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... Phytochemical analysis of the plant revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Phenols, Tannins, Saponins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins [29]. Other studies on Phytochemical analysis have indicated the presence of Terpenoids [30], Saponins [31], Sterols and steroids [32], Polysaccharides [33], Flavonoids [34], Coumarins [35]. ...
... The results for the estimation of Total Phenolic content revealed a similar order with methanolic extract having the highest amount of phenolic contents as evident from (Fig. 4). However a study on phytochemical analysis of whole plant extract of P. vulgaris by Rasool et al. showed a much lower quantity of flavonoids (0.56 mg/ g of extract) and absence of phenolic compounds [29]. Another study by Hwang et al. ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant showed Total Phenolic contents equal to 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight respectively [18]. ...
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Background: Prunella vulgaris, commonly known as self-heal, has been extensively used in the traditional system of medicines. The plant has been found to contain a number of bioactive molecules including those having radical scavenging property which indicates its potential for the treatment of those diseases which are induced by free radical damage like drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Objective: The current study was undertaken to investigate the flavonoid and total phenolic content and evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of various extracts obtained from floral spikes of P. vulgaris. Material and methods: Flavonoid and otal phenolic contents were obtained from the standard curves of Gallic acid as per the reported methods. The extent of hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (500 mg/kg b.w, p.o daily for 14 days), hepatoprotective potential of extracts (200 mg/kg b.w/day, orally) and standard drug silymarin (50 mg/kg b.w/day, orally) were evaluated by analyzing various biochemical parameters like Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Total Proteins, Total and Direct Bilirubin and detailed histopathology of rat livers. Results: Methanolic extract showed higher quantity of flavonoids and total phenolic content followed by ethanolic, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts. Treatment of rats with extracts showed a highly significant reduction in the enzyme activities of Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, and serum levels of Total, Direct Bilirubin (P < 0.01) and highly significant elevation in Total Proteins (P < 0.01) when compared with the toxic control group. This was further confirmed by histopathological evaluation, where almost normal hepatic architecture or very less hepatic damage was observed in groups treated with extracts and silymarin compared to paracetamol treated group. Results from biochemical and histopathological evaluation indicated that among the extracts methanolic extract was most effective. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that the extracts obtained from floral spikes of P. vulgaris possess highly significant hepatoprotective activity which could be attributed to its radical scavenging potential and hepatic regeneration. This is further authenticated by the presence of phenolic and flavonoids which are known to possess radical scavenging properties.
... There are many synonyms when it comes to PVL such as Xiju, Naidong, Yanmian, Tiesecao, Datouhua. As a folk medicine used for thousands of years in China, PVL is mainly used for relieving sore throat, antipyretic and accelerating wound healing (Rasool and Ganai, 2013). In March 2010, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China announced the inclusion of PVL as one of the new Chinese herbal medicines in the list of medicinal and food homology, and stipulated that it could be used as medicinal and food dual-use only within a limited range and dose (Commission, 2016). ...
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Prunella vulgaris L. (PVL) is dried fruit spike of Lamiacea plant Prunella vulgaris L., which is a perennial herb with medicinal and edible homology used for thousands of years. PVL is bitter, acrid, cold, and belongs to the liver and gallbladder meridians. It clears the liver and dissipate fire, improve vision, disperse swelling, and has satisfactory clinical therapeutic effects on many diseases such as photophobia, dizziness, scrofula, goiter, breast cancer. The collection of information and data related to PVL comes from literatures retrieved and collated from various online scientific databases (such as CNKI, VIP, PubMed, Web of Science, Research Gate, Science Database), ancient books of traditional chinese medicine (Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Dictionary of Traditional Chinese Medicine), and Doctoral and Master’s Dissertations. Currently, the major chemical constituents isolated and identified from PVL are triterpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, organic acids, volatile oils and polysaccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that PVL has a wide range of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antibacterial and antiviral effects, as well as immune regulation, antihypertensive, hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, antioxidant, free radical scavenging, liver protection, sedative and hypnotic effects. This paper reviewes the botany, ethnopharmacology, traditional application, phytochemistry, analytical methods, quality control, pharmacological effects of PVL. It can be used not only as medicine, but also gradually integrated into the “medicine and food homology” and “Chinese medicine health” boom. More importantly, it has great potential for drug resources development. This paper deeply discusses the shortcomings of current PVL research, and proposes corresponding solutions, in order to find a breakthrough point for PVL research in the future. At the same time, it is necessary to further strengthen the research on its medicinal chemistry, mechanism of action and clinical application efficacy in the future, and strive to extract, purify and synthesize effective components with high efficiency and low toxicity, so as to improve the safety and rationality of clinical medication.
