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Api-tourism, as a form of tourism that deals with culture and traditions of rural communities could be considered as one of the most sustainable way of development and a niche tourism. Api-tourism is a form of tourism connected with beekeeping as a traditional profession and with bee products in ecological, food and medicinal aspects. The activities related to api-tourism include visits in apiaries, open-air museums and bee museums where tourists have the opportunity to observe a beekeeper?s work, a method of making honey, its properties and specifics, to find out about other bee products, to watch how bee colony live, to recognize ecological correlation between a man and bees. The purpose of this article is to show good practice in api-tourism observed in Europe. The study is based on field research conducted in apiaries, bee museums and educational farms in the years 2012-2014.
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Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses
Vol. 2. 1 (2014) 66-74
66
Api-tourism in Europe
Barbara WOŚ
1
Opole University of Technology, Poland
Abstract: Api-tourism, as a form of tourism that deals with culture and
traditions of rural communities could be considered as one of the most
sustainable way of development and a niche tourism. Api-tourism is a form of
tourism connected with beekeeping as a traditional profession and with bee
products in ecological, food and medicinal aspects. The activities related to api-
tourism include visits in apiaries, open-air museums and bee museums where
tourists have the opportunity to observe a beekeeper’s work, a method of
making honey, its properties and specifics, to find out about other bee products,
to watch how bee colony live, to recognize ecological correlation between a
man and bees. The purpose of this article is to show good practice in api-
tourism observed in Europe. The study is based on field research conducted in
apiaries, bee museums and educational farms in the years 2012-2014.
Key words: api-tourism, apiary, educational farm, ecotourism, sustainable
tourism.
1. Introduction
The 21st century is a period of intense economic development and increasing
degradation of natural environment. Decline of biodiversity and dysfunctions of many
ecosystems are the problems we face every day. Progressive process of globalization
threatens the behavior, traditions, culture and integrity of local societies. From the
environmental point of view, it is necessary to counter these negative processes.
Implementation of sustainable development principles can deal with the problem.
Tourism is the branch of economy where cultural and natural values are required to be
preserved (Cawley & Gillmor, 2008, Hegarty & Przezborska, 2005). The tendency
observed in tourism in recent years is the interest in pro-environmental forms of
travelling: eco and agri-tourism, nature and cultural tourism. Tourists look for active
forms of spending free time however not only physical activity is crucial but also the
cognitive one. Opportunity to gain new experiences, to meet natural and cultural
specificity of a region becomes the motive for many tourist trips (Wożniak & Cebulak,
2007). An excellent example of such form of tourism is api-tourism.
Api-tourism (the name comes from Latin name of honeybee - Apis mellifera) is a
form of tourism connected with beekeeping as a traditional profession and with bee
1
Corresponding author: Barbara WOŚ, E-mail address: b.wos@po.opole.pl
Journal of Environmental and Tourism Analyses
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products in ecological, food and medicinal aspects. Activities related to api-tourism
include visits in apiaries, open-air museums and bee museums where a tourist has an
opportunity to observe a beekeeper’s work, a method of making honey, its properties
and specifics (including tasting different kinds of honey), to find out about other bee
products (pollen, wax, bee bread, royal jelly), to watch how bee colony live, to recognize
ecological correlation between a man and bees (Woś & Bień, 2013). Api-tourism may be
developed on the basis of the already existing beekeeping museums and open-air
museums, but, above all, the offer may be formed by the owners of apiaries, bee farms
and agro and ecotourism farms with home apiaries. Development of api-tourism is an
opportunity to activate rural areas, to create new jobs and to promote a region’s culture
and tradition. A country that is the leader of the api-tourism market is Slovenia (Sivic,
2014) where api-tourism became one of the branches of tourism that is very attractive
both for domestic and foreign tourists. In the last 5 years, the dynamic development of
api-tourism was recorded in Poland, Germany, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Ukraine
(Oleynik & Iaromenko, 2012) and Spain (Shiffler, 2014).
2. Materials and Methods
To assess the availability of api-tourism offer properly the research studies were
conducted in entities associated with api-tourism: apiaries, museums, open-air
museums of beekeeping and agri-tourism farms with api-tourism offer. Between April
and August 2013 the studies were conducted in Poland and then, during the next year
(April - August 2014), the research area was extended to selected European countries.
In total, the survey covered 75 api-tourism entities in Poland and abroad (40 in Poland,
6 in Czech Republic, 7 in Germany, 7 in Slovenia, 4 in Spain, 2 in Lithuania, 2 in Ukraine,
2 in Portugal, 2 in Slovakia, 2 in Hungary and 1 in Greece). The following research
methods were used: questionnaire survey among the owners, visits to apiaries and
museums and analysis of the availability of api-tourist offer and possibilities of its
development. In the second part of the research interviews were conducted with 50
randomly selected tourists in order to determine the interest in the api-tourist offer.
2. Research Results
The aim of this paper was to present api-tourism as an innovative form of spending
free time, to show its functions and to characterize the main group of api-tourism
product recipients.
On the grounds of conducted research, basic api-tourism functions were
distinguished.
Educational function api-tourism promotes pro-ecological environmental activities
(Madras-Majewska, Majewski, 2013) making tourists aware of a huge role bees play in
functioning of many ecosystems. 1/3 of products eaten indirectly and directly by a man
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depend on insect pollination (Spevak, 2012). For that reason it is very important to
retain the largest number of bee colonies and to ecologically educate allowing
understanding and appreciating the role of bees in life and economy of a man.
