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The Cathedral and Bazaar

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The Cathedral and Bazaar

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Abstract

I anatomize a successful open-source project, fetchmail, that was run as a deliberate test of some surprising theories about software engineering suggested by the history of Linux. I discuss these theories in terms of two fundamentally different development styles, the "cathedral" model of most of the commercial world versus the "bazaar" model of the Linux world. I show that these models derive from opposing assumptions about the nature of the software-debugging task. I then make a sustained argument from the Linux experience for the proposition that "Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow", suggest productive analogies with other self-correcting systems of selfish agents, and conclude with some exploration of the implications of this insight for the future of software.

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... the fact that source code in large-scale open source projects is subject to the examination of hundreds of people, all presumably on the lookout for technical  aws (Raymond 2000b). Table 2.1 highlights the key differences between the free software and open source doctrines, based on literature that is representative of each side (Raymond 2000aand 2000b, O'Reilly 2001, Stallman 2007a. ...
... That does not mean -borrowing terms from software development (Raymond 2000a) -leaving the bazaar entirely to take refuge inside the cathedral. Two different issues are at stake here. ...
... In other words, the majority of OSS projects started with the characteristic of a cathedral development style [12]. In contrary to what is stated in the "Bazaar" model [48] which is an OSS model connoted as chaotic but effective, large OSS projects have a systematic organization sense and care about process. For example, before the development of Apache Server project started the main developers tried to solve process issues first. ...
... These activities have been performed distributed and asynchronously by millions of developers in several OSS projects [11,12]. According to [21] peer review is a huge advantage from community involvement in OSS projects because they have "many eyeballs" (Eric Raymond's "Linus Law" [48]) looking for problems, resulting in bugs found and fixed rapidly. ...
Preprint
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Open Source Software (OSS) has been recognized by the software development community as an effective way to deliver software. Unlike traditional software development, OSS development is driven by collaboration among developers spread geographically and motivated by common goals and interests. Besides this fact, it is recognized by OSS community the need of understand OSS development process and its activities. Our goal is to investigate the state-of-art about OSS process through conducting a systematic literature review providing an overview of how the OSS community has been investigating OSS process over past years identifying and summarizing OSS process activities and their characteristics as well as translating OSS process in a macro process through BPMN notation. As a result, we systematically analysed 33 studies presenting an overview of the state-of-art of researches regarding OSS process, a generalized OSS development macro process represented by BPMN notation with a detailed description of each OSS process activity and roles in OSS environment. We conclude that OSS process can be in practice further investigated by researchers. In addition, the presented OSS process can be used as a guide for OSS projects and being adapted according to each OSS project reality. It provides insights to managers and developers who want to improve their development process even in OSS and traditional environments. Finally, recommendations for OSS community regarding OSS process activities are provided.
... The only contractual link is established by the open license, which acts as a barrier against opportunistic behaviours (Dalle & Jullien, 2003), beside other tactics aimed at preventing proprietary appropriation, such as foundations, legal and normative sanctions, trademark on logo, etc. (O'Mahony, 2003). Finally, voluntary participation is, in principle, not based on any structured organizational system, such as, e.g., decentralization, openness, absence of specifi cations, deadline constraints, or specifi c coordination (Holtgrewe & Werle, 2001), but on a series of shared action principles: meritocracy based on competences alone, participative leadership, freedom of involvement, etc. (Moon & Sproull, 2002;Raymond, 1999;Hertel et al., 2003). The ability to achieve solid and coherent results from spontaneous, sudden and evanescent involvement is viewed as an enigma by sociologists and economists. ...
