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Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

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Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females) and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females) were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (%) of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (%) respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p<0.001). Gender had an effect on the distribution of digestive problems with significant (p≤0.01) while season had a non-significant effect (p>0.05) on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools and medication that must be present at any pet clinic.
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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Open Access
Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with
other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty
of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt
Gamal M. H. Rakha1, Mounir M. Abdl-Haleem1, Haithem A. M. Farghali2, and Hitham Abdel-Saeed1
1. Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt;
2. Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
Corresponding author: Hitham Abdel-Saeed, e-mail: Dr.hysam2013@yahoo.com, GMHR: gmlrakha@yahoo.com,
MMA: Mounir_12344@hotmail.com, HAMF: dr_haithemo@yahoo.com
Received: 03-11-2014, Revised: 11-02-2015, Accepted: 17-02-2015, Published online: 26-03-2015
doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.403-411. How to cite this article: Rakha GMH, Abdl-Haleem MM, Farghali HAM,
Abdel-Saeed H (2015) Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems at teaching
veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, Veterinary World 8(3):403-411.
Abstract
Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health
problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University,
Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the
distribution of digestive problems in dogs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females) and
2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females) were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from
their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic,
ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for
parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed.
Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with
diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (%) of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of
dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84,
0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (%) respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a
significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p<0.001). Gender had an effect on the distribution of
digestive problems with significant (p0.01) while season had a non-significant effect (p>0.05) on the distribution of such
problems.
Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such
problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems
in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians
in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools and medication that must be present at any pet clinic.
Key words: canine, causes, digestive problems, Egypt, prevalence.
Introduction
Dogs are the most successful canids that were
kept as pets by many people all over the world irre-
spective of their social status and most of these dogs
were kept as watch, companion animals, and as a
guide to handicapped persons. It also had been used
in search and as a rescue dogs by police or armed
forces [1]. Healthy digestive organs underpin the
function of the whole digestive system through
digestion and absorption of the nutrients, neutraliza-
tion of the toxins and elimination of the wastes and
unwanted products. The main problem for the major-
ity of gastrointestinal diseases in dogs was that of
clinical signs which may include vomiting, diarrhea
and weight loss which shared by many conditions
that have either primary or secondary effect on the
gastrointestinal tract [2]. For these facts, gastrointes-
tinal disorders in dogs were considered as one of the
most common and important cause of presentation
to clinicians [3,4]. Vomiting and diarrhea were con-
sidered as a ways of discharging offending materials
and toxins from the digestive system [5]. Although
the higher occurrence of digestive problems among
dogs in Egypt, limitation of the data about the preva-
lence of such problems was present, and the needs for
diagnostic tools and emergency medications in clin-
ics were still unclear.
The main object of this study was to determine
the prevalence of the most common digestive prob-
lems compared with other health problems in dogs
that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital,
department of internal medicine and infectious dis-
eases, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University
from January to December 2013. Also, determination
of the main causes and the effect of age, sex, breeds,
and season on the distribution of digestive problems
in dogs.
Copyright: The authors. This article is an open access article licensed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributin License (http://
creative commons.org/licenses/by/2.0) which permits unrestricted
use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the
work is properly cited.
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Materials and Methods
Ethical approval
The research procedures were approved by the
department of internal medicine and infectious diseases,
faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.
Study area
The dogs used for this study were those admitted
to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary
medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt during the
1 year study period from January to December 2013.
Animals in the study
A total of 3864 dogs (included 2358 males and
1506 females) which belonging to different ages
and breeds were included in this study. This number
included 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males
and 834 females), and 1488 apparently healthy dogs
(included 816 males and 672 females) which admitted
either for vaccination or for general health checkup.
Clinical examination
All the cases were firstly registered in the regis-
tration book for date, age, sex, breed, and complaint
of their owners. Detailed clinical examination of each
patient was carried out including complete medical,
vaccination, dietary, and environmental history. Visual
inspection was done, and pulse, respiration rates, and
rectal temperature were carefully taken. Also, exam-
ination of the different organs and body systems was
performed [6].
