Article

Green Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles Using Brassica oleracea and Punica granatum Peels and their Anticancer and Photocatalytic Activity

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Abstract

Experiments were carried out on the synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles using the water extract of cauliflower and the water extract of pomegranate peels. The primary particles were of sizes 30-45 and 50-65 nm in the powder synthesized using the water extract of cauliflower and the water extract of pomegranate peels respectively. Polycrystalline powders were obtained when synthesis was carried out using the water extract of pomegranate peels, white crystalline powders were obtained when using the water extract of cauliflower. The green-synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited good anticancer activity, with 31.2 μg/mL being the nanoparticles concentration required for destruction of 50 % of HeLa cells. The green-synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles were found to possess photocatalytic activity both under UV irradiation and sunlight.

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... Amidst other chemical synthesis techniques, sol-gel is a frequently used approach for the preparation of MgO nanostructures, since this approach yields more product, simple in process and needs minimal temperature requirement (Sutapa et al., 2018). Generally, this method uses a metal precursor such as (chlorides, nitrates, acetyl acetonato, acetates, sulphates and oxalates of magnesium (Awwad et al., 2014;Munjal et al., 2017;Kawaguchi et al., 2006;Mastuli et al., 2012;Sugirtha et al., 2015;Tan et al., 2020) and a chemical reducing agent like citrates and polymers (Mantilaka et al., 2014;Safaei et al., 2019) which are used to avoid the formation of hydroxide and maintain the pH of the solution. Then the rest solution can be heated up to 1000 • C to get the desired oxide form of nanoparticles. ...
... Owing to the increasing trend of the greener methods for the preparation of MgO nanostructures using plants, microbes and biomolecules illustrated in Fig. 1, MgO nanoparticles have been synthesized from any of the precursors such as nitrates, chlorides, acetates and sulphates of magnesium. The previously prepared biological extracts or templates are added to the precursor to obtain homogenized solution which then undergoes thermal treatment (Singh et al., 2019;Das et al., 2018;Jadhav et al., 2016;Sugirtha et al., 2015). ...
... Hence vegetal extracts are very good stabilizing agent as well as reducing agent. Furthermore, the plant extract also helps in reducing the agglomeration during the reaction process and enhances the crystal growth (Suresh et al., 2018;Sugirtha et al., 2015;Umaralikhan et al., 2016;Ramanujam et al., 2014). ...
Article
Green synthesis approaches are gaining the attention of researchers and they follow a less hazardous process to obtain nanoparticles. Green synthetic methods are currently used in industry than other physicochemical methods. The magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles have been effectively produced by green synthesis which is environmental friendly, non-toxic with greater stability and has broad range of opportunities for the production of this material in the nanoscale. But still some challenges have been raised for the production of same nanoparticles with huge amount by green synthesis approaches. This is because the biological extracts during the synthesis creates a barrier onto the elucidation of the reactions and their mechanisms. Therefore, this review deals the summing up of variety of biological substrates and different methodologies that can be utilized for the green synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles with impact on their properties. This article also explains the mechanism routes reported in various literatures for better understanding. The energy and environmental applications of the MgO nanoparticles are also dealt with in this article.
... Elsewhere its effects were comparable with Gram negative E. coli as well [51]. Moreover, green-synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles were found to possess anticancer [52] and antioxidant properties [53]. Same nanoparticles showed photocatalytic activity both under UV irradiation and sunlight, which opens more possible application areas of these ecologically friendly MgO nanoparticles [52]. ...
... Moreover, green-synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles were found to possess anticancer [52] and antioxidant properties [53]. Same nanoparticles showed photocatalytic activity both under UV irradiation and sunlight, which opens more possible application areas of these ecologically friendly MgO nanoparticles [52]. The most common plant-mediated synthesis of the magnesium oxide nanoparticles employs magnesium nitrate as a precursor [54], similar to other greenly produced nanoparticles. ...