Article
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The ability to build solid and coherent software from spontaneous, sudden and evanescent involvement is viewed as an enigma by sociologists and economists. The internal heterogeneity of project contributors questions the functioning of collective action: how can commitments that are so dissimilar be put together? Our objective is to consider FLOSS communities as going concerns which necessitate a minimum of order and common, shared, social rules to function. Through an in-depth and diachronic analysis of the Spip project, we present two classical modes of social regulation: a control regulation centred on the product and an autonomous regulation reflecting the differentiated commitments. Our data shows that the meaning, value and legitimacy of contributors’ involvements are defined and rated more collectively, through exchanges, judgments, and evaluations. A third regulation mode, called distributed community regulation and aimed at creating and transforming shared rules that produces recognition and stratification, is then presented.
... Nach Roland Barthes besteht ein Text "aus einem vieldimensionalen Raum, in dem sich verschiedene Schreibweisen (écritures), von denen keine einzige Bacon 2012 Beschreibung der Projektarbeit an quelloffener Software erläutert hat. Raymond 2000 4 originell ist, vereinigen und bekämpfen." Dass heißt, Narrative greifen Versatzstücke und 8 Symboliken auf, die im kollektiven Gedächtnis vorhanden sind und formen sie um. ...
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The essay examines the impact of selected social discourses according to the methods of literary studies. Four narratives are examined as examples of their social and media-historical development with regard to the two dichotomous concepts of national community and globalisation: the stab in the back legend, Fortress Europe, the summer fairy tale 2006 and Silicon Valley. The focus is on how storytelling can be used to construct and change collective identity through community building.
... However, the most common political interpretations of FOSS tend to be libertarian rather than communist. Others have pointed to the political agnosticism of FOSS developers (Coleman 2004;Raymond 1999;Stallman 2002). ...
Book
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This book explores the potential creation of a broader collaborative economy through commons-based peer production (P2P) and the emergent role of information and communication technologies (ICTs). The book seeks to critically engage in the political discussion of commons-based peer production, which can be classified into three basic arguments: the liberal, the reformist and the anti-capitalist. This book categorises the liberal argument as being in favour of the coexistence of the commons with the market and the state. Reformists, on the other hand, advocate for the gradual adjustment of the state and of capitalism to the commons, while anti-capitalists situate the commons against capitalism and the state. By discussing these three viewpoints, the book contributes to contemporary debates concerning the future of commons-based peer production. Further, the author argues that for the commons to become a fully operational mode of peer production, it needs to reach critical mass arguing that the liberal argument underestimates the reformist insight that technology has the potential to decentralise production, thereby forcing capitalism to transition to post-capitalism. Surveying the three main strands of commons-based peer production, this book makes the case for a post-capitalist commons-orientated transition that moves beyond neoliberalism.
... The great success of open source software (OSS) is based on the theory that "many hands make light work" [57], [73]. For a popular community-based OSS project, a large number of volunteers continuously improve the project quality [52], [75] by submitting code patches, reporting bugs, and discussing new features. ...
Article
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The great success of numerous community-based open source software (OSS) is based on volunteers continuously submitting contributions, but ensuring sustainability is a persistent challenge in OSS communities. Although the motivations behind and barriers to OSS contributors' joining and retention have been extensively studied, the impacts of, reasons for and solutions to contribution abandonment at the individual level have not been well studied, especially for pull-based development. To bridge this gap, we present an empirical study on pull request abandonment based on a sizable dataset. We manually examine 321 abandoned pull requests on GitHub and then quantify the manual observations by surveying 710 OSS developers. We find that while the lack of integrators' responsiveness, the lack of contributors' time and interest remain the main reasons that deter contributors from participation, limitations during the processes of patch updating and consensus reaching can also cause abandonment. We also show the significant impacts of pull request abandonment on project management and maintenance. Moreover, we elucidate the strategies used by project integrators to cope with abandoned pull requests and highlight the need for a practical handover mechanism. We discuss the actionable suggestions and implications for OSS practitioners and tool builders, which can help to upgrade the infrastructure and optimize the mechanisms of OSS communities.
... "Forking" is the practice of splitting the software codebase into two or more branches which may proceed independently or merged together at a later date.Raymond (2001) © Carliss Y.Baldwin ...