Other diagnostic tools
Radiographic examination was applied accord-
ing to Burk and Feeney [7] using X-ray machine
(Fisher imaging®, with X-ray tube EMERALD-125,
A-045211, Chicago, U.S.A.). Ultrasonography
was applied according to Kealy and McAllister [8]
using ultrasonographic device (Pie medical® scan-
ner, Maastricht, Netherlandswith macro and micro
convex sector transducers 3.5-5 and 5-7.5 MHz).
Gastrointestinal endoscopy was applied according
to Tams and Rawlings [9] using flexible endoscope
(Fujinon® BRO-YP2 Japan) with an endoscopic cam-
era (Lemke® MC 204) for both esophagogastroduode-
noscopy and colonoscopy.
Fecal analysis
Fecal sample of each case was collected and
examined immediately during the examination. Gross
appearance, direct smear, and floatation technique
were applied for the presence of adult worms, para-
sitic eggs and protozoal oocyst [10]. Fecal swabs from
diarrheic dogs suffered from canine parvovirus infec-
tion, and corneal, nasal swabs from dogs with canine
distemper virus infection were subjected to rapid anti-
gen test kits. The presence of two color bands (test and
control) within the result window indicated a positive
result.
Statistical analysis
Data that were collected about age, sex, breed, and
season were recorded and to Microsoft Excel 2010®
spreadsheet, stored separately and exported to analyt-
ical software using Chi-square test. Values of p0.05
were considered as statistically significant.
Results
In the present study, the total number of exam-
ined animals was 3864. Out of this number, 2376 ani-
mals were diseased, and 1488 animals were apparently
healthy representing 61.4% and 38.5% respectively.
Diseased animals were divided into cases suffering
from digestive problems (1344) and other health prob-
lems (1032) representing 56.5% and 43.4% out of dis-
eased animals and 34.8% and 26.7% out of total exam-
ined animals respectively. The apparently healthy
animals were 1488 which included 954 vaccinated
and 534 non-vaccinated dogs representing 64.1% and
35.8% respectively (Table-1). The study showed that
there was a five most common occurred digestive
problems in dogs included vomiting, diarrhea, concur-
rent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation
in 324, 456, 240, 312, and 12 cases respectively with
diseased cases based prevalence of (13.6%), (19.1%),
(10.1%), (13.1%), and (0.5%) respectively (Figure-1).
Other health problems were included dermatologi-
cal, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular,
auditory, and ocular problems and recorded in 662,
250, 80, 20, 10, 6, and 4 cases respectively with dis-
eased number based prevalence of (27.9%), (10.5%),
(3.3%), (0.84%), (0.4%), (0.25%), and (0.17%)
respectively (Table-2). Regarding the type of feed,
historical information revealed that owners offered
both commercial dry feed (high or low-quality grade)
and homemade diet that were offered all the day. In
the present study, 260 cases showed food indiscretion
included 185 cases were fed on homemade diets and
75 cases were fed on low grade commercial dry food
Figure-1: The clinical picture of different digestive
problems. (a) Vomiting in 5 month old German Shepherd.
(b) German Shepherd puppy suffered from concurrent
vomiting with diarrhea as a result of Parvoviral infection.
(c) Intestinal intussusception in 3 months old Griffon
puppy. (d) 4 months old German Shepherd puppy suffered
from generalized weakness, anorexia and dehydration as a
result of diarrhea.
