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The article reacts on the works of the leading theorists in the fields of psychology focusing on the theory of problem solving. It contains an analysis of already published knowledge, compares it and evaluates it critically in order to create a basis that is corresponding to the current state of cognition. In its introductory part, it pursues a term problem and its definition. Furthermore, it pursues the problematic situations and circumstances that accompany the particular problem and appear during its solving. The main part of this article is an analysis of the problem solving process itself. It specifies related terms in detail, e.g. the ability to perceive the problem, the perceptibility of the problem, the willingness to solve the problem, the awareness of existence of the problem or strategies of problem solving. Published knowledge is applicable not only in fields of psychology, but also in fields of pedagogy, or education.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2014) 000000
1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University.
INTE 2014
Theory of problem solving
Jiří Dostál
Palacký University, Žižkovo náměstí 5, 77140 Olomouc
bSecond affiliation, Address, City and Postcode, Country
The article reacts on the works of the leading theorists in the fields of psychology focusing on the theory of problem solving. It
contains an analysis of already published knowledge, compares it and evaluates it critically in order to create a basis that is
corresponding to the current state of cognition. In its introductory part, it pursues a term problem and its definition. Furthermore,
it pursues the problematic situations and circumstances that accompany the particular problem and appear during its solving. The
main part of this article is an analysis of the problem solving process itself. It specifies related terms in detail, e.g. the ability to
perceive the problem, the perceptibility of the problem, the willingness to solve the problem, the awareness of existence of the
problem or strategies of problem solving. Published knowledge is applicable not only in fields of psychology, but also in fields of
pedagogy, or education.
© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of the Sakarya University.
Keywords: problem, problem solving, definition, psychology, education.
1. Problem and its definition
The human beings are in their lives every day confronted with the situations that are for them contradictory,
containing obstructions that have to be overcome in order to achieve the aim, or the human beings experience
various difficulties. To cope with these situations, it is desirable to apply the thought processes enabling generating
of knowledge necessary for a successful solving or removing of the above-mentioned obstructions. Those situations,
raising the inevitably thought processes, are, according to A. M. Matyushkin (1973, p. 20), in psychology called as
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +420739249125
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2 Author name / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2014) 000000
the problem situations and the relevant tasks as the problem tasks.
The definition of the term problem is presented differently, therefore it is desirable to analyse it in detail and
define it. Theoretically, a problem is understood as a difficulty of theoretical or practical nature that causes an
inquiring attitude of a subject and leads him/her to the enrichment of his/her knowledge (Cz. Kupisiewicz, p. 16).
This term is in the fields of education similarly understood by a Polish scientist, W. Okoń (p. 79), who defines a
didactic problem as a practical or theoretical difficulty that a pupil has to solve independently by his own active
research. Usually, the base of this difficulty is a systematic and deliberately organized situation, in which the pupil
aspires to overcome the difficulties in accordance to the specific needs and by this he/she gains new knowledge and
experience. The analysis of this particular situation leads to the formulation of a problem to the verbal definition of
the occurred difficulty.
The term problem defines J. Linhart (1976, p. 385) as:
a) problem is an interactive relation between a subject and its surroundings, which incorporates the inner
conflict that is solved by the subject by searching of transitions from initial condition to the final condition
b) the existence of a conflict causes the dynamics of an activity and, furthermore, it establishes a source of
motivated activity,
c) during the solving of a conflict, the subject exceeds something that is directly stated, i.e. he/she exceeds the
current situation and stated information and searches for new approaches.
Duncker (1945) states that a problem arises, when a person has a specific aim but he/she does not know how to
achieve it. However, this statement is only one of the possible cases since a problematic relation does not have to be
primarily based on the aim of the person, but also on the difficulties and inner uncertainty. The individual is aware
of the problem that has already arisen and then he/she establishes the aims to remove the difficulties and uncertainty
causing the burdensome feeling. The problem is defined by a relation between the subject and objective situation in
the environment. A problematic relation has a nature (Linhart, 1976, p. 78) of:
a) either a conflict between two contradictory tendencies which the subject sees as two incompatible
alternatives, or as a difference or conflict between the current situation and the aim; the subject needs to
achieve the aim but he/she does not know the means to achieve it the result is "a perceived
inconsistency" of the situation; the problem solving consists of the removal of the conflict and the finding
of the desired object.
b) a disorder in the objective situation or in the structure of an activity and subjective uncertainty that causes
activating tension and motivating focus.
Appropriate conditions enable the formation of a problematic situation, in which the individual finds him/herself
and that surrounds him/her. According to suitable statement of Cz. Kupisiewicz (1964, p. 16), this situation
embarrasses the individual which causes a feeling of a difficulty superimposed by curiosity and strives to satisfy
him/her. Acquired forms of behaviour of the individual find themselves in a conflict with the given situation, the
individual is forced to adapt to those new situations, to create the new ways of behaviour by which a new balance of
the forces is developed therefore the conflict is overcome (comparison to Linhart, 1982, p. 63). The problematic
situation cannot be confused with a problem; this term will be defined later. By studying of the scientific
publications we draw a conclusion that the most suitable definition is made by J. Linhart (1976, p 385), who defines
the problematic situation as a totality of conditions that determine the formation and specifics of the problem. It is
impossible to be fully identified with another definition made by I. J. Lerner (1986, p. 91). He defines a problematic
situation as a barrier that subject is clearly or indefinitely aware of and to its overcoming he/she needs a creative
search of the new knowledge, new ways and activities. However, the barrier is not the only element of the
problematic situation - this role is played by the other factors as well.
