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Beekeeping Industry In China

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Abstract and Figures

China is situated in Eastern Asia on the Western Pacific, with an area of 9.6 million square kilometres and 7 million managed bee colonies. It is the largest producer and exporter of bee products in the world. The Chinese economy is developing rapidly, and its beekeeping industry plays an important role in world trade.
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Introduction
Witharecordedhistorygoingbackover5,000years,China
isoneoftheworld’searliestcivilizations.ThePeople’s
RepublicofChinawasfoundedonOctober1,1949.The
majorityoftheterritoryhasatemperateclimate,with
subͲtropicalandtropicalareasintheSouthandacold
temperateregionintheNorth.Suchvariationoffersa
diverseecologicalenvironment.Withinthecountrythere
are56ethnicgroups,andthetotalpopulationnowexceeds
1.3billion.AFamilyPlanningPolicyhasbeenimplemented
sincethe1970’s.UndertheleadershipofDengXiaoping,
Chinabegantoreformitseconomyin1978therebycharting
thecourseformodernization.
Overviewofbeekeeping
Althoughsixspeciesofhoneybeegenuscanbefoundin
mainlandChina,onlytwo,ApismelliferaandApiscerana,
aremanagedfortheirproduce.Thereareanestimated7
millionmanagedcoloniesinChina(FAOrecorded8.77
millionin2008),ofwhichabout5millionareWestern
lineages(Apismellifera)andtheothersareindigenous
Easternhoneybees(Apisceranacerana).
ThedensityofcoloniesinChinaisonly0.73coloniesper
squarekilometre,whichismuchlessthanthatofSouthKorea
(18.8)andTurkey(5.1).Thenumberofcoloniesperapiary
usuallyrangesbetween50and150withupto140thousand
apiariesinChinaasawhole.Couples,sometimeswiththe
helpofoneortwoassistants,runmostoftheapiaries.
However,therearesomewiththousandsofcoloniesrun
bybeeͲproductcompanies.ColonymanagementinChinais
stilllabourͲintensivewithfrequentinspectionandelaborate
managementtogetahigheryieldofproducts.
Thedistributionofthecoloniesoverthewholecountryis
notuniform.TheProvinceofZhejiang,whichislocatedin
China’seasterncoastalregionnexttoShanghai,isa
provinceofimportantstatusinthebeekeepingindustry.
Therearemorethan1millionbeehivesregisteredto15,000
householdsintheprovince,whichaccountsforoneseventh
ofthenationaltotal.Thesehivescontributeonethirdof
thehoneyandhalfoftheroyaljellyproductionofthewhole
country.Insomeotherprovinces,however,especiallyin
WesternChina,thebeekeepingindustryisstillinitsinfancy.
Localgovernmentandbeekeepingassociationsaremaking
effortstopromoteitsdevelopmenttohelpruraleconomy.
Mostofthecommercialandprofessionalbeekeepersprefer
tokeepWesternbees,mainlyApismelliferaligustica,
becausetheyaremoreproductivethantheAsianhoneyͲ
bees.Thelessprofessionalbeekeepers,orthehobbyists,
prefertokeeptheindigenousChinesebees(A.c.cerana)
becausetheyaremoredocileanddonotrequiresuch
elaboratemanagementastheWesternbees.These
indigenousbeesarealsowidelychoseninsedentary
apiariesinthemountainousareassincetheyarebetterat
foragingfromdispersednectarorpollensources(Yang,
2001).Moreover,sinceApisceranaisthenaturalhostof
varroadestructor,itisresistanttothemajorhoneybee
pestandmitecontrolisnotnecessary.
Beeproductsarethemainincomesourceofbeekeepers,
whilethedemandforpollinationservicesisobviously
increasing.NopackagedbeemarketexistssinceallbeeͲ
keeperskeeptheircoloniesoverwinterandbuildupthe
populationinearlyspring.Withoutexceptionhoneyisthe
mostimportantprimaryproductbothfromaquantitative
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BeekeepingIndustryInChina
HuoͲQingZheng,WenͲTingWei,FuͲLiangHu
CollegeofAnimalSciences,ZhejiangUniversity,Hangzhou,China.
ChinaissituatedinEasternAsiaontheWesternPacific,withanareaof9.6millionsquarekilometresand7
millionmanagedbeecolonies.Itisthelargestproducerandexporterofbeeproductsintheworld.The
Chineseeconomyisdevelopingrapidly,anditsbeekeepingindustryplaysanimportantroleinworldtrade.
Photo.1.TheimportanceofroyaljellycanbeseenbyextentofthisworldclassbeeproductsfactoryinChina.
andaneconomicalpointofview,followedbyroyaljelly,
beepollen,propolisandbeeswax.Someskilledbeekeepers
alsoproduceandselldronepupaeandvenom.Queenlarvae,
asabyͲproductofproducingroyaljelly,hasalimitedmarket
butbringsinsomeextraprofit.Afewcommercialhealth
foodsconsistingofqueenlarvaehavebeendeveloped,
‘queenlarvaewine’,whichisregardedtohaveasimilar
biologicalfunctionasroyaljelly,ismadebyimmersingthe
larvaeinwineforaperiod.
