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“Risks and Benefits of Estrogen Plus Progestin in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: Principal Results From the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial” Writing Group for the Women's Health Initiative Investigators (WHI) JAMA 2002 288 3 321 333 10.1001/jama.288.3.321

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... In this regard, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been proposed as a strategy to relieve menopause symptoms for years and conventionally includes both estrogen and progesterone [5]. Nevertheless, HRT use decreased dramatically after the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial in 2002 [6]. The WHI study was stopped due to increased myocardial infarction occurrence, thromboembolic events, and breast cancer cases in HRT users [6]. ...
... Nevertheless, HRT use decreased dramatically after the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial in 2002 [6]. The WHI study was stopped due to increased myocardial infarction occurrence, thromboembolic events, and breast cancer cases in HRT users [6]. The HRT use dropped to 12% in 2004 and 5% in 2010 [7]. ...
... The HRT use dropped to 12% in 2004 and 5% in 2010 [7]. Nevertheless, the WHI trial was criticized for the presence of limitations and biases that should be considered to appropriately interpret study results, such as the inclusion of women aged 60-79 years [6].This crucial consideration pushes toward the foundations of the modern HRT, which consider the importance of starting HRT in the early years after menopause, introducing the concept of "time frame/ window" of opportunity for the benefits of HRT [7,8]. ...
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Purpose To summarize available evidence comparing the transdermal and the oral administration routes of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. Methods We performed a systematic review of the literature on multiple databases between January 1990 and December 2021. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing the transdermal and oral administration routes of estrogens for HRT in postmenopausal women regarding at least one of the outcomes of interest: cardiovascular risk, venous thromboembolism (VTE), lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD), and risk of pre-malignant and malignant endometrial lesions, or breast cancer. Results The systematic literature search identified a total of 1369 manuscripts, of which 51 were included. Most studies were observational and of good quality, whereas the majority of randomized controlled trials presented a high or medium risk of bias. Oral and transdermal administration routes are similar regarding BMD, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile improvements, as well as do not appear different regarding breast cancer, endometrial disease, and cardiovascular risk. Identified literature provides clear evidence only for the VTE risk, which is higher with the oral administration route. Conclusions Available evidence comparing the transdermal and oral administration routes for HRT is limited and of low quality, recommending further investigations. VTE risk can be considered the clearest and strongest clinical difference between the two administration routes, supporting the transdermal HRT as safer than the oral administration route.
... Systemic administration of estrogen as a part of post-menopausal hormone therapy would ameliorate urogenital atrophy. Still, after the increased risk of venous thromboembolism, stroke, and breast cancer, assessed in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial [8], many women no longer choose such therapy [9,10]. To avoid or reduce possible adverse effects and the risks known from systemic administration of estrogens, vaginal estrogen therapy is generally recommended unless other symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes, are present [10]. ...
... Classical estrogen-replacement therapy is associated with increased cancer risk and other pathologies [1][2][3]8,10], so there is an urgent need for safer treatment approaches. Recently, a clinical investigation was performed comparing the therapeutic effectiveness of alternative vaginal drugs, such as promestriene, an estrogen agonist, and sodium hyaluronate (NaH), a nonhormonal, water-based agent. ...
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Phytoestrogen resveratrol (R) has been demonstrated to benefit human reproductive health. However, R bioavailability and pharmacokinetics are still problematic under oral supplementation. We used an experimental vaginal gel with R and hyaluronic acid (HA) to improve bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties. The study aimed to assess the impact of vaginal R-HA gel on the reproductive system in ovariectomized rats. Methods: The study was carried out on Wistar female rats. It investigated the body weight, tail temperature, vaginal pH, estrogen and progesterone blood levels, and immunohistochemical biomarkers (COX2, Casp-3, Bcl-2, and VEGF). Animals were divided into control animals; ovariectomized rats (OVX); and OVX group treated with vaginal 0.5% R-HA gel (0.5%, 0.1 mL, daily 28 days). Results: The R-HA gel’s therapeutic effect was manifested by slowing weight gain by 17% (p < 0.001), less pronounced symptom of fever at the root of the tail by 9% (p < 0.001) and lowering the vaginal pH to 4.4–4.5 compared with OVX rats. The anti-inflammatory effect and the reduction of COX-2 expression in vagina were accompanied by antiapoptotic impact of RA-H on endometrium, associated with the decreased Casp-3 expression (p < 0.001) and elevated Bcl-2 score in endometrial glands (p = 0.01). Together with enhanced VEGF expression in endometrial glands (p < 0.001) and stromal cells (p = 0.007), these changes prevented endometrial atrophy (p < 0.001) after ovariectomy. Thus, this study substantiates the feasibility of developing an innovative topical drug with R and HA for treating hypoestrogenic disorders.