Analysing the different problematic situations, we draw a conclusion that they are characterized by diversity and
it is possible to divide them in the groups based on the similar signs. Considering the understanding and subsequent
problem solving, as the most simple situations occure those where necessary pieces of information are apparent and
where no unnecessary data, that would have to be filtered out and analysed by concluding operations, are presented.
The problem is clear and, basically, it is only a matter of finding its solution. All substantial circumstances are
clearly specified: the current state, the target state and the available operators. These situations can be described as
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the specific problematic situations and as the examples can be named different types of brain teasers. It is possible to
meet this kind of problematic situations very often in the field of school education, to which refer Mayer and
Wittrock (2006). They state that educational materials very often prioritize well-defined problems; however, the
most of the real life problems are defined wrongly. As found, an ease of preparation of those problematic situations
from side of the teacher, high number of students and to that related level of the problematic situations contribute to
that. Further problems may cause the relative time consuming which is advantageous mainly because of the length
of the standardized teaching unit. The opposite situations that can be called as uncertain problematic situations are
characteristic by the lack of information which has to be firstly gained. Often it is not obvious which information
will be needed for problem solution and the problem is not obvious as well as it has to be firstly identified, prepared
and defined and later solved. The objective uncertainty is outside the individual who finds himself in the
problematic situation. Funke and Frensch (1995) refer to those problematic situations as “non-transparent”.
The problematic situations are possible to be assessed in terms of statics, or dynamics, which is defined e.g. by
the authors Blech and Funke (2010), Klieme (2004), Wirth and Klieme (2004). The changeability of the complex of
the conditions, that determine the creation and specifics of the problem in time, is determinable. For the problem
solving is more advantageous when the conditions are stable and no changes are happening in these cases is the
problematic situation called static problematic situation. An example of static problematic situation can be, again, a
brain teaser. On the other hand, for the dynamic problematic situations is the change of conditions, that determine
creation and specifics of the problem in time, characteristic. The conditions can change because of various
influences, whose creation and effect can the individual not affect. The on-going consideration of the influences
acting in time and their control is an assumption for successful problem solving process in those situations. The
dynamics does not have to be in the context of problem solving understood as negative, it can operate also
positively, and e.g. previously unsolvable problem suddenly becomes solvable.
2. Problem solving
As it was already discussed above, the thinking of an individual begins with the awareness of the problematic
situation. In this case, the problematic situation has a potential to grow into a problem that deserves a solution.
Every problem is bound to the problematic situation, however, not every problematic situation turns into the
problem because this reality depends on the individual. A person, who finds him/herself in a problematic situation
and is aware of its existence, does not have to “see” the problem until the ability of the problem awareness is
developed. The individual, who is aware of the problem, is able to specify the difficulty or the source of the conflict
which causes the problematic situation, is capable to deal with the problem. Contrary to that, the individual who is
not able to be aware of the problem, is albeit experiencing the feeling superimposed by curiosity, however, does not
realise what causes the difficulty, which obstacle that causes the conflict has to be removed, and, therefore, he is not
able to remove it. A lot of factors affect the problem awareness and those can appear inside the problematic
situation, e.g.: the inappropriate verbal utterances that should induce the situation or the lack of knowledge. They
can also appear outside the problematic situation, i.a. noise, improper lighting or a visual impairment. Taking this
into account, we can mention also so-called perceptibility of the problem. The threshold of the perceptibility is
different amongst the individuals which is mainly conspicuous when more people find themselves in a problematic
situations of the same parameters. The exterior conditions of the individual are the same, the conditions directly
connected to the individual are different.
If the individual is perceives the problem, the willingness to deal with the problem is very essential. This is a
state when the individual approaches the evaluation of the circumstances of the problem and character of the
problematic situation. He/she evaluates the particular circumstances and he/she attaches a particular importance to
them. One of the opinions is that he/she is not willing to deal with the problem in the current situation or to proceed
to its solution. This is very important in the educational field because the problems that are given to the pupils
should be the ones that the pupils accept willingly and if not, the pupils should be motivated. The reluctance to deal
with the problem is going to be obvious mainly in the situations that allow an escape because the feeling of
difficulties is not pleasant for every individual.
If the individual is willing to deal with the problem, it does not mean that he/she is going to be willing to solve it.
If he/she e.g. does not have the initial data for seeking the ways of overcoming the obstacles and there are no
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obvious possibilities to gain the data, then the situation is not accepted by him/her, therefore it will not be reflected
in his/her thinking. In this case there is no will connected to the effort to solve the problem going to appear. The
willingness to solve the problem, similarly as the willingness to deal with the problem, cannot be assumed
automatically, therefore it is desirable to induce it with the help of the appropriate resources and ways, and to
motivate the individual. R. E. Mayer states that the willingness is affected by motivational and emotional factors
such as the interest, the conviction (self-confidence) and the conception of own abilities (1998). In the motivation of
the individual can appear interests, habits, ideals or external stimuli, and others, depending on the nature of the
problem. The willingness to solve the problem negatively affect three factors that cannot be neglected.
