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Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome



The relationship between parents and their children can be regarded as the most important relationship an individual can experience. This paper, examines theoretical and empirical literature on parent-child relationships by analyzing recent accomplishments on this issue. It turns first to the question of which behaviors in children are associated with those of their parents? This paper also reviews researches on: factors that influence parent-child relationship from an integrative contextual-empirical perspective. It is indeed true that parents are usually the ones who spend the most time with young children over extended periods of time; therefore this paper seek answers to the question of whether parents really have influence(s)on their children, to what extent and the importance of these influences. The results of this paper showed that temperament, antisocial and externalizing behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) were the most reported behavioral characteristics between parents and their children.
Review of European Studies; Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
ISSN 1918-7173 E-ISSN 1918-7181
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome
Leonid M. Popov 1 & Ruth A. Ilesanmi1
1. Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Correspondence: Leonid M. Popov, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kremlyovskaya Street 18,
Kazan, 420008, Russia. E-mail:
Received: January 19, 2014 Accepted: February 22, 2015 Online Published: March 30, 2015
doi:10.5539/res.v7n5p253 URL:
The relationship between parents and their children can be regarded as the most important relationship an
individual can experience. This paper, examines theoretical and empirical literature on parent-child relationships
by analyzing recent accomplishments on this issue. It turns first to the question of which behaviors in children
are associated with those of their parents? This paper also reviews researches on: factors that influence
parent-child relationship from an integrative contextual-empirical perspective. It is indeed true that parents are
usually the ones who spend the most time with young children over extended periods of time; therefore this
paper seek answers to the question of whether parents really have influence(s)on their children, to what extent
and the importance of these influences. The results of this paper showed that temperament, antisocial and
externalizing behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) were the most reported behavioral characteristics between parents
and their children.
Keywords: parent-child relationship, attachment theory, parent-adult child relationship, parent and child
1. Introduction
Parent-child relationships constitute a very special type of relationship in which every human is personally
involved. According to Troll & Fingerman (1996), parent-child relationship is specific in nature and differs from
all other kinds of relationships (such as partners, family and friends) because of its degree of intimacy.
Researchers who have studied parent-child relationships focused on different aspects. Some characterized their
study based on how parent-child relationship influences children’s decision making and communication (Field et
al., 2007); Effects of parent-child relationship in the development of children’s emotional functioning and
regulation (Boutelle et al., 2009); With the advent of extensive research in genetics, some researchers further
explored the genetic nature of parents and how it influences the characteristics that children exhibit (Maccoby,
2000); While a large number of studies focus on issues like parental attachment (Antonucci et al., 2004; Bohlin
et al., 2000). Parents are not the only source of influence on children; as children grow, they are more subject to
the influence of peers, mass media, and other external factors outside the family. In this paper we focus on
parental influence on children. It is important to note that the relationship that exists between parents and their
children portray the type of families they come from.
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1 The Domain Perspective: Attachment Theory
The study of parent-child relationship had been based on attachment theory and had given remarkable results.
Attachment theory as it relates to children emphasizes the importance of caring relationships for normal
development of the child; it also suggests that a good nurturing relationship between parent and child shapes
future social, cognitive, and emotional development of that child (Antonucci et al., 2004). John Bowlby in 1973
formulated attachment theory by drawing concepts from biology and psychoanalysis. According to this theory,
children develop internal representations of relationships as a result of interactions with their primary caregivers
(e.g. parents), which they subsequently use in maintaining other relationships. Attachment theory also presumes
that parent-child relationship has long term consequences for shaping a child’s psychological functioning.
During infancy, parent-child relationship is characterized by high levels of bonding of children with their parents
(especially mothers), due to strong emotional and physical ties between a child and his or her parents. The loss of
the attachment figure is accompanied by anxiety and grief, which can lead to problems in the child’s social and Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
emotional development (Varga, 2011). Strong attachment ties between children and their parents are a necessary
condition for good mental health of the future adult (Bowlby, 1973). Attachment of an infant to a parent is
believed to be developed through consistent responsiveness by a parent to the child’s needs, resulting in internal
working models of attachment and caring relationships (Boutelle et al., 2009).
2.2 Behavioral Characteristics between Parents and Children
Studies continue to vary considerably in respect to the degree of correlations between parent and child behavior.
It has been shown that a given parent behavior may have different effects on different children, depending on
factors such as age, sex, and temperament. Behaviors such as: antisocial and externalizing, temperament, and
parent and child negative affectivity are reviewed in this paper.