... Nonetheless, estrogen-related complications (e.g., hypertension, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, exacerbation of epilepsy, and endocrine-related cancers) should not be overlooked when considering estrogen replacement therapy for retarding IDD [20,40,42,43]. In this context, some other chemicals that can replace estrogen started to gain research interest [20], including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM) [44,45] and phytoestrogens [46,47]. ...
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Low back pain (LBP) represents a frequent and debilitating condition affecting a large part of the global population and posing a worldwide health and economic burden. The major cause of LBP is intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), a complex disease that can further aggravate and give rise to severe spine problems. As most of the current treatments for IDD either only alleviate the associated symptoms or expose patients to the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications, there is a pressing need to develop better therapeutic strategies. In this respect, the present paper first describes the pathogenesis and etiology of IDD to set the framework for what has to be combated to restore the normal state of intervertebral discs (IVDs), then further elaborates on the recent advances in managing IDD. Specifically, there are reviewed bioactive compounds and growth factors that have shown promising potential against underlying factors of IDD, cell-based therapies for IVD regeneration, biomimetic artificial IVDs, and several other emerging IDD therapeutic options (e.g., exosomes, RNA approaches, and artificial intelligence).
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The purpose of this study was to compare climacteric symptoms associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among women from Madrid (Spain) and Belgrade (Serbia). A cross-sectional study included 461 women from Madrid and 513 women from Belgrade aged 40-65 years. Climacteric symptoms and HRQOL were examined using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). There were no differences in MRS total score (p = 0.873), somato-vegetative and urogenital domain scores regarding country groups. However, women from Belgrade had poorer psychological domain score than women from Madrid (p = 0.027). Madrilenian women were more likely to have worse MRS score if they were coupled, had gynaecological complaints and longer duration of amenorrhoea. In Belgradian women, having higher level of education and using hormone-replacement therapy was associated with worse MRS score. Midlife women from Madrid and Belgrade had similar perception of intensity of urogenital and somato-vegetative climacteric symptoms. Belgradian women, however, perceived psychological symptoms as more severe.IMPACT STATEMENTWhat is already known on this subject? Social and cultural meanings of menopause vary across countries. It is quite delicate to strike a balance between two or more populations of women that can be compared, but also have specific features that are unique to their area. Similarities such as position of women in the society, access to education, contraception and safe induced abortion can facilitate this comparison.What do the results of this study add? Spanish and Serbian women rated similarly somato-vegetative and urogenital complaints, but Serbian women had worse psychological symptoms compared to Spanish women. Spanish women were more likely to endure climacteric symptoms until they withdraw spontaneously. Serbian women of higher education were more likely to use hormone-replacement therapy to manage climacteric complaints.What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? This study is the first to compare climacteric symptoms between women in Spain and Serbia. Despite the universality of menopause, culture seems to play a major role in differences in the perception of specific climacteric symptoms. Examination of quality of life in menopausal transition is an important measure of health status and should become a part of the routine health care in midlife.
