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Volunteering Activities in Developing Countries: A Study of Youth Participation in Pakistan



In recent decades there has been numerous and growing interest of researchers in volunteering. Where there are a substantial number of studies in the developed countries, not much work is present on developing countries. This paper studies the types of volunteering activities among youth in selected areas of Pakistan and analyses the various perspectives of volunteerism in Pakistan. Data was collected from two different provinces of the country through questionnaire and analyzed through SPSS. The research shows that people are not much introduced to volunteering or formal volunteering whereas they think they do have time, lesser commitments and they do want to volunteer. People are more motivated towards general areas of volunteering like volunteering in medical centers or educational institutions and have been involved in volunteering in religious activities however other areas should be introduced to them. Although volunteerism provides young people with opportunity to get engaged in constructive activities, we have found lack of volunteerism opportunities and awareness. There is need for seminars and programs to be held to make general public aware of volunteering, its uses and benefits to them and the society. The research can help organizations and researchers to study the volunteering activity according to specified volunteering areas. Volunteering activities can be increased by focusing on the individual areas.
European Journal of Business and Management
ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online)
Vol.7, No.13, 2015
Volunteering Activities in Developing Countries: A Study of
Youth Participation in Pakistan
Mattiullah Butt
Bei Hu
Kamran Ahmed Soomro
1.School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 10037 Luoyu Road, Hongshan
Disdrict, Wuhan 430074, P.R.China
2.College of Public Administration, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 10037 Luoyu Road,
Hongshan Disdrict, Wuhan 430074, P.R.China
* E-mail of the corresponding author:
In recent decades there has been numerous and growing interest of researchers in volunteering. Where there are a
substantial number of studies in the developed countries, not much work is present on developing countries. This
paper studies the types of volunteering activities among youth in selected areas of Pakistan and analyses the
various perspectives of volunteerism in Pakistan. Data was collected from two different provinces of the country
through questionnaire. Then through SPSS software data was analyzed. The research shows that people are not
much introduced to volunteering or formal volunteering whereas they think they do have time and lesser
commitments and do want to volunteer. People are more motivated towards general areas of volunteering like
volunteering in medical centers or educational institutions and have been involved in volunteering religious
activities in the area however other areas should be introduced to them. Although volunteerism provides young
people with opportunity to get engaged in constructive activities, we have found lack of volunteerism
opportunities and awareness. There is need for seminars and programs to be held to make general public aware
of volunteering, its uses and benefits to them and the society. The research can help organizations and
researchers to study the volunteering activity according to specified volunteering areas. Volunteering activities
can be increased by focusing on the individual areas.
Keywords: Volunteerism, Types of Volunteering activities, volunteering in developing countries, Youth,
Volunteer Management, Volunteer Motivation,
1. Introduction
In recent decades, there has been a burgeoning interest in the study of volunteering, and the number of
publications devoted to volunteering has grown exponentially (Hustinx, Handy, & Cnaan, 2011). Not only the
individuals but organizations (like Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Faith Based Organizations
(FBOs)) and Governments have been involved in introducing, promoting, encouraging, motivating, facilitating
and enforcing volunteering activities among general public. Several benefits of volunteering has been studied
and realized to the individual volunteers as well. In the developed countries, organizations and Governments are
more actively involved in measurement and declaration of volunteer work in the country. Because of awareness
among public, availability of data, and interest of the researchers there are many studies on the volunteers of
developed countries. This paper studies volunteering activities in the developing country (Pakistan). There has
not been much work on volunteering in the developing nations. Butcher (2011) writes that there is a need to
seriously interrogate the forms of volunteer participation in developing nations. Volunteering is not among
common activities in the areas of the country under study (Pakistan). There is lack of awareness about formal
volunteering among students and public. Formal volunteering is defined as any unpaid contribution of time to
activities of organizations (Wirtschaft, 2014). However some religious and welfare organizations do enjoy
services and roles from volunteers in achievement of Organizational Objectives. Butcher (2011)also emphasizes
that efforts should be made to understand, foster local customs and enhance volunteering in developing countries.
This paper is a step towards understanding and awareness of volunteering in the country.
Volunteering not only benefits the organization or society but it also has numerous benefits for
individuals (Booth, Park, & Glomb, 2009; Handy & Brudney, 2007; Sherr, 2008). Focusing on the individuals
and what the individuals can get by volunteering, for Example, Veitch (2013) wrote networking, skill
development and belongings, Casey (2014) wrote new knowledge, developing new skills or honing existing ones,
networking, advancing one’s career, and making new acquaintances and friends. Many websites on the internet
have collected different benefits of volunteering to promote volunteerism. An Example is Saisan, Smith, &
Kemp (2014) who wrote that volunteering connects with others, helps make new friends, increases social and
relationship skills, increases self-confidence, combats depression, helps stay physically healthy, can provide
career experience, teach valuable job skills and help advance in the career. Other benefits include a good health
(Byrd, 1984), developing a sense of confidence, achievement, and fulfillment, and making new acquaintances
and friendships, working with children, personal and religious satisfaction. According to report in 2010 by
Corporation of National & Community Health Service of USA,people who volunteer live longer. Volunteering
European Journal of Business and Management
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Vol.7, No.13, 2015
also teaches self management and social awareness. Research shows that these characters positively affects
entrepreneurial orientation (Padilla-Meléndez, Fernández-Gámez, & Molina-Gómez, 2014). There is no doubt
that Volunteering would not only benefit the Organization or employer but also individuals choosing to
In order to analyze the volunteering activities in the country, this study is carried out according to
different areas focused by Volunteers. Authors have written papers in different areas of volunteering as
volunteers give their time according to their area of interest. A few have studied the volunteering behavior in all
the areas or have analyzed the volunteering activities among different areas. We have, in this paper, tried to
cover all the areas of the volunteering so that a thorough analysis of the volunteering activities in the country can
be analyzed. To study the volunteering activities in Pakistan, we have focused on five research questions.