2.2.1 Focus on Antisocial and Externalizing Behaviors
Research on parenting characteristics (e.g. disciplinary practices and monitoring) and children’s antisocial
behavior showed substantial correlations. That is, negative parenting behavior influences parent-child
relationship which leads to reduction in child supervision, more punitive discipline and less child involvement;
these can further lead to antisocial behavior in children. Many of the studies evaluating relationship between
children and parents have evaluated behaviors that could be considered externalizing, such as alcohol and drug
use (Brook et al., 2002; Windle, 2000). Parental permissiveness was linked to child self-regulation
(Patock-Peckham et al., 2001), while aggressive behavior in parents (that is, corporal punishment) to poor
emotional and behavioral adjustment in children (Aucoin et al., 2006; Johnston et al., 1998). It is important to
note that in reciprocal effect models, not only do parents affect child behavior and parent-child interactions, but
child functioning also serves to elicit parental reactions.
2.2.2 Focus on Temperament
Temperament which refers to an individual’s behavioral style as he or she relates to other persons and to the
inanimate environment has been linked to parent-child relationship. It develops early in life (Rettew et al., 2010),
undergoes a process of modification throughout life span (Nigg & Hinshaw, 1998), and is partially rooted in a
person’s genetic makeup (Lemery et al., 2002; Olson et al., 2000). Various studies on temperament have shown
relations between temperament and genetics. Researchers have identified children with different temperaments,
and studied how they differ in the way they interact with their parents and in the impact parental inputs have on
them. For example, Schmeck & Poustka (2001), have shown that children’s temperamental characteristics
initiate bi-directional processes that occur between them and their parents. According to Brody (1998), a given
parental practice can have different effects on children with different temperaments. Parental firmness and
restrictiveness are important factors in preventing the development of externalizing behavior in resistive and
difficult children, than is the case of children with easier temperaments (Bosmans et al., 2006; Rettew et al.,
2.2.3 Parent and Child Negative Affectivity
Researchers have examined the effects of parent negative affectivity especially depression and hostility, as
variations in relationship between parents and children. Depressed and hostile parents have been found to be less
involved with and affectionate toward their children, feel more guilt and resentment, and exhibit poor
communication skills with their children (Barnard & McKeganey, 2004). Higher levels of parent negative
affectivity were also found to be related to higher levels of negativity in adolescent children (Galen &
Underwood, 1997); for example, substance abuse such as marijuana (Riggs et al., 2009), depressive symptoms
(Boutelle et al., 2009; Difilippo & Overholser, 2002), Suicidal thoughts or attempts (Laird et al., 2003).
Furthermore, some researchers have also shown links between parent-child relationships and psychological
outcomes in children, such as conduct problems (Galen & Underwood, 1997; Schmeck & Poustka, 2001),
anxiety and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Some studies reported associations between parental
substance use and other child outcomes such as physical, cognitive, academic, and social-emotional adjustment
(Barnard & McKeganey, 2004; Day et al., 2006; Orlando et al., 2005). For example, marijuana is regarded as the
most commonly illicit drug with high international consumption (Smart & Ogborne, 2000). Indiscriminate use of
marijuana persists into adulthood (from childhood) due to the well-established link between parents’ substance
use and negative outcomes in their children. This is of public health concern because of the negative
psychosocial consequences (such as mental illness), as well as increased susceptibility to chronic diseases (such
as cancers), that occurs later in life as a result of its consumption (Chacko et al., 2006). Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
2.3 What are the Topical Concerns of Family Structure, Parenting Style and Divorce on Parent-Child
2.3.1 The Challenge from Family Structure
According to social psychologists, a family can be defined as a fundamental social group in the society typically
consisting of one or two parents and their children. In psychology, the concept of family is examined based on
the essence of family and the dynamics of family interactions. In most cultures, early socialization occurred from
the context of families, more specifically, parent-child interactions (Grusec, 2011). Each subsystem of the family
is important in understanding parent-child relationship. In general, there are two major types of family: Nuclear
(consists of a mother, father, and their children), and Extended family (consists of more relatives, includes
parents, children, cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents, foster children, etc.). Other important forms of family
includes: single parent and step families.
Orlov (1996), described two types of family in relation to parent-child relationship. a) The person-centered
family; b) The socio-centered family. Person-centered families are characterized by high levels of attention paid
to the personality of the child and his or her inner world, respect for his or her needs and values, and
unconditional acceptance of his or her individuality. In contrast, socio-centered families are characterized by
more likelihood to neglect the child’s needs and values, more ambivalent relationships and acceptance of the
child only if he or she shares the parents point of view (Orlov, 1996). The socio-centered family is most
importantly concerned with the social roles of each child in the family, while in the person-centered family;
every child is treated as an individual. According to Fincham (1998), the quality of marital relationship also has
a direct inuence on the quality of parent-child relationship; that is, strong marital bond leads to strong
parent-child relationship.