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A technology is a specific way to achieve a material goal. It describes a feasible path—a recipe—by which a group of people can arrive at a goal that none could achieve individually. Technical recipes thus require linkages between and among the various contributors to the technical process. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the relationship between the steps in a given technical recipe and organizational linkages between and among people implementing the recipe. I begin by introducing two concepts: (1) technical dependencies which are properties of the technical architecture; and (2) organizational ties which are properties of the organizational architecture. The idea that organizational ties ought to correspond to technical dependencies is known as the mirroring hypothesis. This chapter defines the mirroring hypothesis and describes its origins. It then investigates the theory behind the hypothesis and identifies a set of “predictable exceptions” where the hypothesis does not hold. Finally it considers the evidence for and against mirroring in the economy at large.
... While the relationship between academic or semi-academic institutions and open source software has been favorable [29], with large open source projects such as the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) [39] originating from them, this has not always been the case for business. The relationship between business and open source software was often tense in the past, with GPL-licensed software described as "an intellectual property destroyer", un-American, and "a cancer" [34]. ...
Conference Paper
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We present a dataset of open source software developed mainly by enterprises rather than volunteers. This can be used to address known generalizability concerns, and, also, to perform research on open source business software development. Based on the premise that an enterprise's employees are likely to contribute to a project developed by their organization using the email account provided by it, we mine domain names associated with enterprises from open data sources as well as through white- and blacklisting, and use them through three heuristics to identify 17 264 enterprise GitHub projects. We provide these as a dataset detailing their provenance and properties. A manual evaluation of a dataset sample shows an identification accuracy of 89%. Through an exploratory data analysis we found that projects are staffed by a plurality of enterprise insiders, who appear to be pulling more than their weight, and that in a small percentage of relatively large projects development happens exclusively through enterprise insiders.
... Many of the public and permissionless blockchains (Bitcoin included) have publicly available source codes, free for everyone to fork and to set up their own blockchains. This is similar to FOSS projects such as Linux or Firefox, whose mode of governance has been labeled "bazaar" by Raymond (1999) and Demil and Lecocq (2006): this mode of governance is characterized by openness and fairness, and an open license contract of the object in question. Further, there are fairly limited ways to exercise control over actors (to use a particular version of software), and an actors' motivation to contribute with new code is rather low unless reputation is pivotal. ...
... Godine 1997. Eric S. Raymond u svojem je radu The Cathedral & the Bazaar [14] opisao dva načina razvoja slobodnoga softvera otvorenog izvornoga kôda: ...
Book
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Gotovo sve informacijske i komunikacijske potrebe korisnika računala mogu se zadovoljiti uz pomoć slobodnog softvera - od računalnih igara do poslovne primjene. Svijet slobodnog softvera u mnogo se čemu razlikuje od svijeta komercijalnog vlasničkog softvera, ali ne i u kvaliteti, pouzdanosti i mogućnostima primjene. Zbog svojih osobina, kao što su otpornost na zlonamjerni računalni softver, legalnost korištenja, pouzdanost, besplatnost, slobodno kopiranje i mijenjanje, pristup izvornom kôdu i drugo, slobodan softver naročito je pogodan za primjenu u obrazovanju i poslovanju te je s tim njegovim svojstva potrebno upoznati sve njegove potencijalne korisnike. Autori se nadaju da će ova knjiga proširiti temeljna informacijsko-komunikacijska znanja i horizonte svojih čitatelja i na ovom, za većinu uobičajenih korisnika računala (ne-informatičara), sasvim novom i relativno neistraženom području. Ona je namijenjena studentima Učiteljskog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Zagrebu kao literatura iz više informatičkih kolegija, studentima drugih fakulteta s nastavničkim i informatičkim smjerovima te nastavnicima informatike u osnovnom i srednjem obrazovanju. ENGLISH: Almost all information and communication needs of computer users can be met with the help of free software - from computer games to business applications. The world of free software differs in many ways from the world of commercial proprietary software, but not in quality, reliability, and application capabilities. Due to its features, such as resistance to malicious computer software, legality of use, reliability, free, free copying and modification, access to source code, etc., free software is particularly suitable for use in education and business, and its properties need to be known to all its potential users. The authors hope that this book will expand the information and communication knowledge of its readers in this, for most common computer users (non-computer scientists), a completely new and relatively unexplored area. This book is intended for the students of the Faculty of Teacher Education, University of Zagreb, as literature from several ICT courses, students of other teacher training faculties with ICT majors, and ICT teachers in primary and secondary education.