2. Research Questions:
Question 1: What are the areas of Volunteering currently active in Pakistan?
Question 2: What areas have been more focused by Pakistani volunteers?
Questions 3: Are the youngsters in the country motivated to volunteer?
Questions 4: Do the youngsters have time to volunteer?
Questions 5: Are youngsters well introduced to volunteerism?
The research questions mentioned help to study the volunteering behavior of the youth in Pakistan and
explores which areas are more focused by volunteers; if people want to volunteer out of their busy schedules and
if they are/were introduced to volunteer activities. Findings show that a few are involved in formal volunteering
whereas as more are involved in informal way of volunteering. The volunteers believe that they do have time to
volunteer or they should volunteer however they are not introduced to volunteering activities. The area wise
analysis of the responses helps the related bodies to focus the less attentive areas of volunteering. Awareness can
be increased by holding Seminars or events. By focusing on the respective areas to promote volunteerism
according to interests / subjects of the students or youngsters, overall volunteering activities in the country can
be increased bringing improvement in individuals, society and the country.
The remaining part of the paper consists of literature on Volunteering, Volunteering in developing
countries and in Pakistan, the benefits of Volunteering and the areas of Volunteering, followed by Research
Methodology, Results and Discussions and Conclusion.
3. Literature Review
3.1 Volunteering and Youth
There have been multiple approaches followed to understand what the word Volunteer can mean. Different
authors have defined the word in similar and different ways. To recognize the meaning of volunteering is far
more contextually determined that is commonly assumed (Butcher, 2011). Researchers have put big emphasis
has been on the absence of monetary benefits whereas some authors have studied the usefulness of little token of
appreciation to volunteers in the short run (Lacetera, Macis, & Slonim 2014). In many cases, although a clear
financial payment at market rate is not present in case of volunteering but providing volunteers with something
of financial benefits like reimbursement for out-of-pocket expenses, travel allowance, payments for costs
incurred, stipend etc. which might be fixed in some case, or varying or just a present from the senior/boss can be
found in various cases.
Volunteering can be defined as some planned activity carried out with free will, for betterment of
humanity and society and involves (little to) no monetary compensation. It is also sometimes confused with
altruism. Haski-Leventhal (2009) explains the difference between the two in his work “Altruism and
Volunteerism” by defining formal volunteering as one of the important aspects of human altruism consisting of
organized and long-term activity, for the benefit of others. Batson ( 1991) defines altruism as “a motivational
state with the ultimate goal of increasing another’s welfare”. Patel & Wilson (2004) states that altruism as a
“selfless” act does not occur, because to deny helping if one can do so is to deny one’s sense of self. Hence it is
sort of co-operation and not altruism as altruistic activity should be considered when it benefits the recipient and
harms the helper (Sigmund & Hauert, 2002). The current literature, however, focuses on volunteering activity
without considering who is being benefited more or less. Helping with expectation of being helped on time is
also not considered neither included. Offering services by Pakistani nationals (in this study of volunteerism) to
others with no to little money is considered volunteer work but helping for a little time in times of needs is not
included in formal volunteering.
The term Youth has been explained with multiple definitions and age brackets. According to United
Nations definition, people in between 15-24 years of age are considered as youth while others including USAID,
assume 10-29 years as Youth (USAID, 2012). Meanwhile, we would follow the Pakistan’s official definition
which considers people from 15-29 years of age lying in the category of Youth (National Youth Policy, 2009). It
is the best approach to engage youth in constructive and learning oriented activities through volunteerism.
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3.2 Volunteering in developing countries
Walt (1988) and Schneider, Hlophe, & Rensburg (2008) have noted various communities involved in services
primary health care especially in developing countries that contain services from volunteers. Researchers have
written on volunteering in the developed countries (like U.S and the United Kingdom) however not much has
been analyzed on volunteering in developing countries. World giving index (2014) by Charities Aid Foundation
shows that Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Uzbekistan are four top countries with respect to percentage
of people volunteering i.e., 53%, 51%, 50% and 46% respectively. They are followed by USA, Canada, New
Zealand and Tajikistan with 44%, Bhutan (43%), and Ireland, Malaysia and Nigeria (41%). In Pakistan, the
volunteer activity is said to be only 16% ranking it 78
in the world. This data also shows that the awareness of
volunteering encourages people to volunteer despite the economic condition of the country.