Due to the various types of assisted reproduction, questions are arising from different forms of gestational
relationships between parents and children. For example, selected set of characteristics (genetics) that were
obtained from both biological and adoptive parents showed more similarities between adopted children and their
biological parents than to their adoptive parents (Golombok et al., 2006; Maccoby, 2000). In the case of gamete
donation, it was reported that fathers were more distant from a non-genetic child (Golombok et al., 2005).
Studies of step-parent families point to difficult relationships between step-parents and step-children
(Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 2002); that is, parents in stepfamilies that included both step-children and
genetically related children were reported to be less affectionate towards, and less supportive of their
stepchildren than their own biological children. It is important to note that family structure does not only act as a
strong determining factor of the type of relationship that exists between parents and their children, but it also
depicts the strength of the relationship.
A fundamental aspect of family structure that cannot be left behind when discussing parent-child relationship is
communication. Communication is the engine of social relationships and a necessity for all relationships. It
involves listening, availability, understanding, mutual respect and emotion. In essence, to communicate means to
know how to give and how to receive. Communication plays a vital role when it comes to parent-child
relationship; it establishes and maintains relationship between parents and children, it makes interaction between
parents and children strong and effective, and it contributes significantly to creating understanding and mutual
acceptance between parents and children. This means that the more parents communicate with their children, the
more children improve their communication abilities (that is good relations with people around them). Ngai et al.
(2013), stated that communication is very important in parent-child interaction, especially if parents want to find
better ways of transmitting important life values to their children. Hence, good parent-child communication lled
with trust and respect can enhance children’s autonomy and provide adequate support for them to accomplish the
developmental tasks during adolescence (Lai & McBride-Chang, 2001). In an experiment conducted by Ngai et
al. (2013), results revealed that parent-child communication contributes more to children development than
parental supervision and parental care. The time spent by parents with the child has an essential and well-defined
role in the relationship between parent and child. Patricia-Luciana Runcan (2011), studied the factor-time spent
with the child, and found that the time spent with the child influences communication between parents and
children in a positive way, especially when the parent allocates sufficient time to the child.
2.3.2 The Challenge from Parenting Style
Every family is a unique system with its own rules and traditions. When a child is born, he or she becomes a part
of this system and gradually adapts to it. In most societies, parents are the ones assigned primary responsibility
to train children in desirable directions, by supervising, teaching, and disciplining them as they grow up.
Children learn moral values through the process of socialization, much of which involves parenting. Parenting is Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
a bidirectional process that involves a complex interplay between evolutionary predispositions, genetic and
socio-cultural factors (Grusec, 2011). Fincham (1998), suggested that marital relationship may be the most
inuential relationship because it sets the tone for all other relationships in the home by creating an environment
that facilitates effective parenting. Some studies also suggest that parenting practices have a reciprocal influence
on child behavior (Lau et al., 2006). For example, parental supervision was found to be the strongest predictor of
behavioral adjustment in children, while parental care, the strongest predictor of resilience, that is, capacity to
adapt to change and stressful events in a healthy way (Ngai et al., 2013). Some studies have indicated that
children may vary in their susceptibility to parental rearing. More specically, Belsky (2005), hypothesized that
not all children are similarly susceptible to the eects of parenting; this is as a result of evolutionary reasons such
as age and sex.
One aspect of parenting style that has emerged in recent studies relating to children’s well-being centers around
the ability of some parents to develop reciprocal form of interaction with their children such as: shared positive
affect and mutual responsivity (Maccoby, 2000). Parenting behaviors are majorly shaped by social norms and
expectations (such as community, cultural values and the associated social and legal policies in which they are
embedded). According to Kochanska et al. (2007), disciplinary strategies used by mothers did not predict
internalization of behavioral prohibitions, but affectively warm mother-child relationships did. Although Ngai &
Cheung (2009), reported that parents who behave with high nurturance and have more democratic parent-child
interaction are more likely to raise children who show higher levels of mental health, identity achievement,
behavioral adjustment, resilience, and academic performance.
Parenting styles are also known to be associated with anxiety in children (Field et al., 2007); although little is
known about the mechanism through which parenting has this effect. In an experiment conducted by Field et al.