Theannualyieldofhoneyisapproximately300,000metric
tonnes,halfofwhichisexported,mainlytoJapan,USA,
CanadaandUK.Othernationwidebeeproductproduction
estimatesforrecentyearsarearound:3,000metrictonnes
ofroyaljelly;5,000metrictonnespollen;4,000metric
tonnesbeeswax;350metrictonnespropolis.Theannual
profitfromexportedbeeproductsforChinaisabout
US$100,000,000.
Honeyproduction
TheaverageannualyieldofhoneyproductionofanApis
melliferacolonyis50kilograms.Therearemorethan20
kindsofmonofloralhoneywhichcanbeputintomass
production,theseinclude:
Rape  Brassicacampestris
ChineseMilkVetch Astragalussinicus
Lichee  Litchichinensis
Longan Dimocarpuslongan 
Locusttree  Robiniapseudoacacia
VetchleafSophoraSophoradavidii
Eucalyptus
HairyVetch ViciaVillosa
ChineseDateZiziphuszizyphus
WhiteSweetCloverMelilotusalba
Linden  Tilia
Chastetree Vitexnegundo
Sesame Sesamumorientale
Sunflower Helianthusannuus
ElsholtziaRugulose
Swallowwort
Cynanchumkomarovii
Buckwheat Polygonumesculentum
EuryaThunb
IvyTree Scheffleraoctophylla
ThemajorityofbeekeeperskeepingApismelliferamigrate
throughoutthecountrytohitpeakbloomingtimes,thus
thehoneyflowcouldlastupto8months.Mostbeekeepers
arefromtheSouthofChina.Normallytheymovefromthe
SouthtotheNorthaftertherapeseasoninspringandback
totheSouthinlateautumntotheteafloweringseasonin
ordertocollectteapollen,whichisoneofthemost
importantkindsofbeepollen,andtoprepareforoverͲ
wintering.Afewofthemdonotmigrate,atleastovera
longdistance,keepingthebeesneartheirhousesall
aroundtheyear.UsuallythelongͲdistancemigratorybeeͲ
keepersproducemorehoneywhilethesedentaryorshortͲ
distanceonesfocusmoreonproducingroyaljelly.
ComparedwithApismellifera,Apisceranamaintainsa
smallerpopulationandislessproductive.Onlytento
twentykilogramshoneycanbeproducedperyearbyeach
colony.However,thepriceofApisceranahoneyisseveral
timesofthatofApismelliferahoney.
Royaljellyproduction
Chinaenjoysahighreputationforitshighyieldofroyal
jellyproducingover95%oftheproductinworldtrade.
ThereareseveralreasonswhyChinacanproducesucha
largeamountofroyaljelly.
SincetheWesternbeeswerefirstintroducedintoChinain
1896(Chen,1993),theyhavebeenhighlyselectedand
bredspecificallyfortheproductionofroyaljelly.
Professionalbreedingprogramswerecarriedoutin
governmentalbreedingapiaries,aswellinsomeprivate
breedingapiaries.Artificialinseminationwasconductedin
thesebreedingapiariestocontrolthemating.Moreover,
selectionandbreedingschemesarealsoimplementedby
somehobbyistbeekeeperswhentheyrearandreplace
queenseveryoneortwoyears.Theyobserveandrecord
theyieldandcharacteristics,suchasdiseaseresistanceand
aggressiveness,ofallthecoloniesandselectthebestones
fromwhichtorearnewqueens.Thisprocessalsocontributes
alottohoneybeebreeding,despitethequeensbeingallowed
tomatenaturally.Whencarriedoutinarelativelyisolated
areainwhichalltheapiaries,aiminginthesamebreeding
direction,areinvolvedasthebreedingstock.Actually,the
firsthoneybeelineagewithhighroyaljellyproductionwas
producedbysuchhobbyistbeekeepersinlate1980’sinPinghu,
Photo.2.Anapiaryamidacresofrapebloom.Photo.3.Anapiaryinsummer.
42ŇBeeWorldŇJune2011www.ibra.org.uk
acountyofZhejiangprovince.Thesucceedingefforts
conductedinprofessionalbreedingapiariesafterthe
discoveryofsuchlineageshasmadethegeneticsmore
stable.Nowadayshoneybeelineageswithhighroyaljelly
productionthatoriginatedfromZhejiangprovince,also
namedZhejiangJiangFeng(ZhejiangRoyalJellyBee),have
spreadtoalmostallprovincesofChina.