M. Nakonecny (1998, p. 458) states that for the individual´s willingness to solve the problem and deal with it is
essential the probability that he/she achieves his aim. The value of the aim, which should be achieved by solving or
the subject´s expectations of possible consequences, play an important role as well.
Only two ways of being excited by motives to solve the problem are meaningful in the educational field. First
case is to create a situation that excites the pupil, energises him/her, and i.e. induces a state in which the pupil
experiences the impulse or forcing to the interest about the problem and its solution. The teacher has to lead the
pupil to the experience of wanting to be active. The interest about the problem solving has to be aroused, which
enables to satisfy the need resulting from the unfamiliarity, we can speak about so-called cognitive need.
M. Nakonecny (Zaklady psychologie, 1998) states that this state is characterised by a particular tension and motive
(compulsion), and for that is important to understand the problem and to perceive the obstacle that prevents the
achievement of the aim. A problem always contains a conflict or a difficulty, which has to be overcome during the
solution process. However, the obstacle has to be conspicuous to the individual so that the conflict or a difficulty are
feelable. The mentioned state can be characterised as a disequilibrium and the individual is motivated to balance it
which leads to his/her satisfaction. The need is satisfied by solving the problem and gaining the needed knowledge.
The second way is the application of external stimuli that cause inner motives and that are resources of satisfying
the individual´s inner needs. Instead of desire to solve the problem and satisfaction of the needs regarding its
solution the individual him/herself orients to the effective solution of the problem. The purpose stays in this case
outside the problem itself because the problem plays only a vicarious role. The pupil solves the problem in order to
achieve the aim and the problem solving becomes only a resource. This is in terms of educational results not as
beneficial as when the interest in the problem itself appears. It is typical for the school environment to apply the
stimuli that are not natural, e.g. the pupil does not encounter grades in normal life.
The problem solving can be according to R. E. Mayer (1990) defined as a summary of the cognitive processes
focused on the change of the given state to the final state where the solution procedure is not obvious. The given
characteristics is among the experts of problem solving usually accepted (Klieme 2004; Mayer and Wittrock, 2006;
Reef et al., 2006). The problem solving and its cause is defined in the work of Funke (2010) who stated that the
persons initial knowledge of the problem are the conditions (the given state). The operations are permissible
activities that can be performed in order to achieve the required final state (result) with the help of available
instruments. On the way to the aim are standing obstacles that have to be overcome (e.g. the lack of knowledge or
the directly obvious strategies). The process of overcoming of the obstacles can include not only cognitive but also
motivational and emotional aspects.
The solution of the didactic problem begins with the awareness of the existence of the problematic situation
followed by understanding of its essence. During the problem solving the human being faces many obstacles and
meets different possible solutions among which he/she has to choose. His/her personality itself is a very complicated
system of characteristics and roles - their interaction is often contradictory. Fight between the motives is conditioned
by that, it is characteristic for the active behaviour: attitude and emotionally substantiated wishes of the subject very
often collide with the surrounding world (compar. Linhart, 1982, p. 63). The problem solving is a personal and
aimed process. That means that the activities done by an individual during the problem solving process are led to
his/her personal aim (Mayer and Wittrock, 2006).
An individual has to identify the problem first and then seek for possible solutions (Mayer and Wittrock, 2006).
There are typical phases used for the problem solving that are being discussed by different authors, e.g. J.
Linhart(1976, p.78) suggests that the subject experiences three phases:
- the discovery of the problematic situation,
- the phase of the solution process, where the subject meets the properties of the situation and seeks for
the resources that can change the situation (object) with respect to the required aim and
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- the phase of verification of the discovered property or method and its use in other problems of the same
It is possible to agree with above-mentioned information, however, the situation is more complex and needs
further analysis that emphasises the individual and his/her thinking process and behaviour. The presumptions can be
found in research PISA 2012 (Conceptual framework of the problem solving PISA 2012) within which the activities
of an individual were indicated and evaluated. Those activities are: research and understanding, representation and
formulation, planning and performing, observation and evaluation. Not only those ways but also others will be
characterised later on.
In literature, it is possible to encounter the efforts of problem solving ways to order the individual phases. In
accordance with the authors Lesh and Zawojewski (2007), it cannot be presumed that those activities are performed
in an individual order the problem solving, nor that all possible ways are applied. During structuring, representation
and solving of the authentic problems that arise from the real life situations is the final problem solving reached in a
way that overcomes boundaries of a linear consecution step by step. The before-mentioned authors say that current
knowledge of the human cognitive system functioning actually indicates that it can process different pieces of
information simultaneously.
The individual, that find him/herself in the problematic situation and is aware of its existence, has to firstly get to
know with the elements, circumstances and influences that create the situation and are a part of it. The result of this
conduct should be the creation of a mental representation of all internal and external entities that are a part of the
problem or create it directly. The individual explores the situation with this aim and during this time he/she observes
and affects it with an aim to learn it and understand it. It is needed to understand the given pieces of information as
well as those that are being gained in the interaction with the problematic situation and the understanding of the
particular elements of the problem. The representation of the elements, its bonds, acting effect and registering of the
new knowledge, is typical in order to reach the better understanding. Thinking of the individual can then orientate
on the insight of the problem, the memory is therefore available for other needs. That enables the creation of the
coherent mental representation of the problematic situation in whole, i.e. situation model or the problem model
(Conceptual framework of problem solving PISA 2012).