... Le programmeur E. Raymond compare les logiciels propriétaires aux cathédrales et les logiciels libres aux bazars. Selon lui, avec Linux, « à l'opposé de la construction de cathédrales, silencieuses et pleines de vénération, la communauté Linux ressemblait plutôt à un bazar » (Raymond, 1999). Au lieu de se disperser, la communauté de Linux avançait « à pas de géant, à une vitesse inimaginable pour les bâtisseurs de cathédrales ». ...
... The open source software development model (OSSD) has the distinct property of publicly available source code. Raymond observes that more people repeatedly looking at the source code and reviewing its changes results in higher quality code [14]. Additionally, a volunteer-based team motivated by different factors can multitask more efficiently, e.g., by independently working on different issues important to different parts of the community and designing, developing, testing, and debugging the software in parallel, thus enabling rapid progression in small increments. ...
Thesis
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Software developed under the open source development model (OSSD) has risen to significant importance over the recent decades. With more and more critical components being developed under the OSSD, the need for extensive quality assurance (QA) increases. This thesis investigates any potential for conducting formalized user testing through inexperienced volunteer community members under the OSSD. A human computation platform to aggregate such test results was designed and named open crowdsourced user-testing suite (OPEN-CUTS). A usability study of a prototype of OPEN-CUTS confirms the viability of this approach and points to potential future research questions.
... Another way to split the work would be to have the abstract content stored in Wikidata, as suggested, but to not have Wikilambda at all and instead have the code be a proper part of the Wikidata code base. That code base is then managed following the usual open source process [28,67]. ...
Preprint
Wikipedia's vision is a world in which everyone can share in the sum of all knowledge. In its first two decades, this vision has been very unevenly achieved. One of the largest hindrances is the sheer number of languages Wikipedia needs to cover in order to achieve that goal. We argue that we need a new approach to tackle this problem more effectively, a multilingual Wikipedia where content can be shared between language editions. This paper proposes an architecture for a system that fulfills this goal. It separates the goal in two parts: creating and maintaining content in an abstract notation within a project called Abstract Wikipedia, and creating an infrastructure called Wikilambda that can translate this notation to natural language. Both parts are fully owned and maintained by the community, as is the integration of the results in the existing Wikipedia editions. This architecture will make more encyclopedic content available to more people in their own language, and at the same time allow more people to contribute knowledge and reach more people with their contributions, no matter what their respective language backgrounds. Additionally, Wikilambda will unlock a new type of knowledge asset people can share in through the Wikimedia projects, functions, which will vastly expand what people can do with knowledge from Wikimedia, and provide a new venue to collaborate and to engage the creativity of contributors from all around the world. These two projects will considerably expand the capabilities of the Wikimedia platform to enable every single human being to freely share in the sum of all knowledge.
... In the 2006 book Infotopia, Sunstein discussed wikis and open source software (online collaborations that anyone can contribute to and edit) and prediction markets (where predictions about events are garnered from bets) as examples of market-like processes for aggregating specialist and technical knowledge. The idea is that if enough people have access to the source code (for software), editable page (for a wiki), or betting counter (for a prediction market), then their partial knowledge will combine to debug programs (software), correct errors of fact (wiki), or anticipate the future (prediction markets) (Raymond 2000). 8 The handling of these systems of information elicitation and aggregation do not typically require specialist knowledge of the issues under consideration. ...