Touring function draws attention to the specific nature and tradition of a region and
especially of beekeeper’s work and the history of beekeeping (Schluter, 2011; Sims,
2009, Brscic, Poljuha & Siklic, 2013).
Pro-health function - promotion of natural treatment methods and bee products
which, when properly used, can replace complex pharmaceuticals. It is essential to
attract attention to not well-known and rarely used bee products such as propolis, bee
bread, royal jelly, pollen and wax. Showing numerous applications of bee products in
cooking, medicine and cosmetics it is also a promotion of pro-healthy lifestyle and the
return to nature, which can successfully serve a man.
Social function - an api-tourism offer allows activating a local community by creating
new jobs at tourist traffic services, to develop agri-tourism farms and to benefit from
the potential of knowledge and experience of apiarists (Woś & Bień, 2013).
Such diversity of functions makes api-tourism an increasingly popular and highly
valued form of tourism especially when carried out in apiaries and bee farms, which
provide workshops and presentations in natural conditions. The research found that
the main group of api-tourism offer recipients (54%) is made of children and
adolescents. (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Main group of tourists interested in api-tourism.
Source: According to the author’s calculations.
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This is due to the educational function of api-tourism and the fact that many farms
and apiaries dealing with api-tourism provide classes of biology, ecology and history of
beekeeping dedicated to children and adolescents. An interesting form of these classes
which combine theory with practice and offer many other attractions (trips to apiaries,
wearing beekeeping protective clothing, games and plays related to beekeeping, tasting
honey straight form a honeycomb) are a very interesting offer for schools and
kindergartens. The second significant group of agri-tourism recipients is made of
individual tourists (43%). As the conducted analysis indicates the group consists mainly
of tourists who arrive to an apiary to purchase honey and later they choose additional
activity, being encouraged to visit the apiary or to participate in workshops. Interviews
with beekeepers involved in api-tourism show that the interest with an offer of classes
in the apiary is increasing and visitors more and more often ask about the possibility to
visit an apiary or expect to find such information on farm websites. The smallest group
of agri-tourism offer recipients is made by adults (3%), usually apiarists interested in
improvement workshops in apiaries and bee farms but this situation has also changed
together with increasing popularity of api-tourism. In Slovenia, a country with firmly
established position of api-tourism, groups of beekeepers arriving for workshops and
trainings are an important group of recipients.
An api-tourism offer available on the market was analyzed during visits in apiaries,
agri-tourism farms, museums and beekeeping open-air museums, (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Main attractions offered in apiaries and eco-farms. Source: According to the
author’s calculations.
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Conducted studies revealed that vast majority of objects (74 out of analyzed 75)
possess stands with honey and bee products. It is a fundamental form of an apitourism
offer, which attracts tourists (particularly when it is available to taste various kinds of
honey) and brings measurable benefits to the apiary owner. In most of analyzed objects,
a stand with honey was the beginning of an api-tourism offer development. Further
offer was shaped through the direct contact with customers and the analysis of their
interests. Owners of 61 researched objects run educational classes related to
beekeeping, ecology and biology of a bee. Most frequently, such classes take place in
specially designed rooms or a shed and are supplemented by visits at an apiary. To
minimize people’s fear of being stung they use special beekeeper protective clothing.
Apiary owners who do not have special classrooms run presentations away, in schools
and kindergartens. During such classes, beekeepers, using visual aids (a demonstration
beehive, honeycombs with sealed honey, beekeeper’s equipment) explain the
functioning of a bee colony and the process of production and obtaining honey. Forty-
four beekeeping farms offer tourists apiary sightseeing and participation in workshops
connected with obtaining honey (Figure 3.)
Figure 3. Workshop in apiary. Photo taken by author.
The scope of available activities and the size of a group depend on reception facilities
and the number of employees involved in conducting classes of such type. Common
tourist attractions found in an apiary and an open-air museum are exhibitions of
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historical beehives and beekeeper’s equipment. Such collections were recorded in 32
objects. Another interesting offer of api-tourism bee farms is bee wax candle making
workshops, which attract a lot of tourists. It is worth mentioning that, unlike obtaining
honey workshops or a sightseeing apiary offer, which are available for tourists between
April and August, “wax workshops” can be conducted all year round. An interesting
initiative which is more and more often present in apiaries and agri-tourism farms (11
visited objects had such an offer) are honey plants gardens where each plant is
precisely described with a name, a period of flowering and usefulness for bees
(melliferous). The creation of such an offer requires relatively low financial investment
and brings considerable effects serving as teaching material, visual attraction and
additional benefit for bees. Another element of the api-tourism offer having enormous
developmental potential is api-therapy application of honey and bee products in the
treatment of various diseases. Treatments directly interfering in a patient’s body can be
carried out only under a doctor’s control; however, there is a scope of treatments that
do not require a physician’s participation and may positively affect health and beauty.