The elements, connections and influences in their nature can be formed dynamic, variable in time and space
which is negative for their cognition and understanding. However, if they have been already recognised and
understood, their changes can be positive in accordance to the problem solving. The changes can then induce
appropriate circumstances and conditions.
The problematic situation includes circumstances and conditions that cause difficulty, conflict, unrest, feeling of
uncertainty, limitation, or a concern over the disorder. Those can be of material and non-material nature and can
require operations with physical objects, things or thought operations. The individual has to perform an analysis of
the problematic situation and prepare a cause of the conflict or difficulty which causes a problematic state that
tempts him to solve, remove or overcome it. The cause has to be distinguished from other entities to ensure a
relation to the relating objects and to determine the character of links. The conflict and the difficulty are always
impalpable, internal and experienced by subject. On the other hand, the causing reason can be palpable and also
It remains an open question if the problem solving consists of reshaping the external circumstances and
conditions, or the internal ones. J. Linhart (1976) states that the problem solving process consists of reshaping the
object and its reconstruction in order to overcome the given problem and to find an objectively needed alternative of
solution and negotiation. Considering the characteristics, the complexity of human psychology and the science
development, the cognition of a particular situation as a problematic one can be removed by appropriate ways and
resources in order to remove the conflict and the experience of difficulties. Therefore it cannot be unambiguously
presumed that the problem solving is related only to surrounding world of the individual, however, the essence of
most of the problem solving remains unquestionably outside the individual.
If the individual is aware of the cause of the conflict or the difficulty, he/she accesses to the cognition about what
causes it and how can the creation be precluded by removal of the obstacles, reordering of the elements system, or
ordering the elements into a system. He/she thinks about the kind of resources he/she has, how he/she can use them
properly, and what way he/she should choose in relation to its removal. This is a complex of various acts and
thought processes that (according to the character of the solved problem) contain manipulation with the objects of
material nature; it indicates an interaction, an evaluation of the situation in the new conditions that are distinguished
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by changes made by an individual. During the problem solving process the individual has to bear in mind the
knowledge of various types and operate with them (Mayer and Wittrock, 2006). During the solving the individual
defines hypotheses, gains new pieces of information and finds out gradually which circumstances affect, or don’t
affect the removal of the cause, the conflict or the difficulty. The structuring of information and their critical
evaluating is also being performed. The result of this process is the knowledge that can be transferred and used
properly in problem solving of a similar nature. In this context are some problems more or less interactive, e.g. the
individual has to affect one or more input variables and evaluate the effect on them. The variables can influence
each other which increases the complexity of the problem solving. It is desirable to keep the individual motivated,
mainly when there is no longer found the fact that causes the reason of the conflict, or when there is not sure how to
remove it. The situation is then demotivating and the individual may refrain from the problem solving.
The problem itself does not show the direction of solution and it does not restrict it (I. J. Lerner, 1986, p. 91-92).
It is characteristic for the problem task where the parameters and the requirement of the solutions are given. Thus a
problem that contains parameters of its solution is a problem task.
For the successful problem solution, it is appropriate to perform the planning of the particular steps that lead to
its successful resolution. Planning is developed from the circumstances of the problem, contexts and influences that
create the problematic situation and, possibly, the stated parameters. The compiled plan does not have to be definite
and it is very probable that there will be changes performed that reflect the new knowledge gained during its
Considering the personality of the individual, the used ways for the solution are being settled with higher number
of solved problems. It is possible to speak about the strategy of the problem solving that can be characterized as a
plan of the sequence of steps consisting of application of proper methods and resources that lead to the successful
problem solving. The distinctiveness of the circumstances of the problem is being reflected into the strategy.
Furthermore, it is being judged by the individual and according to it he/she chooses the form of the individual steps.
Those that did not acquitted themselves well are no longer used in the similar problematic situations. The increasing
frequency of the solved problems has a formative meaning from this point of view.
Parameters of solution are limiting, regulative and deliberately settled factors: the individual solving the problem
is being limited in the possibilities of the solution, the ways are being defined by the parameters, and the forms or
resources that can or cannot be used are being defined by them as well. They can also express the resulting quality
of the solution. They can be regulated in a way that the problem solving takes place according to the needs of the
author of the problem task which is in a certain direction advantageous for the needs of the education; however, they
limit the creativity. The given parameters can contribute to the finding of the path of the problem’s solution that can
unsolvable for the individual without them.
After the fact that causes the reason of the conflict is found as well as the way of how to eliminate it, the
individual tries to remove it. It is therefore needed to act and when it is successful, it removes the cause of the
conflict, difficulty and the problem is solved. There are expected skills that the individual has already gained which
facilitates the problem solving and mainly in relation to the shortening of the time needed for the solution.
