ChapterPDF Available

The Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Scoring System

R.C. Roach, P. Bartsch, P.H. Hackett, O. Oelz
and the Lake Louise AMS Scoring Consensus Committee*
In 1991, the Lake Louise Consensus Committee met and agreed on diagnostic
criteria and a scoring system for the symptoms and signs
acute mountain sickness!.
The goal was to provide enough sensitivity, specificity and flexibility to allow use
in many different settings and to facilitate comparisons
results among all studies
by using this instrument. Since then investigators have used the Lake Louise AMS
scoring system in different settings at different altitudes in several countries. The
previous standard, the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ), has 67 items,
takes time and patience for subjects to complete, and has been resisted by many
researchers2 In contrast, the Lake Louise AMS scoring system takes only a few
minutes to complete and score. Several groups have reported comparable results
regarding sensitivity and specificity between the Lake Louise AMS scoring system
and the
Therefore, we recommend that this scoring system be adapted as
the standard for acute mountain sickness research.
INSTRUCTIONS: The Lake Louise AMS Scoring System
The Lake Louise scoring system consists
a short self-report questionnaire,
sufficient in itself,
to which may be added an additional clinical assess-
ment. The AMS Self-report score
the sum
responses to 5 questions; the find-
ings can be verified by interview
the clinical research setting. The Clinical Assess-
ment score is the interviewer's rating
three signs: mental status, ataxia and
peripheral edema. This score is added to the AMS Self-report questionnaire score.
An optional question
recommended to assess functional consequences
symptoms and signs. The scoring system
designed to allow use in both large surveys
and in smaller clinical trials.
Diagnostic Criteria for Acute Mountain Sickness
A diagnosis
based on a recent gain in altitude, at least several hours
at the new altitude, and the presence
headache and at least one
the following
*The Lake Louise AMS Scoring System Consensus Committee: Almas Aldashev, CIS; Buddha Basnyat,
Nepal; A.R. Bradwell, UK; Charles Clark, UK; Geoff Coates, Canada; Allen Cymerman, USA; Allen
Ellsworth, USA; R.F. Fletcher, UK; Eugene Gippenreiter, Russia; Colin Grissom, USA; Ben Honigman,
USA; Charles Houston, USA; Herb Hultgren, USA; Bengt Kayser, Switzerland; Toshio Kobayashi, Japan;
Gig Leadbetter, USA; Marco Maggiorini, Switzerland; N.D. Menon, India; Jim Milledge, UK; C. Carlos
Monge, Peru; Michiro Nakashima, Japan; Dick Nicholas, USA; Drummond Rennie, USA; Jean Paul
Richalet, France; Paul Rock, USA; Roberto Rodriguez Guaita, Chile; David Shlim, Nepal; John Sutton,
Takei, Japan; Gou Ueda, Japan;
Yip, USA.
1993 Roach RC, Bärtsch P, Oelz O, Hackett PH. The Lake Louise Acute
Mountain Sickness Scoring System. In: Sutton JR, Houston CS, Coates G,
Editors. Hypoxia and Molecular Medicine. Burlington, VT: Queen City Press;
1993. p. 272-274.
symptoms: gastrointestinal upset (anorexia, nausea,
vomiting), fatigue or weakness,
lightheadedness and difficulty sleeping. A score
three points
the AMS Self-report questionnaire alone,
in combination with the Clinical
Assessment score constitutes AMS.
A) Self-report questionnaire. This portion
the scoring system
and should be reported as a separate score. Each
the following five questions
is asked with the corresponding 0 to 3 rating
the response.
some studies, the
question "Difficulty sleeping" will not
relevant (e.g. rapid one day ascent) and
can be omitted. The sum
the responses on these questions is then calculated as
the AMS Self-report score.
is recommended that this score be reported separately,
even when used with the Clinical Assessment score. This procedure will allow the
severity among the majority
studies. All will have the AMS Self-
report score, some will have both the AMS Self-report score and the Clinical Assess-
ment score.
