Chapter

The Uses and Gratifications (U&G) Approach as a Lens for Studying Social Media Practice

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This chapter investigates how the UG approach can be applied to the study of social media, describing its potential for yielding new insights as well as its methodological challenges. It starts with a general overview of the approach that includes definitions of key concepts, an outline of central tenets, and an overview of the historical context in which it developed. Then the chapter provides an extensive review of the scholarly work that has integrated U&G into the study of how social media are being used in society as well as what gratifications are sought and obtained from their use. It also discusses findings that compare these gratifications across social media sites and services, contrasting Facebook with instant messaging directly; and there is also a discussion of how privacy issues associated with the use of social media affect the types of gratifications that users obtain from their visits to the sites.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The interest drawn by SNSs and other social media (Meng et al., 2017) has allowed the uses and gratifications paradigm to continue to flourish (Quan-Haase and Young, 2014;Verhagen et al., 2015). A few studies into Facebook have shown the appropriateness of this theoretical framework and its classification of motivational drivers, except in regard to learning-related motivations (Smock et al., 2011;Li et al., 2015). ...
... Consistent with the uses and gratifications theory (see Quan-Haase and Young, 2014), people who use Facebook on an ongoing basis are motivated−at least to some degree−by the enjoyment associated with the interactions within this SNS (Błachnio et al., 2016;Rodríguez-Ardura and Meseguer-Artola, 2018). In the case of Facebookers, enjoyment motivation refers to their drive for the playfulness, pleasure, or intrinsic fun derived from interacting online with people, games, or entertaining content (Malik et al., 2015;Hung et al., 2016). ...
Chapter
The rise of Facebook creates opportunities for consumers to entertain, present themselves and interact socially as well as for organizations and brands, who can utilize this social networking site (SNS) as a strategic tool in their integrated marketing communication. Despite engagement being considered a key success factor for content and services on Facebook, an issue still to address is how to trigger a Facebook user’s engagement. This paper is one of the few to theoretically and empirically investigate Facebook engagement and its psychological, motivational drivers. Drawing theoretical insights from uses and gratifications theory, theoretical accounts of flow and the socioemotional selectivity theory, we build and validate a model that connects the motivations that underlie Facebook behavior to involvement-related, emotional and conative facets of Facebook engagement. We test the model with the partially least squares approach on a sample of active Facebook users. The results strongly support the causal, mediating and moderating relationships included in the model. They show that three distinct types of motivational orientation (toward enjoyment, self-disclosure and community identification) contribute to a Facebooker’s engagement behavior. Importantly, the findings reveal that flow episodes strengthen the causal path from enjoyment-related motivation towards engagement, and that the impact of engagement on continued use of Facebook is greater for older Facebookers than among younger users. Based on these findings, the paper provides practical knowledge for organizations making use of Facebook and bears implications for the managers of brands that have active Facebook pages.
... What motivates social media engagement? Uses and gratifications (U&G) theory is the most common approach to the study of motivations behind social media use and behaviour [6] and one of the most useful [49,50]. U&G is a media and communications theory that explains media selection and continued use through peoples' needs and satisfactions. ...
... For the purposes of this chapter, examples of prior U&G research associated with social media have been selected for discussion (see Table 1). For more background on U&G, Reinhard and Dervin [52] provide an introduction to its history, theory, and applications, and Quan-Haase and Young discuss its applicability to social media [50]. While there are several motivations for social media adoption, two of the most salient themes throughout the literature are social and informational factors [32,68]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents a model of social media engagement. The model’s components–presentation of self, action and participation, uses and gratifications, positive experiences, usage and activity counts, and social context–are discussed in depth with relevant evidence and examples. The model supports the main thrust of the chapter to combine tangible, e.g., usage and activity counts, and more abstract, e.g., positive user experiences, indicators of engagement in order to better understand why people engage with social media, the extent to which they engage, what social media platforms they interact with, and the outcomes of their engagement. The chapter includes illustrative case studies and concludes with some thought-provoking questions to guide future research, including the ethical and social implications of social media engagement
... Millennial are a generation that has grown in immediate gratification, they look like impatient (Sweeney, 2005) Park et al, (2009 establishes that the use of social networks is based on the needs and gratifications of users Lim & Ding (2012) explain that the use and gratification theory (U & G) provides a theoretical basis to understand the attitude and intention of consumers to use social media from the perspective of communication, so the theory seeks to explain how a means of communication is used to satisfy needs and analyzes the motivations all behaviors (Ruggiero, 2000;Wang & Yang 2011;Karimi., Et al, 2014;Quan-Haase 2012, Quan-Haase & Young, 2014. The theoretical framework applied to U & G must analyze the motivations and behaviors in two aspects: (a) factors that drive the use and (b) demographic factors (Karimi, et al, 2014). ...
... Then the interactivity between consumers and the brand is based on experiences, entertainment, information and active participation (Hartmann et al, 2017). Reason why to understand relevant factors of gratification and the communication model of Snapchat to explain how a means of communication is used to satisfy the needs and motivations in certain behaviors (Karimi, Et al, 2014;Quan-Haase 2012, Quan -Haase & Young, 2014 ...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines data on 454 participants from the millennial generation. Through the theory of uses and gratifications, the researchers analyze how content strategies employed by the Snapchat impact the use and sharing of content. In addition, motivations for impulsive purchases are analyzed. This exploratory study uses quantitative methodology through an applied survey. The researchers make use of partial least squares structural equations (SMART-PLS). The results contribute to the theory through the identification of gratification factors such as interaction, relationship management, purchase savings, information, interactivity, easy access to content, distraction, creativity, fun and dynamism.
... The usage studies are dynamic studies, as they produce sped-up changes when younger generations produce, design and publish all kinds of content quickly (Boyd & Ellison, 2008;Krishnamurthy & Dou, 2008). In turn, this interaction and dynamic usage increase engagement (Kohler et al., 2011;Mitchell et al., 2016) and allow the explanation of how users adopt social media and present the reasons or motives for adoption (Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). ...
... The gratification explains the effect on purchase motivations generated by different uses of SNSs (Santos et al., 2020;Sin et al., 2012;Yazdanparast & Spears, 2013). When millennials adopt the use of an SNS like Snapchat, they will achieve communication links where all kinds of desires and purchasing needs are satisfied (Karimi et al., 2014;Quan-Haase & Young, 2014;Ruggiero, 2000;Schivinski & Dabrowski, 2016). This good interactive experience is one of Snapchat's advantages. ...
Article
Ephemeral content has become a vital marketing resource for companies, but its effects have rarely been addressed in academic literature. Through the theory of uses and gratifications (U&G), we explore ephemeral content, the impact of Snapchat use, and their impact on millennials’ purchase motivation. Through an electronic survey of 454 millennial-generation participants, analysed through SMART-PLS, theoretical contributions are presented in identifying modality-based gratifications and interactivity-based gratifications as two additional sources of gratification that generate the modality of Snapchat’s ephemeral content. The study theoretically reflects how much interaction and identification with the medium generates a positive involvement in the audience’s needs, thus explaining its reasons for use.
... Millennial are a generation that has grown in immediate gratification, they look like impatient (Sweeney, 2005) Park et al. (2009 establishes that the use of social networks is based on the needs and gratifications of users Lim & Ding (2012) explain that the use and gratification theory (U & G) provides a theoretical basis to understand the attitude and intention of consumers to use social media from the perspective of communication, so the theory seeks to explain how a means of communication is used to satisfy needs and analyzes the motivations all behaviors (Ruggiero, 2000;Wang & Yang 2011;Karimi et al., 2014;Quan-Haase, 2012;Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). The theoretical framework applied to U & G must analyze the motivations and behaviors in two aspects: (a) factors that drive the use and (b) demographic factors (Karimi et al., 2014). ...