The problem solving process includes also cognition of progress. If the solution ought to be successful, the
individual has to perceive the aftermaths of his/her own acting in the individual phases of the problem solving,
he/she has to verify if the action had a positive effect on the problem solving itself, if he/she gets closer to the
expected aim or whether he/she gets more distant from it. The unexpected events can intervene in the way of the
solving that change the problematic situation and can have an influence on the solving process.
The resolution of the problem can be described as a state characterized as the removal, disappearance or fading
of the difficulties, conflict, unrest, feeling of uncertainty, or a concern. The two possible ways of reaching the
resolution were already discussed as these are internal and external ways. The solving does not have to be based on
the individual who experiences the problem and feels it - another individual or a group of cooperating individuals
can contribute to those before-mentioned ways. In extreme cases does not the individual experiencing the difficulty
or a conflict have to perform any action and the problem can be solved as a result of the spontaneous change of the
acting circumstances or the change caused by another person.
In the literature devoted to the problem solving, it is possible to encounter with a term competency to solve the
problem. In publication OECD (Problem Solving for Tomorrow’s World, 2004) based on researches of the scientific
publications is the term defined: the competency to solve the problem is an ability of the individual to use the
cognitive skills for understanding of the problematic situations and its resolution in case when no obvious way of
solution is presented. Its part is also the individual’s willingness to deal with those situations so that he/she can grow
Author name / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 00 (2014) 000000 7
his/her own potential as a constructive and thoughtful citizen. It is not important that the competency is defined as
ability - we only emphasize this fact, but it is more important to note the following fact: in the framework of PISA
from the year 2003 was the competency defined similarly, mainly its first part. As mentioned in publication
(Problem Solving for Tomorrow’s World, 2004), whereas the definition from 2003 contained only the cognitive
dimension and emphasized especially the interdisciplinarity of the evaluation. In 2012 was into the definition added
also an emotional component in accordance to the competency definitions of OECD (OECD, 2003). The
competency is more than a reproduction of the maintained knowledge - it contains mobilisation of the cognitive and
practical skills, creativity and other psychological sources, i.e. attitudes, motivation and values (OECD, 2003).
As mentioned, it is needed to have the knowledge for the solving and successful resolution, it is also possible to
speak about the cognition basis. However, that cannot be understood as something closed but as a dynamically
developing process of the problem solving because the part of the competency to solve the problems is an ability to
actively gain and use the new knowledge in a direct contact with a barrier or a difficulty and action performed on it,
or gaining new knowledge from other sources that are also needed for the successful solution of the problem. Even
the current, i.e. already gained knowledge before the start of problem solving, can be used in a new way. That
enables solution of non-routine, subjectively new tasks.
Time needed for problem solving is a significantly undetermined variable. Time needed for finding and removing
is affected by a number of internal and external factors. The external factors are given by their diversity of
circumstances and their order, the inner factors are given by inherent and gained dispositions of the individual. It is
important to take into account those facts during the educational process where the problem solving is used because
the pupils could need a different period of time for the resolution of the problem.
3. Conclusion
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permission to reproduce any figures for which copyright exists.
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... The next is (b) the habit, based on intellectual commitment and he/she has to use those skills to guide his/her behaviour. Commanger (1992), Scriven and Paul (2004), and Dostal (2015) further reported that skills in critical thinking further help individuals to sharpen their problem-solving skills. Hence, critical thinking is a habit that 'thinkers' live by. ...
... The conceptual framework of the study is presented in Figure 2. It is rooted from the three concepts of problem solving by Dostal (2015) and critical thinking skills by Haase (2010). ...
... The behaviour of writers during the process of solving problems builds the habit of using critical thinking skills. Dostal (2015) reviewed several definitions of critical thinking and summarised three main habits, which are (a) conflict, (b) willingness to deal with the problem, and (c) learning from the solution. ...
... It is a metacognitive skill (Mayer, 1998) which Gagne (1985) defines as the most complex of mental skills. According to Dostál (2015), people develop their own problem-solving abilities at different paces according to their involvement in various situations in life. Hence, the problem-solving skill of a person is related to their awareness ability and perceptibility of the problem, their willingness and competence to solve the problem, and their cognitive self-evaluation (Dostál, 2015). ...
... According to Dostál (2015), people develop their own problem-solving abilities at different paces according to their involvement in various situations in life. Hence, the problem-solving skill of a person is related to their awareness ability and perceptibility of the problem, their willingness and competence to solve the problem, and their cognitive self-evaluation (Dostál, 2015). The problem-solving process includes several steps; problem identification, information gathering, problem resolution to identify the root problem, identification of possible solutions, determination of the best solution, and problem solution (Mayer, 1998), and these steps are considered together as an important life skill (Anderson, 2009). ...
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Problem-solving is one of the most important twenty-first-century skills and should be acquired at an early age. Since programming is a kind of problem-solving process, it may be seen in the context of problem-solving skills development. Hence, this study aims to identify the effectiveness of one of the most popular programming tools “Scratch” on middle school students’ problem-solving skills. For this purpose, this current study’s implementation lasted for a period of 14 weeks, based on the ‘Information Technologies and Software’ course at 2 h per week. The course curriculum was conducted for both 18 middle school students in an experimental group and 16 middle school students in a control group at least one hour per week while in the second hour, the control group worked on the activities that the coursebook included and the experimental group engaged in game design activities using Scratch. The Problem Solving Inventory for Children (PSIC) was used as a data collection tool in order to examine the participants’ self-perception with regard to their problem-solving skills. MANOVA, ANOVA, and t-tests were employed in the analysis of the obtained data. The study showed that game design activities with Scratch increased the problem-solving skills of the participants. In this context, game design activities with coding tools can be employed with children in order to help them gain problem-solving skills at an early age.
