ArticlePDF Available

Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome

Authors:

Abstract

The relationship between parents and their children can be regarded as the most important relationship an individual can experience. This paper, examines theoretical and empirical literature on parent-child relationships by analyzing recent accomplishments on this issue. It turns first to the question of which behaviors in children are associated with those of their parents? This paper also reviews researches on: factors that influence parent-child relationship from an integrative contextual-empirical perspective. It is indeed true that parents are usually the ones who spend the most time with young children over extended periods of time; therefore this paper seek answers to the question of whether parents really have influence(s)on their children, to what extent and the importance of these influences. The results of this paper showed that temperament, antisocial and externalizing behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) were the most reported behavioral characteristics between parents and their children.
Review of European Studies; Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
ISSN 1918-7173 E-ISSN 1918-7181
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
253
Parent-Child Relationship: Peculiarities and Outcome
Leonid M. Popov 1 & Ruth A. Ilesanmi1
1. Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia
Correspondence: Leonid M. Popov, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kremlyovskaya Street 18,
Kazan, 420008, Russia. E-mail: ruthilesanmi01@gmail.com
Received: January 19, 2014 Accepted: February 22, 2015 Online Published: March 30, 2015
doi:10.5539/res.v7n5p253 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/res.v7n5p253
Abstract
The relationship between parents and their children can be regarded as the most important relationship an
individual can experience. This paper, examines theoretical and empirical literature on parent-child relationships
by analyzing recent accomplishments on this issue. It turns first to the question of which behaviors in children
are associated with those of their parents? This paper also reviews researches on: factors that influence
parent-child relationship from an integrative contextual-empirical perspective. It is indeed true that parents are
usually the ones who spend the most time with young children over extended periods of time; therefore this
paper seek answers to the question of whether parents really have influence(s)on their children, to what extent
and the importance of these influences. The results of this paper showed that temperament, antisocial and
externalizing behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) were the most reported behavioral characteristics between parents
and their children.
Keywords: parent-child relationship, attachment theory, parent-adult child relationship, parent and child
behavior
1. Introduction
Parent-child relationships constitute a very special type of relationship in which every human is personally
involved. According to Troll & Fingerman (1996), parent-child relationship is specific in nature and differs from
all other kinds of relationships (such as partners, family and friends) because of its degree of intimacy.
Researchers who have studied parent-child relationships focused on different aspects. Some characterized their
study based on how parent-child relationship influences children’s decision making and communication (Field et
al., 2007); Effects of parent-child relationship in the development of children’s emotional functioning and
regulation (Boutelle et al., 2009); With the advent of extensive research in genetics, some researchers further
explored the genetic nature of parents and how it influences the characteristics that children exhibit (Maccoby,
2000); While a large number of studies focus on issues like parental attachment (Antonucci et al., 2004; Bohlin
et al., 2000). Parents are not the only source of influence on children; as children grow, they are more subject to
the influence of peers, mass media, and other external factors outside the family. In this paper we focus on
parental influence on children. It is important to note that the relationship that exists between parents and their
children portray the type of families they come from.
2. Theoretical Framework
2.1 The Domain Perspective: Attachment Theory
The study of parent-child relationship had been based on attachment theory and had given remarkable results.
Attachment theory as it relates to children emphasizes the importance of caring relationships for normal
development of the child; it also suggests that a good nurturing relationship between parent and child shapes
future social, cognitive, and emotional development of that child (Antonucci et al., 2004). John Bowlby in 1973
formulated attachment theory by drawing concepts from biology and psychoanalysis. According to this theory,
children develop internal representations of relationships as a result of interactions with their primary caregivers
(e.g. parents), which they subsequently use in maintaining other relationships. Attachment theory also presumes
that parent-child relationship has long term consequences for shaping a child’s psychological functioning.
During infancy, parent-child relationship is characterized by high levels of bonding of children with their parents
(especially mothers), due to strong emotional and physical ties between a child and his or her parents. The loss of
the attachment figure is accompanied by anxiety and grief, which can lead to problems in the child’s social and
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
254
emotional development (Varga, 2011). Strong attachment ties between children and their parents are a necessary
condition for good mental health of the future adult (Bowlby, 1973). Attachment of an infant to a parent is
believed to be developed through consistent responsiveness by a parent to the child’s needs, resulting in internal
working models of attachment and caring relationships (Boutelle et al., 2009).
2.2 Behavioral Characteristics between Parents and Children
Studies continue to vary considerably in respect to the degree of correlations between parent and child behavior.
It has been shown that a given parent behavior may have different effects on different children, depending on
factors such as age, sex, and temperament. Behaviors such as: antisocial and externalizing, temperament, and
parent and child negative affectivity are reviewed in this paper.
2.2.1 Focus on Antisocial and Externalizing Behaviors
Research on parenting characteristics (e.g. disciplinary practices and monitoring) and children’s antisocial
behavior showed substantial correlations. That is, negative parenting behavior influences parent-child
relationship which leads to reduction in child supervision, more punitive discipline and less child involvement;
these can further lead to antisocial behavior in children. Many of the studies evaluating relationship between
children and parents have evaluated behaviors that could be considered externalizing, such as alcohol and drug
use (Brook et al., 2002; Windle, 2000). Parental permissiveness was linked to child self-regulation
(Patock-Peckham et al., 2001), while aggressive behavior in parents (that is, corporal punishment) to poor
emotional and behavioral adjustment in children (Aucoin et al., 2006; Johnston et al., 1998). It is important to
note that in reciprocal effect models, not only do parents affect child behavior and parent-child interactions, but
child functioning also serves to elicit parental reactions.
2.2.2 Focus on Temperament
Temperament which refers to an individual’s behavioral style as he or she relates to other persons and to the
inanimate environment has been linked to parent-child relationship. It develops early in life (Rettew et al., 2010),
undergoes a process of modification throughout life span (Nigg & Hinshaw, 1998), and is partially rooted in a
person’s genetic makeup (Lemery et al., 2002; Olson et al., 2000). Various studies on temperament have shown
relations between temperament and genetics. Researchers have identified children with different temperaments,
and studied how they differ in the way they interact with their parents and in the impact parental inputs have on
them. For example, Schmeck & Poustka (2001), have shown that children’s temperamental characteristics
initiate bi-directional processes that occur between them and their parents. According to Brody (1998), a given
parental practice can have different effects on children with different temperaments. Parental firmness and
restrictiveness are important factors in preventing the development of externalizing behavior in resistive and
difficult children, than is the case of children with easier temperaments (Bosmans et al., 2006; Rettew et al.,
2010).
2.2.3 Parent and Child Negative Affectivity
Researchers have examined the effects of parent negative affectivity especially depression and hostility, as
variations in relationship between parents and children. Depressed and hostile parents have been found to be less
involved with and affectionate toward their children, feel more guilt and resentment, and exhibit poor
communication skills with their children (Barnard & McKeganey, 2004). Higher levels of parent negative
affectivity were also found to be related to higher levels of negativity in adolescent children (Galen &
Underwood, 1997); for example, substance abuse such as marijuana (Riggs et al., 2009), depressive symptoms
(Boutelle et al., 2009; Difilippo & Overholser, 2002), Suicidal thoughts or attempts (Laird et al., 2003).