... Then the interactivity between consumers and the brand is based on experiences, entertainment, information and active participation (Hartmann et al., 2017). Reason why to understand relevant factors of gratification and the communication model of Snapchat to explain how a means of communication is used to satisfy the needs and motivations in certain behaviors (Karimi et al., 2014;Quan-Haase, 2012, Quan-Haase & Young, 2014. ...
... Lim & Ding (2012) explican que la Teoría de Usos y Gratificaciones (U&G) proporciona una base teórica para entender la actitud e intención de los consumidores de usar medios sociales desde la perspectiva de la comunicación. Por lo que la teoría busca explicar cómo un medio de comunicación es utilizado para satisfacer necesidades y analiza las motivaciones a determinados comportamientos (Ruggiero, 2000;Wang & Yang, 2011;Karimi et al., 2014;Quan-Haase, 2012;Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). El marco teórico aplicado a U&G debe analizar las motivaciones y comportamientos en dos vertientes: (a) factores que impulsan el uso y (b) los factores demográficos (Karimi et al., 2014). ...
... Entonces la interactividad entre los consumidores y la marca se basa en experiencias, entretenimiento, información y participación activa (Hartmann et al., 2017). Por lo que se han de comprender factores relevantes de gratificación y el modelo de comunicación de Snapchat para explicar cómo un medio de comunicación es utilizado para satisfacer las necesidades y motivaciones en determinados comportamientos (Karimi et al., 2014;Quan-Haase, 2012;Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). ...
... The interest drawn by SNSs and other social media (Meng et al., 2017) has allowed the uses and gratifications paradigm to continue to flourish (Quan-Haase and Young, 2014;Verhagen et al., 2015). A few studies into Facebook have shown the appropriateness of this theoretical framework and its classification of motivational drivers, except in regard to learning-related motivations (Smock et al., 2011;Li et al., 2015). ...
... Consistent with the uses and gratifications theory (see Quan-Haase and Young, 2014), people who use Facebook on an ongoing basis are motivated−at least to some degree−by the enjoyment associated with the interactions within this SNS (Błachnio et al., 2016;Rodríguez-Ardura and Meseguer-Artola, 2018). In the case of Facebookers, enjoyment motivation refers to their drive for the playfulness, pleasure, or intrinsic fun derived from interacting online with people, games, or entertaining content (Malik et al., 2015;Hung et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite engagement being a criterion for the success of initiatives on Facebook, there is a lack of conclusive evidence about its connections with the psychological and motivational orientations that lead one to use Facebook. Built upon the uses and gratifications theory, we develop an integrative and context-specific model that links engagement with enjoyment, self-presentation, and community belonging−identified as motivational orientations underlying Facebookers’ behaviors. We also draw on current flow accounts and socioemotional selectivity theory to examine the potential moderating roles of both flow experiences and age differences. We validate the survey instrument and test the model on a sample of active Facebook users. Model testing and sensitive analysis is performed with a two-stage method that combines partial least squares (PLS) and artificial neural network analysis. The results provide strong support for the validity of the hypothesized causal, mediating and moderating relationships embodied in the model. The research also provides insights into practitioners seeking to enhance Facebookers’ engagements and promote continued use of Facebook.
... One well-established approach for studying the media selection process is to posit that users select the most appropriate platform driven by their particular motives for use. This is theoretically and empirically grounded in the uses and gratifications (U&G) communication perspective, which asserts that people use media actively, purposefully and strategically to fulfill specific needs (Katz et al., 1973;Papacharissi, 2008;Quan-Haase and Young, 2014). Another common approach is to focus on people's behavior to determine how usage patterns of an SNS can affect whether someone will also use a different SNS. ...
... U&G is a media use paradigm from mass communications research that has been used extensively for the study of traditional media, such as newspapers, radio and television, has shown to adapt effectively to newer communication technologies, such as email and the internet (Ruggiero, 2000;Stafford et al., 2004) and has emerged recently as a particularly useful approach for the study of SNSs (Quan-Haase and Young, 2014;Sundar and Limperos, 2013). U&G follows an audience-based approach, grounded theoretically on the assumption that individuals select media and content to fulfill felt needs or wants, with these needs expressed as motivations for adopting particular medium use (Katz et al., 1973;Stafford et al., 2004). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on how people navigate the social media ecosystem and how they decide, which social network site (SNS) to use. To this end, the current study draws from uses and gratifications (U&G) theory to elicit and compare motives for the use of Facebook and Twitter and uses behavioral data to examine the findings in the context of technology non-use. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was administered to 232 Facebook users and the results were complemented with 12 usage variables collected via the Facebook application programing interface for the same users. Exploratory factor analysis identified and described the motives for using Facebook and Twitter and multiple regression models examined the relationships between the motives for using the two sites. A multivariate analysis of variance and a series of t -tests investigated the differences in actual behavior between Twitter users and non-users. Findings Results suggest that SNS users will use both sites to gratify their need for information, but will only do so for entertainment that has social characteristics. Furthermore, Facebook users that are more embedded in the site and use the site to support their offline life are more likely to also use Twitter. Practical implications The paper includes implications for SNS researchers, designers and managers by highlighting the motivational and behavioral differences between users of the two sites and the importance of technological affordances for understanding and explaining SNS selection. Originality/value This study extends previous cross-site U&G and non-use research by combining survey and behavioral data.
... Due to the fact that users create content, comment and like content in social media environment such as Facebook fan pages, they should be considered active participants of fan pages. This is in contrast with former mass media because their audience rather tend to be passive, absorbing content without much critical analysis (Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). In fact, this new form of engaging with content in social media offers users more control and make it particularly relevant to examine gratifications that social media provide to users, in comparison to traditional media (Lin, 2001;Quan-Haase & Young, 2010). ...
Article
In recent years, online social networks have raised the attention of scholars and practitioners to study different aspects of these huge data resources to provide useful insights. In this study, a novel framework for segmentation of fan page users in online social networks is proposed based on the features of post popularity including Likes, Comments, and Polarity. Authors have used different methods including data mining, sentiment analysis and CRM to develop the proposing framework. A case study has been conducted and a set of 100 post’s data is extracted from a music band fan page in Facebook to evaluate the framework. Results show that user segmentation led to formation of 4 groups of users having interesting interpretations namely, The Apathetic, Staunch, Ordinary, and Lazy fans. Outcomes of this research are useful for every business owner for improving marketing and customer engagement strategies on social networking sites such as Facebook.
... Deciphering how social media is informed by uses and gratifications motivations is increasingly important (Quan-Haase & Young, 2014), as a plethora of new platforms offer overlapping yet distinctive opportunities for interaction and consumption. Smock, Ellison, Lampe, and Wohn (2011) claim that similar capabilities should not be equated with similar motivations, as individual characteristics and preferences result in differential choices. ...
Article
Full-text available
The social media application Snapchat has ascended rapidly, quickly becoming the third most utilized platform of millennials with a valuation as high as US$19 billion. A national survey of 125 respondents revealed that people using Snapchat to follow sports devote roughly the same amount of time to the platform as Facebook and more time than Twitter, Instagram, or Pinterest. Despite finding other platforms better for sport information seeking, relaxation, and interaction, respondents still reported using Snapchat as a main platform for facilitating sport fandom. Both sport fandom and identification bolstered likelihood of using Snapchat for sport-related interactions. Implications for communication and sport scholars and industry professionals are offered.