Chapter
Abstract Nanoparticles are mainly synthesized by chemical methods that usually involve toxic reactants as reducing agents that further produce toxic by-products, which in turn are hazardous to the environment. During the last decade, the development of eco-friendly alternative chemical methods based on microorganisms like bacteria or fungi, or more recently biological molecules extracted from plants, have spurred a lot of interest as it brings forward a solution to curb the production of toxic by-products. The purpose of these investigations is to combine the natural biocidal properties of nanoparticles with specific properties derived from plant extracts, not limited to anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties. The development of antibacterial/antifungal coatings based on nanoparticles exhibiting biocidal properties offers a method to overpower multi-drug resistant bacteria. Metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2, ZnO, and MgO) and noble metal nanoparticles like Ag, Au, and Pt have shown efficient biocidal properties against microorganisms. However, these mechanisms are still not fully understood and moreover, depend on the type of nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles is mainly attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species whereas metal nanoparticles interact with surface membranes and are capable of infiltrating into bacteria whereupon they induce apoptosis. Here, the mechanism of preventing bacterial growth is different from conventional antibiotics and offers a promising alternative. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323512541000142]
... In line with our results, previous studies also reported anticancer activity for the magnesium oxide nanoparticles [16][17][18]. Patel et al. [16] investigated the effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on cervical cancer cells and concluded that the concentrations greater than 300 μg/ml had potential anticancer activity. Sugirtha et al. [17] extracted the magnesium oxide nanoparticles from the water extract of cauliflower and pomegranate peels, examined their effects on HeLa cells and reported that the use of an extract containing 31 μg/ml caused the destruction of 50% of HeLa cells. ...
... Patel et al. [16] investigated the effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles on cervical cancer cells and concluded that the concentrations greater than 300 μg/ml had potential anticancer activity. Sugirtha et al. [17] extracted the magnesium oxide nanoparticles from the water extract of cauliflower and pomegranate peels, examined their effects on HeLa cells and reported that the use of an extract containing 31 μg/ml caused the destruction of 50% of HeLa cells. In another study, Karthik et al. [18] investigated the effect of anticancer activity of the magnesium oxide nanoparticles produced by green synthesis against the MCF-7 cell line and reported potent anticancer activity. ...
Article
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Given the increase in global mortality rate due to various types of cancer, the present study aimed to develop optimal conditions for the synthesis of cellulose-magnesium oxide nanocomposite with favorable anticancer activity. For this purpose, the Taguchi method was used to design nine experiments with varied ratios of cellulose biopolymer, magnesium oxide nanoparticles and different stirring times. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed the formation of cellulose-magnesium oxide nanocomposite. The anticancer activity level of nine nanocomposites studied was evaluated using MTT assay on Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7) cell line. The nanocomposite synthesized in experiment 9 (8 mg/ml of magnesium oxide, 2 mg/ml of cellulose and stirring time of 60 min) showed the highest growth inhibitory activity on the cancer cells. Based on the attained results,e cellulose-magnesium oxide nanocomposite synthesized in optimal conditions can be used as an eligible anticancer agent.
... Magnesium oxide is currently used in medicinal field to treat various diseases such as antacid for heartburn, sour stomach and significant material in toxic waste remediation [20][21][22]. Based on the available literature there are some biosynthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles that are prepared using Clitoria ternatea [23], neem leaves [24], Parthenium [25], Brassica oleracea, Punica granatum peels [26], citrus lemon [27] or the extract derived from Nephelium lappaceum L peels [28]. The application of green synthesis to obtain magnesium oxide nanoparticles is still unexplored and thought to have numerous research opportunities. ...
Article
Nephelium lappaceum L. peels was effectively used for the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles as a natural ligation agent. The role of rambutan extrac on the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles was confirmed employing HPLC and GC-MS studies. The XRD and TEM revealed the crystallinity and spherical morphology of the biosynthesized nanoparticles. The size of the particles was found to be 20 nm as deduced from XRD and TEM analysis.
... This study confirms the superior anticancer activity of phytosynthesized MgO nanoparticles which have the potential to replace toxic chemical-synthesized nanoparticles in biological applications. Likewise, Sugirtha et al. (2015) studied the anticancer activity of MgO nanoparticles that are synthesized using two plant extracts, namely Brassica oleracea and Punica granatum. The HeLa cell lines were used to examine the anticancer activity of nanoparticles, and the results showed a significant decrement in the cell viability with an increase in the concentration of phytosynthesized MgO nanoparticles. ...
Article
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Developments in nanotechnology field, specifically, metal oxide nanoparticles have attracted the attention of researchers due to their unique sensing, electronic, drug delivery, catalysis, optoelectronics, cosmetics, and space applications. Physicochemical methods are used to fabricate nanosized metal oxides; however, drawbacks such as high cost and toxic chemical involvement prevail. Recent researches focus on synthesizing metal oxide nanoparticles through green chemistry which helps in avoiding the involvement of toxic chemicals in the synthesis process. Bacteria, fungi, and plants are the biological sources that are utilized for the green nanoparticle synthesis. Due to drawbacks such as tedious maintenance and the time needed for the nanoparticle formation, plant extracts are widely used in nanoparticle production. In addition, plants are available all over the world and phytosynthesized nanoparticles show comparatively less toxicity towards mammalian cells. Secondary metabolites including flavonoids, terpenoids, and saponins are present in plant extracts, and these are highly responsible for nanoparticle formation and reduction of toxicity. Hence, this article gives an overview of recent developments in the phytosynthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles and their toxic analysis in various cells and animal models. Also, their possible mechanism in normal and cancer cells, pharmaceutical applications, and their efficiency in disease treatment are also discussed.