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Sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) are often recognized from experimental and clinical studies examining the prevalence, manifestations, and response to therapies. Compared to age-matched men, women tend to have reduced CV risk and a better prognosis in the premenopausal period. However, with menopause, this risk increases exponentially, surpassing that of men. Although several mechanisms have been provided, including sex hormones, an emerging role in these sex differences has been suggested for β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling. Importantly, β-ARs are the most important G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), expressed in almost all the cell types of the CV system, and involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Consistent with their role, for decades, βARs have been considered the first targets for rational drug design to fight CVDs. Of note, β-ARs are seemingly associated with different CV outcomes in females compared with males. In addition, even if there is a critical inverse correlation between β-AR responsiveness and aging, it has been reported that gender is crucially involved in this age-related effect. This review will discuss how β-ARs impact the CV risk and response to anti-CVD therapies, also concerning sex and age. Further, we will explore how estrogens impact β-AR signaling in women.
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Background: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease in women. Yishen Zhuanggu (YSZG) decoction and Caltrate D600 reportedly affects bone formation. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of YSZG decoction combined with Caltrate D600 in PMO treatment. Methods: Ovariectomy-induced PMO rat model was treated with YSZG or/and Caltrate D600 for 12 weeks. Femur bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis-related protein expression, and serum parameters were measured. Pathological features of femur bone tissues were observed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum levels of oxidative stress parameters were measured using corresponding commercial kits. The mRNA and protein expression of FoxO3a, Wnt, and β-catenin was detected using qRT-PCR and western blotting. Results: The BMD and ultimate load of PMO rats were increased after treatment with YSZG. YSZG treatment promoted the bone trabeculae formation of PMO rats. YSZG treatment also induced bone differentiation and suppress oxidative stress in PMO rats, evidenced by the increased BALP, Runx2, OPG, SOD, and CAT levels, as well as the decreased TRACP 5b, RANKL, ROS, and MDA levels. Additionally, YSZG treatment downregulated the FoxO3a expression and upregulated the levels of Wnt and β-catenin in PMO rats. Caltrate D600 addition showed an auxiliary effect for YSZG. Conclusion: YSZG decoction exerts the antiosteoporotic effect on PMO by restraining the FoxO3a expression and activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which has an impressive synergistic effect with Caltrate D600.
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Clinical evidence suggests that the prevalence of cardiac disease is lower in premenopausal women compared to postmenopausal women and men. Although multiple factors contribute to this difference, uterine stem cells may be a major factor, as a high abundance of these cells are present in the uterus. Uterine-derived stem cells have been reported in several studies as being able to contribute to cardiac neovascularization after injury. However, our studies uniquely show the presence of an “utero-cardiac axis”, in which uterine stem cells are able to home to cardiac tissue to promote tissue repair. Additionally, we raise the possibility of a triangular relationship among the bone marrow, uterus, and heart. In this review, we discuss the exchange of stem cells across different organs, focusing on the relationship that exists between the heart, uterus, and bone marrow. We present increasing evidence for the existence of an utero-cardiac axis, in which the uterus serves as a reservoir for cardiac reparative stem cells, similar to the bone marrow. These cells, in turn, are able to migrate to the heart in response to injury to promote healing.
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Introduction Women are not usually taught about the menopause formally, and many general practitioners have relatively little training. The aim of this study was to explore perimenopausal women’s attitudes and knowledge of the menopause. Method An online survey was designed to evaluate attitudes and knowledge of the menopause in women older than 40 years. The survey was generated with Qualtrics XM ® and promoted via social media. In all, 3150 women started the survey. In this study, data from 947 perimenopausal women were analysed. Results Regarding women’s attitudes to the menopause, 38.8% were accepting of it but more than 30% were dreading it. The women had experienced a number of menopause symptoms including mood swings (68.9%), brain fog (68.3%), and fatigue (66.8%). More than 90% of women had never been taught about the menopause at school, and more than 60% did not feel informed at all about the menopause. School was thought to be the best place for menopause education to start (83.6%). In all, 68.2% of women had only looked for information about the menopause as their symptoms started and they had talked to friends and used a variety of websites to look for information. When asked for their free-text views on the menopause, thematic analysis produced four themes: the overarching knowledge gap, the onset and impact of symptoms, perimenopause: the hidden phenomenon, and managing symptoms: differing schools of thought. Conclusion Lack of education for women and their general practitioners is causing perimenopausal women to go through this important stage in their lives with a lack of knowledge and appropriate medical care. It is essential that women are taught about the menopause, from school onwards and that we offer health professionals appropriate training starting from the medical school curriculum.