... For example, uses and gratifications (U&G) theory suggests that people actively select and consume media to meet individual needs and goals [104,105]. Although this theory was originally developed to explain the effects of traditional media (e.g., televised media, newspapers) on viewers [106], recent studies have expanded its scope to include newer forms of (social) media such as Facebook and Twitter [107][108][109][110]. For instance, social media technologies are used to diversify social networks and opportunities for interaction, and they enhance and complement traditional and offline modes of experience [19,111,112]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research from a variety of disciplines suggests that online technologies (i.e., Web 2.0 and social media) have considerable potential for spurring proenvironmental action; however, relatively little work examines how to effectively capitalize on these communication and organization tools. This review paper describes the Technologies for Proenvironmental Action Model (TPAM), a conceptual framework that explicates how different functions of Web 2.0 and social media (i.e., informational, relational, and experiential) can generate and/or facilitate personal, social, and contextual pathways to environmentally responsible behaviors. As derived from the TPAM, the likelihood of achieving practical goals of increasing proenvironmental behaviors is enhanced when technological functions are matched to the different pathways to proenvironmental action. For example, the relational function of technologies, as exemplified by Social Networking Sites (SNSs), should be particularly effective in communicating social norms supportive of environmentally responsible behaviors. The TPAM is intended as a guide to develop novel approaches, research questions, and methodologies in leveraging Web 2.0 and social media technologies to promote proenvironmental action. Results will contribute to basic theory development and work in applied settings (e.g., local environmental organizations) in order to effectively communicate and organize with different segments of the population to increase sustainable behaviors.
... This study was concerned with application of Uses and Gratifications (U&G) theory to digital dating and social media (Gudelunas, 2012; Whiting & Williams, 2013; Basak & Calisir, 2014; Miller, 2015; Malik et al., 2016). U&G Theory was based upon a historical heritage of communication research and mass communication (Katz & Lazarsfeld, 1964) and it aimed to answer " how, why, and with what purpose people use media in their everyday lives " (Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). Uses and gratifications, an " active audience-centered approach " to media studies, focused on inherent needs that the media can satisfy (Katz et al., 1973) and active audience members and their needs (Haridakis, 2002). ...
... This active-user paradigm makes U&G theory particularly relevant for studies of interactive online media (Chen, 2011). U&G perspective is especially useful for SNSs to understand why and how SNS technology has become integrated into our social lives (Quan-Haase and Young, 2014). ...
Article
Guided by the Uses and Gratifications 2.0 approach, this study examines the role played by three classes of affordances (i.e. modality, agency, and interactivity) in explicating the gratifications derived by older adults on Facebook. Data from a content analysis of Facebook profiles and an online survey with older adults (aged 60 years and older) who have used Facebook for at least 1 year (N = 202) show that while status updating and posting personal stories are associated with activity and community-building gratifications respectively, profile customization is key for obtaining agency-enhancement gratification, and participating in conversations on comment threads plays an important role in providing interaction gratification. These findings advance our understanding of social networking site (SNS) use among older adults and suggest interface designs that maximize gratifications for older adults.
... Specifically, items of status seeking, socializing, information sharing, entertainment, and pass time gratification were adapted from previous U&G research. 8,16,20,25,[30][31][32] Prior research was used as the basis for items on news quality, source credibility 33,34 and inten- tion to share news. 8,35 These items were rated on a 7-point Likert scale from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree." ...
Article
Social media is relied upon as a single portal for entertainment, communication, and news. To understand determinants of new sharing, we empirically evaluate data from 188 Facebook users with PLS structural equation modelling. Results support the significant influence of information sharing and status seeking gratifications on news sharing, and that this significance varies across contexts. We find that status seeking gratification has a stronger effect on news sharing when news quality is more emphasized. In other words, sharing low-quality news can be damaging to an individual’s status and they try to avoid it. However, information sharing gratification has a stronger effect on news sharing for those individuals who rely more on credibility and may be employing more heuristic selection approaches. This work has opened up new opportunities for further research and it is hoped that this may contribute to improving the quality and experience of news sharing in social media.
... U&G is a cutting-edge theory of each new mass communication medium, and now the internet (Ruggiero, 2016). With the large number of social media usage among adolescents, U&G seems regain communication scholars' interest, as it can provide insights of what motives and what people do to media (Quan-Hasse & Young, 2014). Another consideration for using the Uses & Gratifications Theory, there is an aspect within this theory that got less attention from U&G researchers, i.e. aspects of consequences. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to 1) explore the benefits of online (benefits obtained when on the internet) and online risks (risks experienced when on the internet) in adolescents in Jakarta; 2) Test differences in online benefits and online risk based on differences in gender, education level, and school affiliation. This study used a survey method with a multilevel random sampling technique performed on adolescents living in Jakarta aged 12-18 (N = 756). The data analysis technique for this study is descriptive analysis and T-test analysis. The results of the research show that teenagers in Jakarta regularly use the internet every day with relatively high duration. More than 60% of teens benefit online in the medium to the high category, with six types of benefits online: learning, creative participation, social participation, social relations, entertainment, commercial benefits, and personal benefits. Most teens experience online risk in the low category, with three types of risks: content risk, contact risk, and behavioral risk. Other findings, namely: (1) there are significant differences in online risk-based on sex and adolescent education level; (2) significant differences in online benefits are based solely on adolescent education levels. There are no significant differences in online and online risk benefits based on school affiliation (non-religious schools and religion-based schools). This research contributes to the importance of distinguishing online benefits and online risks from adolescent education levels. Keywords: Adolescents, Internet Use, Online Benefits, Online Risk
... Gratification has a similar meaning to satisfaction from media consumption, a variable used in one published study (Merikivi et al., 2017). Uses and Gratifications (U&G) theory has motivated one stream of research that promotes the traditional audience-centric and sociopsychological needs-based theory, arguing that media fulfill existing socio-psychological needs (Katz, Blumer, & Gurevitch, 1974;Katz & Lazarsfeld, 1955;Quan-Haase & Young, 2014;Ruggiero, 2000). However, another stream of research challenges this monolithic view of classifying unaddressed needs as latent needs, arguing that media technology can create new needs (Sundar & Limperos, 2013;Lichtenstein & Rosenfeld, 1983). ...
Article
Full-text available
Watching television shows in quick succession on the Netflix and Amazon Prime platforms is on the rise. Although widespread, this binge watching behavior has received limited attention from marketing academics. The current study conceptualizes binge watching needs and examines their effect on the gratifications obtained from binge watching. We apply the lens of uses and gratifications (U&G) theory for model development and test the model empirically, using data from two cities in India. We add a new category of needs, namely technology‐related needs, to the existing psycho‐sociological‐related needs (named as content‐related needs in this paper) present in plain‐old‐television studies (POTS). We find that a technology‐related need—that is, modal experience (the presence of media content in various formats leading to superior experience)—significantly impacts gratification from binge watching. We also find a strong moderating effect of self‐control, used in previous studies of binge‐eating and binge‐shopping, in which the effect of modal experience, navigability and parasocial interaction need gratification is heightened for consumers who have low levels of self‐control. We build on these findings to suggest implications for marketers, advertisers, and consumer‐advocacy groups.