Article
Full-text available
The agencies of the government of the United States of America, such as the Food and Drug Administration or the Environmental Protection Agency, intervene in American society through the collection, processing, and diffusion of information. The Presidency of Barack Obama was notable for updating and redesigning the US government’s information infrastructure. The White House enhanced mass consultation through open government and big data initiatives to evaluate policy effectiveness, and it launched new ways of communicating with the citizenry. In this essay we argue that these programs spelled out an emergent epistemology based on two assumptions: dispersed knowledge and a critique of judgment. These programs have redefined the evidence required to justify and design regulatory policy and conferred authority to a new kind of expert, which we call epistemic consultants.
... Roberts et al. [11] examine data from the Apache project to study several potential motivations for programmers include status and opportunity, use-value, intrinsic and extrinsic motives. Eric Raymond [10] has written an in ‡uential article detailing the di¤erences in the software development methodology between open source and proprietary software. Meng and Lee [8] examine competition between open source and proprietary software in a horizontal di¤erentiation model with network e¤ects where software quality is exogenously determined. ...
Article
The number and impact of open source projects is increasing. We examine the impact of competition from open source software (OSS) on proprietary software providers by analyzing three cases: (i) proprietary software as a monopoly, (ii) mixed duopoly competition between proprietary software provider and OSS, and (i) duopoly competition between two proprietary software providers. We use an analytical model to capture two important features of OSS: (i) its zero licensing price and (ii) its lower usability in comparison with proprietary software. Prior studies have shown that competition from OSS causes the proprietary software provider to produce software that is both lower quality and lower priced than software offered by a monopolist. In contrast, our paper shows that these results hold under certain conditions but are not always true. We find that competition from OSS can induce the proprietary software provider to increase its software quality and price relative to those of the monopolist when the proprietary software provider’s cost of enhancing software quality is moderate. Surprisingly, we also find that competition from OSS can lead to a reduction in social welfare. Whereas prior research has shown this result in the context of network effects, we show that this can occur in the absence of network effects and offer a novel explanation.
... ▪ Prototype phase ▪ Growth phase (early adopters) ▪ Maturation phase 444 Eric S. Raymond 2000 ▪ Renewal or decline phase During the prototype phase most end-users will be directly connected to the Dialogo project (e.g. Projeto Quipá, Cáritas Diocesana) and will mainly be testing and contributing directly or indirectly to its development. ...
Thesis
This dissertation aims to understand what makes an information technology appropriate for agroecological extension in the context of the Serra da Capivara Territory. Based on a conceptual overview, end-user development was identified as a key for an appropriate information technology. An ethnographic study on Projeto Quipá’s 2015 campaign identified that end-user development has great potential to solve several issues faced by agroecological extension organisations, professionals and rural communities. Portuguese language was identified as being the main communication and information medium in this agroecological extension context. Based on this ethnographic study a set of requirements were specified with Portuguese-based syntax and semantics being the most important requirement. While no existing solutions seem to adequately fulfil identified requirements an exploratory survey identified several features in existing solutions that can be incorporated into a new solution. Dialogo is a new computer language proposed to fulfil selected requirements. Dialogo is a Portuguese controlled language that can be used to describe people, plants, animals, things, situations, actions, decisions and more using a flexible entity-relationship based model. The current development approach is based on an open source project strategy. Potential implementation platform and language were identified for future implementations. Cognitive load and cognitive dimensions approaches were selected to evaluate the proposed specification and future implementations. Full text: https://repositorio.utad.pt/handle/10348/11136
Chapter
This chapter broadens the definition of distributed teams to include facets beyond geographic, cultural, and organizational boundaries. Through the example of a typical software development team and its version control process, it shows how varying the ability to share network resources adversely affects collaboration. This network connectedness dimension of variability is solved through progressive adoption of newer tools and techniques, which in turn have unexpected strategic benefits beyond solving the immediate need. From this example, a pattern is extracted that can be applied to any team by identifying a dimension of distributedness, implementing solutions, and capitalizing on those solutions.