Furthermore, some researchers have also shown links between parent-child relationships and psychological
outcomes in children, such as conduct problems (Galen & Underwood, 1997; Schmeck & Poustka, 2001),
anxiety and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Some studies reported associations between parental
substance use and other child outcomes such as physical, cognitive, academic, and social-emotional adjustment
(Barnard & McKeganey, 2004; Day et al., 2006; Orlando et al., 2005). For example, marijuana is regarded as the
most commonly illicit drug with high international consumption (Smart & Ogborne, 2000). Indiscriminate use of
marijuana persists into adulthood (from childhood) due to the well-established link between parents’ substance
use and negative outcomes in their children. This is of public health concern because of the negative
psychosocial consequences (such as mental illness), as well as increased susceptibility to chronic diseases (such
as cancers), that occurs later in life as a result of its consumption (Chacko et al., 2006).
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
255
2.3 What are the Topical Concerns of Family Structure, Parenting Style and Divorce on Parent-Child
Relationships?
2.3.1 The Challenge from Family Structure
According to social psychologists, a family can be defined as a fundamental social group in the society typically
consisting of one or two parents and their children. In psychology, the concept of family is examined based on
the essence of family and the dynamics of family interactions. In most cultures, early socialization occurred from
the context of families, more specifically, parent-child interactions (Grusec, 2011). Each subsystem of the family
is important in understanding parent-child relationship. In general, there are two major types of family: Nuclear
(consists of a mother, father, and their children), and Extended family (consists of more relatives, includes
parents, children, cousins, aunts, uncles, grandparents, foster children, etc.). Other important forms of family
includes: single parent and step families.
Orlov (1996), described two types of family in relation to parent-child relationship. a) The person-centered
family; b) The socio-centered family. Person-centered families are characterized by high levels of attention paid
to the personality of the child and his or her inner world, respect for his or her needs and values, and
unconditional acceptance of his or her individuality. In contrast, socio-centered families are characterized by
more likelihood to neglect the child’s needs and values, more ambivalent relationships and acceptance of the
child only if he or she shares the parents point of view (Orlov, 1996). The socio-centered family is most
importantly concerned with the social roles of each child in the family, while in the person-centered family;
every child is treated as an individual. According to Fincham (1998), the quality of marital relationship also has
a direct inuence on the quality of parent-child relationship; that is, strong marital bond leads to strong
parent-child relationship.
Due to the various types of assisted reproduction, questions are arising from different forms of gestational
relationships between parents and children. For example, selected set of characteristics (genetics) that were
obtained from both biological and adoptive parents showed more similarities between adopted children and their
biological parents than to their adoptive parents (Golombok et al., 2006; Maccoby, 2000). In the case of gamete
donation, it was reported that fathers were more distant from a non-genetic child (Golombok et al., 2005).
Studies of step-parent families point to difficult relationships between step-parents and step-children
(Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 2002); that is, parents in stepfamilies that included both step-children and
genetically related children were reported to be less affectionate towards, and less supportive of their
stepchildren than their own biological children. It is important to note that family structure does not only act as a
strong determining factor of the type of relationship that exists between parents and their children, but it also
depicts the strength of the relationship.
A fundamental aspect of family structure that cannot be left behind when discussing parent-child relationship is
communication. Communication is the engine of social relationships and a necessity for all relationships. It
involves listening, availability, understanding, mutual respect and emotion. In essence, to communicate means to
know how to give and how to receive. Communication plays a vital role when it comes to parent-child
relationship; it establishes and maintains relationship between parents and children, it makes interaction between
parents and children strong and effective, and it contributes significantly to creating understanding and mutual
acceptance between parents and children. This means that the more parents communicate with their children, the
more children improve their communication abilities (that is good relations with people around them). Ngai et al.
(2013), stated that communication is very important in parent-child interaction, especially if parents want to find
better ways of transmitting important life values to their children. Hence, good parent-child communication lled
with trust and respect can enhance children’s autonomy and provide adequate support for them to accomplish the
developmental tasks during adolescence (Lai & McBride-Chang, 2001). In an experiment conducted by Ngai et
al. (2013), results revealed that parent-child communication contributes more to children development than
parental supervision and parental care. The time spent by parents with the child has an essential and well-defined
role in the relationship between parent and child. Patricia-Luciana Runcan (2011), studied the factor-time spent
with the child, and found that the time spent with the child influences communication between parents and
children in a positive way, especially when the parent allocates sufficient time to the child.
2.3.2 The Challenge from Parenting Style
Every family is a unique system with its own rules and traditions. When a child is born, he or she becomes a part
of this system and gradually adapts to it. In most societies, parents are the ones assigned primary responsibility
to train children in desirable directions, by supervising, teaching, and disciplining them as they grow up.
Children learn moral values through the process of socialization, much of which involves parenting. Parenting is
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
256
a bidirectional process that involves a complex interplay between evolutionary predispositions, genetic and
socio-cultural factors (Grusec, 2011). Fincham (1998), suggested that marital relationship may be the most
inuential relationship because it sets the tone for all other relationships in the home by creating an environment
that facilitates effective parenting. Some studies also suggest that parenting practices have a reciprocal influence
on child behavior (Lau et al., 2006). For example, parental supervision was found to be the strongest predictor of
behavioral adjustment in children, while parental care, the strongest predictor of resilience, that is, capacity to
adapt to change and stressful events in a healthy way (Ngai et al., 2013). Some studies have indicated that
children may vary in their susceptibility to parental rearing. More specically, Belsky (2005), hypothesized that
not all children are similarly susceptible to the eects of parenting; this is as a result of evolutionary reasons such
as age and sex.
One aspect of parenting style that has emerged in recent studies relating to children’s well-being centers around
the ability of some parents to develop reciprocal form of interaction with their children such as: shared positive
affect and mutual responsivity (Maccoby, 2000). Parenting behaviors are majorly shaped by social norms and
expectations (such as community, cultural values and the associated social and legal policies in which they are
embedded). According to Kochanska et al. (2007), disciplinary strategies used by mothers did not predict
internalization of behavioral prohibitions, but affectively warm mother-child relationships did. Although Ngai &
Cheung (2009), reported that parents who behave with high nurturance and have more democratic parent-child
interaction are more likely to raise children who show higher levels of mental health, identity achievement,
behavioral adjustment, resilience, and academic performance.
Parenting styles are also known to be associated with anxiety in children (Field et al., 2007); although little is
known about the mechanism through which parenting has this effect. In an experiment conducted by Field et al.
(2007), it was observed that parenting practices influence how children react to negative information. Evidence
has shown that high quality parenting can facilitate children’s psychosocial adjustment to economic hardship
during their transition from childhood to adulthood (Crosnoe et al., 2002; Orthner et al., 2004). Bugental &
Johnston (2000), suggest that parents’ experiences with their own children may have a greater impact at the level
of specific cognitions (for example, sense of parenting efficacy in managing a particular child), rather than
global parental beliefs. Recent evidence now suggest that parenting styles characterized by lack of warmth and
acceptance, overcontrol and overprotection, and high levels of criticism, may be risk factors for negative
behavior in children (Wood et al., 2003).
