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Information and Communications Technology in Education

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  • Institut Mines Telecom Business School
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Abstract

As Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) gradually permeate daily life, they are profoundly changing the way education is conceived and delivered. Teachers play a key role in this transformation process; their beliefs, pedagogical practices, and teaching skills are continuously challenged. ICT integration in the educational process can significantly enhance traditional courses and Internet-based education, i.e., e-learning, is becoming a serious alternative to traditional, face-to-face courses. To be used as a lever for pedagogical innovation and institutional transformation, teacher ICT competencies need to go beyond skills in ICT use per se, and enclose contextual knowledge about technology, pedagogy, and content. On the other hand, learners' engagement with ICT in education depends on their expectations and conceptions of learning and required assessment. A learner's experience with ICT in education is linked to his perception of systems' ease of use and usefulness in achieving learning goals. Adaptive learning systems open new potentialities for a personalized instruction which is tailored to the learner's characteristics. At the edge of a new era, schools, colleges, and higher education struggle to seize opportunities and overcome obstacles.

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... Rogers (2003) noted the hardware and software aspects constitute the two main components of technology. Naresh (2020) In addition, Assar (2015) explored the relevant prior literature, identified three categories of ICT artifacts which could be included in modern teaching. 1) The digital learning material (Polsani, 2006) which could be internet hosted video, illustrations, simulation and interactive assessment tools (Kreijns et al., 2013). ...
... As Gros (2016) stated, in addition to the improvement of the teaching process, smart learning should focus on personalization, adopting the learning activity to the needs of any individual learner. To the same direction, Assar (2015) explained that ICT transformed traditional education providing face to face courses and introducing adaptive learning systems oriented to learners' profiles. ...
... The transition to the implementation of modern teaching methods based on ICT requires teachers' positive attitude, but as Gressard and Loyd (1985), observed, lack of time, necessary experience, preparation, support and appropriate infrastructure have been reported as barriers of ICT diffusion (Gressard & Loyd, 1985;Pelgrum, 2001;Evers et al., 2002). Assar (2015) presents surveys which highlighted the limited use of digital learning tools on the teaching efficiency (Smeets, 2005;Mahdizadeh, 2008). Cohen and Ball (2006) believe that lack of motivation explains the lack of teachers' interest in the adoption and implementation of new technologies in the educational process. ...
... Modern technologies are designed to increase the level of efficiency of the academic process, as well as the process of obtaining knowledge and processing the information received. Analysis of the relevant literature suggests that there are three general categories of ICTs that should be used in teaching and learning [9][10][11][12]. ...
... Interactive work within the "GoogleClassroom" platform allows students to study independently and work with the material and digital tools at their own pace, along their own educational route. Such work contributes to the individualization of training-thanks to immediate feedback from the teacher, improving the quality of training -thanks to the possibility of working on mistakes, correcting them and understanding them either in an interactive dialogue with the teacher, or in an automatic system for monitoring learning [9]. ...
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The article looks into some challenges that university teaching staff has to face during the modern era of digitalization and especially during the transaction period from “physical classroom” to “digital classroom” provoked by the pandemic of COVID-19. The use of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred to as ICT), tools for online teaching and learning, computer and digital literacy, digital skills and competencies are becoming important components of professional success. The transition to distance learning (especially due to the pandemic of COVID-19) has changed the modern academic world: now the effective use of digital technologies and educational resources is considered a key factor for improving and increasing the value of the learning process. As a result, students get their knowledge and educators share their theoretical and practical experience through an increasing number of digital technologies and resources. This article aims to describe and analyze the main types of available online tools and services that may provide productive work and interactive learning; to describe the challenges that educators face while transforming the academic environment into “online classroom”. The authors applied a cabinet study approach to the analysis of theoretical database, the method of comparison and generalization of the obtained data. As a result , the article presents theoretical background of the ICT potential and their use in the educational process of modern universities.
... Such global informatization [27,[28][29][30][31] leads to a change in the thinking of the younger generation. The constant change of information requires its rapid assimilation, so the so-termed "clip (fragmentary) thinking" is formed among young people. ...
... This is facilitated by presentation of information itself [8] around us. Information on the Internet [28][29][30][31] is represented by short text messages, basically all information is visualized by pictures, infographics, slide shows, flash animations. Visualization of information using images and videos speeds up its processing. ...
