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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CITRUS PARADISI ESSENTIAL OIL

Authors:
  • Institute of Modeling and Innovation on Technology - IMIT CONICET/UNNE
  • Instituto de Modelado e Innovación Tecnológica (CONICET - UNNE) Universidad Tecnológica Nacional (UTN)
  • Hospital Dr. Julio C. Perrando, Resistencia, Chaco. Argentina

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) essential oil to inhibit the growth of wild food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacterial strains. Additionally, the chemical composition and physical properties of this essential oil was evaluated. Essential oil was obtained as a byproduct from agro-processing industry in the province of Corrientes, Argentina. Monoterpene hydrocarbon limonene representing 93% (v/v), quantified by gas chromatography, was the major component of essential oil. Citrus paradisi essential oil inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Lactobacillus plantarum. The lowest concentration of essential oil (4.29ppm) was required to inhibit Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 207c VCOR (8.27±0.13 log10 CFU/ml) according to the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration. The effect of this oil on growth of wild strain 207c VCOR (9.17±0.024 log10 CFU/ml) was determined at different times by total count and spectrophotometric absorption to 560 nm. At the moment of essential oil injection, the number of microorganisms was 1.29±0.17x109 CFU/ml and, at 24 hours of contact, only 6.3±0.5x106 CFU/ml was detected. These results show that oil has a bactericidal effect if counts with and without addition of essential oil were compared. The loss of viability was 1.82x109 CFU/ml under these experimental conditions. This essential oil has very strong potential applicability as a natural antibacterial agent for food industry, particularly for pasta manufacture which is facing serious spoilage problems due to lactic bacteria activity.
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
16
ISSN 0974 – 5211
I.
Antibacterial activity of Citrus paradisi essential oil
O.M. Vasek
1
*, L.M. Cáceres
2
, E.R. Chamorro
2
, G.A. Velasco
2
1
Biotecnología Microbiana para la Innovación Alimentaria (BiMIA, Microbial Biotechnology
for Food Innovation), Institute of Modeling and Innovation on Technology, CONICET and
National Northeastern University, Corrientes, Argentina
2
Centro de Investigación en Química Orgánica-Biológica (QUIMOBI, Research Center on
Biological Organic Chemistry), National Technological University and Institute of Modeling
and Innovation on Technology, CONICET, Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina
*Corresponding Author
(Received 08 October 2014; Revised 25 December 2014-31 March 2015; Accepted 12 April 2015)
ABSTRACT
The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of Grapefruit (Citrus
paradisi) essential oil to inhibit the growth of wild food-borne spoilage and
pathogenic bacterial strains. Additionally, the chemical composition and physical
properties of this essential oil was evaluated. Essential oil was obtained as a by-
product from agro-processing industry in the province of Corrientes, Argentina.
Monoterpene hydrocarbon limonene representing 93% (v/v), quantified by gas
chromatography, was the major component of essential oil. Citrus paradisi essential
oil inhibited growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactococcus lactis
subsp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. diacetylactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides
subsp. dextranicum and Lactobacillus plantarum. The lowest concentration of
essential oil (4.29ppm) was required to inhibit Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 207c
VCOR (8.27±0.13 log
10
CFU/ml) according to the Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration. The effect of this oil on growth of wild strain 207c VCOR (9.17±0.024
log
10
CFU/ml) was determined at different times by total count and
spectrophotometric absorption to 560 nm. At the moment of essential oil injection, the
number of microorganisms was 1.29±0.17x10
9
CFU/ml and, at 24 hours of contact,
only 6.3±0.5x10
6
CFU/ml was detected. These results show that oil has a bactericidal
effect if counts with and without addition of essential oil were compared. The loss of
viability was 1.82x10
9
CFU/ml under these experimental conditions. This essential oil
has very strong potential applicability as a natural antibacterial agent for food
industry, particularly for pasta manufacture which is facing serious spoilage problems
due to lactic bacteria activity.