3.3 Types of volunteering Areas / Opportunities
Authors have written researches in different areas of volunteering as volunteers give their time in volunteering
according to their area of interest. For example Ibsen (2012); Nichols, Taylor, Barrett, & Jeanes (2013); Reeser,
Berg, Rhea, & Willick (2005); Warner Newland, B.L., and Green, B.C., (2011) have studied volunteering in
sports, Pi, Lin, Chen, Chiu, & Chen(2014); Silverberg, Marshall, & Ellis (2001) have studied public Parks and
recreation volunteers, Bielefeld & Cleveland (2013); Hill & den Dulk (2013); Johnston (2013); Spring & Grimm
(2004); Unruh (2010) have studied faith based areas, Hallett, Klug, Lauber, & Priebe (2012); Handy &
Srinivasan (2004); Hotchkiss, Unruh, & Fottler (2014) studied volunteers in hospitals etc. A few have studied the
volunteering behavior in all the areas or have analyzed the volunteering activities among different areas. Among
those who have studied different areas of volunteering, Strauß (2008) divides areas of volunteering as Sports,
Children, religion, social welfare, leisure/culture, local community and politics. Gage & Thapa (2012) divides
volunteer organizations into Political, Environmental, Recreational, Cultural, Human services, Educational and
other. We have, in this paper, tried to cover all the areas of the volunteering so that a thorough analysis of the
volunteering activities in the country can be analyzed. Seven Categories of volunteering areas are studied as:
1. General Services (Educational, Medical and other welfare services)
2. Emergency Services (Ambulance Services, fire brigade, leagues/movements)
3. Environmental Services
4. Recreational Volunteering (sports, parks etc)
5. Political Volunteering (volunteering to support a political party)
6. Religious / Faith Volunteering (volunteering to bring religious/social change in oneself and society)
7. Recommended or Imposed Volunteering
3.3.1 General Services (General Volunteering)
General human services for volunteers include volunteering in medical centers created by NGOs or FBOs to
provide free or cheap medical facilities to especially poor in the society. It also includes the volunteering in
hospitals and clinics owned privately or by government. Volunteers have also been working in health clinics and
hospitals since ages and benefiting them. Handy & Srinivasan (2004)writes that getting new volunteers for a
hospital is always attracting as it gives benefits in term of cost / expenses management of the hospital and
improvement in quality of care. The work of Hotchkiss, Unruh, & Fottler (2014) shows that the use of volunteers
provides significant cost savings to the hospitals and can potentially affect profit margins. Moreover his study
shows that use of volunteers in hospital also enhances other quality indicators like patient’s safety and
3.3.2 Emergency Services
Emergency services include volunteering in companies (NGOs or others) providing emergency services like fire
brigade, ambulance. Sometimes leaders also call for movements (as has been seen in the history) which is also
included in this category. Gensicke, Picot, & Geiss (2005)studied a population of people under 25 in Germany
and writes that people are more often engaged in youth clubs, sports clubs and fire brigade than average
3.3.3 Environmental services
Environmental services include volunteering in companies working to improve our environment that can best
serve public. Dávila & Ambientales (2009); Martinez & McMullin (2004); Ryan, Kaplan, & Grese (2001) are
some of the authors who studied environmental volunteers. Ryan et al. (2001) states that the environmental
movements would not exist if there were no help from thousands of dedicated volunteers and that many of
improvements in past three decades were made by volunteers.
3.3.4 Recreational Volunteering
Many volunteers around the globe volunteer in public and recreation parks, forests and Olympic Games.
Recreation agencies and public parks also heavily rely on volunteers (Silverberg et al., 2001). During mega-
events, Olympics and other large athletic events, many sports-event volunteers are seen in action (Reeser et al.,
2005) and sports events largely rely on volunteers (Fairley, Kellett, & Green, 2007)..
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3.3.5 Political Volunteering
People are an important resource in political campaigns. Many people having time and resources with passion of
politics regularly join political campaigns that encourage citizens to engage in open-minded thinking (Kam,
2006). Volunteers get involved in political campaigns either because they see some societal or national benefit
for supporting the leader or because of personal benefit. Sometimes volunteers see future financial benefits for
supporting and volunteering in political campaigns like decrease in taxes (McKee & McKee, 2012) however it
can also be for betterment of the society.
3.3.6 Religious / Faith Volunteering
Faith volunteering is also a big sector of volunteering as Religion has been in a strong relationship with
Volunteering. Many youngsters start volunteering in their local mosques from childhood and later may volunteer
in other areas as well (for example in general area of volunteering). According to Taniguchi & Thomas (2011)
Religious inclusiveness has promoted both religious and secular volunteering. Local religious centers promote
volunteering not only in this area but also other social areas. Religiosity is positively related to multiple civic
outcomes (Lewis, Macgregor, & Putnam, 2013). Berger (2003) stated that religious NGOs (RNGOs) have been
representing a unique hybrid of religious beliefs and sociopolitical activism at all levels of society.