... Biological methods for the synthesis of MgO NPs with the use of plant materials have not been widely exploited (Sushma et al. 2015). Based on the literature, there are some samples of the synthesis of MgO NPs using Clitoria ternatea, neem leaves (Moorthy et al. 2015), Parthenium (Kumar et al. 2015), Brassica oleracea, Punica granatum peels (Sugirtha et al. 2015), citrus lemon (Awwad et al. 2014) or the extract derived from Nephelium lappaceum L peels (Suresh et al. 2014). Therefore, the application of green synthesis in order to obtain MgO NPs is still an unexplored area, which presents numerous research opportunities. ...
Article
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The synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles with the use of plant extract is a promising alternative to traditional chemical methods. The aim of this work was to fabricate MgO nanoparticles using the Artemisia abrotanum herb water extract. The biologically synthesized MgO nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS profile and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD studies confirmed that pure monoclinic crystallite structures of MgO nanoparticles were formed. The average size of MgO nanoparticles was found to be 10 nm. EDS profile confirmed the signal characteristic of magnesium and oxygen. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of active compounds responsible for the stabilization of MgO nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles showed good catalytic activity in the reduction of methyl orange (MO). MgO nanoparticles also exhibit very good antioxidant properties.
... A number of metal oxide that possess more than one oxygen atom bound to a single metal atom commonly have absorbance in the range of 1020-970 cm -1 [40]. The weak absorption bands in the range of 1616-1620 and 3680-3700 cm -1 are r(O-H) bending and t(O-H) stretching vibrations associated with the hydroxyl group due to water absorbed on the surface of the SnO 2 [16,41,42]. ...
Article
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This work reports the biosynthesis of Sn(OH)2 using aqueous extract of fresh cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis), and the subsequent preparation of SnO2 nanoparticles at two different annealing temperatures of 300 and 450 °C for 2 h. The obtained SnO2 nanoparticles were denoted as S1 and S2 for the samples prepared at 300 and 450 °C, respectively. XRD analysis identified rutile tetragonal phase of SnO2 nanoparticles and TEM results gave a quasispherical and spherical morphologies for S1 and S2 respectively of the size range 3.62–6.34 nm. The optical properties were studied with UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies, and the nanoparticles showed blue shift in their absorption edges. The observed emission peak in the PL spectra found around 419 nm is attributable to oxygen vacancies and defects. Photocatalytic activities of the nanoparticles (S1 and S2) were studied using methylene blue (MB) under ultraviolet light irradiation and the results reveal 91.89 and 88.23% degradation efficiency of MB by S1 and S2 respectively over a period of 180 min.
... Jeevanandam et al. have synthesized MgO NPs from plant extracts via induced molecular nucleation [10]. Anticancer activities of bio engineered MgO NPs have been investigated by Sugirtha et al. on human cervical cancer (HeLa cells with IC 50 value 31.2 mg/mL) [11]. Therefore, the present study is focused on using A. Paniculata leaf extract as the stabilizing agent in the synthesis of MgO nanostructures for the antibacterial (aquatic and foodborne pathogens) and anticancer (human breast cancer cell line MCF-7) applications. ...
Article
MgO has been synthesized using Andrographis paniculata (A. paniculata) which crystallizes in the cubic structure with the average crystallite size of 35 nm. SEM reveals the formation nanorods (diameter: 46 nm, length: 185 nm). From the luminescence spectrum, oxygen defects (467 nm) were observed. It shows good antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition of 19 mm (V. cholerae) and 29 mm (S. flexneri) against aquatic and foodborne pathogens. It also exhibits anti-breast cancer (human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7: IC50:15.76 µg/mL) activity along with biocompatibility.
... If the synthesis and production cost of magnesium hydroxide and oxide nanoparticles could be decreased greatly through using very cheap raw non-toxic materials, ambient temperature, large scale preparation, the practical application of magnesium hydroxide and oxide nanoparticles would be accessible. Magnesium hydroxide were synthesized by green methods using nontoxic and eco-friendly such as Neem leaves extract (Moorthy et al., 2015); Citrus limon leaves extract (Awwad & Ahmad, 2014); acacia gum (Srivastava et al., 2015); Brassica oleracea and Punicagranatum peels (Sugirtha et al., 2015); and Clitoriaternatea (Sushma et al., 2016). In this research work Olea europaea leaves aqueous extract was used to synthesis magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles and to study their effects on the green peach aphid. ...