The most popular form of api-therapy used in apiaries (6 apiaries had it in its offer)
were api-inhalation facilities rooms where visitors rest in special comfortable
armchairs and breathe beehive air rich in fungicidal and bactericidal substances
positively affecting the respiratory system, supporting immunity, reducing stress and
fatigue, improving mood. Api-inhalation sessions are recommended for people with
asthma, respiratory system diseases, in neurotic states and in states of considerable
exhaustion. In addition to api-inhalation sessions (particularly in Slovenian apiaries)
the api-spa offers consisted in relaxation massages with the use of honey and bee wax,
cosmetic masks, body scrubs and even baths with honey. Such an offer was considered
as very valuable and api-spa apiaries attracted both tourists and people who wanted to
benefit from honey properties. It is also worth mentioning that a lot of beekeepers who
were beginning to create their api-tourism offers were interested in application of api-
therapy in its various forms in their own apiaries. Such extended offer, however,
involves a significant investment both in premises and in well-trained staff; therefore it
is not usually available for smaller api-tourism farms that begin their activity. Visits in
apiaries and beekeeping farms revealed also an offer connected with cooking
workshops, which presented various ways of using honey and bee product in cooking.
During such classes, you can find out about old and contemporary recipes for dishes
with honey, try out your cooking and baking skills as well as decorate honey
gingerbread. As in the previous case, organization of this type of workshops for large
groups requires relevant premises facilities, which not all apiary owners may afford.
However, individual tourists can benefit from such workshops in agri-tourism farms
whose owners have small home apiaries and where a local kitchen is a place for
workshops. As studies imply most tourists who visited api-tourism farms come back
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there, taking advantage of other forms of an offer or make supplies of honey and bee
products. This group of recipients becomes a natural advertising medium who, by word
of mouth, attracts other clients and tourists.
To check the interest of tourists in the api-tourism offer I conducted a survey among
50 people who have not participated in api-tourism before, asking them for their
interest in api-tourism (Figure 4).
As the analysis of the survey shows, the most attractive for tourists would be the
possibility of obtaining information about honey and bee product application as a
supplementary factor supporting the process of healing. The second one turned out to
be the possibility of honey tasting what was indicated by 47.5% of respondents. More
than 30% of respondents would eagerly take part in workshops connected with
application of honey in cooking. Very popular was also the possibility of visiting an
apiary and taking part in extracting honey workshops (27.5%). The workshops of
beeswax candles were attractive for more than 15% of respondents. Api-therapy
attracted relatively low interest.
65
10
28
30
10
48
15
8
020 40 60 80
Medical use of honey
Apitherapy
Visit an apiary to see how honey is…
Workshops on cooking with honey
Bee biology
Tasting honey
Workshop on beeswax candle making
Melliferous plants garden
% of tourists
Figure 4. Type of api-tourism offer that the tourists are interested in.
Source: According to the author’s calculations.
Only 10% of the respondents expressed their interest in such form of an offer what
may be due to the low awareness of the possible use of bee waxes in a therapy and
forms of therapy that can be conducted in apiaries. The lowest interests among the
attractions that apiaries offered were the demonstrative honey plants gardens, which
attracted only 7.5% of respondents. As the conducted research shows, there is a strong
demand for an apitourism offer among various groups of recipients that creates a
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significant chance for the development of this form of tourism. Interest in the creation
of an api-tourism offer can also be seen among the beekeepers community in various
countries. Year after year, the scope of tourism services provided by apiaries and
beekeeping farms increases as well as their number. An extremely important motivator
for the creation of api-tourism offer is the observation of good practices in countries
like Slovenia where api-tourism attracts great interest and brings real profit to local
community. Opportunity of study trips and of experience exchange between beekeepers
from different countries results in dynamic development in most European countries.
Conclusions
Api-tourism is an innovative form of tourism that fits well in the area of niche
tourism. Various functions it can follow result in an opportunity for dynamic growth.
Such form of tourism can become an excellent support for rural areas creating new jobs
in tourism services, supporting the development of local infrastructure and promoting
the region. The specificity of api-tourism created on the basis of the existing bee farms,
enabling gradual extension of an offer depending on financial, residential and human
resources of each farm, allows preparing an offer in every apiary without necessity of
big investments at the start. Adjusting an offer to a farm potential and to the needs of
recipients allows for the specialization in one of the areas of api-tourism (api-therapy,
education) or for the creation of widely available offer. Conducted studies showed a
significant interest of schools and kindergartens in api-tourism offer. Education and
promotion of healthy lifestyle and pro-ecological attitude based on knowledge and
respect for nature seem to be worth promotion. Practical classes carried out in bee
farms attract clients’ attention to inseparable bounds between man and nature can also
become a perfect way of promoting local culture and tradition. From the perspective of
the research, it can be stated that optimal development of apitourism requires also the
support of local governments and organizations responsible for the development of
rural areas.
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... Apitourism has emerged as a popular form of tourism and has played an important role in the development of rural areas. Apitourism has been accepted as one of the most sustainable ways of development and is blending the culture and traditions of rural communities (Woś, 2014). The development of apitourism can increase the variety and attractiveness of touristic products in rural areas, and therefore offers extremely important opportunities to revitalize rural areas, create new jobs and promote the culture and tradition of a region (Šuligoj, 2021;Arich & Korošec, 2015;Woś, 2014). ...
... Apitourism has been accepted as one of the most sustainable ways of development and is blending the culture and traditions of rural communities (Woś, 2014). The development of apitourism can increase the variety and attractiveness of touristic products in rural areas, and therefore offers extremely important opportunities to revitalize rural areas, create new jobs and promote the culture and tradition of a region (Šuligoj, 2021;Arich & Korošec, 2015;Woś, 2014). ...