d
c
b
a
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(Table-3). The major cause of vomiting in the pres-
ent study was the ingestion of foreign bodies which
included chicken bones and fish hooks and this con-
dition was noted in 112 cases and the recorded preva-
lence was 4.7% from the total diseased cases. Toward
diarrhea and concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, the
main cause was Parvoviral infection that recorded in
97 and 75 cases respectively with diseased cases based
prevalence of 4% and 3.15% respectively. Food indis-
cretion was the most common cause for anorexia that
recorded in 144 cases in the present study (6.1% from
diseased cases). In terms of constipation, the most
recorded cause was ingestion of foreign bodies and
anal sacculitis in 4 cases for each condition with dis-
eased cases based prevalence of 0.16% for each cause
(Table-3). The present study showed a significant
effect (p<0.001) of age on the occurrence of digestive
problems as the puppies up to 6 months of age were
more prone to diarrhea than other ages while dogs
ranged from 6 months up to 3 years were more prone
to anorexia. Older dogs showed an increase in the
occurrence of vomiting than other digestive problems
(Table-4). Gender had a significant effect (p0.01)
on the occurrence of digestive problems as males
were found to be more affected with diarrhea, vom-
iting, and concurrent vomiting with diarrhea while
females were more prone to anorexia and constipation
(Table-5). In terms of breed, there was a significant
effect (p<0.001) on the occurrence of digestive prob-
lems as vomiting was of higher prevalence in giant
and small breeds (Mastiff, Saint Bernard, Great Dane,
and Caucasian) and (Griffon, Bug, and Pekingese)
respectively. In large breed dogs (German Shepherd,
Rottweiler, and Golden Retriever), diarrhea was the
most prevalent problem while in medium breed dogs
(Pit Bull, Labrador Retriever, and Boxer), anorexia
was the most prevalent (Table-6). Season had a
non-significant effect (p>0.05) on the distribution of
digestive problems among dogs (Table-7). Regarding
the diagnostic tools required for definitive diagnosis
in the present study, radiographic examination was
carried out on 209 cases included 169 cases with
foreign bodies, 30 cases with chronic constipation,
and 10 cases suffered from renal stones (Figure-2).
Ultrasonographic examination was carried out on
236 cases included enteritis, liver diseases, IBD,
biliary sludge, renal diseases, pancreatitis, benign
prostatic hyperplasia, and intestinal intussusception
in 150, 40, 19, 17, 3, 3, 2, and 2 cases respectively
(Figure-3). Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed
on 64 cases included 34 cases with foreign bodies,
20 cases with intestinal parasites, and 10 cases with
IBD (Figure-4). Rapid tests for detection of parvovi-
rus and canine distemper virus were performed on
Table-1: The prevalence of digestive problems versus other problems through 1 year period from January to December 2013.
Group Sub-group No. of
dogs
Prevalence from (%)
Diseased group Apparently Healthy group Total number
Diseased Digestive problems 1344 56.5 - 34.8
Other health problems 1032 43.4 - 26.7
Total - 2376 - - 61.4
Apparently
Healthy
Vaccinated dogs 954 - 64.1 24.7
Non-vaccinated dogs 534 - 35.8 13.8
Total - 1488 - - 38.5
Total - 3864 100 100 100
Table-2: Common digestive and other health problems in dogs admitted through 1 year period from January to
December 2013.
Problem No. of
cases
Prevalence (%) toward
Digestive group Other problems group Diseased cases Total no. (3864)
Digestive problems
Vomiting 324 24.1 - 13.6 8.3
Diarrhea 456 33.9 - 19.1 11.8
Vomiting and Diarrhea 240 17.8 - 10.1 6.2
Anorexia 312 23.2 - 13.1 8
Constipation 12 0.89 - 0.5 0.3
Total 1344
Other problems
Dermatological 662 - 64.1 27.9 17.1
Respiratory 250 - 24.2 10.5 6.4
Urinary 80 - 7.7 3.3 2.1
Neurological 20 - 1.9 0.84 0.52
Cardiovascular 10 - 0.96 0.4 0.25
Ear problems 6 - 0.58 0.25 0.15
Ocular 4 - 0.39 0.17 0.1
Total 1032
Diseased cases 2376 - - - -
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412 cases. Out of them, 232 cases showed a positive
result that included 172 cases for parvovirus infection
and 60 cases for canine distemper viral infection. Fecal
analysis showed some parasitic infections included
Table-3: The prevalence of the common causes of digestive problems in dogs.