Article
Magnesium hydroxide (MgHNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized using Olea europaeaaqueous extract at ambient temperature and in one-single step. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that synthesized MgHNPs have spherical shape with an average size diameter 40nm. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry were used to characterize the synthesized magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles. This study determined the mortality efficacyof different concentrations of the synthesized MgHNPs against early and late nymphal instars of the green peach aphid. There were significant differences in the aphid mortalities between the different concentrations of the MgHNPs nanoparticles. In addition, the differences between the different concentrations and the control were significantly obvious.
... Magnesium oxide is currently used in medicinal field to treat various diseases such as antacid for heartburn, sour stomach and significant material in toxic waste remediation [20][21][22]. Based on the available literature there are some biosynthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles that are prepared using Clitoria ternatea [23], neem leaves [24], Parthenium [25], Brassica oleracea, Punica granatum peels [26], citrus lemon [27] or the extract derived from Nephelium lappaceum L peels [28]. The application of green synthesis to obtain magnesium oxide nanoparticles is still unexplored and thought to have numerous research opportunities. ...
Article
Green synthesis is an ecofriendly novel technology and attractive research area for the production of metal oxide nanoparticles in bio-medical and chemical applications. The green perspective includes solvents, reductants or stabilizing agents obtained from a natural resource as they are non-toxic and ecofriendly. In this study, a sustainable green synthetic strategy to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles by employing Costus pictus D. Don plant leaf extract as a reducing agent. The successful formation of magnesium oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by comprehensive characterization techniques. The presence of biomolecules and metal oxides were confirmed by Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data analysis. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the formation of pure cubic MgO crystalline nanoparticles. The surface morphology of MgO particles observed by Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the hexagonal-shaped MgO crystallites. The average size of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles was measured to be around 50 nm by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The mechanism for the formation of MgO nanoparticles was suggested in this study. The biosynthesized magnesium oxide particles showed good antimicrobial and exhibited maximum inhibition rate for MgO nanoparticles at 200 µg showing efficient anticancer activity.
... The biological methods available for synthesis of magnesium oxide nanoparticles with the use of plant materials have not been widely exploited [13]. Based on the available literature, magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Clitoria ternatea, neem leaves [14], Parthenium [15], Brassica oleracea, Punica granatum peels [16], Citrus lemon [17], and from Nephelium lappaceum L peel extracts [18]. Therefore, the application of green synthesis in order to obtain magnesium oxide nanoparticles is still an unexplored area, which presents numerous research opportunities. ...
Article
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In this study, we report the ecofriendly biosynthesis of ZnO and MgO nanoparticles using Pisonia grandis R. Br. Leaf extract for possible applications as biomaterials and electronic materials. GC-MS results proved some of the phytocompounds were present in the ethanol extract of plant material. The successful formation of zinc oxide and magnesium oxide particles has been confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM, EDX, and PSA analysis. XRD analysis showed that the ZnO particles were hexagonal phase and MgO particles as face-centered cubic geometry. A plausible formation mechanism was also predicted. Antimicrobial efficacy evaluations of biosynthesized ZnO and MgO nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus (gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi, Klebsiella pneumonia (gram-negative bacteria) and fungal strains Aspergillus Niger and Candida albicans. M. luteus and K. pneumonia exhibited good antibacterial behaviors compared to the other bacterial species.
... Some of the examples include the eco-friendly synthesis of ZnO NPs using leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata, Nerium oleander, aloe leaf broth, and aqueous extract of Vitex negundo L. [4][5][6][7]. MgO NPs were synthesised using neem leaves, Parthenium, Brassica oleracea, Punica granatum peels, citrus lemon and extract derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. peels [8][9][10][11][12]. CuO NPs have been prepared using extracts of soybeans [13], gum karaya [14], bark extract [15], leaf extract [16,17], fruit [18,19], tea and coffee powder [20], peel extract [21] and flower extract [22]. ...
... The excellent properties of MgO nanoparticles made them unique include high chemical stability, high photocatalytic activity, high electrical permittivity, non-toxicity, etc. Magnesium nanoparticles may have longlasting antibacterial action due to its low volatility and high-temperature tolerant properties [33]. Based on the literature, synthesis of MgO-NPs with neem leaves [34], Parthenium [35], citrus lemon extract [36], Brassica oleracea, and Punica granatum peels [37] are available. Biological nanoparticles have been found safe, ecologically responsible, cost-effective, and ensures the complete removal of toxic chemicals [38]. ...