Keywords: Natural preservative; Spoilage control; Essential oil; Lactic acid bacteria.
INTRODUCTION
Presence of undesirable microorganism in food and their multiplication is a problem
for whole world. They can lead to spoilage and deteriorate the quality of food or
cause illness. In 2011, 1.8 million child deaths were registered (WHO, 2013), most
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Research Paper
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17
of them caused by contaminated water and food. In recent years, emergence of
bacterial resistance against multiple antibiotics has accelerated dramatically.
Community- and hospital-acquired pathogens and larger part of them are multi-drug-
resistant bacteria (Lai et al., 2011; Solórzano-Santos and Miranda-Novales, 2012).
So, food safety is a past, present and future public health concern all over the world.
Growing interest in substitution of synthetic antimicrobial agents by natural
ones has fostered research on vegetable sources and screening of plant materials in
order to identify new compounds or test natural chemicals already known for
important activities that have not been discovered so far (Ait-Ouazzou et al., 2011;
Lv et al., 2011; Badawy and Abdelgaleil, 2014).
Essential oils (EOs) extracted from different plant genera are, in many cases,
biologically active. These aromatic compounds are relatively inexpensive and there
is abundant raw material with practical applications for different industries.
Citrus is considered an important fruit in world production because its great
value for human diet. Citrus is member of Rutaceae family from sub-tropical origin
and is known for its semi-sweet taste.
Due to nutraceutical and economic importance, numerous investigations have
been performed aiming at identifying chemical composition, antimicrobial activities
of EOs from peel of different citrus species.
Citrus EOs has been recognized as safe due to their wide spectrum of
biological activities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and
anxiolytic (Rehman, 2006; Chutia et al., 2009). These antimicrobial properties have
shown to create a particularly interesting scope for application within food industry
(Imran et al., 2013), for veterinary use (Fuselli et al., 2008; Roussenova, 2011),
human medicine (Yin et al., 2012; Oliveira, et al., 2014) and plants for agricultural
production (Badawy and Abdelgaleil, 2014).
Argentina is the world's eighth largest citrus grower and the first largest
lemon grower. It has exported dry fruit, juices and EOs since 1970. Citrus production
area covers 147.000ha, and has a total annual production of, almost, 3.000.000t.
Main citrus fruit include lemon (47%), followed by orange (29%), mandarin orange
(16%) and grapefruit (8%) (UIA, 2008).
Here we are try to determine physical characteristics and chemical
composition of Citrus paradisi essential oil; to screen antibacterial properties of EO
against wild food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacterial strains and; to evaluate the
effect of adding EOs to growth of sensitive microorganisms in dose according to the
MIC.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Essential oil: Citrus paradisi essential oil (EO) was obtained as a by-product in a
citrus juice extraction plant. The method used for juice extraction was extruding or
cold pressing in which follicular glands of citrus peel is mechanically ground to
release its content. For this purpose, a Food Machinery Corporation (FMC) extractor
was used. The objective of this process was to separate oil from fruit juice.
Essential oil characterization: Grapefruit oil characterization was performed by
determination of the following physical properties: refractive index, relative density
and optical rotation using standardized methods.
Relative density method was performed according to recommendations of Argentine
Institute of Standardization and Certification, IRAM-SAIPA Standard 18504
(2002), by pycnometer method. For this purpose, a 0.1 milligram-precision scale
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
18
METTLER AJ150 (Germany) was used. Procedure consisted of determination of
body of water (m
H2O
) contained in the pycnometer, by weight difference of
pycnometer with or without distilled water, and body of water using the same
technique but with EO and using the same pycnometer. Both at reference temperature
= 20±0.2°C.
Relative density of oil was calculated applying the following equation:
d
20°C/4°C
= m
aceite
/ m
H2O
d
20°C/4°C: oil
density at 20°C, relative to water to 4°C,
m
oil
: body of oil at full pycnometer at 20°C (g),
m
H2O
: body of water calculated at pycnometer calibration (g).