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The goal in selecting these recent articles was to help identify literature that may change the clinical practice of women's health for practitioners in the primary care setting. Articles were identified by reviewing high-impact medical and women's health journals, national guidelines, ACP JournalWise, and NEJM Journal Watch. In this clinical update, we selected recent publications relevant to the prevention, risk assessment, and diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women. Breastfeeding now has data suggesting a robust reduction in subsequent CVD, and migraine with aura and severe and early- and late-onset hot flashes can now be considered risk factors for CVD. The decision to initiate menopausal hormone therapy is influenced by estimation of underlying vascular risk, and new data suggest that CVD risk scores are more accurate in predicting CVD risk than the traditionally used age and years since menopause and should be incorporated into counseling. Finally, new data support the growing belief that breast arterial calcification on mammography is a promising noninvasive marker that can enhance CVD risk prediction in women.
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Background: A wide interindividual variability in mitotane concentrations and treatment-related dyslipidemia have been reported. Here, we aimed to underline the sex-related differences in the lipid profile in patients that underwent radical surgery of adrenocortical carcinoma during treatment with adjuvant mitotane. Methods: A chromatographic method was used to quantify the drug in plasma collected from adult patients with complete tumor resection, also considering active metabolite o,p’-DDE. Results: We observed different lipid profiles between males and females and between pre- and post-menopausal women. Considering the mitotane-related effects on lipid levels, we observed that higher drug concentrations were correlated with higher HDL in all the considered groups (p < 0.001), with total cholesterol both in males (p = 0.005) and females (p = 0.036), with triglycerides in postmenopausal females (p = 0.002) and with LDL in male patients (p < 0.001). Increases in o,p’-DDE were positively correlated with HDL levels in all the groups (p < 0.001) and negatively with LDL in all the groups (males p = 0.008, pre- and post-menopausal females p < 0.001), with total cholesterol in pre- (p = 0.016) and post-menopausal women (p = 0.01) and with triglycerides in premenopausal females (p = 0.005). Conclusions: This is the first study designed to evaluate sex differences in lipoprotein and lipid levels during mitotane adjuvant treatment; the results suggest that a gender and personalized approach could be useful to prevent and manage alterations in the lipid profile.
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Background The UK is home to 13 million menopausal women. The aim of this study was to determine the views of GPs on their levels of confidence and comfort when advising or treating menopausal women and assess the need for further training. Method An anonymous online questionnaire was sent out to GPs working within the NHS across the UK between January 2021 and March 2021. The questionnaire was circulated via GP e-mail lists, Facebook, and LinkedIn, and included an option for respondents to volunteer for a semi-structured interview. Results The questionnaire had 173 responses. 52% of GPs indicated that they were not offered enough support to be able to advise and treat women with menopausal symptoms appropriately. 77.5% of GPs expressed that there is a need to improve training provided on menopause in medical school and GP training. 60.7% of GPs felt comfortable managing menopausal women and offering them management options. 22.5% of the respondents felt that the NICE guidelines are easy and clear guidance for clinical practice. Five GPs were further interviewed, and the analysis of the responses showed the perceived need by the GPs for improvements in medical training regarding menopause. Conclusion There is a need for better support and medical training for GPs to help them advice and treat women with menopausal symptoms. This is key for ensuring that every woman in the UK feels supported in their journey during the menopausal transition and is offered evidence-based advice to help them make informed decisions.