Article
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Background: Unlike chemical techniques, the combination of metal oxide nanoparticles utilizing plant concentrate is a promising choice. The purpose of this work was to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) utilizing heartwood aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium. The heartwood extract of Pterocarpus marsupium is rich in polyphenolic compounds and flavonoids that can be used as a green source for large-scale, simple, and eco-friendly production of MgO-NPs. The phytoassisted synthesis of MgO is characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS (energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results: The formation of MgO-NPs is confirmed by a visual color change from colorless to dark brown and they displayed a wavelength of 310 nm in UV-Spectrophotometry analysis. The crystalline nature of the obtained biosynthesized nanoparticles are revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. SEM results revealed the synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles formed by this cost-effective method are spherically shaped with an average size of < 20 nm. The presence of magnesium and oxygen were confirmed by the EDS data. TEM analysis proved the spherical shape of the nanoparticles with average particle size of 13.28 nm and SAED analysis confirms the crystalline nature of MgO-NPs. FT-IR investigation confirms the existence of the active compounds required to stabilize the magnesium oxide nanoparticles with hydroxyl and carboxyl and phenolic groups that act as reducing, stabilizing, and capping agent. All the nanoparticles vary in particle sizes between 15 and 25 nm and obtained a polydispersity index value of 0.248. The zeta-potential was measured and found to be - 2.9 mV. Further, MgO-NPs were tested for antibacterial action against Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria) by minimum inhibitory concentration technique were found to be potent against both the bacteria. The blended nanoparticles showed good antioxidant activity examined by the DPPH radical scavenging method, showed good anti-diabetic activity determined by alpha-amylase inhibitory activity, and displayed strong anti-inflammatory activity evaluated by the albumin denaturation method. Conclusions: The investigation reports the eco-friendly, cost-effective method for synthesizing magnesium oxide nanoparticles from Pterocarpus marsupium Rox.b heartwood extract with biomedical applications.
... Biogreen MgO nanoparticles which had been synthesized from various leaves, fruit, and seed have been reported here. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from Clitoria ternatea leaf extract [29], orange fruit waste [30], citrus lemon leaf extract [31], Brassica oleracea and Punica granatum peels [32], Swertia chirayita [33], neem leaf extract [34], Aloe vera extract [35], seeds of Lepidium sativum [36], aqueous leaf extracts of Psidium guajava (P. guajava) [37], Nephelium lappaceum L. peel extract [38], Amaranthus tricolor, Andrographis paniculata and Amaranthus blitum [39], aqueous leaf extracts of betel [30], Artemisia abrotanum herb water extract [40], Parthenium plant extract [41], and fruit extract (Emblica officinalis) [42]. ...
Article
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The magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) were prepared from Moringa oleifera leaf extract. Phytochemicals are derived from plant extract which are served as stabilizing and capping agents. This green route has been attracted owing to speed, reliable, and eco-friendly and cost-effective one. The synthesized magnesium oxide nanoparticles were taken into three different calcination temperatures (500, 600, and 700°C). The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) study shows a pure phase of face-centered cubic structure. Periclase MgO nanoparticles were prepared. The optical band gap of MgO nanoparticles is 4.5 eV, and its absorption in the UV region was observed by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). Photoluminescence spectra have exhibited multicolor emissions were being at UV and visible region due to defect centers (F centers) of MgO nanoparticles. EDX (energy dispersive X-ray spectrum) has given the stoichiometric ratio of Mg and O. The functional groups have been studied by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface morphology transformation has been identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, and VSM measurements have given the information of diamagnetic nature of MgO nanoparticles. H-R TEM micrographs have confirmed that particles were in nanorange matched with XRD report. Polycrystalline nature has been observed pattern information. TG-DSC characterization revealed phase transition and weight loss information. D-band and G-band of MgO nanoparticles are studied by micro-Raman analysis. Dielectric analysis has proven that MgO nanoparticles will be a promising candidate for linear dielectric ceramics, thermistor. The present resent studies have revealed that MgO powder will be an economical and promising candidate in superconductor, optoelectronic device, and energy storage applications.
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In this Study the metal oxide nanoparticles are getting an extended thought in various biomedical applications, for instance, to treat cancer prevention agent properties, antimicrobial action, gas sensors, alluring sun based imperativeness change, lithium molecule cathode materials, semiconductors and catalysis. The Nanoparticles were set up by the eco cordial strategy with various plants materials utilized as a surface modifier and stabilizer. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) were fused by using leaf as the in a green amalgamation technique. So in this paper the fundamental eco friendly synthesis method, antibacterial activity antioxidant activity and antibacterial mechanisms of MgO & ZnO nanoparticles are review.