2.3.3 The Question of Divorce
Divorce which is the legal dissolution of marriage or marital bond between couples has been shown to have
some negative effects on parent-child relationships; this is because a large number of children have good
relationships with both parents (in terms of contact and support), but this is less seen when parents are divorced
(Albertini & Garriga, 2011). Three main causes of poor outcome of parent-child relationship due to divorce
include: 1) Most children of divorced parents cannot see their parents at the same time (Albertini & Garriga,
2011; Swiss & Bourdais, 2009); this leads to a deterioration of the relationship with one parent while at the same
time the relationship with the other parent improves. 2) Majority of parents experience psychological problems
after divorce which reduces the attention they give to their children (Albertini & Garriga, 2011). 3) Some
children blame their parents for the divorce which invariably leads to more detached attitude toward both
parents.
Geuzaine et al. (2000), reported that there are negative long-term effects of parental separation and divorce on
relationships between parents and children (these negative effects are especially seen in children). These include:
low self esteem, emotional and behavioral problems, poor school achievement, and juvenile delinquency. Studies
on the impact of parents’ divorce on parent-child relationships that have used samples of young children show
negative effect of parental divorce on relationship outcome with fathers and show no effect of divorce on
relationship outcome with custodial mothers. One explanation for this discrepancy is that the effects of divorce
on relationship between parents and children might be less among younger children who experienced their
parents’ divorce in recent historical period when single mothers were subject to fewer stigmas. This suggests that
children may choose between parents after divorce. In general, divorce increases inequality in the relationships
that children have with their father and mother (Albertini & Garriga, 2011; Bohlin et al., 2000; Geuzaine et al.,
2000; Swiss & Bourdais, 2009).
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
257
Figure 1. Factors that influence parent-child relationship
2.4 Parent-Adult Child Relationship: An Important Differential in Parent-Child Relations
We found that there was no single construct known to represent all sections of parent-adult child relationship;
but some researchers have investigated variables intended to assess them. They include: Exchange of emotional
support and advice (Bonsang, 2009); Feelings of attachment and closeness (Haberkern & Szydlik, 2010); and
scale measures of relationship quality (Grundy & Henretta, 2006; Lowenstein et al., 2007).
It has been shown that closer relationship tend to exist between adult children and their parents when they have
children (Dykstra & Fokkema, 2011); that is, parents will provide more support to adult children who have
children, especially if their grandchildren are still very young (Hoff, 2007).
According to Lye (1996), parent-adult child relationship can be differentiated based on four factors: 1) Contact
and proximity, 2) Relationship quality, 3) Exchanges of assistance, and 4) Norms and expectation. Findings
concerning racial and ethnic differences in the relationship that exists between parents and their adult children
have also been inconsistent; this can be traced to lack of nationally representative data. In some studies black
adult children were reported to have closer relationships with their mothers than do whites (Szinovacz & Davey,
2013); although Teresa (2009), reported that black mothers receive less emotional support from their adult
children than do whites, while Hispanics exhibit lower quality of parent-adult child relationship. In general, adult
daughters were reported to have more closer relationship with their parents than do adult sons, due to frequent
contact with parents (Carpenter, 2001); but adult children (whether male or female) have less contact with their
fathers than with their mothers (Ahrons & Tanner, 2003).
Divorce was also reported to weaken parent-adult child relations. According to Fingerman and Birditt (2011),
adult children and their parents display emotionally satisfying relationships, but exchanges of practical and
financial assistance are uncommon when parents are divorced. Divorced fathers are less likely to have a closer
relationship with their adult children and be less involved in exchanges of assistance with their children (Ahrons
& Tanner, 2003). It is important to note that as time passes, both adult children and their parents change in the
attitudes and in the manner they approach each other.
2.5 Outcome of Parent-Child Relationship
Relationship between parents and their children have been reported to yield certain results. Among them
includes:
2.5.1 Socio-Emotional Effect
As earlier discussed, the result of poor parent-child relationship has been reported to be closely associated with
aggressive behavior and delinquency; these behaviors are among the most reported findings in the literature. It
has been demonstrated that several dimensions of parent-child relationships are independently associated with
this disturbance (Fletcher et al., 2004). As regards socio-emotional outcome, children have been reported to
PARENT-CHILD
RELATIONSHIP
Parent Hormone Parenting style
Impulsivity Temperament
Family structure Antisocial and Externalizing behavior
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
258
show closer and more positive relationships with their parents (Phillips & Lowenstein, 2011). However, only the
children that manage to have a good relationship with their parents will extend social and emotional relationships
normally with their peers. Every child need the presence of his/her parent to a certain degree, although time
spent with parents means a lot more to smaller children than it does to more grown-up children. Just as each
parent want to relate better with his/her child, every child wants to spend time with his/her parent in different
ways. Studies have shown that one of children’s biggest desires is to play with those that gave them life. During
workdays majority of parents do not have time and patience to play with their children; this is majorly due to
career-related occupation. Even when they do communicate, discussions between children and parents are
limited only to school problems and do not extend to the children’s feelings or wishes. It is important to note that
lack of involvement in children’s lives can lead to weaker and more superficial parent-child interaction, thus
generating complex problems for the child’s future.
2.5.2 The Role of Genetics
Today, there has been enormous research about the genetic nature of parents and children as it relates to the
character that children develop. In twin and adoption studies, interactions between parent and child are thought
to imply that genetics (either the child’s own or the genes shared with parents) have consequential effects on
parent-child relations. There is also clear evidence that children’s genetic makeup affects their behavioral
characteristics, and also influences the way they are treated by their parents (Golombok et al., 2006; Maccoby,
2000). Some studies that explored children’s relationship with their parents, with emphasis on relationship as a
characteristic of children’s world reported a moderate heritability (Dunn et al., 2000), and increasing genetic
inuence during adolescence (Shiner & Caspi, 2003). Reports from behavior geneticists have shown that familial
circumstances such as parental illness or health, economic prosperity or adversity, good or poor parenting, all
have a powerful influence on the relationship between parents and their children. Quantitative geneticists
reported that parent-child relationship could stem from genetic predispositions shared by parents and children,
and is directly transmitted from one generation to the next. But according to Dunn et al. (2000), the absence of a
genetic and/or gestational link between parents and their child does not have a negative impact on parent-child
relationships.
2.5.3 Cognitive Effect
The fact that parents are the most important influence on children’s development cannot be underestimated.
Cognitive theorists have proposed that parent-child relationship is an essential environmental context in which
structuring of the child’s emerging cognitive abilities take place. According to Bugental and Johnston (2000),
reciprocal interactions between parents and children provide the collaborative basis for the creation of shared
knowledge. Authoritative parenting was reported to be associated with higher school achievement than the other
parenting styles (Glasgow et al., 1997); and secure parental attachment was linked with academic achievement in
secondary school (Feldman et al., 1998). Parent’s response has been shown to be a function of children’s
initiative; this means that parents who pay special attention to their children can be expected to provide an
optimal environment for the child to learn, which can further be strengthened by the child’s own motivation.
Adoption studies have also shown that there are correlations between adopted children’s intelligent quotient (IQ)
and those of their biological parents (Maccoby, 2000).