Secondly,thedevelopmentofrelatedtechniquesandtools
contributedgreatlytothehighyield.Thetechniquemostly
involvedbuildingupandmaintainingalargecolony
population.Itappearsthatlargercoloniestendtoproduce
disproportionatelymorebeeproductswhencomparedto
smallercolonies.Thehoneybeelineageswithhighroyal
jellyproductionbuilduptheirpopulationmorerapidlyand
canmaintainthatpopulationwithoutswarminggiven
sufficientfoodsupplyandtheeliminationofqueencells.
Intensivemanagementprovidesanothersupporttothe
strongpopulation.Thisisespeciallytrueinearlyspring
whenthepopulationisexpectedtobebuiltupfromabout
oneortwocombstotwelvetopreparethecoloniesforthe
honeyflowafterwintering.
Themostimportantdevelopmentforroyaljellyproduction
wasthatofplasticqueencupsintowhichonedayoldlarvae
aregraftedandnursebeessecreteroyaljellytofeedthe
larvae.Theinventionoftheplasticqueencupsmakesit
possibletoproduceroyaljellyonalargescale.Beforethat,
waxqueencupshadtobemadeandlocatedonwooden
stripsbeforegrafting.Thecombineddevelopmentof
techniquesandtoolsraisedtheyieldofroyaljellyfrom
about300gupto5kgperhiveayearbytheendof1980’s
insomeareasofZhejiangprovince.Theyieldofroyaljelly
percolonyofhighyieldlineagesaverages200gramsina
72Ͳhourproducingperiodandtheannualyieldreaches10
kilograms.
Chinesescientistsaredevelopingnewtechniquesand
instrumentstofacilitateevenhigherroyaljellyproduction.
Forexample,honeybeemultiplequeencolonieswere
createdtoprovideyounglarvaewithauniformagefor
grafting(Zhengetal.,2009a,b).Techniquestoproduce
royaljellywithoutgraftingandinstrumentsforautomatically
extractingroyaljellyarebeendeveloped.
Apisceranadonotproducecommercialroyaljellysince
theymaintainsmallerpopulationsandaremoreproneto
swarm.
Domesticconsumptionofbeeproducts
Therearemorethan2,000companiesspecializinginthe
manufactureandsaleofbeeproductsinChina,withatotal
annualsalesvolumeofaboutUS$1.2billion.Themajority
ofthesecompaniesaresmallormediumͲsizedenterprises.
OnlytenofthemhaveannualsalesvolumeoverUS$15.2
million
Beeproductsareconsideredashealthyfoodandwidely
usedintraditionalChinesemedicine.Withthedeveloping
economyandtheincreasingdemandtokeephealthyunder
highcompetingstress,growthinbeeproductconsumption
istakingplacewithinthehomemarket.Reportedly,raw
honeyconsumptionisgrowingbetween5Ͳ10%ayear.
Consumptionofotherbeeproductssuchasroyaljellyis
growingatabout20%ayear.Nowadays,onecansee
hundredsofshopsspecializinginbeeproductsinurban
centressuchasBeijing,Shanghai,NanjingandHangzhou.
Besidesrawconsumption,honey,asasweetener,isused
inthepreparationofsomefoodslikeBeijingRoastDuck
andalsoinsomehealthdrinksandcarbonateddrinks.
Royaljellyhasalsobeenintroducedintosomebeverages.
Ofallthebeeproducts,beeswaxhasbeen,andremains,
themostversatileandmostwidelyusedmaterial.Its
marketinChinaislimitedandlessthan10%isconsumedat
home,evenincludingtheincreasinguseincosmetics,with
themajorityexportedtotheUSAandtheEU.
Propolisisrelativelynewasacommercialbeeproduct.It
hasbeenrecentlyprovedtobeantibacterial,antiͲdiabetic,
andcapableofreducinginflammation(Hu,2005).However,
judgingfromtheprofittomanufacturersanditspopularity
inChina,ithasbecomeoneofthemostvaluablebee
products.Itmaybetheonlybeeproductthatrequires
importationtomeettheboomingdemandofthedomestic
marketduetotheweaknessofApismelliferaliguisticato
producequantitiesofpropoliswhileApisceranadoesnot
collectresinatall.
Themostchallengingproblemsinbeeproductindustryare
thedetectionofadulterationandthefurtherprocessingof
rawmaterials.Varioustechniques(e.g.vacuumfreezeͲdrying,
supercriticalfluidextraction,nanoͲtechnology,enzyme
engineering,membraneseparation,microencapsulation,
radiationtechnology)arenowusedtodevelopnewproducts
andmuchattentionhasbeenpaidbyresearchersto
developmethodstodetectadulteration(Zhangetal.,2011).
Theadministrationofbeekeepingindustry
Theindustryisofficiallyinspectedandregulatedbythe
MinistryofAgriculture.Chinesebeekeepersarenolonger
onlyconcernedabouttheiryieldsbutpaymuchattention
tothequalityoftheirproducts.Educationalcourses
concerningthetechniquestoproducehighqualityproducts
arearrangedeveryyearbylocalbeekeepingassociations.