3.3.7 Other Volunteering
There are also some cases where some volunteers are mandated, legally by the courts, as a punishment on their
criminal offense related to substance abuse, child abuse, domestic violence and mental disorders. These
volunteers are relatively considered as hard to reach, unmotivated and resistant volunteers by the social work
associations / practitioners (O’Hare, 1996). It is also observed that these volunteers are less cooperating and have
lack of interest because they neither chose to volunteer in the task nor did they accept to do it. Hence the
satisfaction level of these volunteers would be quite low. Sometimes medical doctors also recommend their
patients to volunteer to gain social interactions and other benefits. This type of volunteering, however, is not
included in survey as it targets specific population.
4. Research Methodology
Literature review of journal articles was carried to a comprehensive level to identify articles on different areas of
volunteering, the benefits of volunteering and the role of volunteers in each area. The motivation and constraints
of volunteering were studied however not included in detail in this study due to extensive literature to manage
for one study. Research review was conducted from December 2014 to March 2015 using the article databases of
ProQuest, Springer, Sagepub, Science Direct, EBESCOetc however there has been background knowledge and
work of authors in the field of volunteering. Search terms fir this study included volunteerism, volunteering areas,
Volunteering in hospitals, Volunteering in parks, Environmental Volunteering, Faith Based Organizations,
Volunteering in FBOs, Volunteer Constraints, Volunteering in developing countries, Recreational Volunteering,
Court-Ordered Volunteering.
For Collection of data, researchers and their designated lecturers held seminars at different cities and
areas of Pakistan. Attendants were asked if they were aware of volunteering and volunteering activities in
Pakistan. Less than half of the attendants were either volunteering or had volunteered in past and rest were
looking for volunteering except a few who did not participate to answer. Attendants were explained the concept
of volunteering with the purpose of giving them a thought of formal volunteering and make them understand
about benefits of volunteering. At the end, questionnaire was distributed to be filled up at the same time. Any
questions asked were answered. Those who had not volunteered before were requested to assume and answer to
the questions by choosing or grading their possible option in case they had or would volunteer. Moreover the
same questionnaire was put online to attract volunteers who had not attended the seminars. Their responses were
also included in the analysis. Total of 243 responses were finalized for this research.
4.1 Preparation of Questionnaire:
Firstly some informative data was collected by asking questions to volunteers including their past volunteering
experience, how much time they allocated, if they had volunteered in last year, volunteering areas where they
had volunteered or would be interested to volunteer, their method and way of volunteering etc. The same or
similar questions were available in questionnaire of earlier researchers included in literature review like Gage &
Thapa (2012) and Mutawa & Ali (2012). Another important question inquired about the areas where attendants
had volunteered (or the area of interest for volunteering). Where scaling was used, respondents were given
options to choose between 1 and 7 where 1 meant the least important or totally disagree and 7 stood for totally
4.2 Data Processing:
The Data collected was analyzed with the help of SPSS software and Microsoft Excel.
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5. Result Discussion and Findings
5.1 Profile and Characteristics of Respondents
After data cleaning, 243 responses were analyzed out of which 169 (69.5%) were male and 74 (30.5%) were
female. 233 (95.9%) of the participants were aged below 30 years. 87.7% of the population had passed the high
school (were university students) whereas 69 (28.4%) had bachelors and 47 (19.3%) had masters degree or
above. 178 (73.3%)of the respondents were students and 58 (23.9%) were employees and only 7(2.9%) were
self-employed. 2 of the respondents included in students were also involved in business of their own.
5.2 Areas of Volunteering in Pakistan
The respondents who had volunteered in past or were currently volunteering were asked in which areas they had
volunteered. The results indicated all types of volunteering areas as studied in the literature however the interest
of the population studied (even being from different areas and of interest) was more towards specific kinds of
volunteering areas and not to rest comparatively.
5.3 Areas focused by Pakistani volunteers
The respondents were asked if they had volunteered in past or they were currently volunteering or if they were
looking for volunteering. 9 respondents did not choose any. From the remaining respondents (234), 14.7% had
been involved in formal volunteering and 8.7% were currently volunteering. Formal volunteering is unpaid
contribution of time to activities of organizations whereas Informal volunteering is assistance given directly to
non-households individuals (Carson, 1999; Lee & Brudney, 2012; Wirtschaft, 2014). The percentage of informal
volunteering was higher that included, in most cases, short term volunteering activities to help juniors in
education or volunteering on religious festivals to arrange religious programs in the areas. 40.9% of the
respondents were interested to volunteer in different areas either formally or informally. Other details are
provided in the table below:
N Volunteered in Past Currently Volunteering Looking for Volunteering
% Informal
% Informal
% Informal
Emergency 41
9 21.43
13 17.33
4 16.00
4 14.81
3 5.45
8 12.90
Religious 63
10 23.81
21 28.00
6 24.00
7 25.93
7 12.73
12 19.35
Recreational 13
2 4.76
3 4.00
2 8.00
1 3.70
1 1.82
4 6.45
Political 20
2 4.76
6 8.00
1 4.00
2 7.41
3 5.45
6 9.68
General 102
14 33.33
19 25.33
9 36.00
8 29.63
33 60.00
19 30.65
Environmental 26
3 7.14
8 10.67
1 4.00
3 11.11
5 9.09
6 9.68
Miscellaneous 21
2 4.76
5 6.67 2 8.00
2 7.41
3 5.45 7 11.29
Total 286
42 100
75 100 25 100
27 100 55 100 62 100
The results showed that overall Informal Volunteering has been more than formal volunteering in past
and present. The same is trend for people looking to volunteering except the area of general volunteering. In
General Volunteering people do look forward to volunteer through some organization.