... Aliyeva et al. (2019) point out that apitourism has great potential as an additional opportunity for beekeepers to expand and strengthen their presence in the tourism market. Besides, apitourism can provide tourists with rich experiences by offering both cognitive and physical activities (Woś, 2014). ...
Article
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... Api-turizm, geleneksel bir meslek olarak arıcılık ve ekolojik, gıda ve tıbbi yönlere sahip arı ürünleri ile bağlantılı bir turizm şeklidir. Api turizm, turistlerin arıcılık ile uğraşan bir kişinin bal ve arı ile yapılan diğer ürünlerin özellikleri hakkında bilgi edinmesini, nasıl yapıldığını gözlemlemesini, öğrenmesini, açık hava müzelerini ve arı müzelerinin ziyaret edilmesini kapsamaktadır (Wos, 2014). Api turizm; "Arı kültürü ile hareket eden özel bir kitlenin, bu kültürü daha iyi kavramak, sağlıklı yaşam sürdürmek veya tedavi olmak amacıyla arıların varlığını sürdürdüğü doğal ortamına giderek orada konakladığı süreçte ortaya çıkan faaliyetler bütünü" olarak ifade edilmektedir (Suna, 2018a). ...
... Api turizmin belirli işlevleri vardır (Wos, 2014); ...
... Api turizmin pazarlanmasında birçok ürün bulunmaktadır. Eko çiftliklerde ve kovanlıklarda başlıca ilgi çekici ürünler ve yerler şunlardır (Wos, 2014); ...
... Apiturizm (Bal arısının Latince adı Apismellifera'dan gelmektedir.) geleneksel bir meslek olarak arıcılık ve ekolojik, gıda ve tıbbi yönleriyle arı ürünleri ile bağlantılı bir turizm şekli olarak bilinmektedir (Wos, 2014). Api turizm özellikle kırsal toplulukların gelenekleriyle ilgilenen ve sürdürülebilirliğin en etkili yollarından biri olarak görülen niş bir turizm çeşididir (Cesur, 2021:80). ...
... Api turizm (Bal arısının Latince adı Apismellifera'dan gelmektedir), geleneksel bir meslek olarak arıcılık ve arıcılıkla bağlantılı bir turizm şeklidir (Cesur, 2021;Lemelin, 2020;Wos, 2014). Sürdürülebilirliğe yeni bir yaklaşım getiren api turizm, bir yaşam biçimi olarak arıcılık hakkında bilgi ve deneyim elde etmenin yanı sıra doğal olanı keşfetme isteği olarak turizmin yeni bir boyutunu temsil etmektedir (Arih ve Korošec, 2015). ...
... Lemelin (2020) api turizminin, iyi gelişmiş ve popüler bir entomoturizm türü olarak ziyaretçilerin, arıcılar ve arılar arasındaki etkileşimi gözlemleme, farklı bal türlerini tatma, arı ürünleri, tozlaşmanın önemi ve api terapi hakkında bilgi edinmesine olanak sağladığını belirtmektedir. Api turizminin eğitici, sosyal (Arih ve Korošec, 2015;Wos, 2014), sağlık (Arih ve Korošec, 2015;Suna, 2018Suna, , 2020 ve turizm (Cesur, 2021;Lemelin, 2020;Šuligoj, 2021;Suna, 2019Suna, , 2020 gibi birçok fonksiyonu olduğu belirtilmektedir. Yine bu turizm türünde çeşitli aktivite ve uygulamalar da yürütülmektedir. ...
Chapter
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Tourism has become one of the main economic forces of many developed and developing countries (Lane, 1994). It is also recognized as an effective catalyst for rural socioeconomic development and renewal (Emekli, 2006; Sharpley, 2002). Tourism is seen as a viable solution, especially for poor and rural areas with limited development options (Oppermann, 1996). For this reason, many countries have integrated rural tourism into their regional and national development strategies for economic development (Telfer and Sharpley, 2014). What lies behind today's rural tourism development efforts is this type of development model based on physical attributes (Gartner, 2004). Rural tourism, in addition to contributing to the diversification of the economy in general, can be beneficial in preventing migration from rural areas, promoting cultural exchange between urban and rural areas, and developing the traditional values of rural life (Randelli et al., 2012). More specifically, the development of rural tourism can offer potential solutions to many of the problems faced by rural areas (Gannon, 1994). However, various problems can be experienced in tourism activities in rural areas. One of the most important problems one is the lack of activity and this is due to the spatial distribution (Roberts & Hall, 2001). In this context, a region or region's tourism in rural development, by correctly evaluating the potential of the space, different components should be used (Akbulak, 2016). In addition, conditions that will attract visitors and meet their needs creation requires a dynamic approach in tourism (Renko et al., 2010). Today, visitors can see what the tourism industry has to offer more interactive, extraordinary and satisfying experiences outside of services they are looking for (Cesur, 2021:75). At this point, a supply based on rural tourism. As a result, the concept of apiturism comes to the fore Api tourism (Honey bee Its Latin name comes from Apismellifera) as a traditional occupation. Beekeeping and its ecological, food and medicinal aspects are linked to bee products. It is known as a form of tourism (Wos, 2014). Api tourism especially rural interested in the traditions of communities and one of the most effective ways of sustainability. It is a type of niche tourism, which is seen as one of the first (Cesur, 2021:80). Api tourism; sustainable, alternative, green, responsible, rural and soft tourism. It is also at the center of tourism types (Suna, 2018). Api tourism, rural has the potential to create a supply for tourism. Therefore, in this research, a type of tourism that can serve rural development in Ardahan province. By evaluating the concept of api tourism, which is Developing a roadmap and raising awareness about the issue intended. For this purpose, SWOT of Ardahan province for api tourism development and TOWS matrices have been developed and the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (BAHS) The weights of the factors in the TOWS matrix and importance levels were obtained. In the study, the selection of the province of Ardahan has two justification: (1) Rural population ratio of Ardahan province compared to Turkey high level of immigration, continuous migration and many socioeconomic being below the country averages in terms of indicators (Akbulak, 2016), (2) The transportation conditions depending on climate and topography in Ardahan province It is unsuitable for the development of agriculture, industry and service sectors affected direction. On the other hand, animal husbandry activities are the main source of income of the province (Birinci, 2018; Koday, 2005). These activities beekeeping also has an important share among the population and Caucasian Bee Breed Gene It has a center (SERKA, 2019). Along with these reasons the conceptual framework of api tourism and the findings obtained in Ardahan province. In terms of rural development by associating with the beekeeping activities carried out evaluated.