... Lowman (2004), destaca que quando bem realizada, a preleção pode tornar-se um dos melhores métodos de expor o conteúdo. Porém, com as TICS, o processo educacional tem sofrido alterações, como, por exemplo, a transição do processo de ensino e aprendizagem focado no professor para um processo educacional focado no estudante (ASSAR, 2015). Além de ofertar oportunidades de aprendizagem on demand e contribuir com a redução dos custos do processo de ensino e aprendizagem, as TICS facilitam ainda, as atividades administrativas realizadas por professores, funcionários e a equipe de gestão (ASSAR, 2015;GHAVIFEKR et. ...
... Porém, com as TICS, o processo educacional tem sofrido alterações, como, por exemplo, a transição do processo de ensino e aprendizagem focado no professor para um processo educacional focado no estudante (ASSAR, 2015). Além de ofertar oportunidades de aprendizagem on demand e contribuir com a redução dos custos do processo de ensino e aprendizagem, as TICS facilitam ainda, as atividades administrativas realizadas por professores, funcionários e a equipe de gestão (ASSAR, 2015;GHAVIFEKR et. al., 2013). ...
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A integração das TICS surge como uma forma de reestruturar o sistema educacional. Por meio da adoção das TICS, professores podem utilizar metodologias de ensino mais modernas e eficientes, que estimulam os estudantes a realizarem um papel ativo nas atividades de ensino e aprendizagem. Em relação a gestão das TICS no contexto escolar, esse artigo tem como objetivo analisar quais os fatores que influenciam o uso de TICS nas escolas brasileiras por meio de três perspectivas diferentes: infraestrutura da escola, profissionais da educação e estudantes. Por meio do teste de hipóteses não-paramétrico de Mann-Whitney e da correlação não-paramétrica Tau de Kendall, verificou-se que há diferença entre a percepção de diretores e professores quanto aos fatores que limitam e/ou desmotivam o uso das TICS. Em relação aos alunos, percebe-se que o acesso às TICS e a internet compreendem os mais fatores mais relevantes. Quanto as escolas, destacam-se negativamente a quantidade insuficiente de hardware, baixa velocidade de conexão à internet e ausência de suporte técnico. Palavras chaves: gestão tecnológica, tecnologias da informação e comunicação, TICS.
... There is also the purpose of communication, namely the process of information about policies from the top level to the implementing officials at the lower level (Assar, 2015;de Vries et al., 2010;Yu & Ko, 2017). This process is very important and supports the implementation of the duties of the Civil Service Police Unit and the Fire Department, especially in the enforcement of regional regulations. ...
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Local regulation concerning the Implementation of Public Peace and Order and Community Protection aims to realize the order of life in society, nation and state which ensures that every person or entity can carry out their rights and obligations in a harmonious and balanced manner. The location of the research was carried out at the Civil Service Police Unit and the Sinjai Regency Fire Department. This study aims to determine the implementation of local regulation enforcement (PERDA) in the implementation of public peace and order and community protection in Sinjai Regency. The approach used in this research is qualitative. Data collection techniques used are observation, interviews, and documentation. The data analysis techniques are data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions or verification. The results of this study indicate that the implementation of Regional Regulation Enforcement (PERDA) in the administration of peace and public order as well as the protection of the community in Sinjai Regency with a focus on communication research, bureaucratic structure, resources, and disposition goes well and effectively.
... Our hypothesis h1 was confirmed: students who expressed dissatisfaction with technology had lower satisfaction ratings. This result was not surprising: Teachers and students must develop ICT knowledge and skills for effective use of online teaching and positively impact the development of their students' digital skills and, therefore, engagement (Assar, 2015;Salehi, Shojaee, & Sattar, 2015). Palmer and Holt (2009) indicated that comfort with technology is important for DL course satisfaction. ...
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Online education has become mandatory in all countries since the Covid-19 pandemic. In order to provide practical inspiration for schools to improve online learning and teaching efficacy, and satisfaction, we explored the distance learning experience of 427 upper secondary school students in Italy. Rather than focusing on the relevance of digital tools and abilities, as most e-learning studies do, we focused on the function and influence of the teacher-student relationship and how online learning affects that connection. The study’s findings revealed that even if the technology was the central focus of upgrading the educational system, the satisfaction for the Distal Learning education is heavily based on teachers’ ability to maintain a high-quality relationship. Indeed, the quality of the relationship is a far better predictor of student satisfaction, with online education satisfaction having substantially higher coefficients than technology satisfaction, even controlling for both teachers’ and students’ technological knowledge. We also found a significant moderating effect in the interaction between quality of the relationship and technology satisfaction, implying that when students are satisfied with the technology used in online education, a high-quality relationship with teachers can boost satisfaction.
