporal, la fuerza de agarre (derecha e izquierda) de las manos, la flexibilidad del tronco, la fuerza relativa de la espalda, los abdominales y las flexiones.Resultados:La altura corporal (cm) de los remeros masculinos fue mayor que la de los canoeros masculinos y el grupo control (p<0,05). El salto largo de pie (cm) de los remeros masculinos fue significativamente mayor que los kayakistas y el grupo de control (p<0,05). La flexibilidad de los remeros masculinos fue significativamente mayor que la de los piragüistas masculinos y el grupo de control (p<0.0.5). La fuerza relativa de la espalda (kg) de los remeros, kayakistas y canoeros masculinos fue significativamente mayor que la del grupo de control. Sentarse/minuto de los canoeros masculinos fue significativamente mayor que los remeros masculinos (p<0,01) y los kayakistas (p<0,05). El empuje hacia arriba/minuto de los canoistas masculinos se observó significativamente más alto que el grupo de control (p <0,01) y los kayakistas y remeros (p <0,05). La envergadura de los brazos de los remeros fue significativamente mayor que la del grupo control (p<0,01) y la de los kayakistas y canoeros (p<0,05). La longitud del antebrazo (cm) de los remeros masculinos fue significativamente mayor que la del grupo de control (p<0,01). También se encontró más alto en kayakistas y canoeros masculinos que en el grupo de control (p<0.05).Conclusión:Nuestros atletas tienen una diferencia significativa en algunos parámetros ya que están bien entrenados y el grupo de control no tiene entrenamiento previo en absoluto.
... Observing the participation in the 50th edition of the 2019 Winter Championship (see Table 1) confirmed the 'double minority' in the case of women and canoe, which are located in the two segments with the lowest participation in terms of both modality and gender. This is both because the technique of canoeing is more complicated than that of kayaking [25] and because of the barriers that females must overcome for their incorporation into the practice of canoeing [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although canoeing is one of the oldest sports in the Olympic program, it was not until the Tokyo Olympics in 2021 that women’s canoeing was first included in the competition. This fact has posed a challenge to the initiation and technification systems of countries in order to obtain competitive results, particularly in Spain, as it is one of the sports that contributed the most medals to the Olympic medal tally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the promotion and development of talent in women’s canoeing in Spain for its first-ever Olympic participation. For this purpose, an analytical survey (n = 167) was carried out, the answers to which were contrasted by gender and modality practiced. The results showed a positive evaluation of the current position in flatwater female canoeing regarding talent that is consistent with the competitive results achieved. Additionally, we found that the gender of the respondents influences their perception of the age of sport initiation and the suitability of the progression in the competition systems for the promotion of women's canoeing in Spain. Therefore, the results of the questionnaire will facilitate a quick diagnosis of critical aspects by sport managers, allowing them to take corrective actions in time for the development of female canoeists and, at the same time, to promote future studies that delve deeper into these topics.
... Several studies about bio-banding in football (bio-banding is the process of grouping practitioners based on attributes associated with growth and maturation and not chronological age) have been conducted [5,[16][17][18]. Previous canoeing studies have focused on analyzing athletes from a morphological and a maturity standpoint [19][20][21][22], considering performance [23]. These studies have evaluated the best paddlers of their categories and reported that the most biologically mature paddlers also showed the best performances. ...
Article
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Previous canoe sprint studies evaluated the best paddlers of their categories. This investigation aimed to identify the importance of biological maturation and athletes’ experience in kayaking performance and observe possible differences regarding anthropometry, years of practice, and performance. Eighty under 14 years of age (U14) and fifty under 16 years of age (U16) kayakers aged 13.40 ± 0.54 and 15.25 ± 0.61 years were evaluated. Kayakers were assessed for anthropometry (body mass (kg); stretch stature (cm); and sitting height (cm)), performance (time at 3000 m for U14 and 5000 m for U16 kayakers), and somatic maturation (predicted adult height (PAH) and maturity offset). In the U14 kayakers, years of practice, sitting height, and maturity offset showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the Top10 and Middle, and Middle and Bottom10 performance times. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) sitting heights were identified between the Top10 and Middle U16 kayakers. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for maturity offset and PAH% between the Top10 and Middle groups compared to the Bottom10 group. In conclusion, this research shows differences in the maturity status of young U14 and U16 kayakers, identifying that the more biologically mature individuals, with more years of specific practice, achieved better performances.
... Body proportionality analyses were conducted using the Phantom stratagem proposed by Ross and Wilson [41], which has been previously applied in other sports with able-bodied athletes [42,43]. The Phantom is a unisex, bilaterally symmetrical conceptual model that was derived from reference data of men and women [44]. ...