... Api-turizm, geleneksel bir meslek olarak arıcılık ve ekolojik, gıda ve tıbbi yönlere sahip arı ürünleri ile bağlantılı bir turizm şeklidir. Api turizm, turistlerin arıcılık ile uğraşan bir kişinin bal ve arı ile yapılan diğer ürünlerin özellikleri hakkında bilgi edinmesini, nasıl yapıldığını gözlemlemesini, öğrenmesini, açık hava müzelerini ve arı müzelerinin ziyaret edilmesini kapsamaktadır (Wos, 2014). Api turizm; "Arı kültürü ile hareket eden özel bir kitlenin, bu kültürü daha iyi kavramak, sağlıklı yaşam sürdürmek veya tedavi olmak amacıyla arıların varlığını sürdürdüğü doğal ortamına giderek orada konakladığı süreçte ortaya çıkan faaliyetler bütünü" olarak ifade edilmektedir (Suna, 2018a). ...
... Api turizmin belirli işlevleri vardır (Wos, 2014); ...
... Api turizmin pazarlanmasında birçok ürün bulunmaktadır. Eko çiftliklerde ve kovanlıklarda başlıca ilgi çekici ürünler ve yerler şunlardır (Wos, 2014); ...
... Keywords: Apiculture (api) tourism, sustainability, tourist guides, rural community, touristic product Giriş Arıcılık (api) turizmi adını Latince bal arısından (Apis mellifera) almaktadır. Arıcılık (api) turizmi, arı kültürü ve arı ürünleri ile bağlantılı bir turizm biçimidir (Woś, 2014). Arıcılık (api) turizmi geleneksel bir meslek olarak arıcılıkla ilgili olduğu kadar arıcılık ürünlerini ve bunların çevresel, besleyici ve iyileştirici değerlerini gösteren bir turizm şeklidir. ...
... Ayrıca, eko ve tarım turizmi, doğa ve kültür turizmi başlıca çevre yanlısı turizm hareketleri arasında sayılabilir. Turistler, turistik zamanlarını geçirecek sadece fiziksel aktivite değil aynı zamanda bilişsel olarak da zaman harcayacakları aktivitelere yöneldikleri görülmektedir (Woś, 2014). ...
Article
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Sürdürülebilirliğe benzersiz ve yeni bir yaklaşım olan arıcılık (api) turizmi, yeni bir yaşam biçimi olarak arıcılığın bilgi alışverişinde doğal ve benzersiz olanı keşfetme arzusu sunan bir deneyimdir. Arıcılık turizmi, kültürlerle ilgilenen bir turizm biçimi olarak ve kırsal toplulukların geleneklerini sürdürülebilir kılan bir kalkınma yoludur. Ekonomide ve insanların sosyalleşmelerinde büyük önem taşıyan turizm olgusunun en büyük yapı taşlarından biri olan turist rehberlerinin turistler üzerindeki etkileri oldukça büyüktür. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı; ekonomik önem taşıyan arıcılık faaliyetleri ile turizm endüstrisi arasında olumlu etkileşim için alternatifler üretmektir. Bu çalışma, destinasyon marka oluşturma ve pazarlamasında etkili olan turist rehberlerinin arıcılık turizmine yönelik bilgi ve algı düzeylerinin turistlere tavsiye niyetine etkisini ortaya çıkarmayı hedeflemektedir. Araştırma kapsamında, turist rehberlerinin arıcılık (api) turizmi bilgisi ve arıcılık (api) turizmi algısının tavsiye niyeti üzerinde etkileri incelenmiştir. Turist rehberleri aynı zamanda arıcılık (api) turizminin eğitimi, tanıtımı ve pazarlama çalışmaları yapılarak tur programına alınması durumunda sürdürülebilir turizm çerçevesinde turistik ürün olabileceği konusunda fikir birliğinde bulunmuşlardır. Bu bağlamda turist rehberlerinin arıcılık (api) turizmi bilgi düzeyi ve arıcılık (api) turizmi algısı düzeyini anlamak üzere birden fazla değişken kullanılarak yaklaşımlara dair ayrıntılı bir tablo ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Arıcılık (api) turizmi, sürdürülebilirlik, turist rehberleri, kırsal kalkınma, turistik ürün. Abstract Apiculture (api) tourism, a unique and new approach to sustainability, is an experience enabling the desire of exploring the natural and unique one for information exchange in apiculture as a new form of life. Apiculture tourism is a way of development as a type of tourism that deals with cultures and makes traditions of rural communities sustainable. Tourist guides who are one of the biggest elements of the tourism fact, that has great importance in the economy and socialization of people, have a great impact on tourists. The main purpose of this study is to produce alternatives for creating positive interaction between apiculture activities which have economic importance and industry of tourism. This study aims at revealing the effect of the knowledge and perception levels of tourist guides against apiculture tourism who have an impact on creating destination, trademark, and marketing.