... The popularity of such games among children and youths has led to game-based learning being proposed as a learning tool for educating young people and developing their growth mindset (Boctor, 2013). A growth mindset develops when students who have experienced failure are encouraged to persist and do better (Dostál, 2015). Students with a growth mindset are, therefore, willing to attempt a task repeatedly until they achieve the desired outcome. ...
... Problem-solving skills increase one's value to employers, thereby providing an advantage in the labor market. According to Dostál (2015), solving properly structured problems is a linear process that comprises two stages: 1) generating a problem space, and 2) devising a resolution by operating through the problematic space. However, solving problems in a properly structured space is easier than solving problems that may occur in real-life. ...
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A new approach to learning in the form of educational games has been adopted in recent years, especially in English language teaching. The educational game learning approach used to teach English to non-native English-speakers who use English as a second or foreign language has recorded great success. This study provides an innovative framework for the adoption of the educational games learning approach at university. This is done to ensure lifelong learning and interdisciplinary learning opportunities for students. The study introduces social skills and knowledge training to address topics of gaming and learning. It describes the point at which learning is expected to occur and the role that game elements play in relation to student engagement and educational gaming content interaction. The study further describes the principles governing collaborative learning which are the key pillars for acquiring cognitive and social skills. The contribution of game-based learning is further linked with mindset improvement and growth. The study further examines three theories that are essential to the development of the game-based learning approach: narrative-centered learning theory, problem-solving theory, and engagement theory. Upon providing the theoretical underpinnings, teachers’ perceptions towards the game-based learning approach are further addressed in the paper. The advantages and disadvantages of game-based learning are also discussed.
... Problem solving is the initial knowledge of people who are given a conditioning and a process to overcome obstacles that must be overcome not only including cognitive aspects but also motivational and emotional aspects [4]. The typical phase according to prior research which are used to solve problems, among others, the discovery of problematic situations, the resolution process in which the subject can change the situation/object under study to meet the required objectives, verification of the methods found [5]. Problem solving is described as a result of resume of activity such us knowing problem, interpreting problem, figuring out problem, choosing the appropriate strategy, applying the process and strategy skill, and making written and acceptable answers. ...
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This study aims to determine student problem solving on students’ argumentation skills under the topic of dynamic electricity. Design in this research is descriptive-qualitative and using a case study design with 34 undergraduate students who were selected using purposive sampling technique. The data was obtained through an essay test which consisted of 3 questions using the right arguments. The results of this research show that the percentage level of argumentation categories sequentially increases in each category. For category 1 it is 6%, category 2 is 24%, category 3 is 26% and category 4 is 44%. The results of the student's argumentation show that their argumentation ability is still relatively low, which is below 50%.
... Complex problem solving "takes place for decreasing the boundary between a given start state and an expecting objective state with the assistance of cognitive activities and behaviour". Meanwhile (Dostál, 2015) stated that the problem is an intuitive connection between a subject and its environment, which relates the inner problem that is solved by the subject by looking at its moves from an initial condition to the final condition which is known as aim. The problem also can occur when someone has the aim, but he/she does not know how to get it. ...
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Programme outcomes (POs) are the attributes that reflect the student skills expected to be acquired upon graduation. The Engineering Accreditation Council (EAC) under Board of Engineers Malaysia requires 12 POs with complex engineering problems (CEP) and knowledge profiles to be incorporated in engineering programmes. Despite considerable research on outcome-based education (OBE), the OBE implementation with regards to the PO attributes and domains incorporating CEP characteristics are still questionable and vaguely implemented by the programmes. This paper presents two PO attributes related to problem solving and development/design for solution based on the perceptions of 301 engineering students in Malaysia. This paper aims to determine the student’s level of understanding on the PO learning domain and to analyze significant factors contributing to their PO attainment. A quantitative method using a questionnaire survey was adopted targeting a random probability sampling of respondents. Descriptive (percentage frequency, relative importance index) and statistical analyses (reliability, normality, correlation) were used to analyze the data. The findings show that the students perceived both POs as cognitive domains and they believed that lecturer’s roles in facilitating students on the subject matter has contributed significantly to their PO attainment. This study is limited to an engineering programme from one institution of higher learning (IHL) in Malaysia. However, the findings provide important insights on the students’ level of understanding of PO attributes and the OBE practices on CEP in the programme. This study can be extended to other IHLs to gauge the students’ understanding related to other PO attributes stipulated by the EAC. Keywords: Programme Outcomes, Cognitive Domain, Problem Analysis, Design of The Solution, Engineering
... The effort of the S1 is to try to identify the problem by mentioning or detailing the information on the question so that S1 know more deeply the essence from the problem and can determine the problem-solving plan. This is in accordance with opinion's (Dostál, 2015), someone needs to identify, prepare and define problem questions to determine information is needed in solving the problem. At this stage, S2 and S3 require intervention from researcher. ...