Additionally, refractive index was determined through IRAM-SAIPA Standard
18505 (2002) with an ABBE DR-M2 refractometer from ATAGO USA, Inc., with a
temperature thermostatic control through water circulation sleeve among prisms and
white light lamp. Tool precision is 0.0001, for a dynamic interval of n
D
20°C
= 1.300-
1.700. The method is based on determination of critical angle of total reflection
between oil and prism Flint glass, looking critical angle in observation field,
visualizing as a clear separation between two fields (pale and dark) focused on two
hair cruces. Using a 20ºC thermostatized oil sample (1 or 2 drops) reading in
refractometer was performed. Determination of optical rotation [α]
t
D
was done under
IRAM-SAIPA Standard N° 18507 (2002), using a A&E type WXG-4 disc polarimeter
from Shanghai, China, measuring range ± 180° and precision of 0.05°. Procedure was
based on observation of angle of deviation for polarized plane light 589-nm
wavelength (Sodium D line) caused by essential oil placed on a 10-dm-long sample
holder at 20±0.2°C. For this purpose, oil sample was stabilized on a water bath at a
temperature of 20±0.2°C. Angle observation was visualized in the observation field as
the intermediate of two fields (a dark circle with a pale line in the middle and another
pale circle with a dark line in the middle). Reading was done at external scale
(α
observed
).
Optical rotation of oil was calculated applying the following equation:
[α]
t
D
= α
observed
100/l
[α]
t
D
: optical rotation to 20°C for Sodium D line (º), α
obs
e
rved
: optical rotation angle observed (º), l: leng
th
of sa
mple-holder flask (mm).
Chemical constitution of essential oil: identification of Citrus paradisi EO
components was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A
two-capillary column QP 5050 SHIMADZU equipment was used: one SE 52
(MEGA, Legnano, Italia) chemically bonded (25m x 0.25mm internal diameter;
0.25µm-thick stationary phase) column, covered by 5% phenil-polydimethylsiloxane
(0.25µm-thick stationary phase) at a column temperature of 60ºC (8min), increasing
up to 180ºC at a 3ºC/min
speed, then up to 230ºC at a 20ºC/min speed. 250ºC injector
temperature, split injection mode; 1:40 split ratio; 0.2µl oil injection volume. Mobile
phase: Helium, 122.2kPa (51.6cm/sec), 250ºC interface temperature and 40-400m/z
mass range acquisition. Another BP-20 (SGE, Australia) 25m x 0.25mm internal
diameter fused silica capillary column covered by polyethyleneglycol 20.000Da (0.25
µm thick stationary phase). Column temperature at 40ºC (8min), increasing up to
180ºC (3 ºC/min), and up to 230ºC (20ºC/min). 250ºC, injector temperature, split
injection mode; 1:40 split ratio; 0.2µl oil injection volume. Mobile phase: Helium,
92.6kPa (55.9cm/s), 250ºC interface temperature and mass range acquisition: 40-
400m/z.
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
19
Fragmentation patterns in each component were compared to those stored in the
software library spectra (Mc Lafferty and Stauffer, 1991; Adams, 2001).
Microorganisms and growth conditions: forty autochthonous bacterial strains were
obtained from Institutional Collection of Wild Microorganisms” - Facultad de
Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (School of Natural and Exact Sciences, Northeastern
University of Argentina (Acronym: VCOR). In this study, the following were used as
food spoilage bacteria: Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum (11 strains), Leuconostoc
(Leuc.) mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum (1 strain), Lactococcus (L.) lactis subsp.
diacetylactis (1 strain) and L. lactis subsp. lactis (11 strains). Additionally,
Staphylococcus aureus (3 strains) and Escherichia (E.) coli (13 strains) were tested as
pathogenic bacteria of food.