Headache. 0 No headache
I Mild headache
2 Moderate headache
3 Severe headache, incapacitating
Gastrointestinal symptoms. 0 No gastrointestinal symptoms
I Poor appetite or nausea
2 Moderate nausea or vomiting
3 Severe nausea & vomiting, incapacitating
3. Fatigue and/or weakness. 0 Not tired or weak
I Mild fatigue/weakness
2 Moderate fatigue/weakness
3 Severe fatigue/weakness, incapacitating
Dizziness/l ightheadedness. 0 Not dizzy
I Mild dizziness
2 Moderate dizziness
3 Severe dizziness, incapacitating
Difficulty sleeping. 0 Slept
I Did not sleep as well as usual
2 Woke many times, poor night's sleep
3 Could not sleep at
Clinical Assessment. This portion
the scoring system contains information
examination. The Clinical Assessment score
the sum
scores on the follow-
ing three questions.
mental status. 0 No change
mental status
1 Lethargy/lassitude
2 Disoriented/confused
3 Stupor/semiconsciousness
4 Coma
7. Ataxia (heel to toe walking) 0 No ataxia
1 Maneuvers to maintain balance
2 Steps off line
3 Falls down
4 Can't stand
Peripheral edema. 1 No peripheral edema
1 Peripheral edema
one location
2 Peripheral edema at two or more locations
Score. The functional consequences of the
Self-reported score
should be further evaluated
one optional question asked after the AMS Self-report
questionnaire. Alternatively, this question may be asked by the examiner
Assessment is performed.
you had any symptoms, how did they affect your activity?
o No reduction
1 Mild reduction
2 Moderate reduction
3 Severe reduction
activity (e.g. bedrest)
I. The Lake Louise Consensus on the definition and quantification of altitude illness. In: Hypoxia
and Mountain Medicine, J.R. Sutton, G. Coates, C.S. Houston, editors. Burlington, YT: Queen
City Printers Inc., 1992, p. 327-330.
ROCK. Procedures for
the measurement
acute mountain sickness. Aviat. Space Environ.
54(12): 1063-1073, 1983.
3. HONIGMAN, B., J.L. ATKINS, R.C. ROACH, C.S. HOUSTON (Abstract). Acute mountain
the elderly at moderate altitude. In: Proceedings
the Eighth International Hypoxia
Symposium, Lake Louise, Canada, 1993.
and HAPE scoring
the Alps (Abstract).
the Eighth International Hypoxia Sym-
posium, Lake Louise, Canada, 1993.
acute mountain sickness using the Lake Louise Consensus Questionnaire (Abstract).
the Eighth International Hypoxia Symposium, J.R. Sutton,
Coates, C.S. Houston, editors.
RUBY, D. LIUM. The effect
intermittent altitude ex-
posure on acute mountain sickness (Abstract).
Chapter, Am. Coli. Sports. Med. 1992.
... Additional inclusion criteria were that the AMS diagnosis was made within the first 24 hours after arrival at altitude and was based on at least three AMS symptoms 12,13 or a Lake Louis Questionnaire Score (LLQS) of 3 or more. 14,15 Studies were categorized according to the type of ascent, i.e. (i) passive (travel by plane or car), active (travel by foot) ascents or both and (ii) very rapid (1 day) and rapid (2-3 days) ascents. Studies on pilgrims and those without clear information on the type of ascent, or whether prophylaxis (by specific pre-acclimatization strategies or pharmacological interventions) was applied, were excluded. ...
... Altitude-dependent AMS incidence when travelling to high altitude by airplane or by foot and/or by car and plane; R 2 for both regressions is 0.9 and the slopes are significantly different (P < 0.01), as determined by an extra sum of squares F -test (F(1,14) = 21.90); numbers in the graph indicate references to the respective publications. ...
Full-text available
Background: Altitude sojourns increasingly attract individuals of all ages and different health status due to the appeal of high-altitude destinations worldwide and easy access to air travel. The risk of acute mountain sickness (AMS) when flying to high altitude destinations remains underemphasized. Thus, this mini-review aims to evaluate the altitude-dependent AMS incidence depending on the mode of ascending, e.g. by air versus terrestrial travel. Methods: A literature search was performed to identify observational studies assessing AMS incidence after acute ascent of primarily healthy adults to real high altitude. In addition, placebo arms of interventional trials evaluating the prophylactic efficacy of various drugs have been separately analysed to confirm or refute the findings from the observational studies. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate altitude-dependent AMS incidence. Results: Findings of 12 observational studies, in which the AMS incidence in 11 021 individuals ascending to 19 different altitudes (2200-4559 m) was evaluated, revealed an impressive 4.5-fold steeper increase in the AMS incidence for air travel as compared to slower ascent modes, i.e. hiking or combined car and/or air travel and hiking. The higher AMS incidence following transportation by flight versus slower means was also confirmed in placebo-treated participants in 10 studies of drug prophylaxis against AMS. Conclusions: Due to the short time span in going from low to high altitude, reduced acclimatization likely is the main reason for a higher AMS risk when travelling to high altitude destinations by flight. To avoid frustrating travel experiences and health risks, appropriate and timely medical advice on how to prepare for air travel to high-altitude is of vital importance. Effective preparation options include the use of modern pre-acclimatization strategies and pharmacological prophylaxis by acetazolamide or dexamethasone, or even considering alternate itineraries with more gradual ascent.