Thereisalsoanannualnationalbeeproductsconference
organizedbyApiculturalScienceAssociationofChina
(ASAC)andChinaBeeProductAssociation(CBPA)which
morethanonethousandattending.
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Photo.4.Anapiaryinateaplantation.
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Besidesthenationalandlocalbeekeepingassociations,
companiesspecializinginbeeproductsalsoplayan
importantroleincontrollingthequality.Toensurethat
theyhavehighqualityproductsfreeofresiduesmostof
theenterprises,especiallythebigones,havetheirown
beekeepingbasesandmakecontractswiththeirsupplying
beekeepers.
References
Chen,YC(1993)ApicultureofChina.ChinaAgriculture
Press.inChinese
Hu,FL(2005)Studiesonpharmacologicalactionsofpropolis.
ZhejiangUniversityPress.inChinese
Jin,SH(2003)IntroductionofPinghuhoneybeebreedof
highroyaljellyproducingcharacteristic.Apiculture
ofChina54(1):25.inChinese.
Introduction
TodateapicultureisstillahighlabourͲintensiveindustryin
particulartheproductionofroyaljellyisalmosttotally
dependentonmanualoperation.Royaljellyisoneofthe
mostimportantbeeproductsinChinawhichsuppliesmore
than90%oftheworldmarket.Withtheboomingofsocial
economymechanizedbeekeepingisurgentlyneeded.
Originally,beeswaxcupswereusedforroyaljelly
productionbutwerenotefficientandgavealowyield.In
the1980’sthequeencupplasticstripwasintroducedand
representedaninnovativestep.Themosttypicalwasthe
highlyproductivequeencellcupstrip,whichwasinvented
byZhejiangAgriculturalUniversity.Thiskindofplasticcup
washighlyreceptive,labourͲsaving,gaveahighoutputand
washealthy,durableandeasytooperate.Royaljelly
productioncouldbeimprovedby20Ͳ30%byapplyingsuch
anewplasticstrip.Itwaspatentedaroundtheworldin1987
withitsspecialdesignandcapmakingagreatcontribution
totechnologyofroyaljellyproduction(Chenetal.,1987).
Upto1989,morethan1.3millionplasticcupframeshad
beenpromotedthroughoutChinagivingrisetosignificant
economicandsocialbenefits.Later,intheearly1990’s,
withcontinuousexplorationofroyaljellymechanized
production,thesuctionmachine,thecentrifugalmachine
andthesemiͲautomaticmachinewereinventedsuccessively.
Thesemachinesextractedroyaljellyfromqueencellcups
withdifferentmechanisms,butallfailedtotrulymechanize
royaljellyproductionandwerenotwidelyacceptedby
beekeepers.
Yang,GH(2001)TheChineseHoneybee.ChinaAgriculture
Press.inChinese.
Zhang,CP;Zheng,HQ;Liu,G;Hu,FL(2011)Development
andvalidationofHPLCmethodfordeterminationof
salicininpoplarbuds:applicationforscreeningof
counterfeitpropolis.
FoodChemistry
127(1):345Ͳ350.
Zheng,HQ;Jin,SH;Hu,FL;Pirk,CWW(2009)Sustainable
multiplequeencoloniesofhoneybees,Apis
melliferaligustica.JournalofApiculturalResearch
48(4):284Ͳ289.DOI:10.3896/IBRA.1.48.4.09
Zheng,HQ;Jin,SH;Hu,FL;Pirk,CWW;Dietemann,V
(2009)Maintenanceandapplicationofmultiple
queencoloniesincommercialbeekeeping.Journal
ofApiculturalResearch48(4):290Ͳ295.DOI:
10.3896/IBRA.1.48.4.10
Anewadvancedmachinewasinventedbycooperation
betweenZhejiangSanyongBeeIndustryTechnologyand
theAnimalScienceCollegeofZhejiangUniversity.This
machinehasanewtypeofcupframemadesothatitcould
sustainitsshapeforalongtime.Anappropriatenumberof
cupswithsuitablediameterandheightwerefixedonthe
frame(Photo.1),contributingtoahighacceptance,upto
95%,forthefirstgrafting.
Themachinemeasures68×65×62(cm),withaweightof40
kg,andispowerratedat40W(Photo2).Itcanbedrivenby
solarenergy,directcurrent(12V),alternatingcurrent
(220V)orevenbyhand.Itcouldsavetimeandlabour,
improveefficiencyandcompletelyreplacethemanualwork.
Thedesignofthemachineimitatesthemanualoperation,
whichensuresthegoodqualityoftheproduct(Photo.3).