(2007), it was observed that parenting practices influence how children react to negative information. Evidence
has shown that high quality parenting can facilitate children’s psychosocial adjustment to economic hardship
during their transition from childhood to adulthood (Crosnoe et al., 2002; Orthner et al., 2004). Bugental &
Johnston (2000), suggest that parents’ experiences with their own children may have a greater impact at the level
of specific cognitions (for example, sense of parenting efficacy in managing a particular child), rather than
global parental beliefs. Recent evidence now suggest that parenting styles characterized by lack of warmth and
acceptance, overcontrol and overprotection, and high levels of criticism, may be risk factors for negative
behavior in children (Wood et al., 2003).
2.3.3 The Question of Divorce
Divorce which is the legal dissolution of marriage or marital bond between couples has been shown to have
some negative effects on parent-child relationships; this is because a large number of children have good
relationships with both parents (in terms of contact and support), but this is less seen when parents are divorced
(Albertini & Garriga, 2011). Three main causes of poor outcome of parent-child relationship due to divorce
include: 1) Most children of divorced parents cannot see their parents at the same time (Albertini & Garriga,
2011; Swiss & Bourdais, 2009); this leads to a deterioration of the relationship with one parent while at the same
time the relationship with the other parent improves. 2) Majority of parents experience psychological problems
after divorce which reduces the attention they give to their children (Albertini & Garriga, 2011). 3) Some
children blame their parents for the divorce which invariably leads to more detached attitude toward both
Geuzaine et al. (2000), reported that there are negative long-term effects of parental separation and divorce on
relationships between parents and children (these negative effects are especially seen in children). These include:
low self esteem, emotional and behavioral problems, poor school achievement, and juvenile delinquency. Studies
on the impact of parents’ divorce on parent-child relationships that have used samples of young children show
negative effect of parental divorce on relationship outcome with fathers and show no effect of divorce on
relationship outcome with custodial mothers. One explanation for this discrepancy is that the effects of divorce
on relationship between parents and children might be less among younger children who experienced their
parents’ divorce in recent historical period when single mothers were subject to fewer stigmas. This suggests that
children may choose between parents after divorce. In general, divorce increases inequality in the relationships
that children have with their father and mother (Albertini & Garriga, 2011; Bohlin et al., 2000; Geuzaine et al.,
2000; Swiss & Bourdais, 2009). Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
Figure 1. Factors that influence parent-child relationship
2.4 Parent-Adult Child Relationship: An Important Differential in Parent-Child Relations
We found that there was no single construct known to represent all sections of parent-adult child relationship;
but some researchers have investigated variables intended to assess them. They include: Exchange of emotional
support and advice (Bonsang, 2009); Feelings of attachment and closeness (Haberkern & Szydlik, 2010); and
scale measures of relationship quality (Grundy & Henretta, 2006; Lowenstein et al., 2007).
It has been shown that closer relationship tend to exist between adult children and their parents when they have
children (Dykstra & Fokkema, 2011); that is, parents will provide more support to adult children who have
children, especially if their grandchildren are still very young (Hoff, 2007).
According to Lye (1996), parent-adult child relationship can be differentiated based on four factors: 1) Contact
and proximity, 2) Relationship quality, 3) Exchanges of assistance, and 4) Norms and expectation. Findings
concerning racial and ethnic differences in the relationship that exists between parents and their adult children
have also been inconsistent; this can be traced to lack of nationally representative data. In some studies black
adult children were reported to have closer relationships with their mothers than do whites (Szinovacz & Davey,
2013); although Teresa (2009), reported that black mothers receive less emotional support from their adult
children than do whites, while Hispanics exhibit lower quality of parent-adult child relationship. In general, adult
daughters were reported to have more closer relationship with their parents than do adult sons, due to frequent
contact with parents (Carpenter, 2001); but adult children (whether male or female) have less contact with their
fathers than with their mothers (Ahrons & Tanner, 2003).
Divorce was also reported to weaken parent-adult child relations. According to Fingerman and Birditt (2011),
adult children and their parents display emotionally satisfying relationships, but exchanges of practical and
financial assistance are uncommon when parents are divorced. Divorced fathers are less likely to have a closer
relationship with their adult children and be less involved in exchanges of assistance with their children (Ahrons
& Tanner, 2003). It is important to note that as time passes, both adult children and their parents change in the
attitudes and in the manner they approach each other.