... Rapid ascent to altitudes above 2500 m may lead to acute mountain sickness [AMS], 1 which is a common syndrome including headache, dizziness or lightheadedness, gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea, or vomiting), weakness or fatigue, and insomnia. 2 Although AMS is generally self-limited, it can develop into life-threatening high-altitude pulmonary or/and cerebral oedema. 3 In addition, the precise pathogenesis of AMS remains incompletely understood. ...
Full-text available
Purpose We aimed to explore whether anxiety is a risk factor for acute mountain sickness [AMS] in a young Chinese male population. Patients and Methods A total of 143 young Chinese men with a median age of 23 years (IQR, 21–25) were employed in the present study, and they were divided into the AMS+ and AMS- groups according to the Lake Louise AMS score [AMS-S] after exposure at 3800 m for two days. Participants’ pulse oximeter saturation [SpO2] and heart rate [HR] were measured. AMS was evaluated using the AMS-S. The anxiety and sleep quality of the subjects were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale [SAS] and the Athens Insomnia Scale [AIS], respectively. Outcomes were analysed using Spearman’s partial correlation and logistic regression analysis. Results After two days of exposure at 3800 m, the overall prevalence of AMS was 54% in the whole group. The HR was significantly higher in the AMS+ group than in the AMS- group, as well as the SAS score and AIS score. A converse pattern was observed for SpO2. A significant difference was observed for the change in SAS and AIS score between the AMS+ and AMS- groups. Correlation analysis showed that AMS-S was positively correlated with SAS score, AIS score, HR, ΔSAS score, ΔAIS score, and ΔHR but negatively correlated with SpO2. AIS score was positively correlated with SAS score. After logistic regression analysis was adjusted for HR, SpO2, ΔAIS and ΔHR, SAS score (OR=1.446, 95% CI 1.200–1.744, p<0.001), AIS score (OR=1.216, 95% CI 1.033–1.432) and ΔSAS score (OR=1.158, 95% CI 1.012–1.327) were identified as independent risk factors for AMS. Conclusion The present study suggests that anxiety is a risk factor for AMS among young Chinese men, and poor sleep quality may partially mediate the association.
... Lake Louise Score (LLS) questionnaire for AMS evaluation: The Lake Louise Score included five different symptoms: headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue, dizziness, and difficulty sleeping. Each was graded from 0 to 3 in severity, with higher values indicating more severe altitude sickness [40]. ...
Full-text available
Intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) is a promising approach that has been used to induce acclimatization to hypoxia and subsequently lower the risk of developing acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the effects of IHT on cognitive and cerebrovascular function after acute hypoxia exposure have not been characterized. In the present study, we first confirmed that the simplified IHT paradigm was effective at relieving AMS at 4300 m. Second, we found that IHT improved participants’ cognitive and neural alterations when they were exposed to hypoxia. Specifically, impaired working memory performance, decreased conflict control function, impaired cognitive control, and aggravated mental fatigue induced by acute hypoxia exposure were significantly alleviated in the IHT group. Furthermore, a reversal of brain swelling induced by acute hypoxia exposure was visualized in the IHT group using magnetic resonance imaging. An increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) was observed in multiple brain regions of the IHT group after hypoxia exposure as compared with the control group. Based on these findings, the simplified IHT paradigm might facilitate hypoxia acclimatization, alleviate AMS symptoms, and increase CBF in multiple brain regions, thus ameliorating brain swelling and cognitive dysfunction.
... Particularly during the early phase of hypoxic exposure, both hypoxia per se and AMS likely influence appetite, since a symptom of AMS is loss of appetite (Roach et al., 1993). When assessing appetite and food preferences in hypoxia it is, therefore, necessary to assess AMS. ...