Bacterial strains were preserved on Milk-Yeast extract with glycerol (15%, v/v) at -
20ºC. Lactobacillus strains were cultivated in MRS medium (Merck) at 30ºC;
Lactococcus lactis strains were cultivated in Elliker medium (Biokar Diagnostic) at
35ºC; Staphylococcus aureus were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (Merck) at 37ºC
and Nutrient medium (Britania) was used for proliferation of E. coli strains at 37ºC.
Working bacterial cultures were transferred (2%, v/v) to a fresh broth three times
prior to experiences.
Lactic bacteria count: appropriate further decimal dilutions of bacterial suspensions
were made in a peptone-saline solution (0.1-0.85%, w/v) for enumeration of lactic
bacteria (LAB) according to Aerobic Plate Count (Maturin and Peeler, 2001). For
growth, Elliker agar (Biokar Diagnostic) was used with incubation at 30°C for 48h.
Screening of antibacterial effect: antibacterial activity in vitro of EOs was assayed
using Disk diffusion method (Ortez, 2005). Briefly, 50µl of EO were placed on sterile
0.55cm diameter filter paper discs (Whatman 1) located on the surface of adequate
media in plates previously spread with 100µl of 10
8
CFU/ml overnight cultures. Plates
have been allowed to dry for 15min in a sterile environment, inverted and incubated
for 24h at optimal temperature of growth. Diameters of zones of inhibition (ZOI) were
measured using Vernier caliper. Controls were bacterial cultures without EO exposure.
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): according to Rankin (2005), an aliquot
(5µl) of 10
8
CFU/ml overnight cultures was added to wells of sterile 96-well micro-
titerplate, containing (135µl) adequate medium added of Bromocresol Purple to
provide a final medium concentration of 0.16% (w/v). EO was diluted in sterile
solution (0.5%, v/v) of Tween 80 and added (50µl) to wells to give final EO
concentrations between 0.50 and 95.00% (v/v). Positive control wells contained
adequate broth and cells without EO while negative controls wells contained,
individually, medium, EO and Tween 80. Plates were incubated under normal
atmospheric conditions at respective temperatures according to strain for 24h.
Inhibition of growth was made visible from change in color in pH indicator observed
in a stereomicroscope (OLYMPUS C011-092879, Japan). The Minimum Inhibitory
Concentration (MIC) was defined as the lowest concentration of essential oil at which
microorganism does not demonstrate any visible growth (Tao, et al., 2009).
Characterization of EO antagonistic effect on cell growth: considering MIC results,
the effect of this essential oil on the growth of wild strain was determined at different
times by total count and spectrophotometric absorption (JASCO spectrophotometer V-
630, Japan) to 560nm (Abs
560nm
). Active strains were transferred (2%, v/v) to two
series of flasks containing Elliker broth, in sufficient number (30 tubes) for total
monitoring of growth; third series of flasks without inoculum were used for blank test.
Three series were incubated in water bath with low speed agitation (VICKING
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
20
Thermostatic bath, Dubnoff model, Argentina) to 30°C during 120h. When cells
reached exponential phase of growth, corresponding to 0.7-0.8 of spectrophotometric
absorption, an aliquot (100µl) of EO dilution (5:95, EO: Tween 80) was added to each
flask of one series and the other was used as positive control to normal growth. At
different times, one flask from each series was used for determination of Abs
560nm
and
count of viable cells.
Statistical analysis: experiments were replicated three times. All results reported were
expressed as Mean±SD. Data were analyzed using INFOSTAT Software by one-way
ANOVA procedure (Di Renzo et al., 2008). Differences among means were detected
by the Hotelling Test. Significance of all tests was set at P<0.05.