2.5.4 Health/Medical
Parent-child relationships are important and have been linked to the health and social well-being of children
(Habib et al., 2010). A number of studies in the past have been able to show that poor quality relationships
between parents and their children (especially in parent-adult child relationship) create increased susceptibility to
a range of health problems, such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders (Dykstra & Fokkema, 2011).
Poor parent-child relationships in adolescence are associated with greater burden of self-reported ill health that
are attributable to the changes in the neurohumoral response (Stewart-Brown et al., 2005), and could be a
remediable risk factor for poor health in children as they grow. Researchers in time past have also shown that
children from divorced families experience poorer mental health than those from intact families (Ledoux et al.,
2002); there were more reports of alcohol, antisocial behaviors, and other drug use as they grow up (Griffin et
al., 2000), or at even more earlier age.
Recently, hormones have also become central in explaining parent-child relationship (Booth et al., 2006; Dorius
et al., 2011), and hormone-related adolescent problem moderated by parent-child closeness (Booth et al., 2003).
Today, only few researchers study hormones in conjunction with parent-child relationship. An important aspect
of hormonal link with parent-child relationship is parent’s hormone, especially father’s testosterone. Scientific
researches on men have shown a link between concentrations of testosterone and behaviors that have effects on
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
259
the relationship that exists between parents and their children (Dorius et al., 2011). Notably is the fact that high
testosterone is often tempered by social context; as a result of this, high testosterone in fathers remains a
potential threat to parent-child relationship, and can lead to poor relationship between fathers and their children.
It was further reported that when father’s marital satisfaction is low, mothers with high testosterone exhibit
poorer relationship with their children; and when fathers report low levels of intimacy with their children, high
testosterone women exhibit poorer relationship with their children (Dorius et al., 2011).
Figure 2. Outcome of poor parent-child relationship
3. Conclusion
More recently in family context, views of parenting and parent-child relationship have expanded to include
parents as active managers of the child’s social environment. A healthy interaction between parents and their
children represents a good family environment, an affective dimension of a positive nature, and the presence of
affective support. This interaction positively influences the child’s state and behavior, and plays a great role in
the child’s normal, physical and mental development. Conflict in the family will hinder this kind of interaction.
Although some studies show negative effects of divorce on father-child relationships, it is unclear if these effects
are additive from the children’s point of view. The question of whether children who experience a decline in
relationship with their father also experience a decline in relationship with their mother calls for further research.
Good relationship between parents and their children have been shown to enhance general well-being (in
children) and result in better social life, protect against emotional distress and suicide, and prevents children
from engaging in risky unhealthy behaviors. Supportive parent-child relationships override the dispositions of
children prone to noncompliance behaviors.
Research linking parent’s hormone to relationship between parents and their children is limited; more study is
therefore required to understand the extent to which children might be at risk of having poor relationships with
their high testosterone fathers. Poor parent-child relationships were reported to contribute to the development of
internalizing symptoms such as depression, low self-esteem, and body image difficulties in children, and it is
also possible that children with these symptoms may engage less with their parents. Increased self-esteem (both
in male and female child) is as a result of good parent-child connectedness and can further lead to an increase in
body satisfaction in female children. These results emphasize the importance of good parent-child relationship in
combating such negativities as low self esteem. Based on the results of various researches as compiled in this
review, we conclude that parents can and do influence their children; and that parents’ genetic make-up,
hormone, behavior and parenting style influences the way they treat their children.
4. Future Direction
1) Several studies reviewed in this paper have clearly shown that treatment can change a parent’s behavior
towards a child in specified ways, which in turn changes children’s behavior. Therefore, in order to enhance
good parent-child relationship, poor parenting practices should be changed. This can only occur through the
introduction of longitudinal parent-training programs.
2) Reduction of parent-to-child coercive behavior through the intervention of parent training was also reported to
elicit declining levels of antisocial behavior in aggressive children.
Poor parent child
relationship
Genetic depression in parents
(e.g. psychosis)
Reduced child
supervision
Peer pressure Externalizing and antisocial
behavior in children
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
260
Acknowledgements
This review was carried out in accordance to the Russian Government Program on Competitive growth of Kazan
Federal University.
References
Ahrons, C. R., & Tanner, J. L. (2003). Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 years after
parental divorce. Family Relations, 52, 340-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3729.2003.00340.x
Albertini, M., & Garriga, A. (2011). The effect of divorce on parent-child contacts: Evidence on two declining
effect hypotheses. European Societies, 13, 257-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616696.2010.483002
Antonucci, T. C., Akiyama, H., & Takahashi, K. (2004). Attachment and close relationships across the life span.
Attachment and Human Development, 6(4), 353-370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1461673042000303136
Aucoin, K. J., Frick, P. J., & Bodin, S. D. (2006). Corporal punishment and child adjustment. Journal of Applied
Developmental Psychology, 27, 527-541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2006.08.001
Barnard, M., & McKeganey, N. (2004). The impact of parental problem drug use on children: What is the problem
and what can be done to help? Addiction, 99, 552-559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2003.00664.x
Belsky, J. (2005). Dierential susceptibility to rearing inuence: An evolutionary hypothesis and some evidence.
In B. Ellis, & D. Bjorklund (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary psychology and child
development (pp. 139-163). New York: Guilford.
Bohlin, G., Hagekull, B., & Rydell, A. M. (2000). Attachment and social functioning: A longitudinal study from
infancy to middle childhood. Social Development, 9, 24-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/14 67-9507.00109
Bonsang, E. (2009). Does informal care from children to their elderly parents substitute for formal care in
Europe? Journal of Health Economics, 28(1), 143-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2008.09.002
Booth, A., Johnson, D., Granger, A., Crouter, A., & McHale, S. (2003). Testosterone and adolescent adjustment:
The moderating role of parent-adolescent relationships. Developmental Psychology, 39, 85-98.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.39.1.85
Booth, A., Granger, D., Mazur, A., Kivlighan, K. (2006). Testosterone and social behavior. Social Forces, 85,
167-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/sof.2006.0116
Bosmans, G., Braet, C., Van Leeuwen, K., & Beyers, W. (2006). Do parenting behaviors predict externalizing
behavior in adolescence, or is attachment the neglected 3rd factor? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35,
373-383. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-9026-1
Boutelle, K., Eisenberg, M. E., Gregory, M. L., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2009). The reciprocal relationship
between parent-child connectedness and adolescent emotional functioning over 5 years. Journal of
Psychosomatic Research, 66, 309-316. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2008.10.019
Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss, volume II. Separation: Anxiety and anger. Procedia Social and
Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1625-1629.