Barclay, Holly, Saptarshi Mukerji, Bengt Kayser, and Jui-Lin Fan. Appetite, hypoxia and acute mountain sickness: A 10-hour normobaric hypoxic chamber study. High Alt Med Biol. 24:000-000, 2023. Background: The effects of hypoxia and acute mountain sickness (AMS) on appetite and food preferences are moot, especially during the early phase of hypoxic exposure. We examined the effects of a 10-hour hypoxic exposure on appetite and food preference. Methods: We assessed appetite (hunger, satisfaction, fullness, perceived appetite, and lost appetite), food preferences (sweet, salty, savory, and fatty), and AMS (Lake Louise score) with questionnaires in 27 healthy individuals (13 women) across 10-hour exposures to normobaric normoxia (fraction of inspired O2 [FiO2]: 0.21) and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2: 0.12, equivalent of 5,000 m) in a randomized, single-blinded manner. Results and Discussion: Compared with normoxia, hypoxia decreased hunger and appetite (p = 0.040 and <0.001, respectively), which was mediated by a decreased desire for sweet, salty, and fatty foods (p < 0.05 for all). AMS was associated with a decreased desire for sweet (R = -0.438, p = 0.032) and salty foods (R = -0.460, p = 0.024) and greater loss of appetite (R = -0.619, p = 0.018). Our findings suggest that acute hypoxia rapidly suppresses appetite and that AMS development further amplifies anorexia. Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12618000548235.
... 36 The Lake Louise questionnaire was also completed every morning upon waking to assess acute mountain sickness severity. 37 The questionnaires were averaged across the camp to provide a group score. ...
Purpose: To investigate the effects of a training camp with heat and/or hypoxia sessions on hematological and thermoregulatory adaptations. Methods: Fifty-six elite male rugby players completed a 2-week training camp with 5 endurance and 5 repeated-sprint sessions, rugby practice, and resistance training. Players were separated into 4 groups: CAMP trained in temperate conditions at sea level, HEAT performed the endurance sessions in the heat, ALTI slept and performed the repeated sprints at altitude, and H + A was a combination of the heat and altitude groups. Results: Blood volume across all groups increased by 140 mL (95%CI, 42-237; P = .006) and plasma volume by 97 mL (95%CI 28-167; P = .007) following the training camp. Plasma volume was 6.3% (0.3% to 12.4%) higher in HEAT than ALTI (P = .034) and slightly higher in HEAT than H + A (5.6% [-0.3% to 11.7%]; P = .076). Changes in hemoglobin mass were not significant (P = .176), despite a ∼1.2% increase in ALTI and H + A and a ∼0.7% decrease in CAMP and HEAT. Peak rectal temperature was lower during a postcamp heat-response test in HEAT (0.3 °C [0.1-0.5]; P = .010) and H + A (0.3 °C [0.1-0.6]; P = .005). Oxygen saturation upon waking was lower in ALTI (3% [2% to 5%]; P < .001) and H + A (4% [3% to 6%]; P < .001) than CAMP and HEAT. Conclusion: Although blood and plasma volume increased following the camp, sleeping at altitude impeded the increase when training in the heat and only marginally increased hemoglobin mass. Heat training induced adaptations commensurate with partial heat acclimation; however, combining heat training and altitude training and confinement during a training camp did not confer concomitant hematological adaptations.
... The incidence of AMS was evaluated with the Lake Louise AMS Scoring system (LLS) on M2-M5. The LLS is a self-reported questionnaire consisting of five questions on typical AMS symptoms including headache, gastrointestinal symptoms, fatigue/weakness, dizziness/light-headedness and sleep (Roach et al. 1993). Urine was collected continuously throughout both sojourns and TBW was measured over the last night by deuterium dilution. ...
Kammerer, Tobias, Anna Walzl, Thomas Müller, Philipp Groene, Giulia Roveri, Rachel Turner, Johanna Roche, Hannes Gatterer, Christoph Siebenmann, and Simon T. Schäfer. Effects of hypobaric hypoxia on coagulation in healthy subjects exposed to 3,500 m altitude. High Alt Med Biol. 24:94-103, 2023. Background: Hypoxia is discussed as a trigger for prothrombotic changes both in intensive care and high altitude medicine. This research study aimed to evaluate the effect of isolated hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on coagulation in females in a highly standardized setting. Methods: Twelve healthy female subjects were studied under HH (equivalent to 3,500 m) and normoxia (NX) during two 4-day sojourns, in a strictly controlled crossover design. Nutrition, fluid intake, hormonal status (i.e., menstrual cycle variation), and physical stress were standardized. Functional coagulation and blood lysis were measured by viscoelastometry and compared between HH and NX. In addition, plasma-based coagulation tests (PBCTs), namely prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, factor VIII coagulation activity (FVIII:C), von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF:Ag), and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (vWF:RCo) were measured. Results: Neither for Viscoelastic Haemostatic Assays nor for PBCTs significant changes were found for HH compared with NX (all p > 0.05). Specifically, the lysis ability, as well as clotting time, clot formation, clot amplitude, and maximum clot firmness unchanged were similar between HH and NX. This also applied to all other variables. Conclusion: We demonstrate that moderate HH per se has no influence on blood coagulation in healthy females.