Allmaterialsusedintheconstructioncompletelymeetthe
requirementsofenvironmentalprotection,ensuringthe
safetyoftheproducts.Fatiguetestshaveprovedthe
reliabilityofthemachine,whichissimpletooperate.Itis
necessarytocutoffthebasewax,removethelarvae,clean
upthequeencupswithoutexceptionbeforecontinuously
placingthecupframesintothereceivingslotonthetopof
themachine(Photo.4)andstartingthemotor.Theroyal
jellyautomaticallyflowsintothebottlesalongthechannel,
leavingtheemptycupͲframes.
ThemachineworksonthebasisofapulpͲdiggingmechanism.
Itcouldcleanup32cupsatonetime,andcouldcomplete
extracting600stripsofroyaljellywithinanhour.Forexample,
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AdvancedMechanizationOfRoyalJellyProduction
FangLiu,SongkunSu,YuxingWang,SongfuPan,XiaohuaZheng,
ShuangjinDai,ShengluChen,Hangzhou,China
ScientistsfromZhejiangUniversityandengineersfromtheZhejiangSanyongTechnologyCompany
havecombinedtoproduceanadvancedmachinehasbeenintroducedforroyaljellyextractionwiththe
potentialtoreducelabourintensityandproduceahealthyandsafeendproduct.
44ŇBeeWorldŇJune2011www.ibra.org.uk
... According to some Chinese sources (Feng 1990;Zheng et al. 2011), modern apiculture in China started with the importing of the European Apis Mellifera bee species in the late 19 th century and early 20 th century. Then, after the 1930s, Guangdong beekeepers adopted movable-frame hives for the endogenic specie Apis Cerana, which, in turn, contributed towards changing practices in beekeeping. ...
... The historical content of the above quote was confirmed in 2017 by several beekeepers who noted Fujian and Zhejiang province as the original sites where Italian bees (yifeng) were domesticated on a larger scale for honey production. This specie is now dominating the apiaries in China, impacting the survival of the main indigenous species, including the Apis Cerana described as more docile and resistant to diseases such as varroa destructor, but much less productive (Zheng et al. 2011;Yang 2005). ...
... V. underwoodi mites reproduce successfully in colonies of A. cerana bees, but its detection in colonies of other honey bee species suggests that these mites are capable of interspecific host change. It can be especially dangerous for A. mellifera colonies kept close to A. cerana colonies, as is common in most Asian countries (Zheng et al., 2011(Zheng et al., , 2018Chantawannakul et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019a, b;Roberts et al., 2020). ...
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Species of the genus Varroa are ectoparasitic mites of the Apis honey bees. Unlike the well-known species of mites V. destructor and V. jacobsoni, V. underwoodi is still poorly studied. According to foreign publications, the currently recognized distribution of V. underwoodi in the A. cerana population includes Nepal, South Korea, Japan, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, and China. Recently it has been detected in Russia (Primorsky krai) on A. cerana ussuriensis honey bees. Since V. destructor and V. jacobsoni have the ability to easily switch to other bee species, there is a possibility that later V. underwoodi may also extensively switch from the Asian honey bees A. cerana to the European honey bees A. mellifera. The first case of V. underwoodi parasitizing in A. mellifera colonies was recorded in Papua New Guinea. The parasitic mite V. underwoodi requires careful study, since it is a new potential parasite of the honey bees A. mellifera, which can also bring new species and strains of viruses and bacteria, change the composition of the gut microbiome, and disrupt the protective and adaptive mechanisms of the bees. This article presents the data of morphometry and polymorphism of the COX1 gene mtDNA. Varroa underwoodi was compared with the other mite species V. destructor and V. jacobsoni. The mean genetic divergence and p-distance between V. underwoodi and other Varroa species were 9% and 0.09, respectively, which is consistent with the level of species differences in insects. The nucleotide sequences of the COX1 gene mtDNA of V. underwoodi from Primorsky krai of Russia LC532104 and from the Jilin province of China MH205176 turned out to be identical and were assigned to the China 1 MH205176 haplotype. It is assumed that there is continuous migration between the A. cerana populations of Russia and China, which led to the spread of V. underwoodi in the natural population of A. cerana ussuriensis in the Primorsky krai of Russia, and the mite is currently distributed up to 45.06° N. Thus, the northern border of the V. underwoodi range is located on the territory of the Russian Far East and, probably, coincides with the range of A. cerana ussuriensis. It is likely that the selection of A. mellifera bee colonies for hygienic behavior against the V. destructor mite may also be effective against V. underwoodi and will prevent the possible transition of V. underwoodi from Asian A. cerana to European A. mellifera.
... Many view systematic harvesting of immature honey followed by industrial moisture reduction as not complying with the Codex definition, since the honey is not matured by bees in the hive. [23][24][25] Others point to the nomadic lifestyle of Chinese beekeepers [26][27][28] and the high humidity of Asia necessitating periodic collection of immature honey for aggregation and moisture removal, to prevent fermentation. There are ongoing discussions on these issues 29 . ...
