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Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations

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  • Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports

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Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of different sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14 sport specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms), followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players (350-400 ms), then aikidoists (400-450 ms), and finally judoists and wrestlers (450-500 ms). Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.
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Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations
Erika Zemková* and Dušan Hamar
Faculty of Physical Education and Sports, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Copyright: © 2014 E. Zemková and D. Hamar. This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Background: Data on agility skills in different populations using pre-planned, change of direction speed tests have
previously been reported. However, there are no available data on the agility times of athletes specializing in different
sports obtained from Reactive agility tests. Objective: The study compares agility time in groups of athletes of differ-
ent sports where agility is one of the limiting factors of performance. Methods: Altogether 282 athletes of 14sport
specializations performed the Agility test. Their task was to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right
foot, one of four mats located outside each of the four corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched in
accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual stimuli
with random generation of their location on the screen and a time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms. The result was
a sum of the 32 best agility times. Results: The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in distinguishing groups of
athletes of different sport specializations. Table tennis players, badminton players, fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors
and karate competitors showed the best agility times (< 350 ms), followed by ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball,
basketball, and hockeyball players (350–400 ms), then aikidoists (400–450 ms), and finally judoists and wrestlers
(450–500 ms). Conclusions: The best agility times are in athletes of racquet sports, followed by competitors of com-
bat sports with reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports, and finally competitors of combat sports with
reactions to tactile stimuli. Since this is the first study testing agility skills using the Reactive agility test in athletes of
different sport specializations, data obtained can be used for comparison of athletes within particular sports.
Keywords: agility test, agility time, combat sports, sports games
performance. However, many sports (soccer, basket-
ball, tennis, ice hockey, badminton, racquetball/squash,
volleyball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, american foot-
ball, wrestling, boxing, fencing) which are ranked high-
est for agility require changes of direction in response
to a stimulus (e.g., movement of the ball or a player).
Another general feature of field and court sports is that
actions are performed alongside the offensive player’s
movements; thus they involve some sort of competi-
tion. Therefore, testing and training conditions should
mimic these sport-specific demands.
Recently, agility has been defined as a rapid whole-
body movement with a change of velocity or direction
in response to a stimulus (Sheppard & Young, 2006).
The use of tests of agility that combine changes of
direction and/or speed with cognitive measures is
encouraged in practice. Such new Reactive agility tests
also include anticipation and decision-making compo-
nents in response to the movements of a tester. Shep-
pard, Young, Doyle, Sheppard, and Newton (2006)
have found that the Reactive agility test distinguishes
between players of different performance levels in
Australian football, while traditional closed skill sprint
Introduction
For many years, agility has been considered to be
the ability to execute fast movements and to stop
and restart rapidly. As a result, the majority of agility
research has been devoted to pre-planned, change of
direction speed tests. These tests (Illinois Agility Run,
Shuttle Run test, Zig Zag Test, 505 Agility test, Hexa-
gon test, Quadrant Jump Test, T-Test, 10 meter shuttle,
Quick Feet Test, Side-step Test, 20 Yard Shuttle, Agility
Cone Drill, 3-Cone Drill, Box Drill, AFL Agility Test,
Arrowhead Drill, 20 Yard Agility, Balsom Agility Run,
Lane Agility Drill, Shuttle Cross Pick-Up, etc.) have
been proposed to measure speed and agility. Although
there is great variation among the tests used, most of
them do not involve reactions to stimuli, and therefore
do not evaluate the cognitive component of agility
* Address for correspondence: Erika Zemková, Depart-
ment of Sports Kinanthropology, Faculty of Physical Educa-
tion and Sports, Comenius University in Bratislava, Nábr.
arm. gen. L. Svobodu 9, 814 69 Bratislava, Slovak Republic.
E-mail: zemkova@fsport.uniba.sk
Acta Gymnica, vol. 44, no. 3, 2014, 133–140
doi: 10.5507/ag.2014.013
134 E. Zemková and D. Hamar
and sprint with direction change tests do not. Simi-
larly, Farrow, Young, and Bruce (2005) showed that
the highly-skilled group was significantly faster in both
the reactive and planned test conditions relative to the
lesser-skilled group, while the moderately-skilled group
was significantly faster than the lesser-skilled group in
the reactive test condition only.
Indeed, agility skills that involve three information-
processing stages (i.e., stimulus perception, response
selection, and movement execution) represent a crucial
part of performance in many sports. Therefore, their
assessment should be considered an integral part of
functional testing in young beginners and professional
athletes alike.
In practice, Reactive agility tests that can be carried
out in the playing field or gym are preferred. A com-
puter-based portable system consisting of four contact
switch mats connected by means of an interface to the
computer can be used for this purpose. The system gen-
erates stimuli and measures total agility time (AT) and
AT in each direction of movement. There are a number
of test settings varying in the time of generation (con-
stant or random), the number of stimuli, their forms
and colors, as well as the color of the background.
The task of the subject is to touch, as fast as pos-
sible, with either the left or right lower limb, one of the
four mats located outside the four corners of a 0.8 m
square. Mats have to be touched in accordance with
the location of the stimulus in one of the corners of the
screen. Besides reacting from a position in the middle
of the square, subjects may respond from the location
of the last stimulus.
This test has been found to be sensitive in distin-
guishing subjects of different ages (Zemková, 2007;
Zemková & Hamar, 2014). However, its ability to
discriminate subjects of different performance levels
has not yet been determined. It may be assumed that
agility time differs significantly between athletes with
different demands on agility skills, and is specific to
those responding to visual stimuli. Verification of
this hypothesis was accomplished by comparison of
agility times in groups of athletes of different sport
specializations.
Methods
Participants
Altogether 282 (male and female) athletes of different
sport specializations volunteered to participate in the
study (Table 1). They were required to be active in a par-
ticular sport. Only participants who met the inclusion
criteria were included in the study. They were asked to
avoid any strenuous exercises during the study. All of
them were informed of the procedures and the main
purpose of the study. The procedures presented were
in accordance with the ethical standards on human
experimentation as stated in the Helsinki Declaration.