Creative thinking is the highest level of the kind of high order thinking. In observations at the schools in Indonesia, teachers overly equate all levels of achievement of students' creative thinking to obtain higher order thinking skill improvements in mathematics learning. This condition results in an imbalance in learning practices. Therefore, this research fills the gap of this imbalance by describing the student’s creative thinking profile as a high order thinking skill in the improvement of mathematics learning. These results can contribute knowledge to educators to manage teaching strategies that can improve mathematics learning which refers to high order thinking skill for all levels of their creative thinking. This research is qualitative descriptive research. The subject were junior high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Data collection methods are tests, observations, and interviews. Data analysis is conducted by reducing data, present data, and conclusions. These research results are descriptions of student’s creative thinking profiles as a high order thinking in mathematics learning improvement, namely students have problems planning problem solving; students take a break to make plans; identify the essence of the problem, provide original ideas, provide alternative problem-solving plans, combine previous ideas with problem questions; operate and implement their plans by creating various original solutions.
... Polya's problem solving strategy is widely used in Mathematics instruction because of its minimal four steps which correspond to the four principles of problem solving in the theory of problem solving postulated by Jiri Dostal in 2015. The theory states that the problem solving process requires the ability to perceive the problem, the willingness to deal with the problem and the willingness to solve the problem (Jiri, 2015) [7] . Jiri's problem solving theory defines theoretically the four process of problem solving as problem awareness, perceptibility of the problem, willingness to deal with the problem and willingness to solve the problem in-line with the four-step process of Polya's problem solving strategy: understanding the problem, devising a plan, carrying out the plan and looking back. ...
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The study diagnosed and remediated mathophobia learning disability among junior secondary school students using Polya's problem solving strategy. Quasi-experimental research design of the pre-test and post-test type was used for the study. The population of the study was 5200 students. A sample of 61 mathophobia junior secondary class three students obtained by purposive sampling technique was used for the study. Mathophobia Diagnostic Questionnaire (MDQ) and Algebra Performance Test (APT) were the instruments for data collection. The reliability coefficients of 0.84 (84%) and 0.76 (76%) were obtained for MDQ and APT respectively using test-retest method and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation (PPMC). Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the two research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the two hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study indicated that mathophobia students taught with Polya's problem solving strategy significantly performed better than mathophobia students taught using deductive learning strategy. However, the difference in the performance of mathophobia male and female students was not significant when taught using Polya's problem solving strategy. Polya's problem solving strategy is recommended for use by teachers of Mathematics to remediate mathophobia among students and promote gender equity in Mathematics learning.
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Study on integration and interconnection of science and religion in education has been developed for quite a long time. However, most science teachers, especially biology teachers, do not understand enough how to integrate science and religion in biology learning. This research aims to develop a biology learning module based on the interconnection of science and religion in the model of guided inquiry learning. Developing this model is urgent to develop meta-cognitive knowledge and skill of prospective teachers in biology learning based on the interconnection of science and religion. This research uses the research and development methods (R&D) with 4D steps: Define, Design, Develop, Disseminate. Data is gathered from expert validation, small group experiment, and the response of the experimental subject. The result shows that this module is very good at the following aspects: construction (score 94,5%), didactic (score 94%), technic (score 95%), religion (score 92%), and language (score 87%). In addition, students (N=35) stated that this module is very interesting (score 95%). They also aid that this module is easily used (score 90,22%, efficient (score 92,85%), and very clear (score 88,14). In conclusion, this developed learning module based on the interconnection of science and religion is adequate to implement for biology learning. This module also contributes to education institutions by presenting alternative references on the inter-discipline approach. Kata kunci:: harmonisasi sains dan agama, pengembangan, modul biologi
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In the past few decades, metaheuristics have demonstrated their suitability in addressing complex problems over different domains. This success drives the scientific community towards the definition of new and better-performing heuristics and results in an increased interest in this research field. Nevertheless, new studies have been focused on developing new algorithms without providing consolidation of the existing knowledge. Furthermore, the absence of rigor and formalism to classify, design, and develop combinatorial optimization problems and metaheuristics represents a challenge to the field’s progress. This study discusses the main concepts and challenges in this area and proposes a formalism to classify, design, and code combinatorial optimization problems and metaheuristics. We believe these contributions may support the progress of the field and increase the maturity of metaheuristics as problem solvers analogous to other machine learning algorithms.
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Critical Thinking (CT) consists of two components, namely, skills and dispositions. Although there is a fair amount of literature focusing on CT and the development of CT skills, the literature on CT dispositions and, in particular, strategies to promote the dispositional component of CT is lacking. This means that there is insufficient literature available to guide teachers in their practice regarding the ways in which they could foster CT dispositions. This is particularly problematic for technology teachers as they may not be fully informed on how to use the opportunities offered by the design process, as prescribed by the South African Department of Basic Education. This study thus aimed to investigate and describe how technology teachers use the opportunities presented by the design process to foster CT dispositions. This study engaged in a qualitative research approach and a case study design. Ten purposefully sampled teachers were interviewed, 5 of whom were observed for one design-based lesson. As reported by (Facione in Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts, The California Academic Press, Millbrae, 2011) 7 Dispositions toward CT were used to guide the inquiry. The analysis of the data indicated that the participants used 4 main strategies that acted as a platform for, or led to the use of another 4 supporting strategies. The 4 main strategies are: assessments, questioning, examples, and the classroom environment. The 4 supporting strategies are: discussions, modelling, feedback, and resources. The results and conclusions of this study are not considered as the final answer to the lack of literature, but they provide a starting point for further investigation and development.