2.5 Outcome of Parent-Child Relationship
Relationship between parents and their children have been reported to yield certain results. Among them
2.5.1 Socio-Emotional Effect
As earlier discussed, the result of poor parent-child relationship has been reported to be closely associated with
aggressive behavior and delinquency; these behaviors are among the most reported findings in the literature. It
has been demonstrated that several dimensions of parent-child relationships are independently associated with
this disturbance (Fletcher et al., 2004). As regards socio-emotional outcome, children have been reported to
Parent Hormone Parenting style
Impulsivity Temperament
Family structure Antisocial and Externalizing behavior Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
show closer and more positive relationships with their parents (Phillips & Lowenstein, 2011). However, only the
children that manage to have a good relationship with their parents will extend social and emotional relationships
normally with their peers. Every child need the presence of his/her parent to a certain degree, although time
spent with parents means a lot more to smaller children than it does to more grown-up children. Just as each
parent want to relate better with his/her child, every child wants to spend time with his/her parent in different
ways. Studies have shown that one of children’s biggest desires is to play with those that gave them life. During
workdays majority of parents do not have time and patience to play with their children; this is majorly due to
career-related occupation. Even when they do communicate, discussions between children and parents are
limited only to school problems and do not extend to the children’s feelings or wishes. It is important to note that
lack of involvement in children’s lives can lead to weaker and more superficial parent-child interaction, thus
generating complex problems for the child’s future.
2.5.2 The Role of Genetics
Today, there has been enormous research about the genetic nature of parents and children as it relates to the
character that children develop. In twin and adoption studies, interactions between parent and child are thought
to imply that genetics (either the child’s own or the genes shared with parents) have consequential effects on
parent-child relations. There is also clear evidence that children’s genetic makeup affects their behavioral
characteristics, and also influences the way they are treated by their parents (Golombok et al., 2006; Maccoby,
2000). Some studies that explored children’s relationship with their parents, with emphasis on relationship as a
characteristic of children’s world reported a moderate heritability (Dunn et al., 2000), and increasing genetic
inuence during adolescence (Shiner & Caspi, 2003). Reports from behavior geneticists have shown that familial
circumstances such as parental illness or health, economic prosperity or adversity, good or poor parenting, all
have a powerful influence on the relationship between parents and their children. Quantitative geneticists
reported that parent-child relationship could stem from genetic predispositions shared by parents and children,
and is directly transmitted from one generation to the next. But according to Dunn et al. (2000), the absence of a
genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child
2.5.3 Cognitive Effect
The fact that parents are the most important influence on children’s development cannot be underestimated.
Cognitive theorists have proposed that parent-child relationship is an essential environmental context in which
structuring of the child’s emerging cognitive abilities take place. According to Bugental and Johnston (2000),
reciprocal interactions between parents and children provide the collaborative basis for the creation of shared
knowledge. Authoritative parenting was reported to be associated with higher school achievement than the other
parenting styles (Glasgow et al., 1997); and secure parental attachment was linked with academic achievement in
secondary school (Feldman et al., 1998). Parent’s response has been shown to be a function of children’s
initiative; this means that parents who pay special attention to their children can be expected to provide an
optimal environment for the child to learn, which can further be strengthened by the child’s own motivation.
Adoption studies have also shown that there are correlations between adopted children’s intelligent quotient (IQ)
and those of their biological parents (Maccoby, 2000).
2.5.4 Health/Medical
Parent-child relationships are important and have been linked to the health and social well-being of children
(Habib et al., 2010). A number of studies in the past have been able to show that poor quality relationships
between parents and their children (especially in parent-adult child relationship) create increased susceptibility to
a range of health problems, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders (Dykstra & Fokkema, 2011).
Poor parent-child relationships in adolescence are associated with greater burden of self-reported ill health that
are attributable to the changes in the neurohumoral response (Stewart-Brown et al., 2005), and could be a
remediable risk factor for poor health in children as they grow. Researchers in time past have also shown that
children from divorced families experience poorer mental health than those from intact families (Ledoux et al.,
2002); there were more reports of alcohol, antisocial behaviors, and other drug use as they grow up (Griffin et
al., 2000), or at even more earlier age.
Recently, hormones have also become central in explaining parent-child relationship (Booth et al., 2006; Dorius
et al., 2011), and hormone-related adolescent problem moderated by parent-child closeness (Booth et al., 2003).
Today, only few researchers study hormones in conjunction with parent-child relationship. An important aspect
of hormonal link with parent-child relationship is parent’s hormone, especially father’s testosterone. Scientific
researches on men have shown a link between concentrations of testosterone and behaviors that have effects on Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
the relationship that exists between parents and their children (Dorius et al., 2011). Notably is the fact that high
testosterone is often tempered by social context; as a result of this, high testosterone in fathers remains a
potential threat to parent-child relationship, and can lead to poor relationship between fathers and their children.
It was further reported that when father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone exhibit
poorer relationship with their children; and when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high
testosterone women exhibit poorer relationship with their children (Dorius et al., 2011).