... Söz konusu potansiyelin kullanılması durumunda hem bal, polen ve propolis gibi arı ürünlerine rağbet artacak hem de kırsal yerleşime arıcılıktan ürün satışı dışında gelir elde etme imkanına ulaşmış olacaklardır. Ayrıca bu tür kurumları (arı müzeleri, bal evleri gibi) arıcılığın bilimsel faaliyetlerde bulunan birimlerle (arıcılık enstitüleri, uygulama ve araştırma merkezleri gibi) kombine bir şekilde dizayn edilmesi çoklu fayda sağlamasına stratejik bir yaklaşım oluşturacaktır (TRT, 2019;Suna, 2018;Wos, 2014;Woś, 2013). Bu yapılar arasında turizmde en fazla istifade edilen yapılar arı müzeleri, arılıklar (arı çiftliği) ve bal evleridir. ...
... Bu bağlamda bal üretimi ve arıcılık faaliyetlerinin hem yöresel hem yenilikçi unsurları alternatif bir turizm olarak kullanma stratejisine uygun bir fırsat olarak değerlendirilebilir. Bal ve arıcılığın var olan kullanım ve kullanım potansiyeline bakıldığında; tarihi ve güncel arıcılık malzemelerinin sergilendiği müze ve ören yerleri, api-turizm ve moleküler gastronomide bal ve diğer arı ürünlerinin kullanımları ön plana çıkmaktadır(Wos, 2014; Şahin ve Aydın, 2021; Erkovan, 2019).Arıcılık ve arı ürünleri farklı birçok turizm amacına olanak tanıyacak çeşitliliğe sahip olup turistler için çok geniş motivasyon imkanları sağlamaktadır. Bu imkanlar kısaca; Geleneksel niteliğiyle yöresel unsurları deneyimlemek için tatmin sağlayıcı bir etno turizm sağlama,  Api-turizmle sağlık turizmin önemli bir motivasyon etmeni olma,  Gizemli arı kolonisi, çocuk ve yetişkinler için arı kovanlarında boş zamanları değerlendirebilecekleri verimli bir rekreasyon imkânı sağlama,  Bal evleri ve yöresel ballarla gastro turizme iyi bir potansiyel duruma sahip olma,  Moleküler gastronomide balın kullanımı modern gastronomik deneyimleme motivasyonuna iyi bir araç olma şeklinde sırlanabilir.Arıcılık ve arı ürünleri, turistlerin bu denli geniş taleplere cevap verme niteliğinde olmasının yanında ürün ve yöresini daha katma değerli arz etmek isteyen kırsal arı yetiştiricilerine ekonomik anlamda önemli bir katkı sunma potansiyelindedir. ...
Conference Paper
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Arıyı çalışkanlıkla balı tatlılık ve lezzetle metaforlaştıran insanoğlunun gözünde eski çağlardan beri bal ve arı istisnai bir konuma sahip olagelmiştir. İnsanlar arasında sahip oldukları bu konum arı ve ürünlerinin; sağlık, beslenme, kozmetik ve kimya gibi birçok alanda kullanılmış olmasından ileri gelmiş olabilir. Son zamanlarda bal ve arının kullanıldığı alanlara deniz, kum ve güneş üçlüsünün ötesinde alternatifler sunmaya çalışan turizm de eklenmiş oldu. Nitekim arı ve ürünlerinin turizmde kullanımı hem yerel hem de küresel unsurlarla kısa bir sürede birçok çeşide ulaşmış oldu. Arı ve ürünlerin turizmde kullanımı çocuk ve yetişkinlerin eğlenceli vakit geçirecekleri bal evleri ve arı müzeleri gibi başlı başına bir turizm faaliyeti olabileceği gibi moleküler gastronomideki kullanımı gibi destinasyonun bir parçası veya tamamlayıcısı gibi de kullanımı söz konusu olabilmektedir. Ayrıca arı ürünleri, sağlık turizminde apiterapi uygulamaları ve kültürel turizmde tarihi arı serenlerinin kullanımı gibi nitelikli turizm faaliyetlerinde de kullanılabilmektedir. Bu çalışma turizm destinasyonlarına konveksiyonel ve modern unsurlarla çeşitlilik imkânı sağlayan bal ve arıcılığın turizmde kullanımını açıklamayı amaçlamıştır. Bu amaç kapsamında; arı ve arıcılık müzeleri, tarihi arı serenleri, bal evleri, apiterapi ve balın moleküler gastronomide kullanımına değinilmiştir. Bu çalışma, belgesellere konu olabilecek kadar gizemli ve ilgi çekici olan arı kovanını daha yakından tanıma fırsatı arayan turistlere dünyada arıcılığın önde gelen ülkelerinden biri olan ülkemizde destinasyon planlaması sağlamak isteyenler için önemli bir rehber niteliğindedir. Ayrıca bu çalışma bu konudaki yetersiz literatüre katkı sağlaması açısından önemlidir.