Procedure
Prior to the study, participants attended a familiariza-
tion session during which the testing conditions were
explained and trial sets carried out. Afterwards they
performed the Agility test (Figure 1). Their task was
to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the
Table 1
Characteristics of groups of athletes (mean ± SD)
Group nAge (years) Height (cm) Weight (kg)
Wrestlers 13 26.2 ± 3.1 175.0 ± 4.8 85.7 ± 7.8
Judo competitors 14 24.1 ± 3.8 173.9 ± 5.6 80.2 ± 8.8
Hockeyball players 22 22.7 ± 2.8 177.1 ± 5.4 76.7 ± 6.5
Aikido competitors 18 25.3 ± 4.1 173.8 ± 4.5 73.9 ± 5.5
Basketball players 32 20.4 ± 1.8 187.5 ± 6.1 78.9 ± 7.7
Volleyball players 21 21.3 ± 2.6 186.9 ± 6.2 74.0 ± 5.4
Soccer players 26 22.7 ± 2.9 179.7 ± 4.7 70.8 ± 4.9
Tennis players 17 20.7 ± 3.2 175.4 ± 5.1 71.1 ± 5.1
Ice-hockey players 16 22.9 ± 3.7 177.0 ± 5.4 77.8 ± 6.4
Karate competitors 27 23.9 ± 3.7 175.9 ± 5.7 68.4 ± 7.2
Tae-kwon-do competitors 23 21.9 ± 2.6 172.8 ± 3.8 68.7 ± 6.5
Fencers 11 20.8 ± 2.4 175.4 ± 4.1 65.1 ± 6.6
Badminton players 15 21.8 ± 2.0 176.5 ± 3.8 64.7 ± 5.7
Table tennis players 27 24.6 ± 4.5 172.8 ± 2.9 64.1 ± 5.4
135
Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations
right foot, one of four mats located outside the four
corners of a 0.8 m square. The mats had to be touched
in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of
the corners of a screen. The test consisted of 60 visual
stimuli with random generation of their location on the
screen and the time of generation of 500 to 2,500 ms.
The result was a sum of the 32 best agility times.
Agility testing
Agility time was measured by means of the computer
based FiTRO Agility check system (FiTRONiC s.r.o.,
Bratislava, Slovak Republic). The reliability of the test
procedure had been verified previously, and the test-
ing protocol had been standardized by the examination
of 196 participants (Zemková & Hamar, 1998a). The
analysis of repeated measurements showed a measure-
ment error of 7.1%, which is within a range comparable
to common motor tests. The mean of the best 8 agility
times in each direction has been found to be the most
reliable parameter of the test consisting of 3 sets of 60
stimuli (15 in each direction) with random generation
of their location. However, when the same protocol
(i.e., the same location of stimuli in each trial) was
used repeatedly, agility time significantly decreased
after each trial. Participants were most likely able to
remember the position of the initial stimuli, which
contributed to better results in successive trials. There-
fore, the result of the Agility test is a sum of the 32
best multi-choice agility times in four directions as a
response to stimuli generated by the computer in one
of the corners of the screen.
Statistical analysis
Data analysis was performed using the SPSS statistical
program for Windows (Version 18; SPSS, Inc., Chicago,
IL, USA). The calculation of the sample size was car-
ried out with α = 0.05 (5% chance of type I error) and
1 – β = .80 (power 80%) and using the results from our
preliminary studies that showed differences in agility
time between athletes of different sports (Zemková &
Hamar, 1998b; Zemková & Hamar, 1998c; Zemková
& Hamar, 1999). This provides a sample size of 16
subjects for this study. However, the sample size in
four groups was below this limit (from 11 to 15) as the
inclusion criteria required participants to be active in
a particular sport. Therefore, the statistical power for a
group of size n ranged from .76 to .85.
A series of one-factor ANOVA with a Bonferroni
post hoc test was used to determine differences in agil-
ity time between groups of athletes of different sport
specializations. The criterion level for significance was
set at p .05. Sex data, determined to be normally dis-
tributed, were analyzed in previous studies using the
independent samples t-test and showed no significant
differences in agility time between men and women
(Zemková & Hamar, 1998b; Zemková & Hamar,
1998c; Zemková & Hamar, 1999). Data on agility time
for all examined groups are presented as the mean ±
the standard deviation.
Results
The Agility test has been found to be sensitive in
distinguishing groups of athletes of different sport
specializations and has shown that some differences
do exist among the mean values for the examined
groups at p ≤ .05. The mean values of agility time and
the standard deviations for each group of athletes
a
b
Figure 1. The Agility test (a), summary report of the test (b)
136 E. Zemková and D. Hamar
Table 2
Agility time (mean±SD) and interdifference matrix between agility times of examined groups of athletes of different sport specializations
Sport Agility time (ms) Wrestling Judo Aikido Hockeyball Basketball Volleyball Soccer Tennis Ice-hockey Karate Tae-kwon-do Fencing Badminton
Wrestling 497.6 ± 44.4
Judo 454.6 ± 44.9 .039
Aikido 409.1 ± 38.0 .008 .036
Hockeyball 392.4 ± 36.1 .007 .024 .091
Basketball 380.6 ± 35.4 .006 .021 .066 .098
Volleyball 369.3 ± 29.9 .005 .008 .042 .072 .099
Soccer 364.0 ± 34.7 .004 .008 .036 .066 .091 .119
Tennis 362.2 ± 27.0 .004 .008 .034 .063 .088 .114 .129
Ice-hockey 352.1 ± 29.4 .003 .007 .029 .042 .066 .090 .098 .105
Karate 339.4 ± 25.6 .002 .006 .009 .030 .041 .065 .070 .074 .096
Tae-kwon-do 338.7 ± 23.9 .002 .006 .009 .031 .040 .063 .068 .072 .095 .131
Fencing 336.6 ± 26.1 .002 .006 .009 .028 .038 .061 .067 .069 .092 .124 .126
Badminton 314.8 ± 23.9 .001 .004 .008 .009 .026 .031 .033 .034 .055 .070 .071 .075
Table tennis 306.1 ± 22.2 < .001 .003 .007 .009 .009 .026 .029 .028 .035 .060 .061 .063 .111
137
Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations
are presented in Table 2. In addition, the variability
among subjects showed high F values for agility time
(F1,280 = 34.48, p < .001) indicating that the subjects
differed significantly in their performance.