Figure 2. Outcome of poor parent-child relationship
3. Conclusion
More recently in family context, views of parenting and parent-child relationship have expanded to include
parents as active managers of the child’s social environment. A healthy interaction between parents and their
children represents a good family environment, an affective dimension of a positive nature, and the presence of
affective support. This interaction positively influences the child’s state and behavior, and plays a great role in
the child’s normal, physical and mental development. Conflict in the family will hinder this kind of interaction.
Although some studies show negative effects of divorce on father-child relationships, it is unclear if these effects
are additive from the children’s point of view. The question of whether children who experience a decline in
relationship with their father also experience a decline in relationship with their mother calls for further research.
Good relationship between parents and their children have been shown to enhance general well-being (in
children) and result in better social life, protect against emotional distress and suicide, and prevents children
from engaging in risky unhealthy behaviors. Supportive parent-child relationships override the dispositions of
children prone to noncompliance behaviors.
Research linking parent’s hormone to relationship between parents and their children is limited; more study is
therefore required to understand the extent to which children might be at risk of having poor relationships with
their high testosterone fathers. Poor parent-child relationships were reported to contribute to the development of
internalizing symptoms such as depression, low self-esteem, and body image difficulties in children, and it is
also possible that children with these symptoms may engage less with their parents. Increased self-esteem (both
in male and female child) is as a result of good parent-child connectedness and can further lead to an increase in
body satisfaction in female children. These results emphasize the importance of good parent-child relationship in
combating such negativities as low self esteem. Based on the results of various researches as compiled in this
review, we conclude that parents can and do influence their children; and that parents’ genetic make-up,
hormone, behavior and parenting style influences the way they treat their children.
4. Future Direction
1) Several studies reviewed in this paper have clearly shown that treatment can change a parent’s behavior
towards a child in specified ways, which in turn changes children’s behavior. Therefore, in order to enhance
good parent-child relationship, poor parenting practices should be changed. This can only occur through the
introduction of longitudinal parent-training programs.
2) Reduction of parent-to-child coercive behavior through the intervention of parent training was also reported to
elicit declining levels of antisocial behavior in aggressive children.
Poor parent child
Genetic depression in parents
(e.g. psychosis)
Reduced child
Peer pressure Externalizing and antisocial
behavior in children Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
This review was carried out in accordance to the Russian Government Program on Competitive growth of Kazan
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... In order to help students to have good mental health, having a protective and supportive environment in the family are important [28]. Parents-child relationship is regarded as the most important relationship of a child [14]. Parents, who are the main influencer of their children's development, should provide a conducive environment to their children, especially during the movement control order as students are unable to leave their homes. ...
... Having a positive home environment with sufficient support from parents influences the state and behaviour of a child. It was found that children are able to develop healthy behaviour, have better cognitive performance and well-being when they have a positive relationship with their parents [14]. Moreover, having open and supportive communication with parents was found to reduce depression and anxiety among adolescents [18]. ...
... Meanwhile, the negative domains of parental practices such as poor monitoring and corporal punishment were related to more externalizing problems [13]. Thus, it is important for parents to maintain a good relationship with their children as it is able to enhance children's well-being, which then protects them from emotional distress, unhealthy behaviours and mental health issues [14]. ...
Conference Paper
Mental health issues are a serious problem globally and have worsened since the Covid-19 pandemic. School students are experiencing high levels of stress due to the closure of schools. Students have to quickly adapt to online learning with minimal guidance during the early stage of the pandemic. Subsequently, students are allowed to go to school on a rotation basis. Therefore, a conducive home environment with support from parents plays an important role in helping students to cope with the uncertainties during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study where 761 high school students, aged between 13 to 18 years old were recruited in Malaysia. There was 468 female and 293 male students who participated in this study. Students’ mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) while parental practices were measured using the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Parental practices were measured separately for father and mother in terms of positive parenting, involvement, poor monitoring and corporal punishment. Pearson correlation analysis showed that all parental practices were correlated significantly with mental health issues among high school students. However, based on the multiple regression analysis, only paternal poor monitoring, maternal corporal punishment, maternal positive parenting and paternal corporal punishment significantly predicted students’ mental health with paternal poor monitoring being the strongest predictor of students’ mental health. This study supported the importance of utilizing good parental practices in order to reduce mental health issues among students.
... Parent-child relationship is a two-way interaction between parents and their children (Robinson, 2015). It is an important environmental factor influencing an individual's adaptation and development (Miller et al., 2000;Slinner and Steinhauer, 2000;Bronfenbrenner, 2005;Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015;Yang, 2018;Steele and Cliff, 2019). Recent studies have shown that the parentchild relationship has been involved in the learning process of students (Tus, 2021;Zhu et al., 2021), which has emerged as a major factor affecting their academic performance and daily life (Carmona-Halty et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2021). ...