Brody, G. H. (1998). Sibling relationship quality: Its Causes and Consequences. Annual Review of Psychology,
49, 1-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.49.1.1
Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., & Zheng, L. (2002). Intergenerational transmission of risks for problem behavior.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 65-76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014283116104
Bugental, D. B. & Johnston, C. (2000). Parental and Child Cognitions in the Context of the Family. Annual
Review of Psychology, 51, 315-344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.315
Carpenter, B. D. (2001). Attachment bonds between adult daughters and their older mothers: Associations with
contemporary caregiving. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 56B(5), 257-266.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/56.5.P257
Chacko, J. A., Heiner, J. G., Siu, W., Macy, M., & Terris, M. K. (2006). Association between marijuana use and
transitional cell carcinoma. Urology, 67, 100-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.005
Crosnoe, R., Mistry, R. S., & Elder, G. H. (2002). Economic disadvantage, family dynamics, and adolescent
enrollment in higher education. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 690-702.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2002.00690.x
Day, N. L., Goldschmidt, L., & Thomas, C. A., (2006). Prenatal marijuana exposure contributes to the prediction
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
261
of marijuana use at age 14. Addiction, 101, 1313-1322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01523.x
Difilippo, J. M., & Overholser, J. C. (2002). Depression, adult attachment and recollections of parental caring
during childhood. Journal of Nerves and Mental Disorder, 190, 663-669.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-200210000-00002
Dorius, C., Booth, A., Hibel, J., Granger, D. A., & Johnson, D. (2011). Parents’ testosterone and children’s
perception of parent-child relationship quality. Hormones and Behavior, 60, 512-519.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.07.020
Dunn, J., Davies, L. C., O’Connor, T. G., & Sturgess, W. (2000). Parents’ and partners’ life course and family
experiences: links with parent-child relationships in different family settings. Journal of Child Psychology
and Psychiatry, 41, 995-968. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00684
Dykstra, P. A., & Fokkema, T. (2011). Relationships between parents and their adult children: A West European
typology of late-life families. Ageing and Society, 31(4), 545-569.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X10001108
Feldman, R., Guttfreund, D., & Yerushalmi, H. (1998). Parental care and intrusiveness as predictors of the
abilities-achievement gap in adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 721-730.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021963098002467
Field, A. P., Ball, J. E., Kawycz, N. J., & Harriett, M. (2007). Parent-Child Relationships and the Verbal
Information Pathway to Fear in Children: Two Preliminary Experiments. Behavioural and Cognitive
Psychotherapy, 35, 473-486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465807003736
Fingerman, K. L., & Birditt, K. S. (2011). Relationships between Adults and their Aging parents. Handbook of
the Psychology of Aging, 7, 219-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-380882-0.00014-0
Fincham, F. D., Beach, S. H., Arias, I., & Brody, G. H. (1998). Children’s attributions in the family: The
Children’s Relationship Attribution Measure. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 481-493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.12.4.481
Fletcher, A. C., Steinberg, L., & Williams-Wheeler, M. (2004). Parental influences on adolescent problem
behavior. Child Development, 75, 781-796. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00706.x
Galen, B. R., & Underwood, M. K. (1997). A developmental investigation of social aggression among children.
Developmental Psychology, 33, 589-600. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.33.4.589
Geuzaine, C., Debry, M., & Liesens, V. (2000). Separation from parents in late adolescence: The same for boys
and girls? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 79-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005173205791
Glasgow, K. L., Dornbusch, S. M., Troyer, L., Steinberg, L., & Ritter, P. L. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents’
attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools. Child Development, 68, 507-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131675
Golombok, S., Jadva, V., Lycett, E., Murray, C., & MacCallum, F. (2005). Families created by gamete donation:
Follow-up at age 2. Human Reproduction, 20, 286-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deh585
Golombok, S., Murray, C., Jadva, V., Lycett, E., MacCallum, F., & Rust, J. (2006). Non-genetic and gestational
parenthood: consequences for parent-child relationships and the psychological well-being of mothers,
fathers and children at age 3. Human Reproduction, 21(7), 1918-1924.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/del039
Griffin, K. W., Botvin, G. J., Scheier, L. M., Diaz, T. L., & Miller, N. L. (2000). Parenting practices as predictors of
substance use, delinquency, and aggression among urban minority youth: moderating effects of family
structure and gender. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14, 174-184.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.14.2.174
Grundy, E., & Henretta, J. C. (2006). Between elderly parents and adult children: A new look at the
intergenerational care provided by the sandwich generation. Ageing & Society, 26(5), 707-722.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X06004934
Grusec, J. E. (2011). Socialization Processes in the Family: Social and Emotional Development. Annual Review
of Psychology, 62, 243-269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.121208.131650
Haberkern, K., & Szydlik, M. (2010). State care provision, societal opinion and children’s care of older parents
in 11 European countries. Ageing & Society, 30(2), 299-323.
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
262
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X09990316
Habib, R. R., Hamdan, M., Al-Sahab, B., Tamim, H., Mack, A., & Rema, A. A. (2010). The influence of
parent-child relationship on safety belt use among school children in Beirut. Health Promotion International,
25(4), 403-411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daq038
Hetherington, E. M., & Stanley-Hagan, M. M. (2002). Parenting in divorced and remarried families. Handbook
of Parenting, 3, 287-315.
Hoff, A. (2007). Patterns of intergenerational support in grandparent-grandchild and parent child relationships in
Germany. Ageing and society, 27(5), 643-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X07006095
Kochanska, G., Aksan, N., & Joy, M. E. (2007). Children’s fearfulness as a moderator of parenting in early
socialization: Two longitudinal studies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 222-237.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.1.222
Lai, K. W., & McBride-Chang, C. (2001). Suicidal ideation, parenting style, and family climate among Hong
Kong adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 36(2), 81-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590042000065
Laird, R. D., Pettit, G. S., Bates, J. E., & Dodge, K. A. (2003). Parents’ monitoring-relevant knowledge and
adolescents’ delinquent behavior: evidence of correlated developmental changes and reciprocal influences.
Child Development, 74, 752-768. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00566
Lau, A. S., Valeri, S. M., McCarty, C. A., & Weisz, J. R. (2006). Abusive parents’ reports of child behavior
problems: Relationship to observed parent-child interactions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 30, 639-655.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.11.009
Ledoux, S., Miller, P., Choquet, M., & Plant, M. (2002). Family structure, parent-child relationships, and alcohol
and other drug use among teenagers in France and the United Kingdom. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 37, 52-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/37.1.52
Lemery, K. S., Essex, M. J., & Smider, N. A. (2002). Revealing the relation between temperament and behavior
problem symptoms by eliminating measurement confounding: expert ratings and factor analyses. Child
Development, 73(3), 867-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00444
Lowenstein, A., Katz, R., & Gur-Yaish, N. (2007). Reciprocity in parent-child exchange and life satisfaction
among the elderly: a cross-national perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 63(4), 865-883.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00541.x
Lye, D. N. (1996). Adult child-parent relationships. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 79-102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.79
Maccoby, E. E. (2000). Parenting and its effects on children: On Reading and misreading behavior genetics.
Annual review of psychology, 51, 1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.51.1.1
Ngai, S. S., Cheung, C., To, S., Liu, Y., & Song, H. (2013). Parent-child relationships, friendship networks, and
developmental outcomes of economically disadvantaged youth in Hong Kong. Children and Youth Services
Review, 35, 91-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.09.025
Ngai, S. Y., & Cheung, C. K. (2009). The effects of parental care and parental control on the internal assets of
adolescent children in Hong Kong. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 15, 235-255.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2009.9748031
Nigg, J. T., & Hinshaw, S. P. (1998). Parent personality traits and psychopathology associated with antisocial
behaviors in childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry,
39(2), 145-159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021963097001984
Olson, S. L., Bates, J. E., Sandy, J. M., & Lanthier, R. (2000). Early developmental precursors of externalizing
behavior in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28(2), 119-133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005166629744
Orlov, A. (1996). The evolution of interpersonal relations in the family: The main approaches, orientations and
trends. Magister, 1, 52-64.