... Tabla 6 Monosacáridos presentes en P. vulgaris y su relación de porcentaje molar Monosacáridos Actividad biológica. El género Prunella tiene un amplio reconocimiento en la medicina tradicional, lo que ha atraído a los científicos con la finalidad de evaluar la actividad biológica de sus extractos, así como los compuestos responsables de dicha actividad, sentando las bases para su futuro uso como fármacos o la obtención de nuevas sustancias con mejor actividad (Bai et al., 2016;Rasool & Ganai, 2015). Algunas de las evaluaciones más representativas se muestran a continuación. ...
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Hoy en día, el tratamiento de elección para muchas personas sigue siendo el obtenido a través de materiales naturales; las plantas medicinales son la forma de medicación más antigua y extendida a nivel mundial (Halberstein, 2005; Organización Mundial de la Salud, 2013). La población mexicana no es ajena al uso de plantas medicinales como tratamiento; de hecho, en muchos lugares es la primera vía de atención, dejando en ocasiones de lado el tratamiento farmacológico. Así, se ha realizado una gran cantidad de trabajos sobre la actividad de plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional mexicana, y se ha demostrado que una gran cantidad de estas tiene propiedades antibacterianas, tal como lo describen Sharma et al. (2017), quienes registraron un total de 343 plantas que evidenciaban experimentalmente su actividad antibacteriana in vitro, reportadas de 1995 a 2014. Así mismo, Rivas-Morales et al. (2018) reportan la actividad positiva de 10 plantas usadas en la medicina tradicional mexicana contra bacterias multidrogorresistentes. Mientras que Rosas-Piñón (2012) demostraron que extractos etanólicos y acuosos de plantas utilizadas por la medicina tradicional en el Altiplano de México tienen actividad inhibitoria contra Streptococcus mutans y Porphyromonas gingivalis, causantes de caries. De igual manera, pese al crecimiento urbano y tecnológico que ha adquirido el municipio de Teziutlán (Puebla), persiste el uso generalizado de preparaciones de plantas para el alivio de enfermedades pues, en la mayoría de los casos, son el único tratamiento que adquieren los pobladores, principalmente de las zonas rurales; mientras que en las zonas más urbanas, en ocasiones, el tratamiento con plantas medicinales es complementario al uso de medicamentos que prescribe el médico. Por ello, con la finalidad de tener documentado el uso y tipo de plantas medicinales utilizadas en la región de Teziutlán, la maestra Ana L. Vargas Vizuet, docente del Complejo Regional Nororiental, de la Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (buap), se dio a la tarea de realizar una encuesta acerca de las plantas utilizadas por los habitantes, así como el uso medicinal que le dan a cada una de ellas. A partir de los datos obtenidos, se encontró que las plantas Ruda, Romero y Albahacar son de las más utilizadas por los habitantes encuestados. En el presente capítulo se hace una pequeña revisión de las características químicas y las propiedades biológicas que se han reportado en la literatura especializada respecto a estas tres especies. La finalidad de dicha descripción es constatar la utilidad benéfica de las tres plantas medicinales a partir de estudios científicos, teniendo así una visión más amplia de su beneficio, ya que con las descripciones de las evaluaciones experimentales presentadas se demuestra el porqué de muchos de los efectos que se les atribuyen a estas especies vegetales, así como su uso tan popular. Por último, cabe mencionar que también se tomaron estas plantas debido a que existen suficientes artículos científicos reportados de sus usos, situación que no fue así con algunas otras especies no presentadas en este capítulo.
... It is used to treat fever and throat infections and for wound healing. Its antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antidiabetic, and antistress activity has also been scientifically evaluated (Rasool and Ganai 2013). ...