RESULTS
Essential oil characterization: the relative density value obtained (0.8573mg/ml) is
within specifications of the given quality in IRAM-SAIPA Standard for Citrus
paradisi oil (0.8520-0.8600mg/ml). Although it was greater than the value reported by
other authors: 0.8433 (Pino, et al., 1999), 0.8500 (Viuda, et al., 2008) and a 0.8532-
0.8508 mg/ml (Kesterson and MacDuff, 1948) range for cold-pressed EO of this same
fruit; besides, it is within the range reported by (Güenther, 1961) from 0.8550 to
0.8600 mg/ml obtained under same conditions.
Refractive index measured (1.4723) was slightly under IRAM-SAIPA
(1.4740-1.4790) and Güenther (1961) specifications (1.4745-1.4778), but resulted
similar to those reported by Kesterson and MacDuff (1948) of 1.4714-1.4726.
However, it was greater than those reported by other authors, 1.4692 (Pino, et al.,
1999) and 1.4700 (Viuda, et al., 2008). Density values lower than 0.9000 mg/ml and
refractive indexes close to 1.4700 indicate a high content of terpenes (Kesterson and
MacDuff, 1948), consistently with ours chromatographic results.
Optical activity of grapefruit EO was +90.25° being in the range +91.45-
+94.36° reported by Güenther (1961) as well as in the range from +91.50° to +96.50°
reported by Kesterson and MacDuff (1948). Instead, other reference (Pino, et al.,
1999) reported a value greater than +94°. Values obtained from activity can be due to
content in terpenes, mainly from limonene which is the greatest, as they have more
optical and dextrorotatory activity compared to oxygenated components where optical
activity is null and to those of sesquiterpenes where it tends to be levorotatory (Weast,
2010).
Chemical constitution of essential oil: 21 components were identified in the test by
GC/MS: 9 terpenes, 3 sesquiterpenes, 2 aldehydes, 7 alcohols, and 1 ester
(representing 99.10% of components).
In Table 1, identified components together with retention times (Tr), and
composition average with its respective percentage values are shown. Limonene was
the monoterpene present in greater proportion, for this compound 92.60% was
obtained being in the upper limit of reported range (76.00-96.00%) for citrus EOs
(Kirbaslar, et al., 2006; Espina, et al., 2011). Monoterpene in greater proportion
following limonene was β-myrcene (1.20%), slightly under the percentage reported in
literature for citrus EOs (Kirbaslar, et al., 2006). Other components are found in lower
proportions (below 1.00%).
Screening of antibacterial effect: Assay results for inhibition tested of
microorganism growth, indicated that EO exhibited varying levels of antibacterial
activity against studied bacteria. Although a greater number of Gram (+) strains than
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
21
Gram (-) strains was used for experiments (27 and 13, respectively), under identical
assay conditions, 40.74% of Gram (+) and 100.00% of Gram (-) were sensitive to EO.
All tested E. coli (13 strains) showed sensibility to this EO.
Of tested strains of Gram (+) lactobacillus, only 3 of them showed a minimum
inhibition in the assay conditions (ZOI: 5.0-6.5mm). Among Gram (+) cocci tested
strains, Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum 14c isolated from caseario
environment in the province of Corrientes (Argentina) presented a significant
sensitivity (ZOI=11.0mm); L. lactis subsp. diacetylactis 166c showed less sensitivity
to grapefruit EO (ZOI=9.1mm), and L. lactis subsp. lactis strains showed a variable
response. Four strains can be highlighted (207c, 138c, 199c, and 140c, in descending
order of importance) to have shown an interesting inhibitory response against
essential oil. These results are shown in Fig. 1, L. lactis subsp. lactis 35c VCOR was
used as negative control.
Table-1: Chemical composition of Citrus paradisi oil by GC/MS.