As shown in Figure 2, the best agility times have
been found in table tennis players, badminton players,
fencers, tae-kwon-do competitors and karate com-
petitors (< 350 ms), followed by ice-hockey, tennis,
soccer, volleyball, basketball, and hockeyball players
(350–400 ms), then aikidoists (400–450 ms), and
finally judoists and wrestlers (450–500 ms).
Accordingly, these sports were divided into four
basic categories (Figure 3) that can be used for the
comparison of individual athlete data and changes in
the data during training.
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
Table tennis
Badminton
Fencing
Tae-kwon-do
Karate
Ice hockey
Tennis
Socce
r
Volleyball
Basketball
Hockeyball
A
ikido
Judo
Wrestling
gility time (ms)
Figure 2. Agility time in groups of athletes of different sport specializations
Figure 3. Agility time (± SD) in different sports divided in four basic categories
138 E. Zemková and D. Hamar
Discussion
The study showed that the Agility test discriminates
between groups of athletes with different demands on
their agility skills. The results are in agreement with
preliminary findings which showed better agility times
in athletes responding to visual rather than tactile
stimuli (Zemková & Hamar, 1998b, 1998c, 1999).
Moreover, differences in agility time have reflected
the actual ranking of athletes, for instance, at different
playing positions (center, forward, guard) in basketball
players (Zemková & Hamar, 2013), between hockey-
ball players and hockeyball goalkeepers (Divald, 2012),
in different corners of the hockey goal in ice-hockey
goalkeepers (Tóth et al., 2010), and in different move-
ment directions in badminton players (Štefániková &
Zemková, 2011). The data obtained in these studies
form the basis for the design of training programs spe-
cifically focused on the improvement of agility skills in
a particular movement direction.
Similar to strength and speed abilities, assessment
of agility also requires a sport-specific approach. In
order to obtain parameters of agility skills relevant to a
particular sport, the test closest to the one used during
training or competition should be preferred. In recent
years, several sport-specific versions of the Agility test
have been developed. These tests vary in: a) number
of contact mats (2 or 4), b) the distance between mats
and subject (0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.6 m or 3.2 m), c) their
alignment (square or semi-circular), d) positioning
(underfoot or at the height of the thorax), and e) size
(6.5 × 6.5 cm or 35 × 35 cm) (Zemková & Hamar,
2009). The number of stimuli, their time of generation
and their colour have also been modified according to
the requirements of particular sports. The most used
versions of the Agility test are as follows: a) using two
mats for forehand and backhand movements in tennis
players, b) moving shorter distances for karate com-
petitors and longer distances for basketball players, c)
responding to the same stimulus located in four corners
for ice-hockey players and to stimuli of different forms
or colors located in a semi-circle for ice-hockey goalies,
d) touching the mats with the lower limbs for soccer
players and with upper limbs for basketball players, and
e) using a smaller target for karate competitors and big-
ger target for basketball players (Zemková & Hamar,
2013). Another example is the test for goalkeepers con-
sisting of two stimuli for the upper limbs and two stim-
uli for the lower limbs. Experience has shown that the
assessment of agility performance under sport-specific
conditions represents a more appropriate alternative
than the original version of the Agility test.
Measurements of simple and multi-choice reaction
times and of movement time may provide additional
information on the components of agility performance.
In the Reaction test, the participant may respond to
either one (simple reaction time) or more stimuli of
different forms or colors (multi-choice reaction time).
Decision time has a strong influence on total agility
time and therefore perceptual skill should be addressed
in agility testing and training. Young and Willey (2009)
found that of the three components that make up the
total time, decision time had the highest correlation
(r = .77, p < .001) with the total time. This correlation
with total time was greater than for response move-
ment time (r = .59) or tester time (r = .37), indicating
that decision time was the most influential of the test
components for explaining the variability in total time.
The decision time component within the reactive test
condition also revealed that the highly-skilled players
made significantly faster decisions than the lesser-
skilled players (Farrow, Young, & Bruce, 2005). The
results of Gabbett and Benton (2009) also demonstrate
that the decision and movement times on the Reactive
agility test were faster in higher-skilled players, with-
out compromising response accuracy. It is therefore of
practical significance to assess the perceptual compo-
nents of agility performance.
A new approach in the functional assessment of
athletes is the testing of agility skills under simulated
competitive conditions. It has been found that agility
time is better when the Agility test is performed in sim-
ulated competitive (Agility dual), rather than non-com-
petitive (Agility single) conditions (Zemková, Vilman,
Kováčiková, & Hamar, 2013). An Agility test in the
form of simulated competition should be preferred for
children and young athletes in order to enhance their
arousal level and motivation. Such an exercise may also
represent an appropriate means for agility training, par-
ticularly in young athletes (Zemková, 2012).
Recently, Kováčiko (2012) evaluated the changes
in reaction and speed abilities after 8 weeks of agility
training under simulated competitive and non-compet-
itive conditions. A group of 22 fit young men, divided
into two experimental groups, underwent the same agil-
ity training (two times a week for 30 minutes). How-
ever, while experimental group 1 performed the train-
ing in the form of simulated competition (i.e., either in
pairs or in a group), experimental group 2 performed
the same training under non-competitive conditions.
Prior to and after the training, agility times in the tests
of Agility single and Agility dual were measured. Addi-
tionally, simple reaction time, multi-choice reaction
time, maximal velocity of step initiation, frequency of
movement of the lower limbs, power in the concentric
phase of take off in a 10 second test of repeated jumps,
jump height, and contact time after drop jump were
measured. After 8 weeks of agility training, a more
139
Agility performance in athletes of different sport specializations
pronounced improvement of agility time was found in
the test of Agility dual in the group trained in the form
of simulated competition than in the group that carried
out the same training, but without competitive compo-
nents (18% and –0.6%, respectively). However, there
were no significant differences in the changes of other
parameters of reaction and speed abilities after train-
ing under simulated competitive and non-competitive
conditions. These findings indicate that agility training
performed in the form of simulated competition rep-
resents a more effective means for the improvement
of agility skills than the same training under non-com-
petitive conditions. However, such a training does not
contribute to more pronounced improvement of other
reaction or speed abilities.