... The research paper comprises of secondary data from varied online sources like ejournals, websites, PDF reports and e-books. Assar (2015) states that the creation and delivery of education has been changing intensely as Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are slowly pervading daily life. The conventional methods of instruction will be replaced by technologybased teaching and learning methods by the teaching fraternity by integration of Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT), which is a global need (Ghavifekr and Rosdy, 2015). ...
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... When teachers have more experience of usage of Educational Technological Equipment (ETE), they can pay more attention on teaching and interaction with students. The teachers' ETE skills improve with teacher ICT training, availability of educational software, supportive collaboration among teachers, recognized self-efficacy, and influenced the teaching processes in classroom with use of technology [33,34]. ...
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This article presents a study on in-service professional development of Lithuanian secondary school language teachers. The motivation is based on the understanding of language education as a highly interactive, complex process that requires a teacher’s digital literacy skills combined with integrated instructional approaches. This requires the implementation of a set of professional development activities. As a research methodology, we use a mixed method approach based on collecting eye tracking data in the first phase and, then, focus on comparative teacher self-reflection using data analysis and qualitative interviews. Finally, based on the collected qualitative and quantitative data, educational experts develop and present recommendations on the scope and direction of professional development. As a result of this study, a comprehensive set of the eye tracking data from the experiment involving 93 participants in total and 23 recorded lessons is presented. This includes variables such as number of visits, time to first fixation, number of fixations, and fixation duration vertically and horizontally. The discussion presents the results of the qualitative part of the study, including comprehensive teachers’ feedback. In conclusion, an integrated training program for in‑service language teachers is presented, including an eye tracking experiment that provides data for extensive self-reflection and feedback.
... Currently, teachers and students must have ICT knowledge and skills in implementing online learning. That is the foundation of modern society in the technological era [3]. For teachers, having ICT knowledge and skills can certainly improve their pedagogical and professional competencies and also have a positive impact on students. ...
... Currently, teachers and students must have ICT knowledge and skills in implementing online learning. That is the foundation of modern society in the technological era [3]. For teachers, having ICT knowledge and skills can certainly improve their pedagogical and professional competencies and also have a positive impact on students. ...
... The use of computers, laptops, mobile phones, the internet, social media, and digital games also highly expands in all aspects of humans' life including the educational field. From a huge number of educational technologies, Assar (2015) categories those types into three big groups: 1) Standalone digital components are often called e-learning material, digital learning material, or digital learning objects. Video YouTube, pictures, and interactive assessment (online quizzes) belong to this category. ...
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Sejak pandemi COVID-19 menyebar hampir ke seluruh wilayah Indonesia, proses belajar mengajar berubah dari tatap muka menjadi pembelajaran jarak jauh dengan teknologi dalam bentuk pembelajaran online dan E-learning. Karena sebagian besar sekolah di Indonesia berbasis tradisional, meski sebenarnya sudah banyak yang melaksanakan blended learning, namun mereka masih menghadapi banyak kendala dalam menerapkan pembelajaran jarak jauh menggunakan teknologi. Perbedaan jenis dan tingkat tantangan dalam pendidikan jarak jauh yang dialami sekolah dipengaruhi oleh perbedaan kesiapan yang dimiliki mereka . Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kesiapan SMA N 1 Bawang dalam menyelenggarakan pendidikan jarak jauh dengan teknologi. Kesiapan diukur dengan menilai kesiapan siswa, guru dan institusi. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif yang melibatkan 220 (dua ratus dua puluh) siswa, 4 (empat) guru Bahasa Inggris, dan seorang Kepala Sekolah SMA N 1 Bandar. Kuesioner online digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data. Hasil keseluruhan menunjukkan skor kesiapan siswa 3,44 dan skor kesiapan guru 3,84. Keduanya menujukan bahwa mereka siap menerapkan pendidikan jarak jauh dengan teknologi. Skor kesiapan institusi adalah 3,21 yang menunjukkan bahwa institusi belum siap dan perlu perbaikan untuk penerapan pembelajaran jarak jauh dengan teknologi. Karena kesiapan adalah faktor krusial yang berperan penting dalam keberhasilan pembelajaran jarak jauh dengan teknologi, maka diperlukan penilaian kesiapan di setiap elemen di sekolah. Diharapkan sekolah dapat memanfaatkan hasil penelitian ini untuk meningkatkan kesiapan mereka dalam menempuh pendidikan jarak jauh selama pandemi COVID-19.