... Nisar and Whitehead (2016) clarify that brands and customer satisfaction are positively related to the behavioral loyalty of users. Even U&G theory details that the public takes the initiative in selecting and using communication vehicles to satisfy their needs or desires (Schivinski and Dabrowski, 2016;Quan-Haase and Young, 2014;Karimi et al., 2014;Lee and Ma, 2012). These antecedents are of interest to researchers, which leads us to propose the following hypotheses: ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of social media and its impact on information search, communication with a company, and purchase and re-purchases of products and services. Using use and gratification theory as a starting point, it also examines the impact of satisfaction of use of social media in the process of purchasing and re-purchasing products and services. Design/methodology/approach An online survey was conducted with 444 participants, and the data were analyzed using the partial least squares structural equation modeling technique to observe the effects between the variables of social media use, search information, communication with the company, purchase, re-purchase and satisfaction of use of social media. Findings The results reflect how the use of social media generates significant rewards that significantly impact the search for information and the communication with the company. The data also show how communication with the company has an impact on the purchase and re-purchase of products and services. Finally, it was empirically confirmed that the gratification received by users through social media use impacts satisfaction with social media use. Originality/value The results contribute to how social media impacts alternative evaluations through the gratification of user needs, resulting in motives and behaviors leading to the purchase of goods and services, as established by Use and Gratification Theory. In its contributions to the Academy, Use and Gratification Theory (U&G) explains why individuals use and share information using social media. First, it justifies the purchase and re-purchase of products and services due to user satisfaction according to users’ experience using social media. Second, it presents a vision of how the use of social media is a significantly important result in the gratification of consumer needs.
... Although the 'push out' information feature of social media is valuable during emergencies, a key aspect of social media is the ability for PH to interact with the public, enabling engagement and relationship development. [14][15][16][17] Engaging the public via social media in two-way communication generates benefits such as increased trust and positive feelings towards institutions, 18-21 potentially counteracting misinformation during PH emergencies. 22 However, there is evidence that PH agencies are not using social media to its full interactive potential. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Keeping Canadians safe requires a robust public health (PH) system. This is especially true when there is a PH emergency, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media, like Twitter and Facebook, is an important information channel because most people use the internet for their health information. The PH sector can use social media during emergency events for (1) PH messaging, (2) monitoring misinformation, and (3) responding to questions and concerns raised by the public. In this study, we ask: what is the Canadian PH risk communication response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of social media? Methods and analysis: We will conduct a case study using content and sentiment analysis to examine how provinces and provincial PH leaders, and the Public Health Agency of Canada and national public heath leaders, engage with the public using social media during the first wave of the pandemic (1 January-3 September 2020). We will focus specifically on Twitter and Facebook. We will compare findings to a gold standard during the emergency with respect to message content. Ethics and dissemination: Western University's research ethics boards confirmed that this study does not require research ethics board review as we are using social media data in the public domain. Using our study findings, we will work with PH stakeholders to collaboratively develop Canadian social media emergency response guideline recommendations for PH and other health system organisations. Findings will also be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and conference presentations.
... Notably, examination of social media mindsets can also complement and extend previous work on uses and gratifications of social media by examining how interindividual differences in uses and gratifications may be related to differences in how people understand the role of social media in their lives (Quan-Haase & Young, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The ways people estimate and make sense of the time they spend with social media should be influenced by the subjective construals that they draw on to guide their perceptions and behaviors on social media. Through qualitative analysis of 60 interviews, we identify how subjective construals of social media can influence two distinct processes relevant to the study of social media effects. First, we find that the process of estimating and self-reporting time spent on social media is influenced by differences in how people construed “social media” in field-standard questions. Conceptual variability in definitions of “social media,” aggregated time spent across multiple sessions and platforms, and perceived norms about use affected their responses. Second, we find that participants’ reasoning about the role of social media in their lives revolved around two key construals about the valence of its effects (positive vs negative) and their perceived agency relative to social media (being in control vs subject to control). People who felt in control of their use also viewed social media more positively, and those who felt controlled by social media viewed it more negatively. These conceptualizations of the nature and effects of social media use—which we discuss as social media mindsets—were closely tied to behaviors and outcomes. These two findings have fundamental implications not only for survey methodologies in social media research but also for how we conceptualize the relationship between social media use and psychological outcomes.
Chapter
Full-text available
En la ciudad de Latacunga, provincia de Cotopaxi, se encuentra el primer canal comunitario del Ecuador, Tv Micc Canal 47. En la pantalla chica encontramos un sinnúmero de ofertas para elegir; en la pantalla nacional y regional los productos educativos tienen presencia fragmentada, principalmente, los que promueven mantener su idioma autóctono. Este trabajo analiza la percepción del programa Wawa kuna tv en la población infantil del cantón Latacunga, la producción televisiva puede ser una estrategia para llegar a los menores con mensajes a través de diferentes temáticas. Para fomentar el idioma quichua a través del juego en la televisión, el programa es un vínculo entre la educación y la sociedad, lo audiovisual es aprovechado como un medio para impartir valores y educar. Con la entrevista en profundidad, el grupo de discusión y las fichas de observación, se conoce la planificación de los espacios, la técnica del dibujo, permite ver el sentir de los niños que participan en el canal y de los infantes que vieron por primera vez la transmisión, dibujando lo que aprendieron. La segunda infancia del cantón Latacunga considera que Wawa kuna tv elabora los contenidos para cada emisión tomando en cuenta su criterio, al ser un segmento con bloques de participación, aprendizaje y de fácil comprensión, buscan reforzar el conocimiento adquirido por los niños en sus hogares o escuela, promoviendo la interculturalidad.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the efect of community identifcation in building brand loyalty (attitudinal and behavioural) and a personal brand via social networks. The proposed model explained the main community identifcation antecedents and how identifcation can lead to enhanced company and consumer performance. This study adopts the theoretical lens of uses and gratifcations theory and identifes three motivational drivers of community identifcation: relationship-oriented motives, self-oriented motives and brand content-oriented motives. The data were analysed with a structural equation modelling method based on a convenience sample collected through a survey. This study extends the body of knowledge about the outcomes from an active social media usage, based on a UGT perspective. It relates community identifcation and its drivers to loyalty. Besides, it links community identifcation with personal branding, which is considered as a vital outcome expected by social media users. The fndings suggested that self-oriented motives represented a key driver for taking part in an online community. In addition, community identifcation represents to be an important antecedent to build attitudinal loyalty rather than behavioural loyalty. Consequently, community identifcation was also found to be a signifcant driver for building a user’s personal brand.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Las prácticas de los colectivos migrantes en contextos digitales, específicamente en las redes sociales adquieren especial relevancia en un momento caracterizado por grandes movimientos de población a nivel mundial. Al mismo tiempo, estas plataformas digitales se vislumbran como herramientas comunicativas de gran importancia en cada etapa del proceso migratorio. El estudio de los medios digitales y la inmigración es relativamente emergente, por lo que es necesario profundizar en las maneras en que este fenómeno social converge con las nuevas configuraciones digitales. El presente trabajo detalla el desarrollo de un cuestionario de corte cualitativo, para ser implementado en formato entrevista, que permite explorar cuáles son las redes, perfiles y canales más utilizados por las personas migrantes en España, así como sus motivaciones para este consumo. El objetivo es explorar el fenómeno migratorio desde un punto de vista multidisciplinar, adaptando teorías ampliamente extendidas a colectivos migrantes en España. En este contexto, es de especial interés la identificación de posibles influencers pertenecientes a estos colectivos y aquellos que, sin pertenecer a grupos migrantes, ofrecen contenidos de interés para este segmento de la población. Así, la entrevista propuesta se nutre de la teoría de usos y gratificaciones aplicada a las redes sociales, la teoría de aculturación e integración, así como la percepción de apoyos sociales recibidos por las personas migrantes a través del uso de redes sociales.