Chapter
This chapter looks at implications of the emerging global intellectual property (IP) regime for developing countries (DCs) and their attempts to improve their technological capabilities. It further highlights the new perspectives for DCs opened up by the emergence of non-proprietary (open source/free) software, such as Linux. A case study of the battle between Microsoft and Linux in China is used to explore the dilemmas faced by China in determining what IP regime (strict or weak) to adopt, and the threats and opportunities that either may pose for indigenous technology development. Based on the case analysis, the chapter criticizes the simplistic polarized views that have been presented of the implications of the global IP regime and of the potential of non-proprietary software. It explores some of the complex considerations about the interplay between technology strategy and IP protection for China and discusses the policy implications for China and other DCs.
Preprint
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In Chapter 2 we saw that the most economical locations for transactions in a task network are the so-called thin crossing points-places where transfers are easy to define, count and pay for. However, in many places in the task network, transfers of material, energy, and information are so dense and complex that the costs of treating each one as a transaction would be prohibitive. Such areas can become transaction free zones. The purpose of this chapter is to build a theory of transaction free zones within a task network. I first consider how transaction free zones are related to the economic view that a firm is a "nexus of contracts." I then explain how transaction free zones are created and governed.
Chapter
Software management chapter considers security-related activities throughout the lifecycle of software development. Software applications exist in all applications around us. Vulnerabilities in those software applications can cause serious issues. Those vulnerabilities may come from software design, construction, testing, or usage.
Book
Employing a social justice framework, this book examines the effects of innovation incentives and policies in agriculture. It addresses access to the objects of innovation, the direction of science and the type of innovations that are available, opportunities to participate in research and development, as well as effects on future generations. The book examines the potential value of preventive and reconciliatory measures, drawing on concepts from procedural and restorative justice. As such it offers a comprehensive analysis of the main social justice dimensions affected by agricultural innovation. It gives academics and policy analysts an extensive overview of the deep impact of innovation on society and the environment, and the expectations the general public has from the scientific community.
Chapter
Selecting appropriate Open Source Software (OSS) for a given problem or a set of requirements can be very challenging. Some of the difficulties are due to the fact that there is not a generally accepted set of criteria to use in evaluation and that there are usually many OSS projects available to solve a particular problem. In this study, the authors propose a set of criteria and a methodology for assessing candidate OSS for fitness of purpose using both functional and non-functional factors. The authors then use these criteria in an improved solution to the decision problem using the well-developed Analytical Hierarchy Process. In order to validate the proposed model, it is applied at a technology management company in the United Arab Emirates, which integrates many OSS solutions into its Information Technology infrastructure. The contribution of this work is to help decision makers to better identify an appropriate OSS solution using a systematic approach without the need for intensive performance testing.
Chapter
Selecting appropriate Open Source Software (OSS) for a given problem or a set of requirements can be very challenging. Some of the difficulties are due to the fact that there is not a generally accepted set of criteria to use in evaluation and that there are usually many OSS projects available to solve a particular problem. In this study, the authors propose a set of criteria and a methodology for assessing candidate OSS for fitness of purpose using both functional and non-functional factors. The authors then use these criteria in an improved solution to the decision problem using the well-developed Analytical Hierarchy Process. In order to validate the proposed model, it is applied at a technology management company in the United Arab Emirates, which integrates many OSS solutions into its Information Technology infrastructure. The contribution of this work is to help decision makers to better identify an appropriate OSS solution using a systematic approach without the need for intensive performance testing.