... Information and Communication Technologies are gradually changing the way knowledge is conceived and delivered (Assar, 2015). However, teachers have been expected to master and utilize optimally (Shaban & Egbert, 2018). ...
... L as cambiantes circunstancias sociales referidas a los avances tecnológicos (Assar, 2015), expectativas de los estudiantes quienes buscan progresar rápidamente en sus ámbitos laborales y sociales (Behtoui et al., 2018) y, especialmente las demandas referidas a mayor participación de grupos históricamente no representados en la educación superior (grupos étnicos, paridad de género, grupos de perfiles socioeconómicos más bajos, entre otros) (Morgan, 2013), tensionan y generan nuevos desafíos relacionados a la pertinencia de la enseñanza y aprendizaje. Estos cambios que también se reflejan en los ámbitos laborales, y en la mayoría de las esferas sociales de la vida cotidiana, han generado la necesidad de buscar alternativas educativas de formación holística, que permitan que los profesionales puedan dar solución a nuevas problemáticas y desafíos tanto locales como globales (Hargreaves, 2003;Prieto, 2004). ...
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p class="p1">Este estudio tiene por objetivo analizar la incidencia de la indagación guiada -implementada en los laboratorios de un curso de Química General- para estudiantes de ingeniería - en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral, incluyendo la variable de gratuidad (perfil socioeconómico). Para alcanzar este propósito, se consideraron los puntajes de una rúbrica orientada a la evaluación de la competencia comunicativa y se analizó su progresión a lo largo del curso. Se observa que los estudiantes obtienen mejores puntajes en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral a medida que avanza el curso. Sin embargo, los estudiantes con gratuidad son los que evidencian mayores progresos, llegando a superar a sus pares en el último laboratorio. La indagación guiada tiene una incidencia positiva en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa oral, aunque es necesario revisar el diseño del curso para asegurar que todos los estudiantes la desarrollen adecuadamente, independiente de sus condiciones de entrada.</p
... Untuk menjadi guru profesional sangat dipengaruhi oleh tingkat keahlian dan pendidikan yang ditempuhnya (Rakib, Rombe, & Yunus, 2016). Dalam suatu kegiatan pembelajaran, penggunaan media pembelajaran dalam menyampaikan materi sangat penting agar lebih mengefektifkan dan mengefisienkan suatu kegiatan pembelajaran (Askhamov, Konysheva, & Gapsalamov, 2016;Kommers, 2012) Di zaman ini, pendidik dan peserta didik dituntut agar mampu menguasai pengetahuan dan teknologi komunikasi terkini secara terus menerus (Assar, 2015;Collins & Halverson, 2010;U.S. Department of Education, 2010) Pendidik perlu terus mengikuti perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi agar dapat menyampaikan materi pembelajaran yang terbaru dan berguna untuk peserta didik nanti untuk menjawab tantangan di masa yang akan datang, karena pada dasarnya Teknologi informasi dan komunikasi memudahkan (Bullock & De Jong, 2013;Chan, 2010;Mishra & Koehler, 2006; U.S. Department of Education, 2010) Dengan demikian, pengembangan kurikulum yang berbasis teknologi sebagai sebuah produk dari pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi informasi serta komunikasi dalam sistem pendidikan nasional sudah tidak dapat untuk dipisahkan lagi. ...
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In a learning activity, the use of learning media in delivering material is very important in order to make it more effective and efficient for learning activities. This study aims to determine the use of instructional media in class X digital simulation subjects in office administration skills competency at SMK Negeri 4 Pangkep. Therefore, to achieve these objectives researchers used data collection techniques with observation, questionnaires, and documentation with a population and sample of 45 people. As well as the data processed using quantitative analysis to determine the extent to which the use of learning media in the digital simulation subjects. The results of this study indicate that the use of learning media in digital simulation subjects at SMK Negeri 4 Pangkep can be classified as good. This can be seen from the use of print media which are classified as good, the use of media reality which is classified as good and the use of electronic media which are classified as good.