Research
Full-text available
Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di indagare come l’uso di TikTok Italia da parte dei giovani LGBTQ influenza le fasi formative e il conseguente sviluppo della loro identità, applicando il framework degli usi e gratificazioni (U&G). Lo studio è focalizzato su dati qualitativi ottenuti da un questionario anonimo somministrato a giovani utenti LGBTQ di TikTok, volto ad indagare gli usi e le motivazioni di utilizzo del social. I partecipanti al questionario, scelti in base a due caratteristiche, dovevano essere utenti attivi di TikTok Italia, identificarsi come LGBTQ ed essere nati tra il 1995 e 2010. Poiché la popolazione target doveva avere tali caratteristiche, il campionamento non consentiva l'uso di tecniche probabilistiche, ma mirate. L’analisi dei dati codificati e la loro presentazione attraverso le testimonianze del campione hanno permesso di individuare come l’uso attivo di TikTok, in termini di creazione e condivisione di contenuti, ricerca di informazioni, ricezione di feedback positivi da altri utenti e i fattori motivazionali hanno soddisfatto esigenze relative allo sviluppo identitario durante le fasi del modello di Coming out di Cass (1979). TikTok è risultato essere luogo e mezzo nel quale e con il quale gli individui LGBTQ possono esplorare e/o esprimere il/la proprio/a orientamento sessuale/identità di genere, in modo più agevole e performativo rispetto alle interazioni faccia a faccia e senza paura di mostrarsi
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to understand the motivations and behavioural patterns of Snapchat use by Generation Z (Gen-Z) and their social relationships with friends and romantic companions. Focus group discussion and in-depth interview methodology were employed to conduct the research with 49 respondents participating in focused group discussions. The respondents reported Snapchat being adopted for connecting with friends as it provided them with secure and authentic experience over other social media platforms. The gratifications gained from the use of Snapchat by Gen Z users were identified emerging from the features and experience of using the technology platform. The results were supported for uses and gratifications as the respondents justified the ephemerality of Snapchat being useful, the gratifications gained from snapping with friends and social groups. Snapchat was seen as a useful medium for security, privacy and ephemerality it provided along with a medium for authentic communications with friends and romantic companions.
Article
The present research builds upon the Bagozzi’s self-regulation framework, the uses and gratifications theory, and the emotional exhaustion research in order to deeply explore the enablers and inhibitors of continuance intention regarding mobile social networking sites. SmartPLS 2.0 M3 is used in order to analyze the data based on 729 usable responses. The results show that satisfaction has a positive impact on continuance intention, while emotional exhaustion has a negative effect. In addition, escapism, exhibitionism, voyeurism, voluntarism, and mobility gratifications determine satisfaction. Furthermore, information overload and social overload affect emotional exhaustion. The findings provide theoretical and practical implications.
Article
The past decade saw a sharp increase in the use of smartphones and digital communication platforms. This manuscript reviews advancements in the study of digital communication and adolescent development over the last decade. We highlight theoretical models that seek to explain the power of digital media in adolescents’ lives. We then examine research conducted over the last decade on five aspects of digital media: (1) potential to contribute to adolescent development, (2) associations with mental health, (3) differential impact of active versus passive social media use, (4) cyberbullying, and (5) sexting. We conclude with a discussion of potential opportunities and challenges for studying the role of digital communication in adolescents’ development during the coming decade.
Article
Acknowledging that both ICT and mass media had played an influential role after the Great East Japan Earthquake, this study explores if they can also contribute to longer term post-disaster recovery. From the literature review, it is anticipated that the use of both media can positively effect social capital and civic participation, which are essential for an efficient recovery. However, as this can be questioned it is important to understand and demonstrate how media can affect people׳s perception and behaviour in post-disaster recovery, especially considering the current complex media environment. The two media in consideration are very different, but at the same time are highly intertwined. Currently, few previous studies on this question can be found because suitable case studies limited as nature disaster of such a scale rarely occur and the media environment is rapidly changing. This study proposes a two-model approach to examine the effects of ICT and mass media in post-disaster recovery from two different perspectives in media studies: the active and passive audience perspectives. Using data collected from the three prefectures that were directly hit by the disaster, the results of the two models demonstrate a consistent pattern that the use of both ICT and mass media can create positive effects in post-disaster recovery. They increase the level of social capital through building bonding trust, network bridging and civic participation, as well as increase a person׳s intention to participate in post-disaster related activities. Thus, it can now be argued that both ICT and mass media can have positively contributed to the recovery. These findings have important implications for NGOs as well as policy makers that are working on the recovery. The two models also serve as the foundation for future studies that would further explore the underlying mechanisms of the media׳s effect and role in post-disaster recovery.
Article
In a community sample of emerging adults ( N = 232), this study (a) assessed participants’ exposure to and postings about alcohol, cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and marijuana across social media platforms, (b) investigated how exposure to and posting about text versus visual substance-related content differentially relate to one’s own use, and (c) tested if exposure to versus posting about substances differentially relate to use. Data were collected via cross-sectional, daily, and observational methods. Participants were frequently exposed to substances on social media. Postings were less common, with Snapchat a notable outlet. Visual posts were somewhat more prominently linked to one’s own use than text posts. Posting about substances tended to be more strongly associated with own use than exposure, but this did not necessarily replicate with observed assessments. Social media platforms are key for emerging adults to encounter and post about substance use content, with implications for emerging adults’ own substance use.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a new ethnographic method for the study of produsage (Bruns 2008) in social media contexts. The proposed method is based on three lines of thought: Marx's method of 'A Workers' Inquiry', the autonomists' method of co-research, and recent critical theory of Web 2.0. To show the applicability and usefulness of the proposed method, we first compare it to other Marxist inspired methodological approaches and then we describe a case study to illustrate the method's diversity and its potential for providing new insights into the processes of produsage and the commodification of audiences as described in previous work by Smythe (1977), Bruns (2008), Cohen (2008), and Fuchs (2011). The case study consists of a critical examination of the mode of produsage as it takes place in Flickr, one of the largest photo-sharing communities on the Internet.
Article
Full-text available
Media and research reports point to the issue of privacy as the key to understanding online behaviour and experience. Yet it is well recognized within privacy-advocacy circles that 'privacy' is a loose concept encompassing a variety of meanings. In this article we view privacy as mediating between individuals and their online activities, not standing above them, and as being constantly redefined in actual practice. It is necessary to examine, therefore, what individuals are reacting to when asked about online privacy and how it affects their online experience. This article is based on data generated in the Everyday Internet study, a neighbourhood- based, ethnographic project being conducted in Toronto, Canada, that investigates how people integrate online services in their daily lives. We propose that there are three organizing 'moments' of online privacy: the moment of sitting in front of the computer, the moment of interaction with it, and the moment after the data has been released.
Article
Full-text available
The prevailing paradigm in Internet privacy litera- ture, treating privacy within a context merely of rights and violations, is inadequate for studying the Internet as a social realm. Following Goffman on self-presentation and Altman's theorizing of privacy as an optimization between competing pressures for disclosure and with- drawal, the author investigates the mechanisms used by a sample (n = 704) of college students, the vast majority users of Facebook and Myspace, to negotiate boundaries between public and private. Findings show little to no relationship between online privacy concerns and infor- mation disclosure on online social network sites. Students manage unwanted audience concerns by adjusting pro- file visibility and using nicknames but not by restricting the information within the profile. Mechanisms analo- gous to boundary regulation in physical space, such as walls, locks, and doors, are favored; little adaptation is made to the Internet's key features of persistence, searchability, and cross-indexability. The author also finds significant racial and gender differences.