Peak Nº TR (min) Identified Components %
1 12.62
α
-pinene
0.60
2 15.38 Sabinene 0.60
3 16.71
-myrcene
1.20
4 17.38 n-octanal 0.40
5 21.21 Limonene 92.60
6 2.46 Linalool oxide cis 0.10
7 23.72 Linalool oxide trans 0.10
8 24.19 Linalool 0.20
9 25.49 Mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol trans p 0.30
10 26.27
Limonene oxide (Z)+mentha 2,8-
dien-1-ol cis p- +limonene oxide (E)
1.30
11 27.5
-citronellal
Tr
12 30.17 Decanal 0.10
13 32.03 Carveol trans 0.30
14 32.87 Carveol cis 0.30
15 33.63 Carvone 0.30
16 35.33 Geranial + E-ocimenone 0.10
17 40.76
α
-cubebene
0.10
18 41.23 Neryl acetate 0.10
19 43.77
β-caryophyllene
0.10
20 48.58
δ-amorphene
0.10
21 50.83 Spathulenol+caryophyllene oxide 0.20
Total 99.10
TR
: Retention time.
Tr
: Trace amounts.
Figure-1: Inhibition in growth of L. lactis subsp. lactis 207c y 138c VCOR generated by C.
paradisi EO.
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
22
Minimum inhibitory concentrations: Minimum concentration of EO required
inhibiting the growth was determined in 2 strains of L. lactis subsp. lactis: 138c and
207c. Cell reproduction of first strain, inoculated at 9.27±0.90 log
10
CFU/ml density,
was stopped by a 15% (v/v) concentration of EO:Tween 80. While second strain
growth, 207c, at a cell density of 8.27±0.13 log
10
CFU/ml, was inhibited with just 5%
(v/v) of EO:Tween 80.
Considering the relation between volume and mass (mass = density/volumen), the
experimental density (0.853mg/ml) and the EO volume used in the dilution that
resulted inhibitory at the experiences (5 %, v/v), our results expressed that the lowest
concentration of Citrus paradisi EO needed to inhibit L. lactis subsp. lactis 207c
VCOR with a cellular density of 8.27±0.13 log
10
CFU/ml, was 4.29ppm, according to
the MIC using the Broth Microdilution testing.
Characterization of antagonistic effect of EO on cell growth: growth kinetics of
207c VCOR wild-type strain with and without EO is presented in Table 2. Test strain,
at 9.17±0.024 log
10
CFU/ml cellular density, was inoculated in two series of flasks.
Once growth exponential phase was fully reached, 3 to 4 growing hours, showing an
increasing spectrophotometric turbidity speed of 0.398 units Abs
560nm
/h and a number
of cells of 1.29± 0.17x10
9
CFU/ml, an aliquot of EO dilution was injected into flasks.
Table-2: Growth kinetics of L. lactis subsp. lactis.
Time (h) Strain 207c Strain 207c+EO
Abs
560nm
Viable count cell
(log
10
CFU/ml)
Abs
560nm
Viable count cell
(log
10
CFU/ml)
0
0.087
±
0.05 9.17
±
0.24 0.090
±
0.05 9.17
±
0.24
1
0.089
±
0.01
ND
0.116
±
0.01
ND
2
0.179
±
0.03
ND
0.203
±
0.00
ND
3
0.422
±
0.02 9.11
±
0.09 0.436
±
0.03 9.11
±
0.09
4
0.782
±
0.00 9.11
±
0.16 0.859
±
0.02 9.11
±
0.16
5
1.407
±
0.02
ND
1.377
±
0.02
ND
6
1.703
±
0.02
ND
1.423
±
0.01
ND
7
1.701
±
0.08 9.11
±
0.17 1.405
±
0.08 9.11
±
0.17
24
1.655
±
0.07 9.43
±
0.09 1.283
±
0.05 7.11
±
0.50
28
1.648
±
0.02 9.26
±
0.01 1.270
±
0.01 6.80
±
0.02
54
1.462
±
0.02 7.95
±
0.05 1.200
±
0.03 4.48
±
0.07
ND
: no determined.