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Prescribing hormone replacement therapy (HRT) requires consideration of the selection of its two components, the estrogen and the progestogen. In terms of the estrogen, the decision is mainly whether to use estradiol (E2) or conjugated equine estrogens (CEE). These are the components needed to efficiently treat climacteric symptoms or/and prevent osteoporosis, currently the only labeled indications. There is still controversy regarding the adequate dosages comparing E2 and CEE; however, the consensus is that the differences in the efficacy of E2 and CEE are not a real issue. Therefore, other criteria have to be used. The first reason to add the progestogen is to avoid the development of endometrial cancer (i.e. to achieve 'endometrial safety'). Any available 'fixed-combined' HRT preparation has to be tested for sufficient endometrial efficacy, because the first question the health authorities ask before product registration relates to endometrial safety. We can generally rely on the endometrial safety of these fixed-combined products. However, it could be that we want to use 'free' combinations, which are necessary if we use transdermal E2 (patches, gel, spray), but also to individualize schedules, for example when treating bleeding problems. The question here is how to attain knowledge about the endometrial efficacy of the different progestogens and how to monitor therapy. We will try to answer these two questions from a 'clinical pharmacology' point of view, as a discipline which preferably considers pharmacological properties, but also relating to clinical practice, to achieve individualized therapy with optimal efficacy, best tolerability and minimal risks.
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Background: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is rapidly increasing in the world. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and Predictors factors of CVD based on the data of Kherameh cohort study. Methods: The present cross-sectional, analytical study was done based on the data of Kherameh cohort study, as a branch of the Prospective Epidemiological Studies in Iran (PERSIAN). The participants consisted of 10,663 people aged 40-70 years. CVD was defined as suffering from ischemic heart diseases including heart failure, angina, and myocardial infarction. Logistic regression was used to model and predict the factors related to CVD. Additionally, the age-standardized prevalence rate (ASPR) of CVD was determined using the standard Asian population. Results: The ASPR of CVD was 10.39% in males (95% CI 10.2-10.6%) and 10.21% in females (95% CI 9.9-10.4%). The prevalence of CVD was higher among the individuals with high blood pressure (58.3%, p < 0.001) as well as among those who smoked (28.3%, p = 0.018), used opium (18.2%, p = 0.039), had high triglyceride levels (31.6%, p = 0.011), were overweight and obese (66.2%, p < 0.001), were unmarried (83.9%, p < 0.001), were illiterate (64.2%, p < 0.001), were unemployed (60.9%, p < 0.001), and suffered from diabetes mellitus (28.1%, p < 0.001). The results of multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of having CVD was 2.25 times higher among the individuals aged 50-60 years compared to those aged 40-50 years, 1.66 folds higher in opium users than in non-opium users, 1.37 times higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, 2.03 folds higher in regular users of sleeping pills than in non-consumers, and 4.02 times higher in hypertensive individuals than in normotensive ones. Conclusion: The prevalence of CVD was found to be relatively higher in Kherameh (southern Iran) compared to other places. Moreover, old age, obesity, taking sleeping pills, hypertension, drug use, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had the highest odds ratios of CVD.
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Low estradiol status is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. We sought to determine the association between heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiovascular risk, at baseline and in response to stressor as a function of menopausal status, menstrual cycle phase and estradiol level. Forty-one healthy women (13 postmenopausal, 28 premenopausal) were studied. Eleven premenopausal women were additionally studied in the high and low estradiol phases of the menstrual cycle. HRV was calculated by spectral power analysis (low Frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and LF:HF) at baseline and in response to graded Angiotensin II (AngII) infusion. The primary outcomes were differences in HRV at baseline and in response to AngII. Compared to premenopausal women in the low estradiol phase, postmenopausal women demonstrated lower baseline LF (p = 0.01) and HF (p < 0.001) measures, which were not significant after adjustment for age and BMI. In response to AngII, a decrease in cardioprotective HRV (ΔHF = -0.43 ± 0.46 ln ms2 , p = 0.005 vs. baseline) was observed in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women. Baseline HRV parameters did not differ by menstrual phase in premenopausal women. During the low estradiol phase, no differences were observed in the HRV response to AngII challenge. In contrast, women in the high estradiol phase were unable to maintain HRV (ΔLF = -0.07 ± 0.46 ln ms2 , p = 0.048 response vs. baseline, ΔHF = -0.33 ± 0.74 ln ms2, p = 0.048 response vs. baseline). No association was observed between any measure of HRV and estradiol level. Menopausal status and the high estradiol phase in premenopausal women were associated with reduced HRV, a marker of cardiovascular risk. Understanding the role of estradiol in the modulation of cardiac autonomic tone may help guide risk reduction strategies in women.