Problem Causes No. Prevalence (%) on the basis of
Problem
cases
Digestive
diseased cases
Diseased
cases
Total
number
Vomiting Foreign body 112 34.5 8.3 4.7 2.8
Food indiscretion 60 18.5 4.4 2.5 1.5
Drugs (NSAIDs) 40 12.3 2.9 1.68 1.03
Pneumonia 35 10.8 2.6 1.47 0.9
Liver diseases 30 9.2 2.2 1.26 0.77
Poisoning 15 4.6 1.1 0.63 0.38
Biliary sludge 10 3 0.74 0.42 0.25
Motion sickness 10 3 0.74 0.42 0.25
IBD 9 2.7 0.66 0.37 0.23
Renal diseases 3 0.9 0.22 0.12 0.07
Diarrhea Parvoviral infection 97 21.3 7.2 4 2.51
Toxocara spp. 95 20.8 7.1 3.9 2.4
Dipylidium caninum 80 17.5 5.9 3.3 2
Food indiscretion 46 10.1 3.4 1.93 1.19
Taenia spp. 41 8.9 3 1.72 1.06
Ancylostoma spp. 35 7.6 2.6 1.47 0.9
Isospora spp. 30 6.5 2.2 1.26 0.77
Corona viral infection 22 4.8 1.6 0.92 0.56
IBD 10 2.1 0.74 0.42 0.25
Concurrent vomiting with diarrhea Parvoviral infection 75 31.3 5.5 3.15 1.94
Canine distemper 60 25 4.4 2.52 1.55
Foreign body 53 22 3.9 2.23 1.37
Toxocara spp. 22 9.1 1.6 0.92 0.56
Food indiscretion 10 4.1 0.74 0.42 0.25
Liver disease 10 4.1 0.74 0.42 0.25
Biliary sludge 7 2.9 0.52 0.29 0.18
Pancreatitis 3 1.25 0.2 0.12 0.07
Anorexia Food indiscretion 144 46.1 10.7 6.1 3.72
Oral lesions 120 38.4 8.9 5.1 3.11
During estrus cycle (Females) 28 8.9 2.1 1.17 0.72
Pharyngitis 20 6.4 1.4 0.84 0.51
Constipation Anal sacculitis 4 33.3 0.29 0.16 0.10
Foreign body 4 33.3 0.29 0.16 0.10
Benign prostatic hyperplasia 2 16.6 0.14 0.08 0.05
Intestinal intussusception 2 16.6 0.14 0.08 0.05
Table-4: Age-wise prevalence of most common digestive problems in dogs.
Problem Age (%) p-value Chi-square
1-3 months 3-6 months 6-12 months 12-36 months >36 months Total
Vomiting 192 (27.9) 12 (7.3) 24 (11.6) 60 (28.9) 36 (45) 324 0.00001*** 263.31
Diarrhea 264 (38.5) 96 (58.5) 48 (23.2) 24 (11.6) 24 (30) 456
Vomiting
with diarrhea
132 (19.2) 24 (14.6) 24 (11.6) 48 (23.2) 12 (15) 240
Anorexia 96 (13.9) 30 (18.3) 108 (52.2) 72 (34.8) 6 (7.5) 312
Constipation 2 (0.29) 2 (1.2) 3 (1.5) 3 (1.5) 2 (2.5) 12
Total 686 164 207 207 80 1344
***p<0.001 (significant)
Table-5: Sex-wise prevalence of most common digestive problems in dogs.
Problem Sex
Males (%) Females (%) Total p-value Chi-square
Vomiting 228 (26.2) 96 (20.3) 324 0.012** 12.65
Diarrhea 300 (34.5) 156 (32.9) 456
Vomiting with diarrhea 156 (17.9) 84 (17.7) 240
Anorexia 180 (20.7) 132 (27.8) 312
Constipation 6 (0.69) 6 (1.3) 12
Total 870 474 1344
**p0.01 (significant)
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Toxocara canis, Dipyledium caninum, Ancylostoma
spp., and Isospora spp. (Figure-5).
Discussion
The present study had given an overall idea about
the prevalence of the most common occurred diges-
tive problems compared with other problems among
dogs which presented for the teaching animal hospi-
tal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University
during 1 year period from January to December 2013.
The present work showed that digestive problems
had a prevalence of 56.5% from the total diseased
dogs. Similar findings were reported in a study in
Turkey, and the recorded prevalence was 52% [11].
Also, digestive problems had the first order during
first observation between 1995 and 1997 in Kosice,
Slovakia [12]. Other studies were disagreed with the
finding in the present study [13-18]. This difference
can be explained as there was a magnificent differ-
ence in geographical distribution and the period of
the studies. Also, bad feeding management and the
endemic nature of most infectious diseases in Egypt
such as parvovirus, canine distemper virus infection,
and internal parasites infections shared in the eleva-
tion of such prevalence. The recorded prevalence of
vomiting in the present study was 13.6% from the
diseased cases, and this finding was disagreed with
Atsbaha et al. [18] who recorded a prevalence of
4.6% from diseased cases in Mekelle City, Ethiopia.