Adding EO has no effects (P>0.05) on incremental speed of Abs
560nm
reached
by 207c VCOR strain with and without addition of EO (0.407/h, 0.492/h,
respectively). However, smaller Abs
560nm
was produced when reaching cryptic
growing phase, showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in the population
measured by Abs
560nm
of 0.280. Considering the methodology used for its
determination, this difference might suggest a partial cell lysis.
Although kinetics has been tested for 120h, only the results of the first 54h are shown.
No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in absorbance measurements in
each series over time, or major differences were seen in both series than those detected
at 54h incubation at subsequent incubation periods.
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
23
DISCUSSION
Chemical composition and values of grapefruit EO physical properties obtained were
found near or within values reported in literature for this type of oil, and are consistent
with extraction method used and its composition-high monoterpenic hydrocarbon
content, especially limonene.
Reviewing opposing results about antibacterial effect, regarding differential
sensitivity of bacteria (Gram + and Gram -) against EOs, some (Smith-Palmer, et al.,
2001; Burt, 2004) support a greater Gram (+) sensitivity due to relative external
membrane impermeability in Gram (-), and others (Tassou, et al., 2000; Fisher and
Phillips (2006), reported similar sensitivity results both in Gram (+) and in Gram (-).
Researchers postulated that differential sensitivity in both bacteria groups (Gram +
and Gram -) does not depend exclusively from chemical or structural characteristics
of cell wall, but there are other factors that influence response (Fisher and Phillips
2008; Bajpai et al., 2012). This postulate is consistent with our results.
Grapefruit EO had an important spectrum of antibacterial activities against E.
coli (Fig. 1) with zones of inhibition ranging from 8.3 to 17.2mm. These results are
consistent with those reported by other authors (Akroum, et al., 2009; Uysal, et al.,
2011; Imran, et al., 2013) for grapefruit EO antibacterial effect and other related
species such as C. union (Sarmah and Kumari, 2013), C. limettioides (Vasudeva and
Sharma, 2012) and Citrus spp. (Chanthaphon, et al., 2008; Fuselli, et al., 2008).
Lactic acid bacteria, particularly cocci, showed an interesting inhibition from
this EO. In northeastern provinces of Argentina, there a great amount of fresh
handmade pasta factories corresponding to classical Italian pasta in addition to those
factories of traditional "chipa"-a tapioca-flour roll with cheese, eggs, and water,
inherited from the Republic of Paraguay which, given its geographical position,
borders Corrientes, Chaco, Formosa, and Misiones provinces. In these places,
production and selling of "chipa" was so popular that nowadays it is sold baked for its
direct consumption and as undercooked hard rolls or dough for preparation,
refrigerated or frozen with different shelf life periods according to the conservation
methodology. Considering that during spring and summer seasons high ambient
temperatures are reached (42-46ºC), together with high humidity, commercial low
temperature preservation systems do not bear this climate conditions minimizing its
performance. As a consequence, this sector manufacturers face severe microbial
reproduction problems, mainly because of lactic bacteria naturally present in raw
material that do not involve a risk for consumer health since they are Generally
Recognized As Safe (GRAS) according to American Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) (FDA, 2013). However, their growth and proliferation can reach the order of
10
8
-10
10
CFU/g, causing acidification (50-60°Dornic), typical glycolytic metabolism
of this microbial group (data not shown), obviously, with changes in the organoleptic
characteristics of the product. This is why this modifying microorganism group gains
importance in this food sector, especially for future transference of results to regional
industry.
Although antagonistic effect to growth of this EO, with GRAS status (FDA,
2013), was determined against spoilage bacteria which are of interest for this study, we
must consider that, for its potential application to food preservation, effective activity
concentration shall not produce changes in its sensorial properties. Determined MIC
for this EO (4.29ppm) against L. lactis subsp. lactis (1.86x10
8
CFU/ml) is low enough
to be used in prevention of food spoilage with no cytotoxic effects for human health, or
sensory changes in product. However, specific food system must be experimentally
tested as factors like fat content, and pH contained, can reduce this beneficial effect
O. M. Vasek, et al. /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 8(2015): 16-26
Copyright © 2015, Journal of Natural Products, INDIA, Dr. Sudhanshu Tiwari, All rights reserved
24
determined in vitro.