... The parent-child relationship is an interpersonal relationship that an individual is initially exposed to Wu (2017), Ling et al. (2018). This relationship synthesizes parenting styles, emotional expressions, and values; in addition, it is an innate environmental factor that influences an individual's adaptability, mental health, and academic performance (Fang et al., 2004;Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015;Yang, 2018;Steele and Cliff, 2019;Carmona-Halty et al., 2020). Research has reported that good parent-child relationships can satisfy an individual's basic emotional needs, such as a sense of belonging, leading to positive academic exploration and pursuit (Martin and Dowson, 2009;Carmona-Halty et al., 2020). ...
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... Previous studies have indicated a strong relationship between adolescents' functioning and their parents' interaction quality (Babore et al., 2016). Positive parent-child relationships could help children face adversities and improve their health conditions (Popov & Ilesanmi, 2015), while the quality of the parent-child relationship would be undermined by corporal punishment, which leads children to feel alienated from their parents. (Gershoff, 2002;Laible et al., 2020). ...
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... Therefore, parental phubbing disrupts and reduces the level of parent-child attachment. On the other hand, parent-child attachment has a great impact on the development and adaptation of individuals (Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015). Attachment theory suggests that individuals with secure parent-child attachments are able to fully engage in exploratory activities even facing difficulties due to the protective, supportive, accessible, and empowering roles of the attachment object (usually parents), which ensure that the individuals feel safe and stress-free while engaging in exploratory activities, thereby increasing the willingness and quality of exploration (Bowlby, 1969;Aspelmeier and Kerns, 2003). ...
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The effects of parental migration on the well‐being of left‐behind children (LBC) are varied. Several studies demonstrated that parental migration reduces children's psychological health but other research showed contradictory results. This study sought to clarify this issue by examining the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of parental migration status in the association between the parent–child relationship and children's psychological distress. A total of 743 LBC and 688 non‐LBC self‐reported their parent–child relationship, psychological distress, and well‐being. Findings showed that psychological distress mediated the association between parent–child relationship and children's well‐being. This denotes that greater parent–child relationship results into lowered levels of psychological distress, and in turn, increases children's emotional, psychological, and social well‐being. Moreover, the link between parent–child relationship and psychological distress was found to be contingent to parental migration status. Specifically, the negative association between parent–child relationship and psychological distress was especially strong among LBC in contrast to non‐ LBC. This implies that children with higher quality relationships with their parents tend to exhibit decreased severity of psychological distress symptoms, especially in children whose parents are working overseas. These results underscore the dynamic role of parent–child relationship in the well‐being of LBC, and suggest ways to develop intervention programs that include cultivating skills in managing psychological distress and improving the emotional, psychological, and social well‐being of LBC.
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The Present research paper attempts at investigating the concepts of ‘True self and false self’ in the female characters presented by Krys Lee. Despite the fact that much has been carried out theoretically and clinically on the subject of the mother-child relation, the literary works of the Asian writers, in terms of cultural, social, psychological and artistic subjects and issues, have received little attention. Apart from the ordinary meaning of self, Winnicott, one of the 20th century’s greatest psychoanalysts and thinkers, believes that it is a more complex term that plays a crucial role in demonstrating one’s mental and emotional status. The sense of self is developed in every individual from infancy through the relationship with the mother. The baby’s true self or false self depends on how a mother adapts to the baby’s needs and desires. This dependency is identified as good-enough mothering, and if it is a successful form of adaptation, the infant begins to believe in external reality leading to the ego or self-development. The selected female characters’ actions, reactions and relations in “Drifting House” are symptomatic of their insecure childhoods, and frustrating developments. Their split characters, denial of reality, some sort of aggression and the lack of trust in the environment could be the echo of their childhood’s failure in receiving adequate care and attention.
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Care-giving research has focused on primary care-givers and relied on cross-sectional data. This approach neglects the dynamic and systemic character of care-giver networks. Our analyses address changes in care-givers and care networks over a two-year period using pooled data from the US Health and Retirement Study, 1992–2000. Based on a matrix of specific adult-child care-givers across two consecutive time-points, we assess changes in any adult-child care-giver and examine the predictors of change. A change in care-giver occurred in about two-fifths of care-giving networks. Ability to provide care based on geographical proximity, availability of alternative care-givers, and gender play primary roles in the stability of care networks. Results underline the need to shift care-giving research toward a dynamic and systemic perspective.