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The composition of honey, a complex natural product, challenges analytical methods attempting to determine its authenticity particularly in the face of sophisticated adulteration. Of the advanced analytical techniques available, only isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is generally accepted for its reproducibility and ability to detect certain added sugars, with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) being subject to stakeholder differences of opinion. Herein, recent reviews of honey adulteration and the techniques to detect it are summarised in the light of which analytical reports are examined that underpinned a media article in late 2020 alleging foreign sugars in UK retailers’ own brand honeys. The requirement for multiple analytical techniques leads to complex reports from which it is difficult to draw an overarching and unequivocal authenticity opinion. Thus arose two questions. (1) Is it acceptable to report an adverse interpretation without exhibiting all the supporting data? (2) How may a valid overarching authenticity opinion be derived from a large partially conflicting dataset?
... Клещи V. underwoodi успешно размножаются в семьях пчел A. cerana, но обнаружение его в семьях других видов медоносных пчел позволяет предположить способность этих клещей к межвидовой смене хозяев. Особенно опасен он может быть для семей A. mellifera, содержащихся рядом с семьями A. cerana, как это принято в большинстве азиатских стран (Zheng et al., 2011(Zheng et al., , 2018Chantawannakul et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2019a, b;Roberts et al., 2020). ...
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Ильясов, Р.А., Такахаши, Д.И., Ли, М.Л., Прощалыкин, М.Ю., Лелей, А.С., Квон, Х.В., Даниленко, В.Н., Николенко, А.Г., 2022. Характеристика клещей Varroa underwoodi (Acari Varroidae) в популяции Apis cerana ussuriensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) в Приморском крае, Россия. Журнал Общей Биологии. 83 (1), 38-50. doi: 10.31857/S0044459622010055. (SCI, WoS, Scopus). IF = 1,028. Ilyasov, R.A., Takahashi, J.I., Lee, M.L., Proshchalykin, M.Y., Lelej, A.S., Kwon, H.W., Danilenko, V.N., Nikolenko, A.G., 2022. Characteristics of Varroa underwoodi mites (Acari: Varroidae) in the population of Apis cerana ussuriensis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Primorsky Krai of Russia. Biology Bulletin Reviews (Zhurnal obshchei biologii). 83 (1), 38-50. doi: 10.31857/S0044459622010055. (SCI, WoS, Scopus). IF = 1,028. ISSN 0044-4596 Abstract. Species of the genus Varroa are ectoparasitic mites of the Apis honey bees. Unlike the well-known species ofmites V. destructor and V. jacobsoni, V. underwoodi is still poorly studied. According to foreign publications, thecurrently recognized distribution of V. underwoodi in the A. cerana population includes Nepal, South Korea,Japan, Malaysia, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, and China. Recently it was discovered inthe Russia (Primorsky Krai) on the honey bees A. cerana ussuriensis. Since V. destructor and V. jacobsoni havethe ability to easily switch to other bee species, there is a possibility that later V. underwoodi may also extensively switch from Asian honey bees A. cerana to European honey bees A. mellifera. The first case of V. underwoodi parasitizing in A. mellifera colonies was recorded in Papua New Guinea. The parasitic mite V. underwoodi requires careful study, since it is a new potential parasite of honey bees A. mellifera, which can also bringnew species and strains of viruses and bacteria, change the composition of the gut microbiome, and disruptthe protective and adaptive mechanisms of the bees. The article presents the data on morphometry and polymorphism of the gene COX1 of mtDNA. Varroa underwoodi was compared with other mite species V. destructor and V. jacobsoni. The mean genetic divergence and p-distance between V. underwoodi and other Varroaspecies were 9% and 0.09, respectively, which are consistent with the level of species differences in insects.The nucleotide sequences of the gene COX1 of mtDNA of V. underwoodi from Primorsky Krai of RussiaLC532104 and from the Jilin province of China MH205176 turned out to be identical and were assigned tothe China 1 MH205176 haplotype. It is assumed that there is continuous migration between the A. ceranapopulations of Russia and China, which led to the spread of V. underwoodi in the natural population of A. cerana ussuriensis in the Primorsky Krai of Russia, and the mite is currently distributed up to 45.06°N. Thus, thenorthern border of the V. underwoodi range is located on the territory of Russian Far East and, probably, coincides with the range of A. cerana ussuriensis. It is likely that the selection of A. mellifera bee colonies for hygienic behavior against the V. destructor mite may also be effective against V. underwoodi and will prevent thepossible transition of V. underwoodi from Asian A. cerana to European A. mellifera. Аннотация. Виды рода Varroa являются эктопаразитическими клещами медоносных пчел рода Apis. В отличие от хорошо известных видов клещей V. destructor и V. jacobsoni, V. underwoodi остается мало изученным. Современный ареал V. underwoodi в популяции A. cerana включает Непал, Южную Корею, Японию, Малайзию, Индию, Индонезию, Папуа-Новую Гвинею, Вьетнам и Китай. Недавно он был найден в России (Приморский край) на