Orthner, D. K., Jones-Sanpei, H., & Williamson, S. (2004). The resilience and strengths of low-income families.
Family Relations, 53(2), 159-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00006.x
Patock-Peckham, J. A., Cheong, J., Balhorn, M. E., & Nagoshi, C. T. (2001). A social learning perspective: A
www.ccsenet.org/res Review of European Studies Vol. 7, No. 5; 2015
263
model of parenting styles, self-regulation, perceived drinking control, and alcohol use problems. Alcoholism:
Clinical and Experimental Research, 25, 1284-1292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2001.tb02349.x
Patricia-Luciana, R. (2011). The time factor: Does it influence the parent-child relationship?! Elsevier,
Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 11-14.
Phillips, D. A., & Lowenstein, A. E. (2011). Early Care, Education, and Child Development. Annual Review of
Psychology, 62, 483-500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.031809.130707
Rettew, D. C., Stanger, C., McKee, L., Doyle, A., & Hudziak, J. J. (2010). Interactions Between Child and Parent
Temperament and Child Behavior Problems. Focus, 8, 276-285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/foc.8.2.foc276
Riggs, N. R., Chou, C. P., & Pentz, M. A. (2009). Protecting against intergenerational problem behavior:
Mediational effects of prevented marijuana use on second-generation parent-child relationships and child
impulsivity. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 100, 153-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.10.003
Schmeck, K., & Poustka, F. (2001). Temperament and disruptive behavior disorders. Psychopathology, 34(3),
159-163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000049300
Shiner, R., & Caspi, A. (2003). Personality differences in childhood and adolescence: Measurement,
development, and consequences. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 44(1), 2-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00101
Smart, R. G., & Ogborne, A. C. (2000). Drug use and drinking among students in 36 countries. Addictive
Behaviors, 25, 455-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(99)00013-1
Stewart-Brown, S. L., Fletcher, L. W., & Michael, E. J. (2005). Parent-child relationships and health problems in
adulthood in three UK national birth cohort studies. European Journal of Public Health, 15(6), 640-646.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cki049
Swiss, L., & Le Bourdais, C. (2009). Father-child contact after separation The influence of living arrangements.
Journal of Family Issues, 30, 623-652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X08331023
Szinovacz, M. E., & Davey, A. (2013). Changes in adult children’s participation in parent care. Ageing and
society, 33(4), 667-697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X12000177
Teresa, T. S. (2009). Intergenerational Family Relations in Adulthood: Patterns, Variations, and Implications in
the Contemporary United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 35, 191-212.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134615
Troll, L. E., & Fingerman, K. L. (1996). Connections between parents and their adult children. In C. Magai, & S.
McFadden (Eds.), Handbook of emotion, adult development, and aging (pp. 185-205). San Diego: Academic
Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012464995-8/50012-1
Varg a, A. (2 01 1) . Introduction into the family systems therapy (p. 2). Moscow: Cogito.
Windle, M. (2000). Parent, sibling, and peer influences on adolescent substance use and alcohol problems. Applied
Developmental Science, 4, 98-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0402_5
Copyrights
Copyright for this article is retained by the author(s), with first publication rights granted to the journal. This is
an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
... In order to help students to have good mental health, having a protective and supportive environment in the family are important [28]. Parents-child relationship is regarded as the most important relationship of a child [14]. Parents, who are the main influencer of their children's development, should provide a conducive environment to their children, especially during the movement control order as students are unable to leave their homes. ...
... Having a positive home environment with sufficient support from parents influences the state and behaviour of a child. It was found that children are able to develop healthy behaviour, have better cognitive performance and well-being when they have a positive relationship with their parents [14]. Moreover, having open and supportive communication with parents was found to reduce depression and anxiety among adolescents [18]. ...
... Meanwhile, the negative domains of parental practices such as poor monitoring and corporal punishment were related to more externalizing problems [13]. Thus, it is important for parents to maintain a good relationship with their children as it is able to enhance children's well-being, which then protects them from emotional distress, unhealthy behaviours and mental health issues [14]. ...
Conference Paper
Mental health issues are a serious problem globally and have worsened since the Covid-19 pandemic. School students are experiencing high levels of stress due to the closure of schools. Students have to quickly adapt to online learning with minimal guidance during the early stage of the pandemic. Subsequently, students are allowed to go to school on a rotation basis. Therefore, a conducive home environment with support from parents plays an important role in helping students to cope with the uncertainties during the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study where 761 high school students, aged between 13 to 18 years old were recruited in Malaysia. There was 468 female and 293 male students who participated in this study. Students’ mental health was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) while parental practices were measured using the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire. Parental practices were measured separately for father and mother in terms of positive parenting, involvement, poor monitoring and corporal punishment. Pearson correlation analysis showed that all parental practices were correlated significantly with mental health issues among high school students. However, based on the multiple regression analysis, only paternal poor monitoring, maternal corporal punishment, maternal positive parenting and paternal corporal punishment significantly predicted students’ mental health with paternal poor monitoring being the strongest predictor of students’ mental health. This study supported the importance of utilizing good parental practices in order to reduce mental health issues among students.
... Parent-child relationship is a two-way interaction between parents and their children (Robinson, 2015). It is an important environmental factor influencing an individual's adaptation and development (Miller et al., 2000;Slinner and Steinhauer, 2000;Bronfenbrenner, 2005;Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015;Yang, 2018;Steele and Cliff, 2019). Recent studies have shown that the parentchild relationship has been involved in the learning process of students (Tus, 2021;Zhu et al., 2021), which has emerged as a major factor affecting their academic performance and daily life (Carmona-Halty et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2021). ...
... The parent-child relationship is an interpersonal relationship that an individual is initially exposed to Wu (2017), Ling et al. (2018). This relationship synthesizes parenting styles, emotional expressions, and values; in addition, it is an innate environmental factor that influences an individual's adaptability, mental health, and academic performance (Fang et al., 2004;Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015;Yang, 2018;Steele and Cliff, 2019;Carmona-Halty et al., 2020). Research has reported that good parent-child relationships can satisfy an individual's basic emotional needs, such as a sense of belonging, leading to positive academic exploration and pursuit (Martin and Dowson, 2009;Carmona-Halty et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study used the Social Cognitive Theory and Broaden-and-Build Theory to propose and validate a chain mediation model. In total, 417 Chinese college students were studied to explore the effects of parent–child relationships on their academic performance. In addition, we investigated the chain-mediating roles of gratitude and psychological capital. The results showed that (1) the parent–child relationship significantly and positively affected the academic performance of college students; (2) gratitude partially mediated the parent–child relationship and the academic performance of college students; (3) psychological capital partially mediated the parent-child relationship and the academic performance of college students; and (4) gratitude and psychological capital exerted a chain-mediating effect between parent–child relationships and the academic performance of college students. Based on the results of the study, we conclude that the parent–child relationship not only directly affects the academic performance of college students but also indirectly affects it through the chain mediation of gratitude and psychological capital. Moreover, we proposed reasonable suggestions on how colleges and universities can guide students to deal with parent-child relationships, strengthen gratitude education, and improve psychological capital.