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The parents of our times are increasingly more and more stressed by the fact that they do not longer have time, neither for themselves, nor for their children. The purpose of this study is to present the importance of the time spent by a parent with his/her child which positively influences the parent-child interaction. The main objective of the research made in this study are the following determination of the importance of the TIME factor in the parent-child interaction. In this study, quantitative research and the survey via structured interview method were used. The research instrument used was the questionnaire.
Social aggression consists of actions directed at damaging another's self-esteem, social status, or both, and includes behaviors such as facial expressions of disdain, cruel gossipping, and the manipulation of friendship patterns. In Study 1, 4th, 7th, and 10th graders completed the Social Behavior Questionnaire; only boys viewed physical aggression as more hurtful than social aggression, and girls rated social aggression as more hurtful than did boys. In the 1st phase of Study 2, girls participated in a laboratory task in which elements of social-aggression were elicited and reliably coded. In the 2nd phase of Study 2, another sample of participants (elementary, middle, and high school boys and girls) viewed samples of socially aggressive behaviors from these sessions. Girls rated the aggressor as more angry than boys, and middle school and high school participants viewed the socially aggressive behaviors as indicating more dislike than elementary school children.
Relationships between adults and their parents are distinct from other types of social ties due to their long shared history and the evolving nature of the relationship from infancy through adulthood. The tie begins at birth and typically endures until one party dies (usually the parent). With the exception of twins, no other relationship lasts as long. Dramatic discontinuity is evident from the childhood years into adulthood, however, both in structural and emotional qualities. The childhood years are marked by high dependency on parents, coordination of schedules, and shared environments. This chapter addresses three important questions regarding adults and aging parents-what people gain from relationships with grown children or parents, and who provides what for whom the emotional qualities of these ties, and how these ties affect individual well-being. It also describes recent research relevant to each of these issues. The literature regarding relationships between adults and their aging parents may help provide an understanding of late-life development more generally. Many aging processes enacted in this tie apply to studies of aging in general. Addressing gaps in the study of adults and their parents also might contribute to the field of gerontology more broadly.
This chapter discusses the concept of attachment originated from examinations of relationships between parents and infants. The chapter focuses on the emotional aspects of parent–child relationships over the life span. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, the pioneers in attachment theory and research, have argued for persistence of attachments, citing phenomena like emotional closeness in adult parent-child pairs and grief accompanying death. The chapter discusses that these persisting bonds retain their early character, at least so far as remaining secure, anxious, or ambivalent. There has even been preliminary work on transmission of attachment patterns across generations. Parent–child attachment in adulthood goes against one of the most deeply held values of Western culture, that of independence. This view assumes that adults who are too strongly tied to their parents or to anyone other than a spouse or small children are “dependent” and thus inadequate human beings. Others, though, have argued that mutuality and interdependence should be developmental goals rather than independence.
This research investigates factors conducive to the thriving of economically disadvantaged young people in Hong Kong. In particular, we examine ways in which the parent–child relationship and friendship networks, as the principal sources of support during the transition from childhood to adulthood, influence the developmental outcomes of this group of young people with regard to their mental health, positive identity, behavioral adjustment, resilience and academic achievement. Based on a survey of 479 young people recruited from community-based youth-service centers located in different districts of Hong Kong, the results of the present research support the hypotheses that parent–child relationships and friendship networks have significant positive effects on youth development among low-income young people. Our results also show that, when compared with friendship networks, the parent–child relationship is a stronger predictor of youth development, that is, a stronger parent–child relationship tends to correspond to a better developmental outcome. Moreover, our research provides empirical evidence regarding the influence that parents can have on shaping the quality of young people's friendship networks. The implications of our findings, both for future research and for service delivery to promote the well-being of economically disadvantaged young people, are discussed.
The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its relations with perceived parenting treatment and family climate was examined in 120 Hong Kong students aged 15–19 years. Fifty-two per cent of the participants reported suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was found to be significantly associated with perceived authoritarian parenting, low parental warmth, high maternal overcontrol, negative child-rearing practices, and a negative family climate. A positive family climate may act as a buffer against developing suicide ideation in adolescents. La fréquence des pensées suicidaires et ses relations avec le climat familial et la perception du style sont étudiées chez 120 étudiants de Hong Kong, âgés de 15 à 19 ans. Cinquante-deux pour cent des participants rapportent avoir des idées suicidaires. De telles idées sont associées significativement avec la perception d'un style parental autoritaire, un niveau bas de chaleur parentale, une surprotection maternelle élevée, des pratiques négatives d'éducation des enfants et un climat familial négatif. Un climat familial positif pourrait servir de défense contre le développement des idées suicidaires chez les adolescents.