Since agility skills represent a crucial part of per-
formance in many sports, their assessment should be
considered an integral part of the functional testing of
athletes. Data on agility skills in different populations
using pre-planned, change-of-direction speed tests have
been reported. However, there were no available data
on agility times in different sports obtained from Reac-
tive agility tests. This is the first study that provides
data on the agility time in the Reactive agility test of
athletes of different sport specializations.
Conclusions
The Agility test discriminates between groups of ath-
letes with different demands on their agility skills. The
best agility times have been found in athletes of racquet
sports, followed by competitors of combat sports with
reactions to visual stimuli, then players of ball sports,
and finally competitors of combat sports with reactions
to tactile stimuli. These data on agility times in different
sports can be used for the decision making process in
related sports, enabling comparisons to be made with
individual athlete data and changes in the data during
training. Taking into account significantly better agility
time in athletes responding to visual rather than tactile
stimuli, the Agility test may be recommended primar-
ily for athletes used to responding to various forms of
visual stimuli (e.g., the ball).
Acknowledgment
This study was supported through a Scientific Grant
Agency of the Ministry of Education of Slovak Republic
and the Slovak Academy of Sciences (No. 1/0373/14).
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Strength and Conditioning Research, 27, 3445–3449.
... Type of sport (TS) has been considered as a significant factor affecting athletes' agility performance (Mackala et al., 2020;Sheppard and Young, 2006a;Zemková and Hamar, 2014). In relation to the team sports training, the most common player's manoeuvre requiring a combination of physical, technical, and tactical attributes is RA. ...
... Previous studies (Čoh et al., 2018;Fiorilli et al., 2017b;Mackala et al., 2020;Matlak et al., 2016;Pehar et al., 2018;Sekulic et al., 2017;Zemková and Hamar, 2014) explain the determinants of RA used univariate methods with TS as the independent variable and RA as the dependent variable. However, multivariate analysis or procedures involving the influence of more than two variables to explore the TS-RA model are limited. ...
... The proposed relationship is based on a mediator between the independent and dependent variables and provides a reason for such a relationship to exist. Taking into account the previously confirmed effect of TS on RA (Bilge et al., 2020;Mackala et al., 2020;Zemková and Hamar, 2014), but also the possible relationship between CODs and RA (Born et al., 2016;Čoh et al., 2018;Fiorilli et al., 2017b), we hypothesised that CODs is a mediator in the relationship between TS and RA. ...
Article
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The main aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of the change of direction speed (CODs) on reactive agility (RA) in female players participating in different team sports (TS). In total, there were 31 elite female players from the Polish national basketball (n = 12, aged 24.98 ± 3.38) and handball (n = 19, aged 27.34 ± 4.68) teams participated in this study. Two experiments using the 'five-time shuttle run to gates' test with similar movement patterns were used to determine the players' RA and CODs. A simple mediation model was utilised to investigate the potential mediation role of CODs and its effect on RA. The results revealed a primary, statistically significant effect of TS on RA (B = 0.796, p = 0.005), which decreased and became statistically insignificant after including the CODs variable into the model of mediation analysis (B = 0.337, p = 0.192). The RA test results were mediated by changes in CODs (B = 0.764, p < 0.001). Likewise, TS affected CODs (B = 0.602, p = 0.016). The general conclusion is that the relationship between TS and RA is not inherent. The direct effect of TS on RA disappears in the presence of the mediator CODs. Study results confirm the relevance of using the mediation analysis to apply in sport training. Identification of the critical ingredients of the athletes' agility performance can improve training programs by focusing on effective components.
... Agility is one of the important aspects in achievement sports, especially sports that require a rapid change of direction [1] [2]. For years, agility can be defined as a rapid body movement by changing direction quickly, accurately without losing balance [3][4] [5]. However, the current definition of agility has become more complex. ...
... However, the current definition of agility has become more complex. Agility is now defined as ability to perform body movements rapidly with changes in speed or direction in response to an action [4][6] [5]. This definition has three meanings, namely movement to execute, perception of stimulus, and response selection [4]. ...
... However, there needs to be a test in accordance with the characteristics of the kata category of karate to find out the improvements. A simulated agility test should be prioritized on young athletes in order to improve their skills and motivation [5]. Some literature explained that martial arts and games have different characteristics of agility [34] [1]. ...
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Background: Kata is a series of moves competed in karate that require agility in its movements. Purpose: This research aimed to determine the validity and reliability of karate agility test in kata category. Method: This was a developmental research. The data were collected using the Delphi technique, involving 7 experts and test-retest. The participants were 20 karate aged at least 20 years old who have practiced karate for 6 years and have won regional competitions. This was to determine the test of empirical validity and reliability. The content validity was calculated using the Aiken formula, the empirical validity was calculated using Pearson Product Moment, while the reliability was calculated using the Cronbach Alpha. Results: The results showed that the karate agility test in kata category had high validity and reliability. The Aiken results were as follows: Item (1) size has fit the karate in kata category with a value of V 0.85; Item (2) distance between cones has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (3) equipment has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (4) number of test repetitions has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (5) test procedure has fit with a value of V 0.80; Item (6) safe instrument has fit with a value of V 0.85; Item (7) agility has fit with a value of V 0.85; Item (8) score taking has fit with a value of V 0.80. The results of Pearson product moment r-table were 0.444, r-count (test 1) was 0.927, r-count (test 2) was 0.903, significance was 0.000 < 0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the agility test can be used to measure the karate agility in kata category.
... Currently, not many research of reactive and running agility in athletes is available. First attempts to clarify the structure of agility and its changes in the course of adolescence have been carried out in various kinds of sport by Horička, Šimonek and Broďáni [16][17][18]. Horička, Šimonek and Broďáni [18] based on their investigations recommend for the development of reactive agility in sports training in football to apply the development of the so-called "open-loop skills" and focus on separate development of both reactive and pre-planned agility. ...