... Changes also occur in the learning process because they do not have to go through face-to-face [20]. In traditional learning the learning process is conveyed only by face to face, but with advances in technology, the learning process does not have to bring lecturers and students together, but can also use digital applications. ...
... The term digital government, previously known as e-government, refers to the use of ICT to promote innovative, efficient and cost-effective government, and to facilitate access to government information and services. It comprises the utilization of ICTs in public sector administration which can lead to improvement in public services and processes [5]. E-governance is a wider term that covers a state's institutional arrangements, decision-making processes, and the interrelationships between government and the public [6]. ...
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Blockchain technology is considered as one of the fourth industrial revolution technologies that is transforming governments. This study systematically reviews literature on research into blockchain technologies for government with the aim to map opportunities, challenges and gaps. The main findings show that research has ignored the commercial value of blockchain for digital government with the emphasis on sharing, trust and security, as well as the ability to enhance government infrastructure and services. There is an opportunity to investigate further how blockchain could be gradually re-inventing the traditional notion of government with its transactional intermediaries that are necessary for the classification of G2G, G2C or G2B. The methodological emphasis has been on the design research method, which unsurprisingly relates to the emerging nature of blockchain technology. There is a clear opportunity to begin more reflective research on emergent patterns. Limited research has been conducted in developing countries despite the leapfrogging and governance opportunities that blockchain technology presents.
... Es por ello que nos enfrentamos ante una nueva generación marcada por los avances tecnológicos que influye a una configuración de un mundo globalizado en el que tanto las instituciones educativas como el sector empresarial de todos los sectores van cambiando las formas y maneras en su operatividad para el funcionamiento de las mismas (Assar, 2015), con la finalidad de lograr mantenerse en el mercado en el que se desenvuelve la firma empresarial u organizacional (De la Garza, Zavala y López-Lemus, 2016). En este sentido, las organizaciones se han enfrentado cambios generados a partir del surgimiento una globalización marcada a partir del surgimiento de la tecnología (Hirsch, Rodríguez y Manríquez, 2015). ...
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While the technology acceptance model (TAM), introduced in 1986, continues to be the most widely applied theoretical model in the IS field, few previous efforts examined its accomplishments and limitations. This study traces TAM's history, investigates its findings, and cautiously predicts its future trajectory. One hundred and one articles published by leading IS journals and conferences in the past eighteen years are examined and summarized. An open- ended survey of thirty-two leading IS researchers assisted in critically examining TAM and specifying future directions.
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Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become commonplace entities in all aspects of life. Across the past twenty years the use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business and governance. Within education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as extensive as in other fields. Education is a very socially oriented activity and quality education has traditionally been associated with strong teachers having high degrees of personal contact with learners. The use of ICT in education lends itself to more student-centred learning settings and often this creates some tensions for some teachers and students. But with the world moving rapidly into digital media and information, the role of ICT in education is becoming more and more important and this importance will continue to grow and develop in the 21 st century. This paper highlights the various impacts of ICT on contemporary higher education and explores potential future developments. The paper argues the role of ICT in transforming teaching and learning and seeks to explore how this will impact on the way programs will be offered and delivered in the universities and colleges of the future.
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In powerful learning environments, rich contexts and authentic tasks are presented to pupils. Active, autonomous and co-operative learning is stimulated, and the curriculum is adapted to the needs and capabilities of individual pupils. In this study, the characteristics of learning environments and the contribution of ICT to learning environments were investigated. A questionnaire was completed by 331 teachers in the highest grade of primary education. Results show that many teachers apply several elements of powerful learning environments in their classes. This especially goes for the presentation of authentic tasks and the fostering of active and autonomous learning. However, the methods employed by teachers to adapt education to the needs and abilities of individual pupils proved quite limited. The use of ICT in general merely showed characteristics of traditional approaches to learning. Chances of using open-ended ICT applications, which are expected to contribute to the power of learning environments, were greater with teachers who created powerful learning environments for their pupils, and when there were more computers available to pupils. In addition, teachers' views with regard to the contribution of ICT to active and autonomous learning, teachers' skills in using ICT, and the teacher's gender appeared to be relevant background variables in this respect.