This may be due to the differences in feeding man-
agement, type of feed (when contained bones), and
owner’s awareness toward the grade of feed stuff that
introduced to their dogs [19]. Also, in some cases,
food was subjected to environmental contamination
if introduced one time per day making it more prone
to be spoiled and decomposed. Another cause was
Table-6: Breed-wise prevalence of most common digestive problems in dogs.
Breeds Problems p-value Chi-square
Vomiting Diarrhea Vomiting
and
Diarrhea
Anorexia Constipation Total
Giant breed dogs 0.00001*** 122.74
Mastiff 15 12 3 13 - 43
Saint Bernard 3525 - 15
Great Dane 17 12 18 9 1 57
Caucasian 2455 - 16
Total (%) 37 (28.2) 33 (25.2) 28 (21.4) 32 (24.4) 1 (0.76) 131 (100)
Large breed dogs
German Shepherd 96 276 132 96 5 605
Rottweiler 30 36 24 20 2 104
Golden Retriever 24 10 20 12 1 67
Black Coat 12 20 10 40 1 83
Total (%) 162 (18.6) 342 (39.5) 186 (21.5) 168 (19.4) 9 (1) 867 (100)
Medium breed dogs
Pit Bull 48 30 10 48 1 137
Boxer 20 20 5 24 - 69
Labrador Retriever 12 3 6 24 - 45
Doberman 6 - - - - 6
Dalmatian - 5 - - - 5
Mixed Breeds - - - 4 - 1
Total (%) 86 (32.3) 58 (21.8) 21 (7.9) 100 (37.6) 1 (0.38) 266 (100)
Small breed dogs
Griffon 33 21 5 12 1 72
Bug 5 1 - - - 6
Pekingese 1 1 - - - 2
Total (%) 39 (48.8) 23 (28.8) 5 (6.3) 12 (15) 1 (1.3) 80 (100)
Total 324 456 240 312 12 1344
***p<0.001 (significant)
Table-7: Season-wise prevalence of most common digestive problems in dogs.
Problems Season p-value Chi-square
Winter (%) Spring (%) Summer (%) Autumn (%) Total
Vomiting 64 (24.8) 70 (20.5%) 120 (27.2) 70 (23.1) 324 0.123 17.74
Diarrhea 81 (31.4) 125 (36.6) 135 (30.5) 115 (37.9) 456
Vomiting with diarrhea 53 (20.5) 58 (17) 73 (16.5) 56 (18.5) 240
Anorexia 55 (21.3) 86 (25.2) 112 (25.3) 59 (19.5) 312
Constipation 5 (1.9) 2 (0.58) 2 (0.45) 3 (0.99) 12
Total 258 341 442 303 1344
p>0.05 (Non-significant)
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the abuse of anti-inflammatory drugs without any
medical recommendation or adjustment of its doses
was shared in increase the chance for gastritis and
vomiting [20]. The main recorded cause of vomiting
in the present work was the ingestion of foreign bod-
ies (Table-3) and this finding was in accordance with
Tams and Seim [21]. In agreement with the findings
in the present study, diarrhea was the most often reg-
istered problem [22]. Several studies were recorded
Figure-2: Left lateral radiographic views in some digestive
problems among dogs. (a) Sharp foreign body inside the
intestine of 8 months old German Shepherd. (b) Thickened
intestinal loop due to enteritis in 1 year old Great Dane.
(c) Radiopaque stool mass in the colon of 10 months old
German Shepherd suffered from severe constipation.
(d) Radiopaque pinpoint areas with gases formation
inside the colon of 7 months old Rottweiler with signs of
constipation and history of ingestion of chicken bones.
d
c
b
a
Figure-3: The ultrasonographic findings in dogs with
different digestive problems. (a) Biliary sludge (arrow
head) in 3 years old Pit Bull suffered from chronic vomiting.
(b) Cholecystitis with edema between the two layers of gall
bladder wall (0.4 cm) in 2 years old German Shepherd.