... First attempts to clarify the structure of agility and its changes in the course of adolescence have been carried out in various kinds of sport by Horička, Šimonek and Broďáni [16][17][18]. Horička, Šimonek and Broďáni [18] based on their investigations recommend for the development of reactive agility in sports training in football to apply the development of the so-called "open-loop skills" and focus on separate development of both reactive and pre-planned agility. ...
Article
The purpose of this investigation is to determine age dynamism of reactive agility in young football players, thus specifying the impact of sport training on the level of reactive agility of players. 112 young male football players playing for the football club in Nitra, Slovakia volunteered to participate in the study. Another goal was to clarify the age dynamics of performances in the monitored groups of football players and to find out the mutual relationship between the two types of agility. Trends in sport performance and relationship of both kinds of agility were observed in 6 teams of different age categories (U11 up to U16). In order to fulfil the aim of the research two different motor tests for running agility (Illinois agility test) and reactive agility (Fitro Agility Check) were selected. For the realization of Fitro Agility Check test, a computer with the necessary hardware and software, and measuring device Fitro Agility Check were used. To evaluate the relationship between the observed variables (Illinois vs FAC), we used Spearman's correlation coefficient rs (-1 ≤ rs ≤ 1) to perform correlation analysis in SSPS statistical software. We used a significance level of 0.01. The results of this study provide evidence of stabilization of performance with the growing age of players at the level of both types of agility and a dynamic increase, especially after the age of 13. Low values of correlation coefficients (from r = - 0.570 to 0.503) indicate indifferent determinants in running and reactive agility. Since low causal-consequential relationship between reactive and running agility was found in the observed football teams, there is a necessity in the sports training to differentiate between specific means for the development of the so-called pre-planned and reactive agility.
... The MSSTs assessing discriminative validity showed contrary results, with the MRSAB (37) showing positive discriminative validity in contrast to the PRAT (46). For the NSST, the 505 agility test (12) and RAT (51) were assessed showing positive discriminative validity. ...
Article
A systematic review in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was conducted to provide a state-of-the-science overview of agility tests in the racquet sports tennis, badminton, and squash while evaluating their measurement properties. Twenty articles were included covering 28 agility tests. Results showed 10 sport-specific agility tests of which 5 were assessed on reliability and 6 on validity. Both the Badcamp and the badminton-specific speed (“agility”) test were identified as suitable agility tests available for badminton. For tennis and squash, there were no sport-specific agility tests identified in the literature showing both reliable and valid results. Future research should focus on developing sport-specific agility tests for tennis and squash, including assessment of the reliability and validity of the tests.
... The time of agility performance decreases during pubescence in childhood up to maturity with the highest decrease from 7 to 10 years (27.1%) and from 10 to 14 years (26.5%) of age and with the lowest decrease from 14 to 18 years of age (16.5%) (Zemková & Hamar, 2012). However, agility skills may be influenced by participation in organized sports in childhood and adolescence (Zemková & Hamar, 2014). Considering ice hockey, the on-ice training is more effective in the development of agility performance, however training off-ice agility provides a sufficient motor transfer to on-ice agility performance (Novák, Lipinska, Roczniok, Spieszny, & Stastny, 2019). ...
Article
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Agility, one of the components that affect performance, is beneficial in invasion sports, such as ice hockey. This study aimed to assess the relationship between agility and pubescence in adolescent male ice hockey players. Agility and anthropometric and somatic data were evaluated in 60 male participants (age, 12.98 ± 1.44 years). Participants were divided into 5 groups according to age from 11 to 15 years (11y to 15y). Anthropometric and somatic variables were observed using a bioelectrical impedance device. Agility performance level was evaluated by T-Test and Edgren Side Step Test (EDGREN). Significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05. One-way analysis of variance was used to investigate mean differences. A significant effect of age was found for height, body weight, and skeletal muscle mass percentage. Tukey’s (HSD) post hoc test revealed significant differences in height and body weight between all age groups. The T-Test revealed significant differences between all groups, except between groups 11y and 12y, 12y and 13y, and 14y and 15y. EDGREN showed differences only between groups 11y and 13y and 11y and 15y. Significant Pearson correlations were found between all monitored variables and both agility tasks. Agility improves with age in adolescent male ice hockey players. EDGREN is suitable for testing agility skills in children from the end of middle childhood to early adolescence because it is less influenced by anthropometric and somatic variables. The T-Test should be used in testing agility in late adolescent and adult athletes when maturation is completed.
... As shown in figure 1, the athlete does not present hypertrophy of the deltoid, trapezius, biceps and triceps muscles, typical features of throwing sports, while it seems that lumbar sacral muscles are symmetrically developed, which is a specific feature of dexterity, agility and combat sports athletes (Holmberg, 2009;Zemková, 2014). ...
... Participating in sport may improve their agility skills. As shown, the best agility times (<350 ms) are in athletes of racquet and combat sports with reactions to visual stimuli (table tennis, badminton, fencing, tae-kwon-do and karate), followed mainly by players of ball sports (ice-hockey, tennis, soccer, volleyball, basketball, and ball hockey with agility time of 350-400 ms), then competitors of combat sports with reactions to visual and tactile stimuli, such as aikido (400-450 ms), and finally judo and wrestling (450-500 ms; Zemková and Hamar, 2014b). In most of these sports, assessment of agility performance requires a specific approach. ...