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Background Translating the conventional scientific concepts into a new robust invention is a much needed one at a present scenario to develop some novel materials with intriguing properties. Particles in nanoscale exhibit superior activity than their bulk counterpart. This unique feature is intensively utilized in physical, chemical, and biological sectors. Each metal is holding unique optical properties that can be utilized to synthesize metallic nanoparticles. At present, versatile nanoparticles were synthesized through chemical and biological methods. Main body of abstract Metallic nanoparticles pose numerous scientific merits and have promising industrial applications. But concerning the pros and cons of metallic nanoparticle synthesis methods, researchers elevate to drive the synthesis process of nanoparticles through the utilization of plant resources as a substitute for use of chemicals and reagents under the theme of green chemistry. These synthesized nanoparticles exhibit superior antimicrobial, anticancer, larvicidal, leishmaniasis, wound healing, antioxidant, and as a sensor. Therefore, the utilization of such conceptualized nanoparticles in treating infectious and environmental applications is a warranted one. Conclusion Green chemistry is a keen prudence method, in which bioresources is used as a template for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Therefore, in this review, we exclusively update the context of plant-based metallic nanoparticle synthesis, characterization, and applications in detailed coverage. Hopefully, our review will be modernizing the recent trends going on in metallic nanoparticles synthesis for the blooming research fraternities. Graphical abstract
Thesis
It deals with the preparation of II-VI semiconducting nanoparticles and nanocomposites by hydrothermal, microwave assisted and biological methods. Single phase structure has been confirmed from the XRD and FTIR analyses. Morphology and particle size of the prepared nanomaterials have been estimated by the FESEM and HRTEM. The optical bandgap has been evaluated by UV-Vis spectrum and defect-related emissions are observed from the PL spectrum. Solar light-driven photocatalytic activity results show the degradation of efficiency against methylene blue and Congo red dyes. Antibacterial studies of the materials have been investigated through well diffusion method and found a zone of inhibition against foodborne pathogens. Confocal laser scanning microscopy study confirms the cell death or bacteriostatic effect against bacterial strains. Hemolytic activity of the prepared nanomaterials shows no hemolytic action against human red blood cells and proves the biocompatibility. Anticancer activities of materials have been examined through MTT assay method against human breast and lung cancer cell lines.
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Different nanoscale tungsten oxides with phenomenal photocatalytic properties were orchestrated through a super-fast arrangement ignition amalgamation strategy . The outcomes showed that the WO3 and W18O49 could be orchestrated with various fills (glycine, urea, urea and citrus extract) and the powders introduced mesoporous structures with various morphologies, for example, nanoparticles, nanorods and nanoneedles. Itemized response components of different frameworks were distinguished, and the particular jobs of various powers were examined . Also, the integrated powders showed fantastic photocatalytic proficiency, debasing natural mixtures in 50 min under UV-obvious light illumination. The work recommends that arrangement ignition combination can be utilized as another procedure to plan nanosized stoichiometric and oxygen-opportunity rich nonstoichiometric oxides with brilliant properties .
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nanoparticles of magnesium oxide were prepared using the water extract of the leaves of the Sesbania plant in presence of Mg(OH)2, the characterized of prepared molecules were studied using UV spectroscopy analysis, infrared (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) (SEM). XRD studies have confirmed that the crystalline structures of MgO nanoparticles were formed at an average size of 30 nm. The results of the antifungal activity confirmed the effectiveness of the nanoparticles prepared against to T. rubrum in solid and liquid media. Also, when calculating the percentage of yield of the method used in preparation, the results produced the efficiency of this method
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Phytoengineering deals with exploiting plants and green resources to provide solutions to various applications of science and engineering. Nanomaterials are particles which have one dimension at the minimum less than 100 nm and exhibit fascinating properties. There are a number of methods to synthesize nanomaterials which include physical, chemical, biological, and hybrid methods. Plant-mediated biological methods are being used by various researchers to synthesize nanoparticles of metal, metal oxides, and other materials with different size, shape, and quantity due to their easy availability and eco-friendliness. These nanoparticles are explored for various applications as potent antimicrobial agents, as electrochemical sensors and biosensors, in medicine and health care, in agriculture and crop biotechnology, and as pests, nutrients, and plant hormones and for their in vitro anticancer efficiency. This chapter reviews the research work done on phytoengineered nanomaterials, particularly metal, metal oxides, and other nanoparticles, using plant extracts, through in vitro synthesis using bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae, etc. and in vivo synthesis using phytomining and bioaccumulation of nanoparticles in live plants.