(c) Free abdominal fluid (ascites) with presence of floating
intestinal loop within fluid in 9 month old Pit Bull suffering
from concurrent vomiting with diarrhea. (d) Thickened
intestinal wall layers (0.52 cm) in 6 months old German
Shepherd with diarrhea. (e) Characteristic view (Bull eye)
of the intestinal intussusception in 3 months old Griffon
suffered from severe obstipation. (f) 3 years old Rottweiler
with severe constipation as a result of benign prostatic
hyperplasia (measured 7.28 × 3.91 cm).
d
c
b
f
a
e
a similar prevalence in the present study [1,18,23].
The recorded prevalence of concurrent vomiting with
diarrhea in the present study was 10.1% from the dis-
eased cases, and this result was agreed with Atsbaha
et al. [18] who recorded a prevalence of 9.1% in a
study in Mekelle City, Ethiopia. This could prove that
there was a positive association between the occur-
rence of both diarrhea and vomiting in the same dog
while the episodes of both problems didn’t occur at
the same time [4]. The most common cause of diar-
rhea, and concurrent vomiting with diarrhea was the
Parvoviral infection, and this finding was agreed
with Nappert et al. [24]. In terms of anorexia, the
Figure-4: Showed the endoscopic findings of
gastrointestinal problems in dogs. (a) Gastric ulcer (arrow
head) showed a circumscribed area devoid of mucosa with
congestion in 5 years old German Shepherd subjected to
prolonged treatment with NSAIDs. (b) Dipylidium caninum
adult worm within colon (arrow head) in 4-month-old
Rottweiler suffered from flea’s infestation and diarrhea.
(c) An embedded foreign body in the gastric mucosa of
1-year-old Pit Bull. (d) Colonoscopy showed chicken legs
and bones within the colon of 6 months old Golden Retriever
suffered from severe constipation and intermittent
vomiting.
d
c
b
a
Figure-5: The different diagnosed parasitic eggs and
oocysts in the stool of dogs suffered from digestive
problems. (a) Toxocara canis egg (×100). (b) The egg
nest of Dipylidium caninum (×100). (c) Ancylostoma spp.
egg (×100). (d) Isospora spp. oocysts (×400).
d
c
b
a
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recorded prevalence was disagreed with that of Parvez
et al. [25] and Chaudhari and Atsanda [26]. These dif-
ferences can be explained as anorexia was the most
common presented complaint for many diseases with
wide variety of etiology and pathogenesis [27,28].
Constipation was of the lowest prevalence through
digestive problems in the present work. This finding
explained as constipation wasn’t observed in dogs
by many owners [29]. Another cause was that own-
ers tend to treat this condition by traditional methods
without resorting to veterinarian. Dermatological
related cases were the second major health problems
during the study period with recorded prevalence of
27.9% from total diseased cases. This result was in
accordance with Jaffri and Rabbani [1] who recorded
a prevalence of 22% for such condition in Lahore area,
Pakistan while Atsbaha et al. [18] and Tarafder and
Samad [23] were in disagreement with the study find-
ing and recorded a prevalence of 38.5% and 37.12%
respectively. This was attributed to the differences in
the geographical distribution and the environmental
temperature that controlling most populations of exter-
nal parasites. The recorded prevalence of respiratory
problems was close to that of Atsbaha et al. [18] and
Yelmaz et al. [11] who recorded a prevalence of 13.8%
and 8% respectively from diseased cases in Ethiopia
and Turkey respectively. Toward urinary problems,
Jaffri and Rabbani [1] and Tarafder and Samad [23]
recorded a prevalence of 1.27% and 5.15% from dis-
eased cases respectively and these findings were close
to that in the present work 3.3%. Another study was
disagreed with these findings and recorded this prob-
lem in 7.8% of diseases cases [11]. The remaining
problems showed a lower prevalence as these condi-
tions were slightly admitted to the clinic. The present
study showed a significant effect (p<0.001) of age on
the occurrence of digestive problems in dogs. Similar
studies demonstrated the same effect [22]. Some
workers showed that diarrhea was of higher prev-
alence in puppies, and it was declined with increas-
ing age [30,31]. This can be explained as the puppies
were immunologically inactive and by 12 weeks of
age, the majority lost their maternal immunity [32].