Article
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Studies on Open Source Software (OSS) developer communities have long stated that there is a relationship between community structure and tasks carried out by project members. This relationship has been exemplified by the onion model, which has been instrumental in understanding self‐coordination in OSS projects. Despite its ubiquity, there is a lack of empirical evidence to validate the relative position of each task cluster within the onion model. In this study, we map out the community structure of a large open source project and observe its bug‐fixing patterns to explore the relationship between tasks and structure. Our study makes three significant contributions. First, we find no empirical evidence to support the structural location of bug‐fixing tasks in the onion structure. Second, we find empirical evidence to support the core‐periphery continuum model linking an actor’s coreness to problem‐solving ability. Third, our results suggest that the importance and location of each task within the core‐periphery structure evolve over time. These findings add clarity to the community structure and their implications for the management and coordination of collaborative innovation projects.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the different innovation types and streams that are not covered or insufficiently incentivized by intellectual property regimes. It starts by discussing the benefits of non-proprietary science systems, in relation to increased participation, good scientific practice, the common heritage of humankind, competitive markets and public trust in science. After that it discusses types of innovation that are insufficiently incentivized. It concludes by discussing two agricultural innovation streams that are currently in danger due to the enclosure, expansion and overpromotion of intellectual property rights: traditional ecological knowledge and open science.
Article
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El objetivo del artículo fue establecer los motivos y relaciones subyacentes para realizar las aportaciones hechas por los programadores, permite incrementarlas, lo cual es pieza fundamental en el desarrollo de software libre. El método se centra en describir y agrupar los tipos de motivaciones expresadas por los desarrolladores, a través de un análisis estadístico de conglomerados, asociado a la cantidad de contribuciones hechas y los motivos de diferente índole para hacerlas. Los resultados expresan que los desarrolladores de software muestran motivos asociados a la satisfacción personal, adquisición de conocimiento, así como aspectos altruistas para ayudar, sin considerar obtener retribuciones para colaborar. Los hallazgos mostraron que la cantidad de aportaciones hechas se incrementa de acuerdo con un interés personal en participar en los proyectos. La originalidad y principal limitación de este trabajo es que no existen estudios de este tipo en la comunidad de desarrolladores mexicana, así como tampoco existe literatura reciente al respecto, 406 desarrolladores respondieron.
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Worldwide, ecosystems are on the brink of collapsing, species loss is on the rise, and most environmental stressors can be attributed to human activities. We propose a novel paradigm of constructing an ecologically effective agent as a method of intervening in ecologically stressed environments. Designing biohybrid artefacts from living building blocks towards given functional objectives might enable us to bring ecosystems back to a stable region in their state space after they have already surpassed critical tipping points or are approaching them. Contingency measures against ecological collapse that require applying external forces to push the system back towards its original states are not sustainable solutions, as they would only alleviate the symptoms but not the cause. A more sustainable solution can be shifting the tipping points of the systems themselves, a process which requires a fundamental reconstructing of these stressed ecosystems. Such a contingency measure can be a strategic combination of smart technology and living agents applied to affect important ecosystem parameters. Researching such technologies and designs must start now on a global scale, in order to have still a chance of success. In conclusion, a biohybrid reconstructivist approach may stabilise decaying ecosystems that are crucial providers for society all over the world.
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This essay examines the possibilities of digital literacy in the public sphere of social media. Conditions and developments that determine social network interaction are subject of critical analysis. The focus is on community building, identity formation and political participation in the internet age.
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Der Beitrag setzt sich aus geschlechtertheoretischer Perspektive mit ambivalenten Folgen von Digitalisierungsprozessen auf Arbeits- und Produktionsformen auseinander. Im Zentrum stehen dabei Crowdwork und Commons-based Peer Production als zwei Formen, die je unterschiedliche Narrative der Partizipation in sich tragen. Im Verlauf der Analyse wird deutlich, dass der zugrunde liegende Partizipationsimperativ in einen paradoxalen Umschlag führt, der entgegen der Hoffnung nach mehr Autonomie, Selbstgestaltung und Flexibilität, verschiedene Formen von Prekarität nach sich zieht. Die darin enthaltene geschlechtliche Dimension wird herausgearbeitet und Erklärungen für die Paradoxie gegeben.
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