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The move to increasingly flexible platforms for student learning and experience through provision of online lecture recordings is often interpreted by educators as students viewing attendance at lectures as optional. The trend toward the use of this technology is often met with resistance from some academic staff who argue that student attendance will decline. This study aimed to explore students' use of online lectures and to measure the impact of them on student attendance at lectures. A pre and post evaluation methodology was undertaken using a self administered questionnaire that gathered both quantitative and qualitative data. Overall attendance was recorded at each lecture throughout the semester. Results indicated that attendance remained high throughout the semester and while only a minority of students used the recordings, those who did found them to be helpful. Most students used them to either supplement their learning or to make up for a lecture that they had not been able to attend. This study provides evidence that contrary to popular belief, Generation Y students in general, do not aspire to replace lectures with downloadable, online versions. Many of the students in this study valued the opportunity for interactive learning provided by face to face teaching. Finally, a model that outlines the attributes that contribute to quality teaching is used to describe how this technology can contribute to positive student experiences and can enhance reflective teaching practice.
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There is a trend in Irish universities to utilise the benefits of the e-learning as a mechanism to improve learning performance of campus-based students. Whilst traditional methods, such as face-to-face lectures, tutorials, and mentoring, remain dominant in the educational sector, universities are investing heavily in learning technologies, to facilitate improvements with respect to the quality of learning. The technology to support reuse and sharing of educational resources, or learning objects, is becoming more stable, with interoperability standards maturing. However, debate has raged about what constitutes effective use of learning technology. This research expands upon a study carried out in 2003 examining students’ perceptions of e-learning in a large undergraduate accounting class environment. As a result, improvements were made to the instructional design of the course, to enable students to engage interactively with content. The subsequent study, reported in this paper, adopted a broad range of techniques to understand students’ learning experience in depth. The findings of this research provide an insight into how these students really work and learn using technologies, if at all. It is hoped that our findings will improve the experience for both students and lecturers who engage in teaching and learning through this medium.
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Lee S. Shulman builds his foundation for teaching reform on an idea of teaching that emphasizes comprehension and reasoning, transformation and reflection. "This emphasis is justified," he writes, "by the resoluteness with which research and policy have so blatantly ignored those aspects of teaching in the past." To articulate and justify this conception, Shulman responds to four questions: What are the sources of the knowledge base for teaching? In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? What are the processes of pedagogical reasoning and action? and What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? The answers — informed by philosophy, psychology, and a growing body of casework based on young and experienced practitioners — go far beyond current reform assumptions and initiatives. The outcome for educational practitioners, scholars, and policymakers is a major redirection in how teaching is to be understood and teachers are to be trained and evaluated. This article was selected for the November 1986 special issue on "Teachers, Teaching, and Teacher Education," but appears here because of the exigencies of publishing.
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This paper has two broad aims: first, to provide a brief introduction to the InterActive Education Project from which the papers in this special edition derive; and second, to draw out some of the overarching themes and threads that have emerged from the set of articles presented. The evidence suggests that a number of tensions surface when subject teachers engage with information communication technology (ICT) in their classrooms, for instance, the tension between teaching about and teaching through ICT; the tension between information accretion and information discernment; and the tension between subject and technological culture. The findings also suggest that the use of ICT by subject teachers is being embraced but not imposed. This is in part due to the collaborative nature of the InterActive Project but it is also due to a genuine desire by the participants to concentrate on the creation of rich ICT environments in which their students can engage their minds with the resources of their disciplines. The paper ends with some suggestions for taking the ICT and learning venture forward within the current curriculum context.
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This article is concerned with theoretical issues of pedagogy and how they relate to the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in teaching. The article reviews the context of recent developments in ICT pedagogy. It also draws upon thinking about pedagogy which derives from learning theories. These provide a theoretical framework for research by the authors into the Smart Schoolinitiative in Malaysian schools. This initiative is attempting to change the pedagogy of Malaysian schools in a radical way. This involves the use of ICT alongside other innovations and a refocusing of the learning agenda for school-aged pupils. Some early impressions of the initiative are presented
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There is a growing body of evidence which suggests that information and ccommunications technology (ICT) can support, enhance and extend learning potential. Yet this all presupposes that students are confident and competent users of technology based on assumptions that presume they are conversant with basic applications. This article seeks to explore the tensions of teaching ICT skills in ways that enable students to perceive the benefits and potential of using computers to support their work. It also considers how much direct instruction is needed in order for sufficient competence to be acquired which will subsequently enable students to learn to use other features of the application to maximise these benefits. ICT as a cognitive tool is described and the development and design of ICT resources and lessons are also considered.