... Diagnosis of AMS is usually based on the Lake Louise Scoring system (LLS) or less frequently on the abridged (11-item) version (ESQ-C) of the 67-item Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ-III) [2]. The original LLS [61] is a self-assessment questionnaire, rating the severity (no discomfort = 0; mild symptoms = 1; moderate symptoms = 2; severe symptoms = 3) of five main criteria, i.e., headache, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, and difficulty sleeping, but has recently been revised by deleting the "difficulty sleeping" criterion [62]. ...
Full-text available
High-altitude illnesses (HAIs) result from acute exposure to high altitude/hypoxia. Numerous molecular mechanisms affect appropriate acclimatization to hypobaric and/or normobaric hypoxia and curtail the development of HAIs. The understanding of these mechanisms is essential to optimize hypoxic acclimatization for efficient prophylaxis and treatment of HAIs. This review aims to link outcomes of molecular mechanisms to either adverse effects of acute high-altitude/hy-poxia exposure or the developing tolerance with acclimatization. After summarizing systemic physiological responses to acute high-altitude exposure, the associated acclimatization, and the epidemiology and pathophysiology of various HAIs, the article focuses on molecular adjustments and maladjustments during acute exposure and acclimatization to high altitude/hypoxia. Pivotal modifying mechanisms include molecular responses orchestrated by transcription factors, most notably hypoxia inducible factors, and reciprocal effects on mitochondrial functions and REDOX homeosta-sis. In addition, discussed are genetic factors and the resultant proteomic profiles determining these hypoxia-modifying mechanisms culminating in successful high-altitude acclimatization. Lastly, the article discusses practical considerations related to the molecular aspects of acclimatization and altitude training strategies.
... A diagnosis of AMS is based on Lake Louise scoring system. A score of 4 or more than 4 was taken as AMS (6,8). High altitude pulmonary oedema was diagnosed based on symptom of cough, breathlessness, clinical signs of crackles , tachycardia, tachypnoea and features of pulmonary oedema on chest X-ray with absence of any respiratory infection and pulmonary thromboembolism (6,10). ...
Full-text available
High altitude and associated high altitude illnesses have always been an issue of concern especially in western Himalayan region and northern India. Ladakh has been stated to cause maximum number of cases of high altitude illness. This study was taken to assess the incidence of High altitude illness (HAI) among low landers adult males on rapid exposure to high altitude region and the association of altitude range and acclimatization schedule. An observational study was done prospectively in Ladakh region and all the reported cases of high altitude illness were assessed for two consecutive years. The overall incidence of high altitude illness were 7.6/1000 and 9.2/1000 in two consecutive years. Maximum number of acute mountain sickness (AMS) were reported between 0-2 days of acclimatization and 11500 to 13500 ft altitude range while the number of High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPO) cases reported between 3-5 days of acclimatization and at 11500 to 13500 ft altitude range. Rapid induction and gain in altitude of more than 13500 ft was found to have a direct association with high altitude illness.