... Previous studies have indicated a strong relationship between adolescents' functioning and their parents' interaction quality (Babore et al., 2016). Positive parent-child relationships could help children face adversities and improve their health conditions (Popov & Ilesanmi, 2015), while the quality of the parent-child relationship would be undermined by corporal punishment, which leads children to feel alienated from their parents. (Gershoff, 2002;Laible et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has revealed that corporal punishment was a risk factor for adolescents’ externalizing problems; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that may mediate or moderate this association. This study examined the mediator of psychological distress and the moderator of the parent-child relationship in the association between corporal punishment and externalizing problems among Chinese adolescents. A sample of 728 Chinese adolescents was recruited from a cross-sectional survey conducted in senior high schools in Hebei, China. Results showed that depression and stress partially mediated the relationship between corporal punishment and externalizing problems. Besides, the direct effect of corporal punishment on adolescent externalizing problems was moderated by the quality of the parent-child relationship, with the effect being stronger for adolescents with lower quality of relationship with parents. The present study deepened our understanding of the mechanisms through which corporal punishment affected adolescents’ externalizing problems. Practical implications of this study were also discussed.
... Therefore, parental phubbing disrupts and reduces the level of parent-child attachment. On the other hand, parent-child attachment has a great impact on the development and adaptation of individuals (Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015). Attachment theory suggests that individuals with secure parent-child attachments are able to fully engage in exploratory activities even facing difficulties due to the protective, supportive, accessible, and empowering roles of the attachment object (usually parents), which ensure that the individuals feel safe and stress-free while engaging in exploratory activities, thereby increasing the willingness and quality of exploration (Bowlby, 1969;Aspelmeier and Kerns, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we examined the effects of parental phubbing on learning burnout in elementary and secondary school students and its mechanism of action. A questionnaire method was applied to investigate parental phubbing, parent–child attachment, ego depletion, and learning burnout among 2090 elementary and secondary school students in Anhui Province, China. The results are as follows: (1) Parental phubbing was significantly correlated with parent–child attachment, ego depletion, and learning burnout; (2) Parental phubbing has an indirect impact on learning burnout in elementary and secondary school students through three pathways: a separate mediating effect on parent–child attachment, a separate mediating effect on ego depletion, and a chain mediating effect on both. Parental phubbing is a risk factor for Learning Burnout, which can positively affect Learning Burnout in elementary and secondary school students. The findings of the study contribute to revealing the influence mechanism of parental phubbing on learning burnout in elementary and secondary school students.
... Filial piety is significantly correlated with providing only emotional support to older parents in a study (Xu, 2012). A healthy interaction between parents and their children represents a good family environment, an affective dimension of a positive nature, and the presence of af fective suppor t (Popov & Ilesanmi, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the associations between childhood trauma experiences and filial piety among young adults in the context of life course parent–child relationships. Data collection was performed by an online survey that included 483 university students samples from Turkey. Results showed that the stronger the filial piety expressed by young adults, the lower their likelihood of being exposed to childhood trauma experiences. In addition, when some sociodemographic variables were controlled, physical and emotional neglect and sexual abuse decreased the level of filial piety. Findings were discussed by taking a life course approach to investigate parent–child relationships. Young adults’ attitudes toward caring for their parents when they get older are influenced by their early relationships with their parents. This study provided a perspective and recommendations for social workers working in various welfare fields. Future researches, should evaluate the parent–child relationship in other life periods. Also, intervention practices on parent–child relationship should be developed and effectiveness should be tested.
... Parent-child closeness is particularly important for adolescents' development because in the family context, parents take care of their children for a long time [23]. Parentchild closeness refers to the long-term interaction and connection between parents and their children, covering aspects such as parenting styles, family member relationships, family values, and quality of communication [24,25]. According to attachment theory, high-quality parent-child interactions can positively influence children's physical, emotional, and social development in [26,27]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although previous research has investigated the associations among family factors, school factors, peer factors, and problematic Internet use, its causal direction has not been verified, particularly in the Chinese context. Using school-based data, this study aims to explore the possible causal direction among school climate, parent-child closeness, peer relations, and the problematic Internet use of Chinese adolescents. Nine hundred and sixty students in junior and senior high schools participated in a questionnaire survey. The results showed that parent-child closeness, school climate, and peer relations had a significantly direct effect on the problematic Internet use of Chinese adolescents. Meanwhile, the effects of parent-child closeness, school climate, and peer relations on problematic Internet use were mediated by self-esteem and depression. Implications are also discussed to prevent the problematic Internet use of adolescents.
... The study of parent-child relationships is rooted in attachment theory, which was formulated by British psychologist John Bowlby in 1973 and "emphasizes the importance of caring relationships for normal development of the child" ([Popov and Ilesanmi, 2015], 253). These caring relationships are characterised by affectionate, warm, uninterrupted and responsive parenting, in which "both parent and child find satisfaction and enjoyment" ([Stafford et al., 2016], 326; [Bowlby, 1973], 9). ...
Article
Full-text available
In light of an increasing technological dependence for millenials, and the fact that members of this generation are starting to become parents, this paper examines a crucial area of technology use: how smartphone use impacts a parent's relationship with their child. Rather than looking at the issue of technology and parenting in the purely psychological context of affects on a child's brain development, as is most often the case, this paper takes a sociological perspective to focus on the bond between parent and child. This issue is only very recently starting to become of interest to researchers, so this paper consolidates existing work in the field to bring attention to the ways in which a parent's dependence on, and distraction with, their smartphone, is changing how they interact with their child. For future and current parents to learn to juggle technology use and sustainable practices of caring for their child, it is important that they are cognizant of the patterns of disengagement and dissatisfaction that are produced by the common habits of smartphone use.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present research was to examine the role of family cohesion and parent-child interaction in explaining the self-esteem of students. The research design is correlation. The population consisted of all female students studying in the fifth grade of public primary schools of Sari in the academic years of 2014-15 that 254 students were selected by cluster random sampling for research sample. To collect data, family cohesion (Samani, 1381) scale, Parent-child relationship (Fine, moreland & schwbe, 1983) scale and self-esteem (Pope, 1988) scale were used. Results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between family cohesion (r/0 =44, p<00/01) and Parent-child interaction (r0 = /71, p<00/01) and its dimensions with self-esteem of students. Results of regression analysis showed that Family cohesion and parent child interaction can predict 52 percent of student self steem. Therefore, it is necessary to parents learn of family cohesion and favorable and constructive interaction significant impact on children mental and personality health to prevent of many negative consequences outbreak to their self-esteem.