A graphical representation of respondents who had volunteered, were volunteering or are looking for
volunteering in specific areas is given below. Some respondents chose more than one areas.
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5.4 Do the youngsters have time to volunteer?
Normally it is assumed that young people have no much time for social activities because of their tough school
schedule and studies routine. This research, however, shows that youngsters believe they have time and lesser
commitments. Introducing them to volunteering can be a useful for their own and the country’s future. Two
questions were asked in this regard i.e., “I have no time to volunteer” and “I have too many commitments”.
Respondents were asked to rank their answers between 1 and 7 as 1 being totally disagree and 7 being totally
agree. The results are shown as below:-
Mean S.D Variance
Skewness Kurtosis
I have no time to volunteer 2.5226
.10977 1.71120
2.928 1.009 .156 .193 .311
I have too many other commitments 3.1564
.10416 1.62376
2.637 .609 .156 -.469 .311
The results show that respondents disagree to both the statements with averages being2.5 and 3.2 out of 7
5.5 Are the youngsters in the country motivated to volunteer?
We studied if the respondents were motivated to volunteer. Two questions were asked in this regard i.e., “Should
Volunteering be compulsory at school? and “What is your Volunteer status? 213 respondents (87.7%)
recommend that volunteering should be compulsory at school level whereas 30 thought it will be a burden or it
should not be compulsory for some reason. 41.9% had been involved in formal or informal volunteering and
54.3% wanted to volunteer.
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5.6 Are youngsters well introduced to volunteering?
The study shows that volunteering is not made compulsory during the education level of the students as only 14%
said that volunteering was / is compulsory during their education. Furthermore 71.3% of the respondents were
never introduced to (before the seminar) or asked to volunteer. The results were analyzed according to the areas
of Volunteering.
Volunteering was compulsory at school
Yes No
Not Asked to
Asked % Asked % Not Asked
to Volunteer
Emergency 0 4 9.52 21 50.00 17 40.48
Religious 0 6 9.38 5 7.81 51 79.69
Recreational 0 3 23.08 2 15.38 8 61.54
Political 0 2 9.09 19 86.36 1 4.55
General 0 19 18.45 16 15.53 67 65.05
Environmental 0 3 11.54 7 26.92 16 61.54
Total (267*) 0 37 70 160
* Some respondents chose more than 1 option in the Volunteering areas.
Results show that people may involve in religious volunteering and general volunteering more likely
without being asked to volunteer compared to political, emergency, recreational and environmental areas. It is
also evident from the data presented in the tables above that there is much need of creating awareness for
volunteerism especially among Youth who complain of not being introduced to the world of volunteerism by the
5. Conclusion and Future Research
No doubt, Youth Volunteerism provides a great opportunity to young people of the society to engage themselves
in their personal and social development. This culture of selfless services inculcates the best habits among youth
who can grow up to be good and active citizens. The research shows that people are not much introduced to
volunteering or formal volunteering whereas they think they do have time to volunteer and have lesser
commitments. People are more motivated towards general volunteering like volunteering in medical centers or
educational institutions and other areas should be introduced to them. A significant proportion have also been
involved in volunteering through faith based organizations and local mosques. The reason behind can be their
religious background and attendance to local mosques leading them to involve voluntarily in the religious events.
More Organizations should get involved to promote Volunteering. This can provide them cost effective work
force to work for the fulfillment of their Organizational objectives. The NGOs, FBOs and Government bodies
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Vol.7, No.13, 2015
should play their role in respective areas of volunteering by dividing responsibilities among organizations to
promote formal volunteering and arrange informative events to promote both formal and informal volunteering
as the research shows a need for seminars and programs to be held to make general public aware of volunteering
and its uses.
This was a basic and general study; however there is need for authors to focus on hurdles for
youngsters to volunteer. The hurdles been studied and controlled or reduced can help increase volunteering.
Furthermore studying the motivation of the volunteers in developing countries can be useful. Study of possible
role of government and organizations can also help promote volunteerism in the country. Moreover, this research
is geographically limited to Pakistan only and may or may not represent every developing country. Data was
collected from two (Punjab and Sindh) out of four provinces. The research was not funded by any external body,
person or organization.
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... Young people, volunteering, on the ground (in real-life scenarios) are involved in informal learning. Volunteering not only benefits the organization or society, but it also has numerous benefits for individuals (Booth et al., 2009;Butt et al., 2015;Handy & Brudney, 2007;Sherr, 2008). Individuals can pursue networking, career advancement, and skill development through volunteering (Casey, 2014). ...