Article
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Cerebral palsy (CP) football is a team para-sport practiced by para-athletes with eligible impairments of hypertonia, athetosis, and ataxia. This study aimed: (1) to describe the anthropometrical and body composition profiles of international CP para-footballers with different CP profiles (i.e., spastic diplegia, athetosis/ataxia, spastic hemiplegia, and minimum impairment); (2) to analyze the differences between both affected/nondominant and nonaffected/dominant sides; and (3) to compare the sample of international-level CP para-footballers (n = 141) with a sample of highly trained able-bodied footballers (n = 39). Anthropometric measures included four breadths, nine girths, and six skinfolds, while body composition was measured through fat mass (including Carter’s, Faulkner’s, and Withers’ equations), muscle mass (Lee’s equation), and bone mass (Rocha’s and Martin’s equations). This study found differences between the able-bodied footballers and the following impairment profiles: spastic diplegia (skinfolds); ataxia/athetosis (corrected calf of the nondominant side, and calf skinfolds for both sides); and spastic hemiplegia (all measurements excepting femur breadth, and thigh and ankle girths). No differences were found between para-athletes with minimum impairment and the able-bodied footballers. This study demonstrates that football players with or without physical impairments of hypertonia athetosis or ataxia may be considered homogeneous in shape when dominant size is compared. Besides, the study provides reference scores on anthropometric measures and body composition of international-level CP para-footballers that can help sports coaches and physical trainers to monitor physical fitness of their para-athletes.
... Despite the fact that most anthropometric attributes for optimal performance are equally exhibited by adult and young kayakers, the way they develop in the transition to senior categories is unknown. Additionally, proportionality and morphological indexes offer valuable information for coaches in talent identification processes of specific profiles [21,22]. However, since few studies have focused on these parameters there is a lack of normative data in kayaking literature. ...
Article
Introduction: There are certain anthropometric attributes common to most high-level paddlers and among the determinants for optimal performance consecution in senior categories. Objective: the present investigation aimed to determine the evolution of morphological characteristics of elite paddlers during adolescence and to compare them with the values exhibited by Olympic competitors. Methods: In a longitudinal study, thirteen young elite paddlers (seven boys and six girls) completed a battery of anthropometric tests (heights, weight, girths, lengths and sum of skinfolds) and on-water performance assessments (200 and 500 meters) during three consecutive years. Results: Body mass and upper body sizes significantly change over the years (p < .05), especially in boys. Both male and female paddlers presented significant differences and large effect sizes in muscle mass and skin mass values (η²p > .64) whereas bone mass and fat mass remained stable from the 1st to the 3rd year. Proportionality analysis revealed girths and breadths differences in arm and chest variables as well as large effect sizes in biacromial breadth among all years (η²p > .62; p < .05), particularly in boys. Similarly, significant improvements in 200-m performance times were observed for both sexes. Conclusions: The findings of the current investigation might suggest a tendency towards a leaner and more robust morphological profile of elite paddlers in the transition from young to senior categories. In addition, the presence of superior relative body dimensions from young categories seems to be paramount in the evolution to later successful paddling.
Article
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By analyzing the obtained results of the initial and final measurement of the somatotype components in the experimental and control group, certain assumptions can be made. A completed training plan lasting 8 weeks with an interval of three trainings per week, using aerobic, anaerobic and mixed aerobic anaerobic training, led to positive changes in the endomorphic and mesomorphic somatotype component in the experimental group of respondents. A statistically significant influence on the ectomorphic somatotype component was also observed. Since the endomorphic somatotype component was analyzed by the ratio of skin folds (upper arm, back and abdomen), it can be concluded that the training program positively influenced a reduction of unnecessary subcutaneous fat tissue in these parts of the body. Also, as the mesomorphic component is calculated by the ratio of body height to circular dimensionalities, it can be concluded that the program positively influenced the increase in the circular dimensionalities of certain parts of the body, i.e. the development of the musculoskeletal system. In the end it can be concluded that this or similar training programs, using adequate forms of load and adequate time, could have success in eliminating adipose tissue and increasing musculature, for athletes who must possess such a somatotype in order to achieve top success.
Article
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Анотація. Стаття присвячена питанням систематизації прогностичних критеріїв, предикторів та детермінант ефективного подолання спортсменами різних змагальних дистанцій у веслуванні. Мета. Теоретично обґрунтувати та систематизувати критерії предикторів та детермінант змагальної діяльності веслувальників. Методи. Аналіз, систематизація та узагальнення даних літературних джерел. Результати. Реалізація методологічного підходу, спрямованого на забезпечення єдності та взаємозв’язку між структурою змагальної діяльності та підготовленості спортсменів-веслувальників, обумовлює субординаційні відносини між їхніми складовими, слугує основою для впорядкування процесу управління тренувальними та змагальними навантаженнями, забезпечує зв’язок структури змагальної діяльності та відповідної їй структури підготовленості з методикою діагностики функціональних можливостей спортсменів-веслувальників, характеристиками моделей різних рівнів, системою засобів і методів, спрямованих на вдосконалення компонентів підготовленості та змагальної діяльності. Серед найбільш значущих детермінант та предикторів результативних виступів веслувальників на різних змагальних дистанціях вчені розглядають антропометричні, морфологічні, фізіологічні характеристики; метаболічні показники та психологічні аспекти. Відповідно до системи управління тренувальними і змагальними навантаженнями спортсменів у веслуванні, узагальнено та систематизовано предиктори результативних виступів веслувальників на різних змагальних дистанціях з урахуванням віку спортсменів. Доповнено теоретичні положення стосовно прогностичних критеріїв, предикторів та детермінант ефективного подолання спортсменами різних змагальних дистанцій у веслуванні. Набули подальшого розвитку відомості про параметри прогнозування продуктивності веслувальників під час подолання дистанції 2000 м на веслувальному ергометрі. Ключові слова: детермінати, предиктори, веслування, змагальна діяльність.