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Background: As reported that the usage of estrogen and/or progesterone increases the risk of mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) with conflicting results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to higher elucidate the relationship between hormones and MGH. Method: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan-fang database were searched for studies until April 28, 2021. Results: Nine related studies were included in the present meta-analysis. We found that the usage of estrogen and/or progesterone had a significant association with increasing the risk of MGH (RR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.13-2.15, p = .000). The subgroup results showed that the risk of MGH increased in the Mix population (RR = 1.72, CI: 1.58-1.88, p < .001) but no significant difference in the Asian population. Meanwhile, as for using estrogen plus progesterone (EPP) and postmenopausal women the risk of MGH, respectively, increased (RR = 1.74, CI: 1.22-2.47, p = .002) and (RR = 1.75, CI: 1.24-2.47, p = .001) but no significant different for using estrogen alone and premenopausal women. Conclusions: This study findings indicated that using estrogen and/or progesterone might increase the risk of MGH in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.
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This article focuses on the value of a unique graphic/image designed to communicate health risks and benefits related to the administration of hormone replacement therapy. It will demonstrate why equations, technical terms, and confusing rhetoric need not be used for communication to patients and others. The use of a “familiar” theater graphic (given the name Benefit/Risk Characterization Theater) will allow physicians and patients to share decision-making by visualizing tradeoffs through the use of a clearer format: example Benefit/Risk Characterization Theaters: breast cancer risks associated with hormone replacement therapy, effectiveness of estrogen in treating menopausal symptoms, and thromboembolic risk of taking estrogen for postmenopausal women. The article describes a practical, simple methodology that can be used in many countries to facilitate doctor-patient communication.
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The burden of untreated menopause symptoms in midlife women is substantial and can result in reduced quality of life as well as lost work productivity, lost opportunities for advancement at work, and increased health care costs. Unfortunately, the health care system is largely unprepared to help women manage these symptoms, which have a mean duration of 7 to 9 years. Hormone therapy usage rates have plummeted following publication of the results of the Women's Health Initiative trials due to safety concerns. In addition, postgraduate medical training programs include minimal to no training on menopause management. These and other factors have contributed to what is essentially a menopause management vacuum. This vacuum created a market opportunity, particularly given the fact that midlife women are potent drivers of the global economy. In this review, we outline the menopause management gaps and discuss a multipronged approach to close these gaps and improve the care of midlife women.
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Osteoporosis is a common secondary complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Current osteoporosis treatment with bisphosphonates has some negative side effects and there is a lack of data regarding newer treatments options for SLE associated osteoporosis. The tissue-selective estrogen complex (TSEC) containing conjugated estrogens and the selective estrogen receptor modulator bazedoxifene (Bza) is approved for treatment of postmenopausal vasomotor symptoms and prevention of osteoporosis. However, it has not been evaluated for treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal SLE patients. Ovariectomized MRL/ lpr mice constitute a model for postmenopausal lupus that can be used for osteoporosis studies. We used this model in a set of experiments where the mice were treated with different doses of 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E2), Bza, or TSEC (E2 plus Bza), administered in the early or late phases of disease development. The skeleton was analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and high-resolution microcomputed tomography. The lupus disease was assessed by determination of proteinuria, hematuria, and lupus disease markers in serum. Treatment with medium dose TSEC administered in early disease protected ovariectomized MRL/ lpr mice from trabecular bone loss, while there were no differences in lupus disease parameters between treatments. This is the first experimental study to investigate TSEC as a potential new therapy for osteoporosis in postmenopausal SLE.
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