... Api-tourism combines sustainable beekeeping, niche, historical heritage, and health tourism as an intersection between tradition, alternative medicine, and the sustainable income-generating activity of the beekeeper [113,116,117]. Ecology, known as beekeeping, eco-beekeeping or api-tourism, is a marketing method that combines beekeeping and tourism and has been widely used all around the world. ...
... The country attracts families and small groups, prioritizing adventure and experiences for those who want to taste beekeeping, natural beauties, and local flavours. Beekeeping establishments, original hives, bees, beekeeping practices, apitherapy, and non-governmental associations and organizations earn revenue by promoting beekeeping in the country [11,117,118,124,125]. ...
Article
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Throughout history, honey has been used for many different purposes and due to its medicinal properties, has been one of the products marketed by traders. The figure of the bee first appeared in drawings on rock with the history of humanity, then on statues, as a logo, on money or stamps, and also in movies. Beekeeping museums, which present the historical process of beekeep-ing, also reflect an important culture with their ancient hives, documents, beekeeping materials, and historical antiquities. The contribution of bees to the sustainability of natural life is very important and has a history of 100 million years. The importance of bees and their by-products is increasing day by day, and the demand for the beekeeping industry as alternative income determines the emergence of new products and activities. Based on its health properties, apitherapy is the basis of activities such as api-air and api-diet. In natural regions (i.e., mountainous areas, forests) where beekeeping is carried out, people's tradition, food culture, and healthy lifestyle attract society's attention. In this context, api-tourist activity appears as a new phenomenon. In this article, the existing literature was scanned to create a resource about these new fields triggered by the beekeeping sector .
Article
Arı müzeleri ve bal evleri; yapıldığı yerin kültürünü yansıtan obje ve uygulamaları ihtiva eden kültür varlıkları olmalarının yanında hobi arıcılık uygulamaları gibi rekreasyon faaliyetlerin yapılabildiği yerlerdir. Bu anlamda modern müzecilikte diğer gastronomi müzeleri gibi arıcılık müzeleri turist ve öğrenci ziyaretleri için popüler konseptlerdir. Ayrıca gastronomi müzelerinin yerel ürün ve mutfakların tanıtılmasına, mahsul ve mamullerin markalaşmalarına, turizm faaliyetleriyle bütünleştirilerek yeni gelir kapılarının oluşmalarına imkân sağladıkları belirlenmiştir. Çin’den sonra dünyanın en önemli bal üreticisi olan ülkemizin bal üretiminin %2,3’ünü tek başına Siirt karşılamaktadır. Dünyanın önemli arıcılık yörelerinden biri olmasına rağmen Siirt’in ekonomik gelir bakımından kazancı diğer yörelerin kazanç oranlarına göre oldukça azdır. Bu durumun sebepleri; mahsulün işlenmeksizin hammadde olarak satılması, yetersiz tanıtım, markalaşma eksikliği ve başka faaliyetlerle bütünleştirilememesi gibi etmenler sıralanabilir. Bu çalışmadaki amaç; önemli bir potansiyel ihtiva etmesine rağmen arıcılıktan yeteri kadar ekonomik kazanç elde edilmemesinin önündeki engel olan tanıtım, markalaşma ve farklı aktivitelerle bütünleşmeni sağlayarak bal ve arıcılık temalı gastronomi müzesi önerisini bilimsel çerçevede ele almaktır. Çalışmada; müze önerisinin öneminin belirlenmesinin yanında içeriği ile ilgili önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Müze içerik önerisi dünyadaki benzer örneklere bakılarak yörenin spesifik niteliklerini yansıtacak şekilde sunulmuştur.
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La importancia de este trabajo reside en que, tras la pandemia de 2020, el sector turístico ha sido fuertemente impactado en su participación dentro del producto interior bruto nacional, siendo el ecoturismo una opción viable para las nuevas dinámicas espaciales que ha de experimentar esta actividad recreativa. Por lo que este artículo científico, tiene como objetivo: elaborar una serie de cartogramas de los apiarios en el estado de Nuevo León, México, para documentar las fortalezas del apiturismo de cada municipio y de ese modo aportar elementos para caracterizar el rumbo que pudieran seguir algunas agendas ecoturísticas de Nuevo León. Es de advertir que el tratamiento metodológico es un esfuerzo de aproximación al fenómeno de Big Data, pues nuestra búsqueda se realizó a través de encuestas virtuales mediante el uso de redes sociales. Dentro de los resultados más apremiantes tenemos que, el municipio más óptimo para el apiturismo es El Carmen; luego están tres municipios de la zona citrícola que presentan óptimas condiciones para el apiturismo: Allende; Montemorelos y Cadereyta; les sigue el municipio de la región boscosa de la Sierra Madre Oriental: Santiago; por último, una cuarta opción son los municipios de la zona semiárida: municipios de Marín e Hidalgo.
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The article is dealing with problems of emergence of green tourism in Ukraine, analyzing trends of eco-tourism in the world and in Ukraine. The research presented in this paper is the initial step of complex research of green tourism on the theoretic basis of social geography. The green tourism we consider as phenomenon that affects the development of rural areas, and makes a multiplier effect in the socio-economic and cultural spheres of rural areas. The paper is focussing on the regional difference in the development of tourism. The findings of O. Beydyk who created the recreational ranking methods, were taken as a methodological basis for this research. The economic estimation of GDP and the index of recreational and tourist potential of the regions in Ukraine are compared during this research stage.