Article
Slow-motion movies were taken of Olympic-caliber canoe and kayak paddlers over a 9-year period, including filming done during early season regattas in Sweden, Holland, and West Germany in 1971, during the Montreal Olympics of 1976, and during a postseason regatta in Mexico City in 1978. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from the films on both world-class and less successful paddlers to determine which measurements would best explain the successes of the champions. The relative motion of the path of the joint centers of the two arms to the boat, the paddle patterns, the absolute motion of the paddle underwater, and the stroke times were the most useful measurements for differentiating between good and poor performances.
Article
A study of anthropometric and functional characteristics was conducted in a sample of 29 athletes, flatwater racers 18 kayakers and 11 canoeists. The results of morphological tests suggest an evident reduction of subcutaneous fat, above-average values of limb circumferences (especially upper limbs) and of body mass, attributable to a high proportion of lean body mass. Trunk extension strength was to be below the average, while the strength of the remaining analyzed static movements were on the level of trained persons. Aerobic capacity, i.e. the functioning of the cardiopulmonary system, in the sample under discussion has shown above-average values, comparable to those obtained in athletes in the aerobic sports group. The results of discriminant analysis applied separately to morphological, dynamogenic and aerobic characteristics with the aim to identify possible differences between the two sports suggest that our sample constituted a homogeneous group, regardless of which of the two sports were practiced.
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Canoeing and kayaking are upper-body sports that make varying demands on the body, depending on the type of contest and the distance covered. The shorter events (500 m) are primarily anaerobic (2 minutes of exercise), calling for powerful shoulder muscles with a high proportion of fast-twitch fibres. In contrast, 10,000 m events call for aerobic work to be performed by the arms. Such contestants need a high proportion of slow-twitch fibres, and an ability to develop close to 100% of their leg maximum oxygen intake when paddling. In slalom and whitewater contests, the value of physiological testing is somewhat limited, since performance is strongly influenced by experience and the ability to make precisely judged rapid paddling efforts under considerable emotional stress. Paddlers face dangers from their hostile cold water environment; causes of fatalities (drowning, cardiac arrest, ventricular fibrillation and hypothermia) are briefly reviewed. Medical problems include provision of adequate nutrition and a clean water supply, effects of repeated immersion (softening of the skin, blistering, paronychial infections, sinusitis, otitis), varicose veins (secondary to thoracic fixation) and hazards of exposure to fibreglass and polystyrene in the home workshop. Surgical problems include muscle sprains and mechanical injuries (haemotomas, lacerations, contusions, concussion, and fractures).
Article
To investigate the biomechanics of flatwater kayaking, the technique of nine Olympic caliber K-1 paddlers was analyzed using cinematographic and computer procedures. Results indicated that, during paddle-water contact, the horizontal arm action was one of push-then-pull with the push coming from the arm farthest from the water (thrust segments) followed by the pull coming from the arm closest to the water (draw segments). During this action, the center of paddle rotation shifted up the paddle shaft as the stroke progressed, which increased the time the paddle was in the power phase of the stroke. The horizontal movement patterns of the individual segments indicated that the push was accomplished by an integrated movement of the thrust wrist and elbow, with minimal shoulder involvement. Subsequently, the pull was accomplished by an integrated movement of the draw wrist, elbow, shoulder, as well as the thrust shoulder. During the latter stages of water contact, since the performers were unable to generate additional useful power, the paddle was rapidly withdrawn to avoid dragging. Subject stability in the frontal plane was maintained by shifting the body mass toward the water contact side at paddle entry and away from it at exit. This action opposed the vertical forces produced as a by-product of the stroke. The final outcome of this stroke technique was the maintenance of the body center of gravity velocity while the boat oscillated under the performer.
Article
In total, 168 players from 14 national teams were measured using 38 anthropometric dimensions before the Women's World Basketball Championships held in Australia in 1994. Measures of segment length, breadth and girth were recorded by a team of trained anthropometrists using standard protocols. The subjects were divided according to playing position and team performance so that univariate analyses of variance could be administered using absolute size and proportionality data as dependent variables. Clear differences in absolute size were found between guards, forwards and centres, but in terms of proportionality the latter two groups exhibited some similarities, particularly for measures of relative size in upper body dimensions. With guards displaying a different proportionality profile from either forwards or centres, the various roles of each position within the team were considered to rationalize the findings.
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Spain e-mail: falacid@ucam
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Guadalupe, Murcia, Spain e-mail: falacid@ucam.edu