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have applied uses and gratifications to explain Internet usage. Like Bandura’s social-cognitive theory, the uses and gratifications framework explains media use in terms of expected positive outcomes, or gratifications. However, previous uses and gratifications research accounted for little variance in Internet behavior, although there were conflicting results. This research identifies new variables from social-cognitive theory that might further explain Internet usage and resolve inconsistencies in prior research. Measures of self-efficacy and self-disparagement were developed for the domain of Internet behavior. Internet addiction was interpreted as a deficient self-regulation within the social-cognitive framework. Finally, the negative outcomes of online behavior were analyzed for their impact on Internet usage. In a survey of 171 college students, the social-cognitive model explained 60% of the available variance in Internet usage using multiple regression analysis, a significant improvement over prior uses and gratifications research.
Article
Full-text available
We examined audience uses of the Internet from a uses-and-gratifications perspective. We expected contextual age, unwillingness to communicate, social presence, and Internet motives to predict outcomes of Internet exposure, affinity, and satisfaction. The analyses identified five motives for using the Internet and multivariate links among the antecedents and motives. The results suggested distinctions between instrumental and ritualized Internet use, as well as Internet use serving as a functional alternative to face-to-face interaction.
Article
Full-text available
The use of the Internet has increased dramatically in recent years, with university students becoming one of the most dominant user groups. This study investigated how the Internet is integrated into university students' communication habits. The authors focused on how online (email and instant messaging) and mobile (cellphones and texting) modes of communication are used in the context of offline modes (FTF and telephone) to support students' local and distant social ties. Using a mixed methods approach that combined survey data from 268 Canadian university students with focus group data, a rich description was obtained of what modes of communication students use, how they integrate them to fulfill communication needs, and the implications of this integration for the maintenance of social ties. It was found that friends were the most important communication partners in students' everyday lives. Regardless of the type of social tie, instant messaging was used the most for communication. Because of their high cost, the cellphone and texting were used less. Increased distance between communication partners reduced communication – local communication was more frequent for both friends and relatives. While instant messaging and email were used less for contact with those faraway, the decrease was not as sharp as with in-person and telephone contact. In particular, instant messaging was used extensively for distant contact with friends – often daily. While online modes were used widely for local communication, it was evident that they also filled communication gaps with those faraway. Because they were inexpensive and readily available on campus, email and instant messaging were highly used by students and they facilitated a close integration of far-flung ties into university students' everyday lives.
Article
Full-text available
Despite the explosive potential for revenue growth on the Internet, research suggests that the advertising industry remains perplexed about how to reach consumers in this new medium. Drawing from several bodies of literature including diffusion, motivation, and media substitution theories, this study explores potential predictors for online service adoption. Findings indicate that the cognitive and affective gratification-seeking factors were the strongest predictors of likely online service adoption. By contrast, whereas adopter attributes were moderate predictors, the existing adoption cluster and media use attributes were both weak predictors of likely online service adoption.
Article
Full-text available
The concept of Social Media is top of the agenda for many business executives today. Decision makers, as well as consultants, try to identify ways in which firms can make profitable use of applications such as Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, Second Life, and Twitter. Yet despite this interest, there seems to be very limited understanding of what the term “Social Media” exactly means; this article intends to provide some clarification. We begin by describing the concept of Social Media, and discuss how it differs from related concepts such as Web 2.0 and User Generated Content. Based on this definition, we then provide a classification of Social Media which groups applications currently subsumed under the generalized term into more specific categories by characteristic: collaborative projects, blogs, content communities, social networking sites, virtual game worlds, and virtual social worlds. Finally, we present 10 pieces of advice for companies which decide to utilize Social Media.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using data from a popular online social network site, this paper explores the relationship between profile structure (namely, which fields are completed) and number of friends, giving designers insight into the importance of the profile and how it works to encourage connections and articulated relationships between users. We describe a theoretical framework that draws on aspects of signaling theory, common ground theory, and transaction costs theory to generate an understanding of why certain profile fields may be more predictive of friendship articulation on the site. Using a dataset consisting of 30,773 Facebook profiles, we determine which profile elements are most likely to predict friendship links and discuss the theoretical and design implications of our findings.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite concerns raised about the disclosure of personal information on social network sites, research has demonstrated that users continue to disclose personal information. The present study employs surveys and interviews to examine the factors that influence university students to disclose personal information on Facebook. Moreover, we study the strategies students have developed to protect themselves against privacy threats. The results show that personal network size was positively associated with information revelation, no association was found between concern about unwanted audiences and information revelation and finally, students' Internet privacy concerns and information revelation were negatively associated. The privacy protection strategies employed most often were the exclusion of personal information, the use of private email messages, and altering the default privacy settings. Based on our findings, we propose a model of information revelation and draw conclusions for theories of identity expression.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As social computing systems persist over time, the user experiences and interactions they support may change. One type of social computing system, Social Network Sites (SNSs), are becoming more popular across broad segments of Internet users. Facebook, in particular, has very broad participation amongst college attendees, and has been growing in other populations as well. This paper looks at how use of Facebook has changed over time, as indicated by three consecutive years of survey data and interviews with a subset of survey respondents. Reported uses of the site remain relatively constant over time, but the perceived audience for user profiles and attitudes about the site show differences over the study period. Author Keywords
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the relationship between the amount of Instant Messenger (IM) use and the level of perceived intimacy between friends. Results showed the amount of IM use was positively associated not only with verbal intimacy, but also with affective and social intimacy. Findings are consistent with the relationship liberated perspective of computer-mediated communication, and suggest that IM promotes rather than hinders intimacy. Moreover, frequent conversation via IM actually encourages the desire to meet face-to-face. Theoretical as well as practical implications of the results for geographically remote friends and families are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Users have adopted a wide range of digital technologies into their communication repertoire. It remains unclear why they adopt multiple forms of communication instead of substituting one medium for another. It also raises the question: What type of need does each of these media fulfill? In the present article, the authors conduct comparative work that examines the gratifications obtained from Facebook with those from instant messaging. This comparison between media allows one to draw conclusions about how different social media fulfill user needs. Data were collected from undergraduate students through a multimethod study based on 77 surveys and 21 interviews. A factor analysis of gratifications obtained from Facebook revealed six key dimensions: pastime, affection, fashion, share problems, sociability, and social information. Comparative analysis showed that Facebook is about having fun and knowing about the social activities occurring in one’s social network, whereas instant messaging is geared mor
Article
Full-text available
The increased use of the Internet as a new tool in communication has changed the way people interact. This fact is even more evident in the recent development and use of friend-networking sites. However, no research has evaluated these sites and their impact on college students. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate: (a) why people use these friend-networking sites, (b) what the characteristics are of the typical college user, and (c) what uses and gratifications are met by using these sites. Results indicated that the vast majority of college students are using these friend-networking sites for a significant portion of their day for reasons such as making new friends and locating old friends. Additionally, both men and women of traditional college age are equally engaging in this form of online communication with this result holding true for nearly all ethnic groups. Finally, results showed that many uses and gratifications are met by users (e.g., "keeping in touch with friends"). Results are discussed in light of the impact that friend-networking sites have on communication and social needs of college students.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Profiles have become a common mechanism for presenting one’s identity online. With the popularity of online social networking services such as Friendster.com, Profiles have been extended to include explicitly social information such as articulated "Friend" relationships and Testimonials. With such Profiles, users do not just depict themselves, but help shape the representation of others on the system. In this paper, we will discuss how the performance of social identity and relationships shifted the Profile from being a static representation of self to a communicative body in conversation with the other represented bodies. We draw on data gathered through ethnography and reaffirmed through data collection and visualization to analyze the communicative aspects of Profiles within the Friendster service. We focus on the role of Profiles in context creation and interpretation, negotiating unknown audiences, and initiating conversations. Additionally, we explore the shift from conversation to static representation, as active Profiles fossilize into recorded traces.