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W dobie wzrastającej ingerencji człowieka w środowisko naturalne i dynamicznego rozwoju turystyki niezwykle istotne zdaje się być takie korzystanie z potencjału przyrodniczego i kulturowego regionu, aby tworzyć ciekawą turystycznie ofertę pozwalającą zachować specyfikę i unikalność poszczególnych walorów turystycznych. Doskonałym przykładem takiej aktywności jest apiturystyka, którą forma turystyki związaną z pszczelarstwem, jako tradycyjnym zawodem i produktami pszczelimi w aspekcie ekologicznym, spożywczym i leczniczym. EN In times of increasing human impact on the environment and the dynamic development of tourism it seems to be very important to use natural and cultural potential of the region in a way to create an interesting tourist offer which allows to keep the specificity and uniqueness of the various tourist attractions. An excellent example of such activity is apitourism – a form of tourism related to beekeeping as a traditional profession and honey as a food, health and eco product.
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Rural tourism is gaining new fans all the time, especially in those countries that have not been blessed with the natural resources necessary for a beach holiday industry, or that don't have a sufficiently significant cultural heritage to generate large waves of tourists. However the peacefulness of the countryside, the communing with nature and the chance to indulge in some traditional rural activities are not enough for a lot of people. As a result, people are increasingly turning to gastronomy as an important complement of this type of tourism and as a means of promoting rural development by offering traditional cuisine to tourists. This paper sets out a brief description of this phenomenon based on a study conducted in Tomás Jofré, in Argentina, of the risks which a tourist strategy, apparently risk-free and without any negative consequences, can create for a tourist destination.
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Slovenia has created Apitourism which gives the traveller the opportunity to take a journey aimed at enriching people's lives by engaging with the diversity of the natural and cultural environment. It is an opportunity to encounter and explore Slovenia's distinctive and unique apiculture, heritage and natural beauty.
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A model of integrated rural tourism, which took account of the various resources (cultural, social, environmental, economic), their use, and the role of pertinent stakeholders, was developed to explore effective methods of promoting tourism as part of a rural development strategy. “Strategic fit” was used to assess the effectiveness of the model in adding value locally in the context of an established tourism area in western Ireland. The model reveals considerable robustness in identifying features that promote the adding of value in a holistic way and in identifying the pertinent stakeholders and issues that require attention to meet objectives more effectively.RésuméTourisme rural intégré: concepts et pratique. Un modèle du tourisme rural intégré, qui a tenu compte des diverses ressources (culturelles, sociales, environnementales et économiques), leur utilisation et le rôle des intéressés, a été développé pour explorer des méthodes efficaces pour promouvoir le tourisme comme partie d’une stratégie de développement rural. Le concept de “l’ajustement stratégique” a été employé pour ajouter de la valeur locale dans le contexte d’une région touristique établie dans l’ouest de l’Irlande. Le modèle révèle une robustesse considérable dans l’identification des caractéristiques qui encouragent l’accroissement de la valeur de façon holistique et l’identification des intéressés et des questions qui demandent de l’attention pour atteindre les objectifs avec plus d’efficacité.
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In recent years, attempts to improve the economic and environmental sustainability of both tourism and agriculture have been linked to the development of “alternative” food networks and a renewed enthusiasm for food products that are perceived to be traditional and local. This paper draws on research from two UK regions, the Lake District and Exmoor, to argue that local food can play an important role in the sustainable tourism experience because it appeals to the visitor's desire for authenticity within the holiday experience. Using evidence from qualitative interviews with tourists and food producers, the paper records ways in which local foods are conceptualised as “authentic” products that symbolise the place and culture of the destination. By engaging with debates surrounding the meaning of locality and authenticity, the paper challenges existing understandings of these concepts and offers a new way forward for tourism research by arguing that “local food” has the potential to enhance the visitor experience by connecting consumers to the region and its perceived culture and heritage.
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Both assessment of the physical, economic and social impacts of enlargement and monitoring the implementation of policy directives are vital to future European Union operation. This paper investigates tourism development within relatively underdeveloped regions within Ireland and Poland, and it suggests implications for tourism operations. Comparison is made between product and service offerings in both regions. Strong similarities exist between the profiles of operators, operator motivations differ, and business diversification depends on regional resources and dependency on tourism markets. The level of diversification ultimately determines rural tourism development. The value of using Ireland as a reference model for Polish development and critical issues for tourism advisors and policy makers are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Beekeepers' perceptions about the importance of honey exhibitions and protection of geographical origin of honey -A case of Istria (Croatia)
  • K Briscic
  • D Poljuha
  • J Siklic
Briscic, K., Poljuha, D., Siklic, J., 2013. Beekeepers' perceptions about the importance of honey exhibitions and protection of geographical origin of honey -A case of Istria (Croatia), Jurnal of Central European Agriculture, Vol.14 (4), p.1473-1487.
Apitourism as a form of educational tourism
  • B Madras-Majewska
  • J Majewski
Madras-Majewska, B., Majewski, J., 2013. Apitourism as a form of educational tourism, Research Papers of Wrocław University of Economics, Vol. 304, p.144-153.
The managemant of insects i tourism and recreation (red R. H. Lemelin)
  • E M Spevak
Spevak, E.M., 2012. The managemant of insects i tourism and recreation (red R. H. Lemelin), Cambridge.