... Individuals can pursue networking, career advancement, and skill development through volunteering (Casey, 2014). Other benefits include: developing a sense of achievement, confidence, and fulfillment, making new friendships, personal and religious satisfaction (Butt et al., 2015), good health (Byrd, 1984), sense of belonging (Veitch, 2013), stress management (Kim & Morgül, 2017). The voluntary sector plays a vital role in social learning and life (Kamerāde & Paine, 2014;Lengrand, 1982) and serves as a training ground for active living, where youth acquire skills that will be "useful" in the workplace (Cortesero, 2013). ...
... Therefore, promoting youth volunteering in Pakistan can help in: (a) social and professional integration among young labor force; (b) nurturing empowered, active and responsible youth contributing to the overall development of the country. The volunteer activity in Pakistan is only 16%, ranking 78th globally (Butt et al., 2015). The government of Pakistan and its institutional partners need to design such policies and programs which can prepare young volunteers and promote volunteering by providing opportunities for youth to work for the society and make a difference (Soomro & Shukui, 2015). ...
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Young people are an asset to Pakistan, and they can play a vital role in the country's social and economic development. Non-formal education to promote volunteering activity in Pakistan can endorse the professional and social integration of the young labor force by preparing them with the labor's contemporary skills. The current study is an attempt to explore the situation in Pakistan and identify: (a) if non-formal education plays a role in youth's engagement in volunteering activity; (b) why young people volunteer; (c) what they can learn through volunteering; (d) the significant barriers which can prevent them from volunteering even after getting the training and opportunities to volunteer. Data was collected using purposive sampling from 4 different nonprofit organizations (NPOs), with city offices in three major cities of Pakistan. NPOs, on their end, collected the data form the youth volunteers working with them randomly using an online survey. The research findings revealed that non-formal education plays a significant role in ensuring young people's engagement in volunteering activity. The findings and recommendations from the study can guide youth initiatives and policies in Pakistan to include systematic and consistent non-formal education programs to promote youth volunteerism in Pakistan.
... Volunteerism, is non-compensated planned activity in which time is given free of cost for the benefit of individual and/or social welfare (Butt, Hu, & Soomro, 2015;Wilson, 2000). In terms of volunteering for community involvement, there are four basic motives: altruism (focuses on benefiting others), collectivism (focus on collective welfare), principlism (having universal moral principles about helping) and egoism (welfare of the self) (Batson, Ahmad, & Tsang, 2002). ...
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A positive approach towards life is a concept that will eternally remain the aim of almost every individual. Hence, there is a consistent need to study factors like flourishing that help us create healthy and content individuals in our society. The current study investigates antecedents and mechanisms of flourishing by testing the relationships between religiosity, volunteerism, self-efficacy, and flourishing. A mediated moderation was tested through Hayes PROCESS macro on a sample of 192 students to find out the significance of direct and indirect relationships among study variables. The results of the study explain significant positive relationships between religiosity, flourishing, and volunteerism. Additionally, volunteerism mediates the relationship between religiosity and flourishing while self-efficacy moderates the relationship between volunteerism and flourishing of students. Volunteerism and self-efficacy also in combination with religiosity have a significant mediated moderation on flourishing of students. The results have important practical implications for the education sector, which are discussed at the end along with some future research directions.
... This is because, after TBI, they tended to be employed within the home environment and may have felt too fatigued to travel outside to engage in such activities. Furthermore, volunteering is uncommon among people in developing countries (Butt et al., 2015). The score of the home integration subscale was lower when compared with the other two subscales of CIQ; this is in contrast to the finding of a previous study (Mollayeva et al., 2015). ...
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Introduction Community integration is an essential component for rehabilitation among traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors, which yields positive outcomes in terms of social activities, community participation, and productive work. A factor that usually facilitates community integration among TBI survivors is social support, whereas physical environment and fatigue are most often found as barriers. Objectives This study aimed to (1) describe the level of community integration, fatigue, physical environment, and social support of persons after TBI, and (2) examine the relationship between community integration and these three factors. Methods This is a descriptive correlational study. One hundred and twenty TBI survivors living in the communities of Province Number Three, Nepal were enrolled using the stratified sampling technique. The data were collected using the Community Integration Questionnaire, Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s correlation were used to analyze the data. Results Community integration, fatigue, and physical environment showed a moderate level, while social support revealed a high level. Fatigue was significantly correlated with overall community integration, whereas physical environment was found to correlate with two subscales of community integration, home integration and productive activities. Conclusion To enhance the level of community integration among TBI survivors, health care providers, in particular rehabilitation nurses and community nurses, should plan and implement strategies such as follow-up appointments or continued rehabilitation at home.
... Butt, M., Hu, B., & Soomro, K. A. (2015) found that young people are more willing to participating in the volunteering activities, but lack of such opportunities creates hurdles. They also found that by rendering volunteer services young people become active citizens and contribute towards society"s wellbeing. ...