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Microorganisms employ a precised communication pattern among themselves in order to coordinate between various processes during their growth. Both unicellular and multicellular microbes are found to show cell density-driven gene expression. This phenomenon of density-dependent cell regulation used for survival, prevalence and colonization of specific host is generally termed as quorum sensing (QS). Microorganisms respond to this stimulus once the signalling molecule reaches its threshold concentration. Since they are found to be able to regulate their own production, they are termed as autoinducers (quorum sensing molecules). These molecules function by sensing their own population with respect to their density and distribution pattern in the prevailing environment. Hence, microorganisms use such environmental sensing mechanisms to get adapted as well as for their survival in the existing conditions in their habitat, thereby maintaining healthy cell population. The autoinducers occur widespread in several microorganisms and differ from each other in their molecular structures. Acyl homoserine lactones (AHL), Autoinducer (AI), i.e., AI-2, AI-3 and quinolones are the common QS signalling molecules in Gram-negative bacteria, while cyclic peptides, AI-2 and butyrolactones are observed as signalling molecules in Gram-positive bacteria. In the case of actinomycetes, small diffusible molecules called autoregulators, A-factor and 2-iso-octanoyl-(3R)-hydroxymethyl-γ-butyrolactone act as QS signalling molecules. Understanding the connection between genomes, gene expression and the molecules in complex environment is considered to be a tough task. Increasing interest towards studying the underlying mechanisms has led to the development of various model systems. Among them, plant-microbe symbiotic system is considered to be the best one to study the inter-kingdom molecular cross-talk. During the process of evolution, plants started to respond to the external stimuli in different and more specific ways. One such way includes production of AHL-like molecules to regulate the QS of plant-associated microorganisms. In view of this, the present chapter will be focused on quorum sensing molecules and their role in plant-microbe interaction.
... It is used to treat fever and throat infections and for wound healing. Its antimicrobial, anti-inflammation, antidiabetic, and antistress activity has also been scientifically evaluated (Rasool and Ganai 2013). ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants have been used for several centuries for prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases. The study of many of these traditional medicinal plants has led to the isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. Some of these compounds have been chemically modified and used as drugs to mitigate ailments. Several commercially available antibiotics are derived from plants. The rise of multidrug-resistant strains of pathogens has led to an intensive search for compounds that can curb this alarming trend. The phenomenon of quorum sensing sheds a whole new light on the process of mitigation of microbial infection, where the plant-derived compounds block essential pathways (like virulence factor expression and biofilm formation) controlled by quorum sensing. Since the discovery that halogenated furanones produced by red marine algae Delisea pulchra can interfere with the process of quorum sensing in several Gram-negative bacteria, several medicinal plants (Mentha piperita, Syzygium aromaticum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Jasminum sambac, Lilium brownii, Ocimum sanctum, etc.) have been assessed for anti-quorum sensing potential. Some of them possess only anti-quorum sensing activity, and a few others possess both antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing activity. Some studies have also identified the compounds responsible for inhibition of quorum sensing pathways. This chapter discusses the study of medicinal plants for their anti-quorum sensing activity.
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The aim of this study was to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect and explore the adverse effects and underlying mechanisms of Prunella vulgaris L., which has been extensively used for hundreds of years in East Asia. Network pharmacology studies predicted that glucocorticoids (GCs), GC-targeting molecules, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were intensively involved in the anti-inflammation and glucose intolerance. To attest the effects and underlying mechanisms, C57 male mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, control (C), dexamethasone (Dex), water extract of P. vulgaris (PE 35 or 70 mg), and PE (70 mg) + mifepristone (PEM). After a 3-week treatment, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests confirmed the peripheral and central analgesic effects, respectively. Plasma GCs and BDNF were significantly increased. Coincidently, plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL1β, IL6, and IL10, were decreased by PE treatment, which were blocked by the application of mifepristone ( P < 0.5). Western blots confirmed GC receptor (GR) translocation, and decreased cyclooxygenase 2 in the lumber spine by PE treatment. Food intake was impeded after a 4-week PE treatment, but the ratio of bodyweight gain to food intake was increased in a time-dependent manner. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test disclosed that PE treatment impaired glucose disposal in mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that hepatic GC-responsive genes such as GC-induced leucine zipper protein and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit 1 were up-regulated, and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein expressions were decreased by PE treatment. Hypothalamic BDNF was up-regulated, whereas hepatic BDNF was down-regulated. The regulation of these genes by PE was reversed by mifepristone administration. In conclusion, PE treatment plays analgesic and glucose regulation roles simultaneously through GC-induced signaling pathways, and P. vulgaris may provide a natural ligand of GR for the treatment of inflammation with glucose dysregulation.