Article
The mass media are ranked with respect to their perceived helpfulness in satisfying clusters of needs arising from social roles and individual dispositions. For example, integration into the sociopolitical order is best served by newspaper; while "knowing oneself" is best served by books. Cinema and books are more helpful as means of "escape" than is television. Primary relations, holidays and other cultural activities are often more important than the mass media in satisfying needs. Television is the least specialized medium, serving many different personal and political needs. The "interchangeability" of the media over a variety of functions orders televisions, radio, newspapers, books, and cinema in a circumplex. We speculate about which attributes of the media explain the social and psychological needs they serve best. The data, drawn from an Israeli survey, are presented as a basis for cross-cultural comparison.
Article
This project explored two questions: (1) whether uses are specific to program type or medium and (2) whether the factorial solutions are replicable. Two separate studies were conducted. For each study two versions of a uses questionnaire were administered. The Medium version asked respondents to answer in terms of television. The Program Type version asked respondents to answer in terms of their favorite program type. In Study, I, 142 persons answered the Medium version and 128 answered the Program-Type version. In Study II, ns were 227 and 219, respectively. The general pattern of results indicates respondents do not identify Medium-specific or Program-specific uses. The lack of differentiation found here suggests: (1) additional assessment of the relationship of medium and content in needed, (2) pending additional evidence, medium and content should be considered related variables in uses and gratifications research and research not incorporating their interaction should be evaluated carefully, and (3) additional theoretical analysis of the meaning of uses and gratifications reports is necessary to define the relationship suggested here.
Article
This study investigated the relationship between gratifications sought (GS) from television news and gratifications obtained (GO) from network evening news programs Each GS correlated moderately to strongly with its corre sponding GO for the respondent's most-watched program. Correlations between each GS and noncorresponding GOs were generally much lower. In addition, the degree of dependence on a particular program was posi tively related to the strength of the GS versus GO relationship. The differ ences in the GS and GO factor structures appear attributable to medium and program content characteristics. The findings indicate considerable promise for a sought versus obtained conceptualization of uses and gratifi cations.
Article
The article reports three studies of gratifications obtained from the household telephone by samples of respondents in Columbus (Franklin County), Ohio, and a statewide sample of Ohio. The first study consisted of open-ended qualitative interviews to ascertain reasons for using the household telephone. In the second study, gratifications questions were administered to a sample of 569 respondents from the Columbus area. A factor analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two factors: sociability and instrumentality. Evidence suggestive of a third factor was obtained as well. In the third study, gratification questions were administered to a sample of 525 residents of the state of Ohio. A factor analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of a third factor: reassurance. Whereas the reassurance factor is a psychological-level variable, the sociability factor is linked to the process of social integration and the instrumentality factor is tied to a social process called coordination.
Article
A consistent problem with uses and gratifications research has been the failure to distinguish between gratifications sought and gratifications obtained. This study tested a discrepancy model constrasting gratifications sought from television in general with gratifications respondents perceived they obtained (or would obtain) from public television. The model successfully predicted level of exposure to PTV content among respondents who made their own decisions concerning what programs to watch. Level of exposure was unrelated to the discrepancy measure among those who let others make the viewing decision. When each gratification was considered individually, the discrepancy model successfully discriminated between viewers and nonviewers of PTV on 8 of 11 gratification items. The results also indicate the importance of social determinants of the viewing decision and perceptions of PTV content as predictors of PTV consumption.
Article
Internet sites such as YouTube represem importam changes in the way in which video content can be delivered. YouTube lets viewers access videos on demand and makes it easy for them to share videos with others. The unique nature of on-demand user-supplied video content is of particular interest to the electronic publishing community because of the relative ease with which videos can be produced, uploaded, and shared. Users are now active participants in the media distribution chain. Because users play an active role in the production, distribution, and receipt of YouTube's media content (e.g., creating, sharing, and viewing), it is appropriate to examine YouTube use from an audience-centered perspective. One such approach is a theoretical framework called "uses and gratifications." It is used in this study to look at how college students view and share news content on the YouTube Web site. We found that different motives predicted watching and sharing different types of news-related content. Viewers of news in a more traditional format were doing so primarily for information reasons; viewers of news in comedy and satire formats were doing so primarily for entertainment. Interpersonal communication motives predicted sharing of news videos on YouTube. The results suggest that viewers may be driven by one set of motives for watching news clips on YouTube, and a different set of motives for sharing them.
Article
Results from a random sample of 576 college students show that relaxation, entertainment and fashion are instrumental motives for ICQ (`I seek you') use while inclusion, affection, sociability and escape are the intrinsic motives. Students who are heavy users of ICQ are motivated by affection and sociability whilst light users are motivated by fashion. Use of emails and ownership of cellular phones seem to be significant predictors of ICQ use. Students who spend longer time on ICQ sessions also play online games more often for entertainment, live in dormitories, have a lower household income, and do not subscribe to any ISP service at home. Female ICQ users tend to chat longer and more frequently for reasons of sociability while males spend less time on each session for entertainment and relaxation. The findings suggest that ICQ is a technology that facilitates social relations and is a major source of entertainment for college students.
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore why young people use and participate in social networking sites (SNSs) with specific reference to Bebo. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is employed in this paper with a view to exploring the uses and gratifications (U and G) that girls aged 12‐14 years, both seek and obtain from the Bebo SNS. The research is conducted in a school setting in Ireland. Findings – The findings indicate that the participants are actively using Bebo for their own personal motives and gratifications in terms of presenting and managing a certain identity and persona in a social context. Furthermore, the relatively impersonal nature of the online environment is seen to especially facilitate the young participants in negotiating the practicalities and difficulties that can arise offline, in terms of forging identities and managing relationships. Originality/value – U and G theory has attracted criticism in terms of a perceived limitation that it only serves to offer lists of reasons as to why audiences attend to the media, and furthermore, a perception that much of the extant U and G research has desisted from discerning between gratifications sought (GS) and gratifications obtained (GO). This paper affirms the appropriateness of the U and G theoretical approach in the context of online research. The authors conclude that SNS such as Bebo facilitate the participants in this paper in executing personal aims (for example, identity creation and management) with a view to obtaining certain gratifications (for example, peer acceptance). Therefore, a clear distinction but inextricable link is demonstrated between the GS and GO from participating in SNS.