A. cerana ussuriensis. Поскольку V. destructor и V. jacobsoni обладают способностью легко переходить на другие виды медоносных пчел, есть большая вероятность того,что V. underwoodi может в дальнейшем перейти в массовом порядке с A. cerana на A. mellifera. Первый случай паразитирования V. underwoodi в семьях пчел A. mellifera зафиксирован в Папуа-Новой Гвинее. Varroa underwoodi требует тщательного изучения, поскольку является новым потенциальным паразитом A. mellifera и способен принести с собой новые виды и штаммы вирусов и бактерий, изменить состав микробиома кишечника пчел, нарушить защитные и адаптивные механизмы их организма. В статье представлены данные морфометрии V. underwoodi и полиморфизма его гена COX1мтДНК. Проведено сравнение V. underwoodi с другими видами клещей V. destructor и V. jacobsoni. Средняя генетическая дивергенция и p-дистанция между V. underwoodi и другими видами Varroa составляли 9% и 0.09 соответственно, что согласуется со средним уровнем видовых различий у насекомых. Нуклеотидные последовательности гена COX1 мтДНК V. underwoodi из Приморского края (Россия) LC532104 и провинции Цзилинь (Китай) MH205176 оказались идентичными и отнесены кгаплотипу China 1 MH205176. Предполагается, что между популяциями A. cerana России и Китая происходит непрерывный обмен, который привел к появлению V. underwoodi в природной популяции A. cerana ussuriensis в Приморском крае. Современная северная граница ареала V. underwoodi проходит по территории Дальнего Востока России и, вероятно, совпадает с таковой A. cerana ussuriensis (45.06° с.ш.). Вероятно, селекция семей пчел A. mellifera по гигиеническому поведению против клещей V. destructor может оказаться эффективной также против V. underwoodi и позволит предотвратить возможный переход V. underwoodi с азиатских пчел A. cerana на европейских пчел A. mellifera.
... Furthermore, the number of managed honey bee colonies has declined in North America and in many European countries (2). In China and Argentina, on the other hand, the number of managed honey bee colonies has increased (3)(4)(5). There are alarming reports of high colony losses in managed honey bees (colony collapse disorder CCD) from several areas of the world (6). ...
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Neonicotinoids as thiamethoxam and thiacloprid are suspected to be implicated in the decline of honey bee populations. As nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, they disturb acetylcholine receptor signaling in insects, leading to neurotoxicity and are therefore globally used as insecticides. Several behavioral studies have shown links between neonicotinoid exposure of bees and adverse effects on foraging activity, homing flight performance and reproduction, but the molecular aspects underlying these effects are not well-understood. In the last years, several studies through us and others showed the effects of exposure to neonicotinoids on gene expression in the brain of honey bees. Transcripts of acetylcholine receptors, hormonal regulation, stress markers, detoxification enzymes, immune system related genes and transcripts of the energy metabolism were altered after neonicotinoid exposure. To elucidate the link between homing flight performance and shifts in gene expression in the brain of honey bees after neonicotinoid exposure, we combined homing flight activity experiments applying RFID technology and gene expression analysis. We analyzed the expression of endocrine factors, stress genes, detoxification enzymes and genes linked to energy metabolism in forager bees after homing flight experiments. Three different experiments (experiment I: pilot study; experiment II: “worst-case” study and experiment III: laboratory study) were performed. In a pilot study, we wanted to investigate if we could see differences in gene expression between controls and exposed bees (experiment I). This first study was followed by a so-called “worst-case” study (experiment II), where we investigated mainly differences in the expression of transcripts linked to energy metabolism between fast and slow returning foragers. We found a correlation between homing flight duration and the expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, one transcript linked to oxidative phosphorylation. In the third experiment (experiment III), foragers were exposed in the laboratory to 1 ng/bee thiamethoxam and 8 ng/bee thiacloprid followed by gene expression analysis without a subsequent flight experiment. We could partially confirm the induction of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, which we detected in experiment II. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the feeding mode (group feeding vs. single bee feeding) on data scattering and demonstrated that single bee feeding is superior to group feeding as it significantly reduces variability in gene expression. Based on the data, we thus hypothesize that the disruption of energy metabolism may be one reason for a prolongation of homing flight duration in neonicotinoid treated bees.
... As far as the nutritional knowledge concerned and being a priority in the field of science, the understanding of types and assortment of foods including their nutritional value and composition as a human dietary life has been possible. By gaining knowledge, people can find link between type and combination of food to some extent and can, thus, find relation of food intake and health (Zheng et al., 2011). ...