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Participatory governance in public sector is of great importance especially for a democratic country like Pakistan. In this paper we discuss Youth Volunteerism as tool to ensure participation of young people in public service delivery as partners of the government. This research is based on primary data collected on convenience sampling basis, through questionnaires distributed among 243 youth studying in colleges of selected areas of Pakistan. The objective of this research was to find out the perception of young people about Volunteerism in public sector and to find factors that may encourage them to engage in 170 participatory governance through volunteering in public sector institutions of Pakistan. Data was analyzed through SPSS-21, using Multiple Regression Analysis and Pearson " s Correlation techniques. The results show that young people in Pakistan are willing to volunteer their services in the public sector because they think it is honor for them, it is need of the time and that it will increase the productivity of the public institutions. This study concludes that promoting culture of volunteerism in the public sector of Pakistan will enable young people to become part of government in service deliver, will reduce public-government gap, will help reduce shortage of workforce in public sector and will increase the productivity of public institutions.
Volunteering activities are positive experiences that attract volunteers to spend their free time to benefit society while increasing the volunteers’ job satisfaction and self-esteem (Chang et al., 2012). However, research on the motives of sport volunteers and the impact of volunteerism on the self-esteem of sport volunteers in Malaysia is scarce, and the present study was aimed at contributing to the filling of this knowledge gap. The purpose of this study is to determine the motives Malaysian volunteers assign for serving as volunteering for SUKMA Games. A total of 376 Malaysian volunteers for the SUKMA Games in Perak in 2018 participated in the study. A Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were administered to 376 Malaysian SUKMA Games volunteers. Data were collected, collated, analysed and interpreted to ascertain the main findings of the SUKMA Games volunteers’ motives and their influence on their self-esteem levels. This study showed that Malaysian volunteers had several motives for volunteering with the highest motive identified as understanding. There was also a significant positive relationship between motive for volunteering and self-esteem level among SUKMA Games volunteers. Overall, all Malaysians volunteered because they had a high motive for volunteering. Volunteering also improved the self-esteem levels of Malaysian sport volunteers.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI) in Iran. This tool has six factors. This tool was completed by 348 Iranian participants. The results of exploratory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure of the questions, and these four factors in order of importance respectively were: personal growth, social interest, construction of social and professional image, and influence of social groups. The adaptation of the exploratory factor structure to the main model of the instrument showed that the fourth factor, i.e., the social factor, was equally relevant in the Iranian population and the items related to other factors were appropriate with a combination of the original model factors. Confirmatory factor analysis with four-factor and six-factor models also showed that the data with four-factor model provide better fit indices. The reliability of the factors was ranged from 0.84 to 0.92. Also, the positive and significant correlation between volunteer function inventory and Basic empathy scale supported the convergent validity of this inventory. It seems that the Persian version of the inventory of volunteer functions with four factors can better evaluate the functions of volunteers among the Iranian population.
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Volunteers have become essential to the delivery of sport events. Megaevents, such as the Olympic Games, rely on a large number of volunteers for the successful running of the event, some of whom travel to volunteer. This study investigates the motives of a group of people who volunteered at the Sydney Olympics as they prepared to travel to volunteer at the 2004 Athens Olympic Games. Four key motives were identified: (a) nostalgia, (b) camaraderie and friendship, (c) Olym-pic (i.e., subcultural) connection, and (d) sharing and recognition of expertise. The motives identified distinguish event volunteer tourists from other volunteer tourists and from other event volunteers. It is suggested that the recruitment, retention, and reacquisition of event volunteers will be served by understanding the motives and experiences of repeat event volunteers. Sport events often rely on a large number of volunteers to help stage the events. This is particularly true for megaevents (Green & Chalip, 1998a, 2004; Kemp, 2002). Consequently, event managers need to understand how to recruit and retain volunteers. The Olympic Games is one particularly useful context through which to study volunteers, because the Games attract a large number of people who volunteer over a prolonged period. The 1996 Atlanta Olympics and the 2000 Sydney Olympics each employed more than 40,000 volunteers during the Olympic and Paralympic Games period (Moragas, Moreno, & Paniagua, 2000). Various authors (e.g., Chalip, 2000; Moragas et al.) have stressed the importance of volunteers in staging the Olympic Games, with suggestions that the Games would not be feasible without the large contribution of volunteer labor. Chalip (2000) estimated the economic value of volunteer labor at the Sydney Games at AUS$109 million. With such large numbers of volunteers needed to assist in the running of such an
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Civic service in Sub-Saharan Africa reflects the complex social, cultural, economic, and political history of the region in a changing global world marked by increasing risks to human security and development. National and international service including local, informal, and community-based service continues to remain prominent and is an appropriate response to the intractable development issues facing these societies. New initiatives to address the marginalization of Africa from the new information economy and society will need to keep human development on the agenda. Civic service can make a significant contribution to mobilizing local and international efforts in partnership with governments and civil society. Future research and policy should address the institutional impediments to service, develop research capacity to strengthen a scholarship of civic engagement, and conceive of service as part of a broader social development strategy.
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Retention of volunteers is a major problem. Although many researchers have attempted to develop solutions and models to enable higher retention rates of volunteers, few have attempted to find a causal relationship between volunteer management practice and retention. This research has attempted to mitigate this problem of volunteer retention using volunteer management practice but through the process of enhancing motivation and satisfaction of volunteers. Theoretical framework, hypotheses and research methodology including the research instrument have been developed.