There was a decrease (P<0.05) in the number of viable cells originally present
when adding EO (1.29±0.17x10
9
CFU/ml). After 24h of contact, 6.3±0.50x10
6
CFU/ml was detected, while cell density of control microorganism series remained in
the order of 10
9
CFU/ml (1.83±0.07x10
9
CFU/ml). The antagonistic effect of EO
lasted during all experimental incubation period, making only 4.48±0.07x10
4
CFU/ml
microorganisms keep their viability at 54h of contact and subsequently. These results
verified EO bacterial effect on 207cVCOR strain under these assay conditions.
Grapefruit EO has undergone less studies than sweet orange, lemon and
bergamot EOs and their main components respect to antimicrobial effect. Particularly,
Fisher and Phillips (2006), reported absence of limonene antimicrobial effect against
some pathogenic bacteria related to food-borne diseases. These results are in
opposition to our experience.
However, it is necessary to consider the possibility of chemical interactions
(positive or negative) between principal components and other components present at
level of traces that could generate synergy.
Comparing series cell counts with and without addition of EO to this time,
there was 1.82x10
9
CFU/ml (99.29%) viability loss at 24h of contact and 8.95x10
7
CFU/ml (99.97%) viability loss at 54h under these experimental conditions.
EO of Citrus paradisi can be used as safer and alternative means of food
preservation to minimize microbial contamination and to improve quality of foods as a
shift from synthetic chemicals to botanical antimicrobials is gaining popularity because
of their environment safety and bio-rational mode of action. This essential oil has very
strong potential applicability as natural antibacterial agent for food industry, specially,
for pasta manufacture which is facing serious problems of spoilage due to lactic
bacteria activity. EOs could have important implications for the development of
antimicrobial strategies. It is likely that it will be more difficult for bacteria to develop
resistance to the multi-component EOs than to common antibiotics or chemical
preservers, generally constituted by a single molecular entity.
In our knowledge, this is the first time the Argentinean grapefuit essential oil
is evaluated as control agent, for the growth of undesirable bacteria in food, from the
viewpoint of their potential application in bio-preservation.
CONCLUSION
Essential oil of Citrus paradisi from Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina has limonene
as main constituent (92.6%), inhibits spoilage and pathogenic bacterial growth, both
Gram (+) and Gram (-), and has bactericidal effect on Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis
with a dose low enough to be used as bio-preservative in food where this
microorganism causes spoilage.
Acknowledgments: the authors would like to thank General Secretariat of Science and Technology of
Northeastern University and National Technological University of Argentina for their financial support
for this study and scholarships (PI:F011-11. Res. 976/11-CS-UNNE, 2012-2015 and PI:25/L054-
UTI1672-R-UTN, 2012-2014, respectively).
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... Its content ranges from 84.8 to 93.45%. The remaining ingredients are present in small quantities: myrcene (6.9%) and alpha-pinene (1.7%), belonging to monoterpenes; and beta-caryophyllene (1.1%), belonging to sesquiterpenes [40, 59,73]. C. paradisi EO inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. Typhimurium, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus vulgaris [73][74][75]. ...
... The remaining ingredients are present in small quantities: myrcene (6.9%) and alpha-pinene (1.7%), belonging to monoterpenes; and beta-caryophyllene (1.1%), belonging to sesquiterpenes [40, 59,73]. C. paradisi EO inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. Typhimurium, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus vulgaris [73][74][75]. The effectiveness of C. paradisi EO against fungi: A. niger, A. flavus, C. albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moniliforme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been confirmed [76]. ...
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