Article
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Neuromuscular training in young athletes improves performance and decreases the risk of injuries during sports activities. These effects are primarily ascribed to the enhancement of muscle strength and power but also balance, speed and agility. However, most studies have failed to demonstrate significant improvement in these abilities. This is probably due to the fact that traditional tests do not reflect training methods (e.g., plyometric training vs. isometric or isokinetic strength testing, dynamic balance training vs. static balance testing). The protocols utilized in laboratories only partially fulfill the current needs for testing under sport-specific conditions. Moreover, laboratory testing usually requires skilled staff and a well equipped and costly infrastructure. Nevertheless, experience demonstrates that high-technology and expensive testing is not the only way to proceed. A number of physical fitness field tests are available today. However, the low reliability and limited number of parameters retrieved from simple equipment used also limit their application in competitive sports. Thus, there is a need to develop and validate a functional assessment platform based on portable computerized systems. Variables obtained should be directly linked to specific features of particular sports and capture their complexity. This is essential for revealing weak and strong components of athlete performance and design of individually-tailored exercise programs. Therefore, identifying the drawbacks associated with the assessment of athlete performance under sport-specific conditions would provide a basis for the formation of an innovative approach to their long-term systematic testing. This study aims (i) to review the testing methods used for the evaluation of the effect of neuromuscular training on sport-specific performance in young athletes, (ii) to introduce stages within the Sport Longlife Diagnostic Model, and (iii) to propose future research in this topic. Analysis of the literature identified gaps in the current standard testing methods in terms of their low sensitivity in discriminating between athletes of varied ages and performance levels, insufficent tailoring to athlete performance level and individual needs, a lack of specificity to the requirements of particular sports and also in revealing the effect of training. In order to partly fill in these gaps, the Sport Longlife Diagnostic Model was proposed.
... This difference was explained by the fact that both tests were due to different characteristics. In another study Zemkova and Hamar (2014) used the Fitro agility measurement system (FiTRONiC s.R.O., Bratislava, Slovak Republic) to determine the differences between the reactive agility values of the racket team and fighting athletes. This system had four mats on the floor and a screen opposite the participant. ...
Article
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Many laboratory and field tests are used in the literature to measure agility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new Reactive Agility Test developed for badminton. A total of fourty male [ 20 elites (age: 20.8 ± 2.98 year, height: 174.55 ± 12.03 cm, weight: 65.70 ± 14.41 kg) and 20 sub-elites (age: 22.20±1,51, height: 170.01 ± 05.80 cm, weight: 62.45 ± 6,45 kg)] badminton players took part in the present study. For validity, the difference and relationship between newly developed reactive agility and planned changing direction tests in terms of elit and sub-elit players was examined. In the reliability measurements of test-retest, The Reactive Agility Test at same route was performed twice. Independent sample t test was carried out in order to detect the difference among the groups in the search for validity. The identification of the relations between the two different tests was performed with linear regression analysis. The reliability of test-retest was tried to be estimated with the coefficient of variances and intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Bland Altman method. In addition, a systematic difference between the test and the retest was estimated with the paired t test. At the end of the study, while there was not a significant difference found in the rates of planned changing direction of the elit and sub-elit players, it was detected that reactive agility rates were better in the elit players (7.14±4.85 sec and 9.87±5.07 sec, respectively). Moreover, a high coefficient determination was revealed between two tests (r2: 0.63, p<0.01). In the comparison of test-retest, a high intraclass correlation coefficient (0.930) and a very low coefficient of variances (4.7) were found. Furthermore, it was observed in the Bland Altman graph that a 95% of concordance range of the data obtained between two measurements was a good and narrow concordance. In conclusion, it was determined that the new developed badminton specific Reactive Agility Test is a valid and reliable measurement method and it is suggested that this test protocol can be used to enhance and monitor reactive agility ability of badminton players.Extended English summary is in the end of Full Text PDF (TURKISH) file. ÖzetLiteratürde çevikliğin ölçülmesi amacıyla birçok laboratuvar ve saha testi kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı badminton sporuna göre düzenlenmiş Reaktif Çeviklik Testinin güvenirlik ve geçerliğinin araştırılmasıdır. Araştırmaya toplam kırk erkek [20 elit (yaş: 20,8±2,98 yıl, boy uzunluğu: 174,55±12,03 cm, vücut ağırlığı:65,70±14,41 kg) ve 20 sub-elit (yaş: 22,20±1,51 yıl, boy uzunluğu: 170,01±05,80 cm, vücut ağırlığı:62,45±6,45 kg)] badminton oyuncusu katılmıştır. Geçerlik için yeni geliştirilen reaktif çeviklik ile planlı yön değiştirme testlerinin elit ve sub-elit katılımcılar arasındaki istatistiksel karşılaştırması ve ilişkisi analiz edilmiştir. Test-tekrar test güvenirlik ölçümlerinde aynı rotadaki reaktif çeviklik testi birer gün arayla iki kez uygulanmıştır. Geçerlik çalışmasında gruplar arası farkın belirlenmesi için bağımsız değişken t testi ve testler arası ilişkinin fonksiyonel olarak açıklanması ve bu ilişkinin bir modelle tanımlanması için basit doğrusal regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Test-tekrar test güvenirliği varyasyon katsayısı, sınıf içi korelasyon katsayısı ve Bland Altman metodu ile kestirim edilmiştir. Ayrıca test- tekrar test arasında sistematik bir farkın olup olmadığı eşleştirilmiş t testi ile sınanmıştır. Çalışma sonunda elit ve sub-elit oyuncuların planlı yön değiştirme bulguları anlamlı bir fark bulunmazken, reaktif çeviklik derecelerinin elit oyuncularda istatistiksel olarak anlamlı farklı (sırasıyla 7,14±4.85 sn ve 9,87±5,07 sn) şekilde düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla beraber her iki test arasında yüksek düzeyde bir açıklayıcılık katsayısı tespit (r2: 0,63, p<0.01) edilmiştir. Test- tekrar test karşılaştırılmasında yüksek bir sınıf içi korelasyon katsayısı (0,930) ve çok düşük varyasyon katsayısı (4,7) belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca Bland-Altman grafiğinde iki ölçüm arasında elde edilen tüm verilerin %95 uyum aralığının dar ve iyi bir uyum gösterdiği gözlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak, badminton sporuna göre düzenlenmiş Reaktif Çeviklik Testinin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm yöntemi olduğu tespit edilmiştir ve badminton oyuncularının reaktif çeviklik becerilerinin geliştirilmesinde ve gelişimlerinin takibinde kullanılabileceği önerilmektedir.