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Medicinal plants serve as the backbone of conventional healthcare systems of medicine and have been used since decades for the treatment of various diseases. Globally, around 50,000 species of medicinal plants are employed in traditional healthcare system of which Asia contributes a major part. These medicinal plants provide income to millions of people in both developing and developed countries. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), around 80% population of the world depend on medicinal plants to meet their primary healthcare needs. During the past few decades, the use of herbal drugs has increased considerably because they are relatively cheap, more cost-effective, and less toxic than synthetic medicine.
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Background and purpose Vocal fold polyps (VFPs) are common benign laryngeal lesions that greatly impact the quality of life, particularly vocal production. Endolaryngeal phonomicrosurgery is the gold standard for treating VFPs, which are potentially associated with devastating vocal complications, including unacceptable voice impairment. Material and methods A 29-year-old male had a complaint of hoarseness for 2 months. He initially visited a Western medical doctor (otolaryngologist), whose laryngoscopy examination revealed a polyp on the right vocal cord near the posterior pharyngeal wall. Surgical removal of the polyp or steroidal medication was recommended, but the patient was determined to avoid surgery and instead sought TCM treatment. Result The authors showed the successful treatment of the patient with a VFP by Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment. During CHM treatment, the patient experienced gradual improvements of vocal hoarseness and the ability to speak for ever-increasing periods of time. Conclusion CHM monotherapy may be effective in treating symptoms of hoarseness, and result in polyp remission.
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Background Prunella vulgaris, family Lamiaceae also known as self-heal, has been traditionally used as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-rheumatic. Due to widespread distribution of the plant, Vulgaris is also called ‘vulgar’ in Latin adjective meaning common. Objective The objective of this review was to describe the relevant aspects of phytochemistry and therapeutic uses of different fractions as well as isolated compounds from Prunella vulgaris. An attempt was also made to enumerate the possible leads e.g. betulinic acid, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin, esculetin, luteolin, homoorientin, Rosmarinic acid and cinaroside for further development. Method For peer-reviewed research literature, we undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases using a focused review question. Scientific databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were used Results Phytochemistry of Prunella vulgaris (PV) after a thorough literature survey revealed varied and copious metabolites, such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils. Many of these compounds have been found to possess wide range of biological activity per se, including anti-microbial, immunosuppressive, anti-cancer, cardio-protective, anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory. Conclusion Prunella vulgaris is a medicinal plant of immense medicinal importance having a variety of compounds such as such as triterpenoids, phenolic acid, sterols, carbohydrates, coumarins, fatty acids, and volatile oils and diversity in pharmacological spectrum. The plant could be further exploited, to isolate the various biologically active constituents responsible for its activity.
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Solar radiation is a very important exogenous factor in skin pathogenesis and can lead to the development of a number of skin disorders. UVB irradiation is known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation and especially DNA lesions in exposed cells. It is important, therefore, to identify agents that can offer protection against UVB-caused skin damage. Natural compounds have been studied for their possible ability to control/modulate various lifestyle-related diseases. The application of plant compounds/extracts with screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may also successfully protect the skin against UV-caused injury. We assessed the potency of Prunella vulgaris extract (PVE) and its main phenolic acid component, rosmarinic acid (RA), to suppress UVB-induced (295-315 nm) alterations to human keratinocytes HaCaT using a solar simulator. Pre- and post-treatment of HaCaT cells with PVE (5-50 mg/l) and RA (0.18-1.8 mg/l) reduced breakage together with the apoptotic process. PVE and RA also significantly eliminated ROS production and diminished IL-6 release. Taken together, both PVE and RA prevent UVB-caused injury to keratinocytes. However their efficacy needs to be demonstrated in vivo.