Book
Getting an innovation adopted is difficult; a common problem is increasing the rate of its diffusion. Diffusion is the communication of an innovation through certain channels over time among members of a social system. It is a communication whose messages are concerned with new ideas; it is a process where participants create and share information to achieve a mutual understanding. Initial chapters of the book discuss the history of diffusion research, some major criticisms of diffusion research, and the meta-research procedures used in the book. This text is the third edition of this well-respected work. The first edition was published in 1962, and the fifth edition in 2003. The book's theoretical framework relies on the concepts of information and uncertainty. Uncertainty is the degree to which alternatives are perceived with respect to an event and the relative probabilities of these alternatives; uncertainty implies a lack of predictability and motivates an individual to seek information. A technological innovation embodies information, thus reducing uncertainty. Information affects uncertainty in a situation where a choice exists among alternatives; information about a technological innovation can be software information or innovation-evaluation information. An innovation is an idea, practice, or object that is perceived as new by an individual or an other unit of adoption; innovation presents an individual or organization with a new alternative(s) or new means of solving problems. Whether new alternatives are superior is not precisely known by problem solvers. Thus people seek new information. Information about new ideas is exchanged through a process of convergence involving interpersonal networks. Thus, diffusion of innovations is a social process that communicates perceived information about a new idea; it produces an alteration in the structure and function of a social system, producing social consequences. Diffusion has four elements: (1) an innovation that is perceived as new, (2) communication channels, (3) time, and (4) a social system (members jointly solving to accomplish a common goal). Diffusion systems can be centralized or decentralized. The innovation-development process has five steps passing from recognition of a need, through R&D, commercialization, diffusions and adoption, to consequences. Time enters the diffusion process in three ways: (1) innovation-decision process, (2) innovativeness, and (3) rate of the innovation's adoption. The innovation-decision process is an information-seeking and information-processing activity that motivates an individual to reduce uncertainty about the (dis)advantages of the innovation. There are five steps in the process: (1) knowledge for an adoption/rejection/implementation decision; (2) persuasion to form an attitude, (3) decision, (4) implementation, and (5) confirmation (reinforcement or rejection). Innovations can also be re-invented (changed or modified) by the user. The innovation-decision period is the time required to pass through the innovation-decision process. Rates of adoption of an innovation depend on (and can be predicted by) how its characteristics are perceived in terms of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, and observability. The diffusion effect is the increasing, cumulative pressure from interpersonal networks to adopt (or reject) an innovation. Overadoption is an innovation's adoption when experts suggest its rejection. Diffusion networks convey innovation-evaluation information to decrease uncertainty about an idea's use. The heart of the diffusion process is the modeling and imitation by potential adopters of their network partners who have adopted already. Change agents influence innovation decisions in a direction deemed desirable. Opinion leadership is the degree individuals influence others' attitudes
Article
Part one of this paper highlights how students today think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors, as a result of being surrounded by new technology. The author compares these “digital natives” with the older generation who are learning and adopting new technology naming them “digital immigrants”.
Article
A study of "the dynamics of person-to-person communication and influence" as compared to the apparent direct effect of mass media. The authors have found evidence of the "possible relevance of interpersonal relations as an intervening variable in the mass communications process." The latter half of the book is concerned with a research carried on in Decatur, Illinois, upon a cross-section sample of 800 women in which a variety of reaction producing influences were studied to determine the degree and extent of their impact on ultimate behavior. Factors influencing leadership status were analyzed. 180-item bibliography. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
How does the Internet affect social capital in terms of social contact, civic engagement, and a sense of community? Does online involvement increase, decrease, or supplement the ways in which people engage? Our evidence comes from a 1998 survey of North American visitors to the National Geographic Society website, one of the first large-scale web surveys of the general public. We find that online social contact supplements the frequency of face-to-face and telephone contact. Online activity also supplements participation in voluntary organizations and politics. Frequent email users have a greater sense of online community, although their overall sense of community is similar to that of infrequent email users. The evidence suggests that as the Internet is incorporated into the routine practices of everyday life, social capital is becoming augmented and more geographically dispersed.
Article
Research on social network sites (SNSs) typically employ measures that treat SNS use as homogenous although the user-base, user practices, and feature sets of these tools are increasingly diverse. Using a uses and gratifications approach, we address this problem by reconceptualizing SNSs as collections of features. Survey data collected from undergraduate students at a large Midwestern university (n=267) revealed that users’ motivations for using Facebook predict their use of different features, such as status updates and Wall posts, but features that share similar capabilities do not necessarily share underlying motivations for use. When these results are contrasted against models employing a more unidimensional measure of Facebook use, we find differences between motivations for both general Facebook use and use of specific features of the site. This suggests that unidimensional measures of SNS use obfuscate motivations for using specific features. Theoretical and methodological implications of these findings and this approach are discussed.
Article
This article reviews the body of research on the use and role of instant messaging (IM) in campus life, and how IM is a key part of university students' communication. IM is a synchronous form of communication, and its speed, availability information, and support for multiple conversations have made it appealing for young people. With university students, in particular, showing a heavy reliance on IM, researchers have shown great interest in how university students use IM and how it is integrated in their social and academic life. While studies are emerging in various disciplines, no attempt has been made to integrate the disparate findings and approaches. This article synthesizes key findings, provides a map of the literature, and discusses conceptual problems inherent in the study of IM and other information and communication technologies (ICTs) that will help researchers identify key areas of study and opportunities for future investigation.
Article
Twitter is an Internet social-network and micro-blogging platform with both mass and interpersonal communication features for sharing 140-character messages, called tweets, with other people, called followers. Hierarchical OLS regression of survey results from 317 Twitter users found that the more months a person is active on Twitter and the more hours per week the person spends on Twitter, the more the person gratifies a need for an informal sense of camaraderie, called connection, with other users. Controlling for demographic variables does not diminish this positive relationship. Additionally, frequency of tweeting and number of @replies, public messages between Twitter users, mediate the relationship between active Twitter use and gratifying a need for connection. Results are discussed in light of uses and gratifications theory.
Article
This study explores whether and how gratifications and psychological traits impact people's Facebook use. First, a factor analysis of an online survey (N= 437) outlined a unique set of gratifications obtained from the use of Facebook. Six aspects of gratifications (i.e., social surveillance, entertainment, recognition, emotional support, network extension, and maintenance) were identified. Results from regression analyses showed that psychological traits (i.e., collective self-esteem, online emotional openness, and traitlike communication apprehension) were strong predictors of most Facebook gratifications. Additionally, gratifications and, to a lesser extent, psychological traits significantly predicted Facebook usage, both in perceived importance and different indicators in the level of Facebook use.
Article
Propaganda--so crucial to winning the battle of hearts and minds in warfare--witnessed a transformation during World War II, when film was fast becoming the most popular form of entertainment. In Film Propaganda in Britain and Nazi Germany, Jo Fox compares how each country exploited their national cinema for political purposes. Through an investigation of shorts and feature films, the author looks at how both political propaganda films and escapist cinema were critical in maintaining the morale of both civilians and the military and how this changed throughout the war. While both countries shared certain similarities in their wartime propaganda films - a harking back to a glorious historic past, for example - the thematic differences reveal important distinctions between cultures.This book offers new insight into the shifting pattern of morale during World War II and highlights a key moment in propaganda film history.
Article
We - the users turned creators and distributors of content - are TIME's Person of the Year 2006, and AdAge's Advertising Agency of the Year 2007. We form a new Generation C. We have MySpace, YouTube, and OurMedia; we run social software, and drive the development of Web 2.0. But beyond the hype, what's really going on? In this groundbreaking exploration of our developing participatory online culture, Axel Bruns establishes the core principles which drive the rise of collaborative content creation in environments, from open source through blogs and Wikipedia to Second Life. This book shows that what's emerging here is no longer just a new form of content production, but a new process for the continuous creation and extension of knowledge and art by collaborative communities: produsage. The implications of the gradual shift from production to produsage are profound, and will affect the very core of our culture, economy, society, and democracy.
2012 Facebook tops 900 million users http
  • D Goldman
Social networking websites and teens. Pew Internet and American Life Project http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports
  • A Lenhart
  • M Madden
2011 The tone of life on social networking sites http://www.pewinternet.org/˜/media
  • L Rainie
  • A Lenhart
  • Smith