Article
Objectives To develop a PPT that incorporates multiple components of athletic ability and to assess its reliability. Design Test-retest experimental design. Setting Indoor basketball court in southern Alabama, USA. Participants A convenient sample of 21 asymptomatic subjects (14 male, 7 female). Main outcome measures Subjects performed the Butterfly Agility Test (BAT), the modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT), a standing double-legged broad jump (BJ), the Pro Agility Test (PAT), and a forty-yard sprint (40 YS). Results Overall, the BAT was found to have good reliability (ICC = 0.89, 95 % CI = 0.023–0.97), strong correlation with the PAT (r = 0.73–0.77), moderate correlations with the BJ and 40 YS (r = 0.50–0.60), and moderate correlations with the mSEBT (r = 0.37–0.62). Conclusion The BAT appears to be a promising composite assessment of athletic ability among young asymptomatic adults, but it is not recommended for clinical use at this time. Level of evidence 3b.
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TRX training are one of the new resistance training that play a role in increasing strength, power, balance and stabilizing the body structure and increase neuromuscular coordination. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two training models of TRX on anaerobic power and body composition of young and teenager taekwondo athletes. Thirty-six young and teenager taekwondo boys with a mean age of 17.14±6.040 years participated in the study and randomly were divided to three training groups of 12 people including: TRX training in the form of intense interval training TRX-HIIT (TH), TRX training alone TRX (T) and the control group. After examining the normality of data distribution using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, in order to determine the differences intragroup, the dependent T test was used and to determine the differences between the groups, the statistical method on way-ANOVA was used (P≤0.05). In both training groups, a significant increase in participants' anaerobic power was observed, which anaerobic power was significantly higher in training group TH (P= 0.001). Also, in both training groups, after 5 weeks of training, a significant decrease in body fat percentage (body composition) was observed (P= 0.001). The results of this study showed that taekwondo athletes and trainers can use both training models to increase anaerobic power and reduce body fat percentage and it is suggested to use TRX training in the form of intense interval to get better results in equal time.
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The study deals with a variety of sport-specific testing of agility performance. Altogether, 178 young, fit subjects performed an agility test under various conditions. Their task was to touch as fast as possible, with either the left or the right lower limb, one of the four mats located in four corners outside of 0.8 m square. Mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of the stimulus in one of the corners of the screen. The original version of the test consisted of 60 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and time generation from 500 to 2500 ms. The result was total agility time (AT) measured by a PC-based system FiTRO Agility Check. The modified versions of the agility test varied in a) number of contact mats (2, and 4), b) distance between mats and subject (0.4, 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 m), c) their alignment (square, and semi-arch), d) positioning (underfoot, and aloft of thorax), and e) size (6.5 x 6.5 cm, and 35 x 35 cm). Also number of stimuli, their time of generation, and color were modified according to a particular sport. It has been shown that assessment of agility performance in many sports requires a specific approach. The most used versions of the agility test are as follows: a) using two mats for forehand and backhand movements of tennis players, b) moving shorter distances for karate competitors and longer distances for basketball players, c) responding to the same stimulus located in four corners for ice-hockey players and to stimuli of different forms or colors located in semi-arch for ice-hockey goalies, d) touching the mats with lower limbs for soccer players and with upper limbs for basketball players, e) using small size of the target for karate competitors and bigger target for basketball players. Another example is the test for goalkeepers consisting of two stimuli for upper and two stimuli for lower limbs. Experience showed that assessment of agility performance under sport-specific conditions represents a more appropriate alternative than the original version of the agility test.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a new test of agility, the reactive agility test (RAT), which included anticipation and decision-making components in response to the movements of a tester. Thirty-eight Australian football players took part in the study, categorized into either a higher performance group (HPG) (n=24) or lower performance group (LPG) (n=14) based on playing level from the previous season. All participants undertook testing of a 10m straight sprint (10mSS), a 8-9m change of direction speed test (CODST), and the RAT. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability testing measures were conducted with the LPG. The intra-class correlation (ICC) of the RAT was 0.870, with no significant (p<0.05) difference between the test results obtained on the first and second test sessions using a t-test. A dependent samples t-test revealed no significant (p<0.05) difference between the test results of two different testers with the same population. The HPG were significantly (p=0.001) superior to those of the LPG on the RAT, with no differences observed on any other variable. The RAT is an acceptably reliable test when considering both test-retest reliability, as well as inter-rater reliability. In addition, the test was valid in distinguishing between players of differing performance level in Australian football, while the 10mSS and CODST were not. This result suggests that traditional closed skill sprint and sprint with direction change tests may not adequately distinguish between players of different levels of competition in Australian football.
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At present, no agreement on a precise definition of agility within the sports science community exists. The term is applied to a broad range of sport contexts, but with such great inconsistency, it further complicates our understanding of what trainable components may enhance agility. A new definition of agility is proposed: "a rapid whole-body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus". Agility has relationships with trainable physical qualities such as strength, power and technique, as well as cognitive components such as visual-scanning techniques, visual-scanning speed and anticipation. Agility testing is generally confined to tests of physical components such as change of direction speed, or cognitive components such as anticipation and pattern recognition. New tests of agility that combine physical and cognitive measures are encouraged.
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While studies have investigated change of direction speed in rugby league players, no study has investigated the reactive agility of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reactive agility of rugby league players, to determine if this quality discriminated higher and lesser skilled players. Twenty-four elite (mean+/-S.D. age, 24.5+/-4.2 years) and 42 sub-elite (23.6+/-5.3 years) rugby league players completed a game-specific test of reactive agility. Elite players had better response accuracy (93.2+/-1.9% vs. 85.5+/-2.5%; p<0.05, effect size=0.58) and faster decision (89.5+/-5.8ms vs. 111.5+/-6.4ms; p<0.05, effect size=0.62) and movement times (2.35+/-0.03s vs. 2.56+/-0.03s; p<0.05, effect size=1.39) on the reactive agility test than sub-elite players. The reactive agility test was able to distinguish four distinct classifications. Specifically, players were classified as requiring either (1) decision-making and change of direction speed training to further consolidate good physical and perceptual abilities, (2) decision-making training to develop below average perceptual abilities, (3) change of direction speed training to develop below average physical attributes or (4) a combination of decision-making and change of direction speed training to develop below average physical and perceptual abilities. The results of this study demonstrate that a test of reactive agility discriminates higher and lesser skilled rugby league players. In addition, these findings highlight the important contribution of perceptual skill to agility in rugby league players.