... As far as the nutritional knowledge concerned and being a priority in the field of science, the understanding of types and assortment of foods including their nutritional value and composition as a human dietary life has been possible. By gaining knowledge, people can find link between type and combination of food to some extent and can, thus, find relation of food intake and health (Zheng et al., 2011). ...
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Full-text available
Ilyasov, R.A., Takahashi, J.I., Proshchalykin, M.Y., Lelej, A.S., Lee, M.L., Kwon, H.W., Nikolenko, A. G. (2021). First evidence of presence of Varroa underwoodi mites on native Apis cerana colonies in Primorsky Territory of Russia based on COX1 gene. Journal of Apicultural Science 65 (1), 177-186. doi: 10.2478/JAS-2021-0014. Abstract. The species of genus Varroa mites parasitize on the honey bees of genus Apis. Unlike the well-studied V. destructor and V. jacobsoni mites, V. underwoodi remain less known. According to English language publications, the proven V. underwoodi distribution area of A. cerana colonies covers Nepal, South Korea, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam and China, but not Russia even though it had been described morphometrically in Russian language publications in Russia’s Primorsky Territory. According to Vavilov’s law (1920) of a homologous series, all the species of V. underwoodi, V. destructor and V. jacobsoni have the ability to spill over onto new hosts. Thus, V. underwoodi is a potential parasite of A. mellifera that should be carefully studied. In this study, V. underwoodi mites in colonies of honey bee subspecies A. c. ussuriensis native to Russia’s Primorsky Territory are first proven using both morphometry and mitochondrial COX1 gene sequencing. The genetic divergence and p-distances between V. underwoodi and other Varroa species ranged from 7 to 10% and from 0.072 to 0.099, respectively, which matched the intraspecific level of differences. Two identical northernmost V. underwoodi samples from Russia’s Primorsky Territory and China’s Jilin province with GenBank accession number MH205176 were assigned as COX1 haplotype China 1 MH205176. The first discovery of V. underwoodi in the Primorsky Territory in northern Asia outlined the northern border of its range.
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We have previously reported the artificial creation of stable multiple queen honey bee colonies in China. Here we describe, based on our experience and primary research, the techniques necessary to successfully maintain multiple queen colonies and how they can be used commercially. Special care including the provision of sufficient food, avoiding robbing and drifting, destroying newly built queen cells, and abandoning foragers before migration, are necessary for keeping sustainable multiple queen colonies. In practice, these colonies are used as supporting units for the faster build-up of productive colonies and for the production of royal jelly.
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and have an indispensable role in pollination for agricultural and natural eco-systems (Morse and Calderone, 2000). A large colony population is necessary for a high yield of hive products (Chen, 2001). Because of this, for many decades attempts in Introduction The western (Apis mellifera) and the eastern (Apis cerana) honey bee are rare cases of insects that have been successfully domesticated. Honey bees play an important economic role as a producer of honey, royal jelly, beeswax and propolis, which have been proven to have a Summary Honey bee multiple queen colonies composed of several mated queens able to move around freely were produced by modulating biological factors that evoke fighting and queen elimination within the colony, mainly by ablating mandibles of queens to avoid inter-queen rivalry. Following this method, 128 colonies in eighteen apiaries were set up with multiple queens, all of which were mated and 6-12 months old. One hundred of the colonies (78.1%) retained all introduced queens. In total, 658 out of 733 queens (89.8%) were accepted after their introduction. The majority of these colonies experienced no queen loss for two months and most were still stable after six months. Of 80
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The main plant origins of propolis are the populus species and their hybrids, both located in China. Poplar tree gum, the extract of populus buds, has been widely used as counterfeit propolis, but no efficient method was known for detecting the counterfeit. Salicin is a characteristic marker of the genus populus, which may be hydrolysed by β-glucosidase during propolis collection and processing. A simple, sensitive and specific reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the rapid assay of salicin, which was aimed at distinguishing poplar tree gum from propolis. Isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min was employed on a Sepax HP-C18 column (150×4.6mm, 5μm) and the column temperature was 30°C. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and 0.5% aqueous phosphoric acid (5:95, v/v). The UV detection wavelength was 213nm. Following this method, salicin was detected in populus buds and leaves and 11 poplar tree gum samples, but not in any of the 40 propolis samples, which indicates that salicin was hydrolysed in propolis collection and processing but was stable in the production process of poplar tree gum. The proposed method could be an effective technique for routine analysis of salicin and monitoring the quality of propolis as possible counterfeit poplar tree gum.
ApicultureofChina.ChinaAgriculture Press
  • Yc Chen
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The Chinese Honeybee
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Studies on pharmacological actions of propolis
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IntroductionofPinghuhoneybeebreedof highroyaljellyproducingcharacteristic
  • S H Jin
Jin,SH(2003)IntroductionofPinghuhoneybeebreedof highroyaljellyproducingcharacteristic.Apiculture ofChina54(1):25.inChinese.