... In order to evaluate the data as correctly as possible, acute mountain sickness (AMS) had to be defined, because all symptoms of AMS may also be caused by other disease. For this study, AMS was assumed when there was a headache plus any other typical symptom of AMS and i. other reasons were excluded (e.g., sunstroke as cause of headache), and ii. the severeness of symptoms was higher than 3 points on the Lake Louise Score [9,10]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Trekking to high-altitude locations presents inherent health-related hazards, many of which can managed with specific first aid (FA) training. This study evaluates the trip preparation, FA knowledge, and FA self-assessment of trekkers (organized by tour operators vs. individually planned tours). Data obtained shall be used for specific FA trip preparation and management of emergencies en route for this population. Methods: A total of 366 trekkers on the Everest Base Camp Trek, Nepal, were interviewed using a questionnaire specifically designed to evaluate their FA knowledge and management of emergencies. Data evaluation was performed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 40.5% of trekkers experienced at least one medical incident during their trip, of which almost 50% were due to acute mountain sickness (AMS). There was more AMS in commercially organized groups than in individually planned ones (55% vs. 40%). For more than 50%, no medical care was available during their trip. A total of 80% could answer only 3/21 FA questions completely correctly. Only 1% showed adequate knowledge concerning FA strategies. A total of 70% were willing to enroll in an FA class specialized towards the needs of trekkers. Conclusions: The importance of high-altitude FA knowledge and trip preparation is widely underestimated. There is an unmet demand amongst trekkers for specific wilderness FA classes.
Full-text available
Altitude exposure may suppress appetite and hence provide a viable weight-loss strategy. While changes in food intake and availability as well as physical activity may contribute to altered appetite at altitude, herein we aimed to investigate the isolated effects of hypobaric hypoxia on appetite regulation and sensation. Twelve healthy women (age: 24.0±4.2 years, body mass: 60.6±7.0 kg) completed two 4-day sojourn in a hypobaric chamber, one in normoxia (P B =761 mmHg, 262 m, NX) and one in hypobaric hypoxia (P B =493 mmHg, HH) equivalent to 3,500 m altitude. Energy intake was standardized 4 days prior and throughout both sojourns. Plasma concentrations of leptin, acylated ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and cytokine growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) were determined every morning. Before and after breakfast, lunch and dinner, appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Body mass was significantly decreased following HH but not NX (-0.71±0.32 kg vs. -0.05±0.54 kg, condition: p<0.001). Compared to NX, acylated ghrelin decreased throughout the HH sojourn (condition x time: p=0.020), while leptin was higher throughout the entire HH sojourn (condition: p<0.001). No differences were observed in CCK and GDF15 between the sojourns. Feelings of satiety and fullness were higher (condition: p<0.001 and p=0.013, respectively), whereas prospective food consumption was lower in HH than in NX (condition: p<0.001). Our findings suggest that hypoxia exerts an anorexigenic effect on appetite regulating hormones, suppresses subjective appetite sensation and can induce weight loss in young healthy women. Among the investigated hormones, acylated ghrelin and leptin most likely explain the observed HH-induced appetite suppression.
Although acute mountain sickness (AMS) has been studied for well over a century, a standard measure or index of the degree of illness for use in experimental research does not exist. This paper outlines a definition and procedures for an operational measurement of AMS using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). After 58 men completed over 650 ESQs during a stay of 1-3 weeks atop Pike's Peak (4300 m), factor analysis produced nine distinct symptom groups, with two factors representing AMS. The first factor contains symptoms indicative of cerebral hypoxia and is labeled AMS-C. The second reflects respiratory distress and is called AMS-R. Signal detection theory was used to establish a criterion score value for each factor. Standard deviation values were used to derive indices of sickness severity. Discussion is given to the possible relationships between the two types of AMS and the more serious conditions of cerebral and pulmonary edema.
Measuring acute mountain sickness using the Lake Louise Consensus Questionnaire (Abstract)
  • A Ellsworth
  • T Duncan
  • S Goldberg
  • L Johnson
  • P Hackett
ELLSWORTH, A., T. DUNCAN, S. GOLDBERG, L. JOHNSON, P. HACKETT. Measuring acute mountain sickness using the Lake Louise Consensus Questionnaire (Abstract). In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Hypoxia Symposium, J.R. Sutton, G. Coates, C.S. Houston, editors. 1993.
The effect of intermittent altitude exposure on acute mountain sickness (Abstract)
  • G Leadbetter
  • R Robergs
  • B Ruby
LEADBETTER, G., R. ROBERGS, B. RUBY, D. LIUM. The effect of intermittent altitude exposure on acute mountain sickness (Abstract). SW Chapter, Am. Coli. Sports. Med. 1992.
Acute mountain sickness in the elderly at moderate altitude
  • B Honigman
  • J L Atkins
  • R C Roach
  • C S Houston
HONIGMAN, B., J.L. ATKINS, R.C. ROACH, C.S. HOUSTON (Abstract). Acute mountain sickness in the elderly at moderate altitude. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Hypoxia Symposium, Lake Louise, Canada, 1993.