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This paper focuses on magnesium oxide and hydroxide, which are compounds with favorable and exclusive features for various applications. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) have been reportedly produced through green synthesis procedures. Natural materials or their products including plants extracts or those of plants parts, roots, fruits, and gums have been used as reducing and capping agents in the synthesis procedures. MgO nanostructures have been reportedly used in drug delivery, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial applications, which has increased the risks of human exposure to these materials. A full understanding of the influence of MgO NPs and the underlying mechanisms of their actions are important in evaluating the environmental risks of using these nanoparticles. MgO NPs are known to enjoy high biocompatibility and stability, and low IC50 values in comparison with copper, manganese, tin, cobalt, manganese oxide nanoparticles. This has been attributed to the great bioavailability, and lower toxicity (hemolytic investigations) of these particles. MgO NPs are also known as effective chemotherapeutic and bacteriostatic agents for use in the fast detection and diagnosis of various cancers. However, more studies should be aimed at evaluating the toxic effects of MgO NPs on individual organism. As a first step, this review attempts to shed some light on the advancements in the area of green synthesis for preparing efficient NPs including MgO for future applications.
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MgO nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized by a simple and eco-friendly route using watermelon juice as a novel fuel. The synthesized MgO NPs have been subjected to detailed characterization using various analytical techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the crystal structure of MgO which is composed of cubic phase of periclase. The FTIR spectrum gave another manifest from the presence of Mg-O bonding at 552 cm⁻¹. The surface structure, morphology and particle size have been studied using SEM and TEM which show the MgO NPs are in agglomerated form, almost spherical in shape and average size is about 30-50 nm. Finally, the multidimensional studies have been examined by subjecting MgO NPs as a catalyst from the photodegradation of methylene blue dye (one of the most commonly encountered environmental pollutants), antibacterial activities and electrochemical sensing from the detection of hydrazine at trace level concentration.
Chapter
Green nanotechnology is a new division of nanotechnology with low environmental impacts associated with substantial economic and social benefits. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) using living cells are a successful and novel method in bionanotechnology. Chemical and physical approaches are used to produce NPs; but, biological approaches are favored owing to their eco-friendly, clean healthy, cost-effective, simple, and efficient high productivity and purity sources. NPs have various uses for medical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural applications. The main emphasis is on the role of natural phytochemicals involved in metal salt bioreduction during NP synthesis. Plant extracts include many bioactive molecules, which might aid as natural reducing and capping agents. World's current population of nearly 7 billion, several developing nations face the issue of food shortages. Agricultural sector nanotechnology, with its potential uses in the provision of improved food quality to reduce inputs from agriculture, will dramatically increase crop productivity. Various nanomaterials (NMs) are suggested for application in agriculture to help decrease agrochemical consumption by using smart delivery systems, decrease nutrient losses, and increase yield through improved nutrient and water management. The application of green synthesized NMs in the field of agricultural science has advanced towards sustainable development. Nanoparticle tools were also explored in plant breeding and genetics. Besides, agricultural products and/or by-products may be used to produce bio-nanocomposites. The use of nanobiotechnology in the agro-based sector is one of the creative tools that can help the development of a system through its strengthening and industrial development. This chapter particularly focuses on the latest trends on the environment-designed NPs produced using green approaches for uses in farming, such as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, nano(bio)sensors, and gene-delivery in plant transformation.
Article
Green synthesis has gained the interest of the scientific community because it is considered an environmentally friendly process that uses less hazardous chemicals and solvents and does not produce toxic wastes. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) prepared by green synthesis using plant extracts have emerged as a versatile material for multipurpose applications. Polyphenols are phytochemicals known as natural and renewable reducing, chelating, stabilizing, and precipitating agents, involved in the formation of the MgONPs. In recent decades, there has been an impressive growth in the applications of green MgO, mainly in the areas of materials, biomedical and environmental areas. Antibacterial, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities are promising applications of green MgO in medicine, but also in agriculture. Luminescent properties have been explored for multiple applications in biomedice, sensors. Photodegradation promoted by MgO has also been described for various pollutants. This review addresses the main aspects of MgO synthesis by plant extracts, and it will cover the experimental conditions affecting the formation and properties of MgONPs; the main characterization techniques to assign the magnesium compounds formed; and the most reported applications of MgONPs in environmental, biological, medicinal, and materials science fields. A comprehensive list of plants used so far in the MgO synthesis is presented, as well as the parts of the plants used in the preparation of the extracts. However, more detailed studies are necessary to advance the topic, such as the correlation of the plant extract composition with the MgO properties, quantification of the MgO yield, better characterization and assignment of the magnesium compounds formed in the green synthesis.