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E-learning environments increasingly serve as important infrastructural features of universities that enable teachers to provide students with different representations of knowledge and to enhance interaction between teachers and students and amongst students themselves. This study was designed to identify factors that can explain teachers’ use of e-learning environments in higher education. A questionnaire was completed by 178 teachers from a wide variety of departments at Wageningen University in the Netherlands. We found that 43% of the total variance in teacher use of e-learning environments could be explained by their opinions about web-based activities and their opinions about computer-assisted learning (predictors) and the perceived added value of e-learning environments (mediating variable). In other words, teachers’ use of e-learning environments can be explained to a high extent by their perceptions of the added value of these environments, which in turn are substantially influenced by their opinions about web-based activities and computer-assisted learning.
This article reports on the literature associated with practising teachers' uptake of information and communications technology (ICT). Studies reveal a number of factors which influence teachers' decisions to use ICT in the classroom: access to resources, quality of software and hardware, ease of use, incentives to change, support and collegiality in their school, school and national polices, commitment to professional learning and background in formal computer training. The review highlights the role of pedagogy and suggests that teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning with ICT are central to integration. It is suggested that successful implementation of ICT needs to address three interlocking frameworks for change: the teacher, the school and policy makers.
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With the development of the Internet in the era of knowledge-driven economy, e-learning is experiencing rapid growth. The online learning course websites are drawing more attention as well. This research combines the innovation diffusion theory and the technology acceptance model, and adds two research variables, perceived system quality and computer self-efficacy to propose a new hybrid technology acceptance model to study students' behavioural intentions to use the online learning course websites. This research finds that compatibility, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived system quality and computer self-efficacy were critical factors for students' behavioural intentions to use the online learning course websites. By explaining students' behavioural intentions from a user's perspective, the findings of this research help to develop more user-friendly websites and also provide insight into the best way to promote new e-learning tools for students.
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Podcasting has become a popular medium for accessing and assimilating information and podcasts are increas-ingly being used to deliver audio recordings of lectures to campus-based students. This paper describes a simple, cost-effective and file size-efficient method for producing video podcasts combining lecture slides and audio without a requirement for any specialist software. The results from a pilot scheme delivering supplementary lec-ture materials as audio and video podcasts are also presented, including data on download patterns and respons-es to a survey of students on podcast use. These results reveal students' enthusiasm for podcast recordings of lecture materials and their primary use by students in revision and preparation for assessments. Survey responses also suggest little likely impact on lecture attendance as a consequence of podcasting, but indicate that podcast recordings of lectures may not be effective in facilitating mobile learning.
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This article uses meta-analysis to summarize the quantitative literature comparing the performance of students in distance education versus traditional classes. The average effect (average r= .048, k= 39, N= 71,731) demonstrates that distance education course students slightly outperformed traditional students on exams and course grades. The average effect was heterogeneous, and the examination of several moderating features (presence or absence of simultaneous interaction, type of channel used in distance education, and course substance) failed to produce a homogeneous solution. The results demonstrate, however, no clear decline in educational effectiveness when using distance education technology.
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The web-based e-learning system (WELS) has emerged as a new means of skill training and knowledge acquisition, encouraging both academia and industry to invest resources in the adoption of this system. Traditionally, most pre- and post-adoption tasks related to evaluation are carried out from the viewpoints of technology. Since users have been widely recognized as being a key group of stakeholders in influencing the adoption of information systems, their attitudes toward this system are pivotal. Therefore, based on the theory of multi-criteria decision making and the research products of user satisfaction from the fields of human–computer interaction and information systems, this study proposed a multi-criteria methodology from the perspective of learner satisfaction to support those evaluation-based activities taking place at the pre- and post-adoption phases of the WELS life cycle. In addition, by following this methodology, this study empirically investigated learners’ perceptions of the relative importance of decision criteria. This investigation carried out a survey of college students, and the data thus obtained was then analyzed by analytic hierarchy process in order to derive an integrated preference structure of learners as a ground for evaluation. We found that learners regarded the learner interface as being the most important dimension of decision criteria. Future applications of these results are recommended and the implications are discussed.