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The column chromatographic separation of the MeOH extract from the aerial parts of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina Nakai led to the isolation of fifteen triterpenoic acids (2-6, 9-13, 16-20), four flavonoids (14, 21-23), four phenolics (7, 8, 15, 24), and a diterpene (1). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods to be trans-phytol (1), oleanic acid (2) ursolic acid (3), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha-trihydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid (4), 2alpha,3alpha-dihydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid (5), maslinic acid (6), caffeic acid (7), phydroxy cinnamic acid (8), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid (9), 2alpha,3alpha,23-trihydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid (10), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid (11), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolea-12en-28oic acid (12), (12R, 13S)-2alpha,3alpha,24,trihydroxy-12,13-cyclo-taraxer-14-en-28oic acid (13), quercertin 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), rosmarinic acid (15), 2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28oic acid (16), 2alpha,3alpha,24-trihydroxyolea-12en-28oic acid (17), 2alpha,3beta,19alpha,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid 28-O-Dglucopyranoside (18), 2alpha,3alpha,19alpha,24-tetrahydroxyurs-12en-28oic acid 28-O-D-glucopyranoside (19), prunvuloside A (20), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopranoside (21), kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (22), quercertin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (23), and 2-hydroxy-3-(3',4'-dihydroxyphenly)propanoic acid (24). Compounds 1, 8-12, 17, 21, 23, and 24 were isolated from this plant source for the first time. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 cells in vitro using the sulforhodamin B bioassay (SRB) method. Compound 3 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15 cells, with ED(50) values of 3.71, 3.65, 13.62, and 5.44 microM, respectively.
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Two triterpenes 1 and 2 with antiviral activity againstHerpes simplex virus type 1in vitro were isolated fromPrunella vulgaris. Each compound caused a significant reduction in viral cytopathic effect whenvero cells were exposed to them for 72 hours after viral challenge. They were identified asbetulinic acid(1) and 2α, 3α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid(2) on the basis of their spectroscopic properties. The antiviral activity of them was estimated as EC50=30 μg/ml(1) and 8 μg/ml(2), respectively by plaque reduction assay.
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-1 . CD-MEKC analysis was performed on a CL1030 capillary electrophoresis system with a 6% (v/v) methanol solution (pH = 9.0) containing 10 mM disodium tetraborate, 10 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 50 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 15 mM 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HP-β-CD) as background electrolyte. The analytical results of HPLC and CD-MEKC were compared with each other. CD-MEKC has better analytical efficiency for two components, and the analytical time (15 min) was shorter than that of HPLC (35 min).
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Aims: This study is aiming at characterizing antifungal substances from the methanol extract of Prunella vulgaris and at investigating those substances’ antifungal and antioomycete activities against various plant pathogens. Methods and Results: Two polyacetylenic acids were isolated from P. vulgaris as active principles and identified as octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid. These two compounds inhibited the growth of Magnaporthe oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora infestans, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, and Phytophthora capsici. In addition, these two compounds and the wettable powder-type formulation of an n-hexane fraction of P. vulgaris significantly suppressed the development of rice blast, tomato late blight, wheat leaf rust, and red pepper anthracnose. Conclusions: These data show that the extract of P. vulgaris and two polyacetylenic acids possess antifungal and antioomycete activities against a broad spectrum of tested plant pathogens. Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first report on the occurrence of octadeca-9,11,13-triynoic acid and trans-octadec-13-ene-9,11-diynoic acid in P. vulgaris and their efficacy against plant diseases. The crude extract containing the two polyacetylenic acids can be used as a natural fungicide for the control of various plant diseases.
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The organic fraction (OF; 25.7% w/w of rosmarinic acid) of Prunella vulgaris (total extract) was found to exhibit the following: scavenging activity on diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), inhibition of in vitro human LDL Cu(II)-mediated oxidation, protection of rat mitochondria and rat hepatocytes exposed to either tert-butyl hydroperoxide, or to Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions. OF also showed a potential to inhibit rat erythrocyte haemolysis and it reduced the production of LTB(4) in bovine PMNL generated by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Other observations included antiproliferative effects against HaCaT cells and mouse epidermal fibroblasts and a moderate OF antimicrobial activity on gram-positive bacteria. Rosmarinic, caffeic and 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)lactic acids exhibited less potent activity than the plant extract in all bioassays. The antioxidative, antimicrobial, together with antiviral effects offer good prospects for the medicinal applications of P. vulgaris.