Article
The use of pneumatic conveying duct as gas–solid heat exchanger is in vogue in the form of preheater and dryer in cement and pharmaceutical industries, among several other industries. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of solids feed rate, particle size and air velocity on thermal conductance of a vertical pneumatic conveying heat exchanger for preheating of dry solids. Sand and gypsum were used as cold medium while air was used as hot medium. Thermal conductance (defined as the ratio of heat transfer rate to driving force) was found to increase with solids feed rate and air velocity. A dimensionless correlation has been proposed for thermal conductance that predicts the present experimental data for air–sand and air–gypsum heat transfer within an error of ±18%. The relevant properties of solids are incorporated in the form of a dimensionless number, Fedorov number (Fe). The proposed correlation may be used to analyze pneumatic conveying heat exchanger of similar geometry.
Article
Simulation of countercurrent gas–solid heat exchanger using one-dimensional, two-fluid model has been carried out and predictions compared with experimental data reported in literature and found satisfactory. Effect of solid loading ratio, particle size and their interactions on heat transfer rate, temperature profile and thermal effectiveness of gas have been studied. Heat transfer rate was found to increase with increasing solid loading ratio and decreasing particle size. Higher heat recovery can be achieved for large particles at high solid loading ratios, while it can be achieved with wide range of solid loading ratios for small particles. Scope for further study is highlighted.
Article
Gas–solid interactions in pneumatic conveying are utilized to transfer heat between gas and solid phases. Experiments on air–solid heat transfer were carried out in a specially designed vertical pneumatic conveying test rig consisting of Galvanized Iron duct of 54 mm inner diameter and 2.2 m height, using gypsum as the solid medium and hot air as gas medium. Thermal effectiveness of air was found to increase with solids feed rate and decrease with air velocity. Thermal effectiveness of solids was found to decrease with solids feed rate. An optimum air velocity has found to exist at which the thermal effectiveness of solids is maximum. The effect of particle size on thermal effectiveness of air and solid is found to be predominant at higher solids feed rates. A dimensionless correlation has been developed for thermal effectiveness of solid which predicts the present experimental data within an error of ±12%.
Article
Violet cauliflower and red cabbage were analysed for their anthocyanin profiles before and after thermal treatments. Anthocyanins are well-noted as healthy compounds due to their antioxidant properties. Samples were analysed for total anthocyanin content by using a spectrophotometric differential pH method. An MS-based method, combining high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) was developed, aimed to separate, identify and quantify the main anthocyanin forms. The procedure involves a rapid and efficient pre-treatment of the samples by solid-phase extraction, followed by selective determination of all compounds in a single run analysis using HPLC–MS/MS. Structural information for the identification of compounds was obtained from their fragmentation patterns (MS/MS spectra). The compounds were separated by HPLC and detected in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), which provides a high level of selectivity for targeting the analytes in vegetables. Cauliflower and red cabbage showed differences in their anthocyanin profiles: cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside was absent in cauliflower, while it was well represented in red cabbage, together with the characteristic anthocyanin of Brassica genus, cyanidin-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside. The p-coumaryl and feruloyl esterified forms of cyanidin-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside were predominant in cauliflower, while the sinapyl one was mostly present in red cabbage. Besides, the stability of cauliflower’s anthocyanin profile was evaluated in relation to thermal pre-treatments. All thermal treatments, except microwave heating, drastically reduced total cauliflower anthocyanin content. The amount of individual anthocyanins was expressed as the percentage with respect to total anthocyanin amount, spectrophotometrically measured. Significant individual changes were observed after different thermal treatment with an isomer formation.
Article
Dried pomegranate peels were powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with ethyl acetate (EtOAc), acetone, methanol and water for 4 h each. The dried extracts were used to determine their antioxidant capacity by the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex and antimutagenicity against the mutagenicity of sodium azide by the Ames test. All the peel extracts exhibited marked antioxidant capacity, but the water extract was the lowest. The order of antioxidant capacity varied because of differential responses at four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) in each solvent. All the extracts decreased sodium azide mutagènicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA100 and TA1535), either weakly or strongly. At 2500 μg/plate all the extracts showed strong antimutagenicity. The antimutagenicity of the water extract was followed by acetone, EtOAc and methanol extracts. The overall results showed that the pomegranate peel extracts have both antioxidant and antimutagenic properties and may be exploited as biopreservatives in food applications and neutraceuticals.
Article
Meet on the edge: The relative concentration of corner and edge ions in a cubelike nanoparticle critically depends on the size of the nanoparticle. On MgO nanocubes this ratio is reflected by their optical properties (see picture). (Graph Presented).
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