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Volunteers provide an essential human resource to sport organizations. Yet measures of motivation and satisfaction have had limited impact on an organization’s ability to improve their volunteer systems. This study applied the Kano Method to categorize volunteers’ perceptions of their experience into four dimensions of satisfaction: Attractive (or Satisfiers), Must-Be’s (or Dissatisfiers), One-Dimensional, and Indifferent. Four types of volunteers (44 sport continuous, 47 sport episodic, 49 nonsport continuous, 176 nonsport episodic) completed a web questionnaire including 26-paired features of their experience, 26 motives, and five key outcome measures. Although motives were deemed important, alone they were poor predictors of key outcomes and were unrelated to satisfaction. Volunteers in the four contexts classified the 26 features in different ways. No Must-Be’s (dissatisfiers) were identified by any group. Although most features were identified as Attractive, the distribution of One-Dimensional and Indifferent features varied by context. One-dimensional items were only identified among features categorized as Supportive Culture, Clear Direction, and Contribution. These features should be prioritized as managers improve volunteer management systems. The Kano Method extends our understanding of the volunteer experience by providing researchers with a tool to distinguish the way volunteers conceptualize their experience. From a practical standpoint, it provides volunteer managers with an additional tool in their efforts to recruit and retain volunteers by prioritizing features that will most immediately impact volunteers.
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Nowadays, one of the roles of universities is the promotion of entrepreneurship, particularly, among students. Research on entrepreneurship at an individual level of analysis focuses on the personal characteristics and the entrepreneurial attitude that stimulate its development, studying the factors affecting that some individuals discover and exploit opportunities by creating a company, while others do not. Yet, it has been proved that psychological characteristics of individuals affect their entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, experiential learning techniques, such as outdoor training have been showed as useful to change emotional competences. However, there is not any research on how changes in emotional competencies influence individual entrepreneurial intent in university students, particularly after participating in an outdoor training experience. This paper analyses quantitative and qualitative data of last-year university students who participated in an outdoor training experience, measuring its emotional competences and entrepreneurial orientation, before and after that experience. It contributes to the understanding on how changes in emotional competences affect the entrepreneurial intent of university students. Results indicate that changes in emotional competences, such as self-management, social awareness, and relationship management affect entrepreneurial orientation, particularly innovation and risk, affecting, thus, entrepreneurial intention.
Volunteer programs are expected to positively impact the organizations in which they exist. This article reviews the literature on volunteerism, including what volunteers do, how their contributions can be measured, and the financial- and quality-related outcomes of volunteer programs. The focus is on volunteerism in health care settings, particularly hospitals. The article summarizes the existing theoretical and empirical literature concerning the roles of volunteers, the economic value of volunteers, cost–benefit analysis of volunteer labor, and the impact of volunteers on quality and patient satisfaction. The review indicates that the use of volunteers offers significant cost savings to hospitals and may positively impact profit margins. Volunteers are also likely to enhance quality indicators such as patient satisfaction and safety. Implications of these findings for management and future research are discussed.
The welfare reforms initiated in the 1990s prompted increased discussion of the use of faith-based organizations for the provision of social services. This is the second of two articles examining the progress of this debate. The first article provides the scope of inquiry, defines specific characteristics of faith-based organizations, and outlines methods used to study them. This article discusses specific services provided by faith-based organizations and how these organizations are related to the government. Faith-based organizations compared favorably to secular organizations in the services they provided while providing a somewhat narrower range of services. The implementation of Charitable Choice and other faith-based initiatives as policy required consideration of constitutional and practical issues with the implementation of collaborations and partnerships between government and faith-based organizations along with increased government funding and contracting for these organizations.
In this paper, we examined the relationships between motivation to volunteer, serious leisure, and the subjective well-being of volunteers at the 2010 Taipei International Flora Exposition. This study used convenience sampling to recruit a total of 1,094 volunteers. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were conducted for data analysis. The results of this study revealed that serious leisure positively associated with both motivation to volunteer and volunteers' subjective well-being, while the association between motivation to volunteer and subjective well-being, at a level of 0.5, was not significant. These results suggest that greater attention in future research should be paid to the relationship between motivation to volunteer and volunteers' subjective well-being, with a focus placed on implications for volunteers' subjective well-being.
We conducted a field experiment with the American Red Cross (ARC) to study the effects of economic incentives on volunteer activities. The experiment was designed to assess local and short-term effects as well as spatial and temporal substitution, heterogeneity, and spillovers. Subjects offered $5, $10, and $15 gift cards to give blood were more likely to donate and more so for the higher reward values. The incentives also led to spatial displacement and a short-term shift in the timing of donation activity, but they had no long-term effects. Many of the effects were also heterogeneous in the population. We also detected a spillover effect whereby informing some individuals of rewards through official ARC channels led others who were not officially informed to be more likely to donate. Thus, the effect of incentives on prosocial behavior includes not only the immediate local effects but also spatial displacement, social spillovers, and dramatic heterogeneity. We discuss the implications of these findings for organizations with activities that rely on volunteers for the supply of key inputs or products as well as for government agencies and public policy. This paper was accepted by Uri Gneezy, behavioral economics.