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This study compares agility times in groups aged from 7 to 18 years. Altogether 553 subjects performed an agility test. Their task was to touch, as quickly as possible, with either the left or the right foot, one of four mats located in the four corners outside of a 0.55 m square. The mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of a stimulus in one of the corners of a screen. The result was a sum of 32 multi-choice agility times, in four directions, measured by means of the computer-based system FiTRO Agility Check. A decrease in agility time from childhood to adult age has been found. There was a rather steep decrease in agility time from 7 to 10 years of age (27.1%) and from 10 to 14 years of age (26.5%). Afterwards, there was a slow decrease during puberty, from age 14 to 18 (16.5%). It may be concluded that agility time decreases with increasing age up to early maturity. Since this is the first study testing agility skills by means of the Reactive Agility Test, the obtained data can be used as a set of reference values for comparison with subjects of particular ages.
Conference Paper
Agility skills are characterized by three information-processing stages: stimulus perception, response selection, and movement execution. These skills represent a crucial part of performance in many sports. Therefore, their assessment should be considered as an integral part of functional testing in young and professional athletes. For this purpose, the Agility test has been used. The task of the subjects is to touch as fast as possible, with either the left or the right lower limb, one of the four contact mats located in four corners of the square in accordance with the location of the stimulus in one of the corners of the screen. The result is total reaction time (RT) and RT in each direction of movement measured by the system FiTRO Agility Check (FiTRONiC s.r.o., SK). The system allows a number of test settings varying in time generation (constant or random), number of stimuli, their forms and colors, as well as background color. During the years of practice, several sport-specific versions of the Agility test have been created, including the variability with number of stimuli, distances between mats, number of mats, positioning of mats, foot and hand responses, sizes of the target, and so forth. Nevertheless, there seems to be also possibilities to include the Agility test into the testing batteries assessing physical performance of children and youth. In doing so, the reaction times in groups of subjects from 7 to 18 years have been provided. For children, the Agility test in form of competition should be preferred in order to enhance their arousal level and motivation. The talk will address the complexity of evaluating agility performance while providing a sport-specific approach under various testing conditions. It will also deals with a wide variety of practical examples and implications for teaching, learning, and performing agility skills. More information on assessing agility skills in sport practice and possibly also in physical education can be found in book ”Toward an understanding of agility performance” (Zemková & Hamar, 2009).
Book
The book addresses the complexity of evaluating agility performance while providing a sport-specific approach under various testing conditions. The book also offers a wide variety of practical examples and implications for teaching, learning, and performing agility skills.
Article
The study evaluates a reaction time in the Agility Test under simulated competitive and non-competitive conditions. A group of 16 fit men performed, in random order, two versions of the Agility Test: non-competitive Agility Single and Agility Dual in form of simulated competition. In both cases, subjects had to touch, as fast as possible, with either the left or the right foot one of four mats located in four corners outside of a 80 cm square. Mats had to be touched in accordance with the location of the stimulus in one of the corners of the screen. The test consisted of 20 visual stimuli with random generation of their location on the screen and time generation from 500 to 2500 ms. The result was total reaction time (RT) for all 20 reactions measured by a PC based system FiTRO Agility Check. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) better RT in the Agility Dual than in the Agility Single Test (690.6 ± 83.8 ms and 805.8 ± 101.1 ms, respectively). Further comparisons of RT under non-competitive and simulated competitive conditions for the best eight subjects proceeded in the second match showed a decrease from 781.3 ± 111.2 ms to 693.6 ± 97.8 ms in the 1 match and to 637.0 ± 53.0 ms in the 2 match. It may be concluded that reaction time is better when the Agility Test is performed in simulated competitive than non-competitive conditions. The Agility Test in form of competition may be used for children and young athletes in order to enhance their attention level and motivation.
Article
The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reactive agility test by determining the relationships between the total time recorded for the test and various components. A tester used side-step movements to provide a stimulus for the athlete to change direction. By using electronic timing and high speed video analysis of the test, three times were recorded. These were the time taken for the tester to display the stimulus to change direction (tester time), the time taken by the participant to respond to the stimulus (decision time), and the time taken by the participant to change direction and sprint to the left or right (response movement time). Thirty-one semi-professional Australian Rules football players were assessed by analysing the mean of eight trials of the reactive agility test. The greatest correlation with total time was r=0.77 for decision time (p=0.00), with movement time and tester time producing coefficients of 0.59 (p=0.00) and 0.37 (p=0.04), respectively. The coefficient of variation for the mean tester time was 5.1%. It was concluded that perceptual skill as measured by decision time is an important component of the reactive agility test and the tester time should be controlled by using high speed video recordings to isolate its influence.
Article
The purpose of this study was to present a new methodology for the measurement of agility for netball that is considered more ecologically valid than previous agility tests. Specifically, the agility performance of highly-skilled (n = 12), moderately-skilled (n = 12) and lesser-skilled players (n = 8) when responding to a life-size, interactive video display of a netball player initiating a pass was compared to a traditional, pre-planned agility movement where no external stimulus was present. The total movement times and decision times of the players were the primary dependent measures of interest. A second purpose of the research was to determine the test-retest reliability of the testing approach. Results revealed significant differences existed between the 2 test conditions demonstrating that they were measuring different types of agility. The highly-skilled group was significantly faster in both the reactive and planned test conditions relative to the lesser-skilled group, while the moderately-skilled group was significantly faster than the lesser-skilled group in the reactive test condition. The decision time component within the reactive test condition revealed that the highly-skilled players made significantly faster decisions than the lesser-skilled players. It is reasoned that it is this decision-making component of reactive agility that contributes to the significant differences between the two test conditions. The testing approach was shown to have good test-retest reliability with an intra-class correlation of r = .83.