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Within only a few years, the use of e-learning has increased rapidly in Austria. In certain subjects, up to 60% of university students report using e-learning platforms at least ‘sometimes’ or ‘frequently’ (Unger & Wroblewski, 2006). Yet, which aspects of e-learning do students consider important for their learning achievements and course satisfaction? This question was addressed by surveying 2196 students from 29 universities in Austria about their expectations of, and experiences in e-learning. Multiple regression analyses using Mplus 4.21 were carried out to investigate how different facets of students’ expectations and experiences are related to perceived learning achievements and course satisfaction.With regard to their expectations, i.e., aspects of a course they consider important, students’ achievement goals were the best predictors for success and ranked higher than other course characteristics. With regard to their experiences, students’ assessments of the instructor’s expertise in e-learning, and her/his counseling and support were the best predictors for learning achievement and course satisfaction. Furthermore, self-regulated and collaborative learning were related to learning achievements. The results of the study suggest to influence students’ motivation and goals by adapting instruction accordingly and emphasize the importance of continuing education and training for the instructors.
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Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems aim to increase the functionality of hypermedia by making it personalised to individual learners. The adaptive dimension of these systems mainly supports knowledge communication between the system and the learner by adapting the content or the appearance of hypermedia to the knowledge level, goals and other characteristics of each learner. The main objectives are to protect learners from cognitive overload and disorientation by supporting them to find the most relevant content and path in the hyperspace. In the approach presented in this paper, learners' knowledge level and individual traits are used as valuable information to represent learners' current state and personalise the educational system accordingly, in order to facilitate learners to achieve their personal learning goals and objectives. Learners' knowledge level is approached through a qualitative model of the level of performance that learners exhibit with respect to the concepts they study and is used to adapt the lesson contents and the navigation support. Learners' individual traits and especially their learning style represent the way learners perceive and process information, and are exploited to adapt the presentation of the educational material of a lesson. The proposed approach has been implemented through various adaptation technologies and incorporated into a prototype hypermedia system. Finally, a pilot study has been conducted to investigate system's educational effectiveness.
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The main focus of this article is on the perceptions of educational practitioners (at the lower secondary level) regarding obstacles that seriously impede the realization of ICT-related goals of schools. The results are from a worldwide survey among national representative samples of schools from 26 countries. The article contains a short summary of the design of this project, a review of main indicators regarding ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) in elementary and lower secondary schools, main obstacles and an exploration of the co-variation between obstacles and contextual factors at the country-level.
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The term Learning Object, first popularized by Wayne Hodgins in 1994 when he named the CedMA working group "Learning Architectures, APIs and Learning Objects", has become the Holy Grail of content creation and aggregation in the computer-mediated learning field. The terms Learning Objects (LOs) and Reusable Learning Objects are frequently employed in uncritical ways, thereby reducing them to mere slogans. The serious lack of conceptual clarity and reflection is evident in the multitude of definitions and uses of LOs. The objectives of this paper are to assess current definitions of the term Learning Object, to articulate the foundational principles for developing a concept of LOs, and to provide a methodology and broad set of guidelines for creating LOs.
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Undergraduate students access the Internet for a range of purposes, many unrelated to their studies. Increasingly, learners are using the Internet to find information and resources for coursework, whether or not this is promoted or endorsed by their teachers. This article reports an interview study that investigated why and how independent learners use Web-based resources, exploring not only the academic context of the courses studied, but also any relevant personal, domestic and employment-related circumstances. Factors were identified which enhanced or competed with study activities, acting as incentives or disincentives for learners. The findings suggest that it is not technologies per se, but a combination of various contextual factors that determine students’ use of Web resources for learning. Of the academic factors that emerged from the interviews, assessment requirements and pedagogic approach were particularly important.
Educational Television in India: Challenges and Issues
  • N U Rani
Rani, N.U., 2006. Educational Television in India: Challenges and Issues. Discovery Publishing House, New Delhi, India.
Mathematics Learning Activity Types. School of Education, College of William and Mary. Learning Activity Types Wiki
  • N Grandgenett
  • J Harris
  • M Hofer
Grandgenett, N., Harris, J., Hofer, M., 2011. Mathematics Learning Activity Types. School of Education, College of William and Mary. Learning Activity Types Wiki. Retrieved from: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/Mathematics.