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This article examines the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational skills in problem solving. Cognitive skills include instructional objectives, components in a learning hierarchy, and components in information processing. Metacognitive skills include strategies for reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics. Motivational skills include motivation based on interest, self-efficacy, and attributions. All three kinds of skills are required for successful problem solving in academic settings.
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Managing multiple and conflicting goals is a demand typical to both everyday life and complex coordination tasks. Two experiments (N = 111) investigated how goal conflicts affect motivation and cognition in a complex problem- solving paradigm. In Experiment 1, participants dealt with a game-like computer simulation involving a predefined goal relation: Parallel goals were independent, mutually facilitating, or interfering with one another. As expected, goal conflicts entailed lowered motivation and wellbeing. Participants’ understanding of causal effects within the simulation was im- paired, too. Behavioral measures of subjects’ interventions support the idea of adaptive, self-regulatory processes: reduced action with growing awareness of the goal conflict and balanced goal pursuit. Experiment 2 endorses the hypotheses of motivation loss and reduced acquisition of system-related knowledge in an extended problem-solving paradigm of four conflicting goals. Impairing effects of goal interference on motivation and wellbeing were found, although less distinct and robust as in Experiment 1. Participants undertook fewer interventions in case of a goal conflict and acquired less knowledge about the system. Formal complexity due to the interconnectedness among goals is discussed as a limiting influence on inferring the problem structure.
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Complex problem solving (CPS) emerged in the last 30 years in Europe as a new part of the psychology of thinking and problem solving. This paper introduces into the field and provides a personal view. Also, related concepts like macrocognition or operative intelligence will be explained in this context. Two examples for the assessment of CPS, Tailorshop and MicroDYN, are presented to illustrate the concept by means of their measurement devices. Also, the relation of complex cognition and emotion in the CPS context is discussed. The question if CPS requires complex cognition is answered with a tentative "yes."
Problem solving competence cannot be described as a unidimensional construct. At least analytical and dynamic aspects of problem solving competence have to be distinguished if all aspects of problem solving are to be covered. Analytical problem solving abilities are needed to structure, represent and integrate information. Dynamic problem solving includes aspects of self-regulated learning as well as the ability to adapt the problem solving process to a changing environment by continuously processing feedback information. The assessment of dynamic aspects of problem solving competence requires dynamic test environments. As a German national option of PISA 2000, the analytical and dynamic problem solving competencies of 15-year-old students were tested using paper-and-pencil tests as well as computer-based assessments. Results show that analytical aspects of problem solving competence are strongly correlated with reasoning, while dynamic problem solving reflects a specific dimension of self-regulated exploration and control that can be identified across computer-simulated domains.
[present an] installment in an ongoing exploration of how educational experiences can help students get clever ideas when they are faced with problems / defines key terms, summarizes the history of research on problem-solving transfer . . . and offers a view of future research on problem-solving transfer historical review: 4 views of transfer [formal discipline: general transfer of general skill, associationism: specific transfer of specific behaviors, Gestalt psychology: specific transfer of general skills, cognitive science: metacognitive control of general and specific skills] / current research: teachable aspects of problem solving [improving the mind, teaching basic skills, teaching for understanding, teaching by analogy, teaching thinking skills] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
1. vyd. Odkazy na lit. 5000 výt. + volné Vysokošk. učebnice pro posl. fak. připravujících učitele Obálka a vazba Karel Kárász Přehl. lit. Jmenný a věcný rejstřík Pozn. Učebnice rozebírá základní problémy psychologie učení s důrazem na spojení teorie a praxe. Seznamuje s otázkou, co je učení, s psychologickými teoriemi učení, s procesem a strukturou učení, pojednává o řízení učebních činností, o paměti a zapomínání, o senzomotorickém učení, anticipaci a vědomé regulaci pohybů, o řeči, pojmovém učení a myšlení, o tvořivosti a učení, o sociálním učení a osobnosti a zabývá se využitím psychologie učení ve společenské praxi.
1. vyd. 3850 výt. Přehl. lit. Souběž. angl. souhrn a obsah Jmenný a věcný rejstřík Pozn. Odkazy na lit. Opr. S obr. a tb. v textu Obálka a vazba: Josef Skalník Syntetizující práce zobecňuje výsledky rozsáhlých výzkumů v oblasti psychologie činnosti, chování, učení a poznávání a propracovává tuto problematiku s ohledem na praktické potřeby socialistické společnosti. Zabývá se východisky psychologického studia senzomotorickou činností a vnímáním, rozebírá otázky paměti, učení, myšlení, kognitivního vývoje a podává přehled teoretických perspektiv a možných aplikací získaných psychologických poznatků při řízení sociálních a psychických procesů a při výchově socialistického člověka.