Article
The effects of parental migration on the well‐being of left‐behind children (LBC) are varied. Several studies demonstrated that parental migration reduces children's psychological health but other research showed contradictory results. This study sought to clarify this issue by examining the mediating role of psychological distress and the moderating role of parental migration status in the association between the parent–child relationship and children's psychological distress. A total of 743 LBC and 688 non‐LBC self‐reported their parent–child relationship, psychological distress, and well‐being. Findings showed that psychological distress mediated the association between parent–child relationship and children's well‐being. This denotes that greater parent–child relationship results into lowered levels of psychological distress, and in turn, increases children's emotional, psychological, and social well‐being. Moreover, the link between parent–child relationship and psychological distress was found to be contingent to parental migration status. Specifically, the negative association between parent–child relationship and psychological distress was especially strong among LBC in contrast to non‐ LBC. This implies that children with higher quality relationships with their parents tend to exhibit decreased severity of psychological distress symptoms, especially in children whose parents are working overseas. These results underscore the dynamic role of parent–child relationship in the well‐being of LBC, and suggest ways to develop intervention programs that include cultivating skills in managing psychological distress and improving the emotional, psychological, and social well‐being of LBC.
Article
Full-text available
The Present research paper attempts at investigating the concepts of ‘True self and false self’ in the female characters presented by Krys Lee. Despite the fact that much has been carried out theoretically and clinically on the subject of the mother-child relation, the literary works of the Asian writers, in terms of cultural, social, psychological and artistic subjects and issues, have received little attention. Apart from the ordinary meaning of self, Winnicott, one of the 20th century’s greatest psychoanalysts and thinkers, believes that it is a more complex term that plays a crucial role in demonstrating one’s mental and emotional status. The sense of self is developed in every individual from infancy through the relationship with the mother. The baby’s true self or false self depends on how a mother adapts to the baby’s needs and desires. This dependency is identified as good-enough mothering, and if it is a successful form of adaptation, the infant begins to believe in external reality leading to the ego or self-development. The selected female characters’ actions, reactions and relations in “Drifting House” are symptomatic of their insecure childhoods, and frustrating developments. Their split characters, denial of reality, some sort of aggression and the lack of trust in the environment could be the echo of their childhood’s failure in receiving adequate care and attention.
Article
Full-text available
Care-giving research has focused on primary care-givers and relied on cross-sectional data. This approach neglects the dynamic and systemic character of care-giver networks. Our analyses address changes in care-givers and care networks over a two-year period using pooled data from the US Health and Retirement Study, 1992–2000. Based on a matrix of specific adult-child care-givers across two consecutive time-points, we assess changes in any adult-child care-giver and examine the predictors of change. A change in care-giver occurred in about two-fifths of care-giving networks. Ability to provide care based on geographical proximity, availability of alternative care-givers, and gender play primary roles in the stability of care networks. Results underline the need to shift care-giving research toward a dynamic and systemic perspective.
Article
Full-text available
The parents of our times are increasingly more and more stressed by the fact that they do not longer have time, neither for themselves, nor for their children. The purpose of this study is to present the importance of the time spent by a parent with his/her child which positively influences the parent-child interaction. The main objective of the research made in this study are the following determination of the importance of the TIME factor in the parent-child interaction. In this study, quantitative research and the survey via structured interview method were used. The research instrument used was the questionnaire.
Article
Social aggression consists of actions directed at damaging another's self-esteem, social status, or both, and includes behaviors such as facial expressions of disdain, cruel gossipping, and the manipulation of friendship patterns. In Study 1, 4th, 7th, and 10th graders completed the Social Behavior Questionnaire; only boys viewed physical aggression as more hurtful than social aggression, and girls rated social aggression as more hurtful than did boys. In the 1st phase of Study 2, girls participated in a laboratory task in which elements of social-aggression were elicited and reliably coded. In the 2nd phase of Study 2, another sample of participants (elementary, middle, and high school boys and girls) viewed samples of socially aggressive behaviors from these sessions. Girls rated the aggressor as more angry than boys, and middle school and high school participants viewed the socially aggressive behaviors as indicating more dislike than elementary school children.
Article
Relationships between adults and their parents are distinct from other types of social ties due to their long shared history and the evolving nature of the relationship from infancy through adulthood. The tie begins at birth and typically endures until one party dies (usually the parent). With the exception of twins, no other relationship lasts as long. Dramatic discontinuity is evident from the childhood years into adulthood, however, both in structural and emotional qualities. The childhood years are marked by high dependency on parents, coordination of schedules, and shared environments. This chapter addresses three important questions regarding adults and aging parents-what people gain from relationships with grown children or parents, and who provides what for whom the emotional qualities of these ties, and how these ties affect individual well-being. It also describes recent research relevant to each of these issues. The literature regarding relationships between adults and their aging parents may help provide an understanding of late-life development more generally. Many aging processes enacted in this tie apply to studies of aging in general. Addressing gaps in the study of adults and their parents also might contribute to the field of gerontology more broadly.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the concept of attachment originated from examinations of relationships between parents and infants. The chapter focuses on the emotional aspects of parent–child relationships over the life span. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, the pioneers in attachment theory and research, have argued for persistence of attachments, citing phenomena like emotional closeness in adult parent-child pairs and grief accompanying death. The chapter discusses that these persisting bonds retain their early character, at least so far as remaining secure, anxious, or ambivalent. There has even been preliminary work on transmission of attachment patterns across generations. Parent–child attachment in adulthood goes against one of the most deeply held values of Western culture, that of independence. This view assumes that adults who are too strongly tied to their parents or to anyone other than a spouse or small children are “dependent” and thus inadequate human beings. Others, though, have argued that mutuality and interdependence should be developmental goals rather than independence.
Article
This research investigates factors conducive to the thriving of economically disadvantaged young people in Hong Kong. In particular, we examine ways in which the parent–child relationship and friendship networks, as the principal sources of support during the transition from childhood to adulthood, influence the developmental outcomes of this group of young people with regard to their mental health, positive identity, behavioral adjustment, resilience and academic achievement. Based on a survey of 479 young people recruited from community-based youth-service centers located in different districts of Hong Kong, the results of the present research support the hypotheses that parent–child relationships and friendship networks have significant positive effects on youth development among low-income young people. Our results also show that, when compared with friendship networks, the parent–child relationship is a stronger predictor of youth development, that is, a stronger parent–child relationship tends to correspond to a better developmental outcome. Moreover, our research provides empirical evidence regarding the influence that parents can have on shaping the quality of young people's friendship networks. The implications of our findings, both for future research and for service delivery to promote the well-being of economically disadvantaged young people, are discussed.
Article
The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its relations with perceived parenting treatment and family climate was examined in 120 Hong Kong students aged 15–19 years. Fifty-two per cent of the participants reported suicide ideation. Suicide ideation was found to be significantly associated with perceived authoritarian parenting, low parental warmth, high maternal overcontrol, negative child-rearing practices, and a negative family climate. A positive family climate may act as a buffer against developing suicide ideation in adolescents. La fréquence des pensées suicidaires et ses relations avec le climat familial et la perception du style sont étudiées chez 120 étudiants de Hong Kong, âgés de 15 à 19 ans. Cinquante-deux pour cent des participants rapportent avoir des idées suicidaires. De telles idées sont associées significativement avec la perception d'un style parental autoritaire, un niveau bas de chaleur parentale, une surprotection maternelle élevée, des pratiques négatives d'éducation des enfants et un climat familial négatif. Un climat familial positif pourrait servir de défense contre le développement des idées suicidaires chez les adolescents.