Another cause was that stress of weaning, rehoming,
and transportation can lead to increase the suscepti-
bility of such problem [33]. Anorexia was a prevalent
problem in dogs ranged from 6 to 36 months of age
in the present study. This result was attributed to the
association between anorexia and many diseases with
wide variation of etiology and pathogenesis [27,28].
In older ages (more than 36 months), vomiting was
found to be the most prevalent problem in the pres-
ent study. Most of old dogs were more susceptible to
chronic diseases that shared by many clinical signs
included vomiting [34]. Other studies reported no
association between the age and frequency of gastro-
intestinal disorders [35]. In the present study a sig-
nificant effect (p0.01) of gender on the occurrence
of the digestive problems was found and this finding
was in agreement with another study as males were
rendered at high risk for developing gastrointestinal
disorders [22] especially for diarrhea [35,36]. This
result explicated as males had increased sniffing and
roaming behavior than females [37,38]. Also, males
tend to inspect the head and anogenital areas of other
dogs than females [39]. The present study showed
that anorexia was more prevalent in females than
males. Some workers also detected this result as the
pregnancy had some complications that may lead to
anorexia [40]. Another explanation was that female
sex hormones were found to increase the risk of consti-
pation in females [41]. Some workers were disagreed
with these findings and concluded no effect [30,42].
In the present work, breed had a significant effect
(p<0.001) on the distribution of digestive problems
in dogs. Similar study showed that the incidence of
vomiting and diarrhea was significantly affected by
breed [22,35]. German Shepherd had a higher prev-
alence of the gastrointestinal problems than other
breeds [23] as there were either differences in genetic
susceptibility, feeding regimens, behavior, and the
type of feed [22,43]. Regarding season, the present
study showed a non-significant effect (p>0.05) of
the season on the occurrence of digestive problems
in dogs. This finding was in the line with another
study showed that diarrhea was commonly detected
throughout the year [3]. This can be explained as the
symptoms may be seen throughout the year, but the
causes for each problem were different. Some studies
were disagreed with this finding [22].
Conclusion
It was the first recorded data about the preva-
lence of digestive problems and the other health prob-
lems for the cases that were admitted to the teaching
veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine,
Cairo University, Giza, Egypt during 2013. It was
concluded that digestive problems considered as the
major health problem among dogs. Age, sex, and
breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of
digestive problems while season had a non-significant
effect on the distribution of such problems in dogs.
Integration between diagnostic tools had an effec-
tive role in getting a rapid and accurate diagnosis of
digestive problems. Medical awareness of the owners
should be increased through the clinics toward the
feed type (good, bad and toxic feed stuffs), feeding
regimens, and quality of feed toward dogs. Great con-
cern should be given to deworming and vaccination
status of the dogs with observance the booster vacci-
nation and periodical health checkup. The present data
enable the veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their
needs for diagnostic tools and medication that must be
present at any pet clinic.
Authors’ Contributions
GMHR and MMAH designed the entire study.
HAMF and HAS carried out all diagnostic procedures
Available at www.veterinaryworld.org/Vol.8/March-2015/25.pdf
Veterinary World, EISSN: 2231-0916 410
included clinical examination, fecal analysis, radiog-
raphy, ultrasonography, and endoscopy. HAS recorded
the prevalence along with analysis of data, finalized
the manuscript for communication to the journal. All
the authors read the manuscript and approved the final
manuscript.
Acknowledgments
The authors are highly thankful to Department
of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary
Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt for providing sup-
port to carry out this study.
This study was fully self-funded.
Competing Interests
The authors declare that they have no competing
interests.
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... This prevalence report is comparable to findings from other nations. A prevalence of 56.5%, 52.0%, and 36.2% of digestive disorders had been described in Egyptian [8], Turkish [10], and Indian [7] dogs, respectively. Diarrhoea alone (40.8%) and concomitant vomiting with diarrhoea occurring in the same dog (34.5%) was more common than vomiting alone (24.7%), and tallying with -some existing findings [8,11]. ...
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AB S T RA C T Canine meningeo-encephalitis triggered many causes, some of them can be distinguished and others are invisible and have a great challenge with small animal clinicians. The present study was conducted to detect the common causes of meningeo-encephalitis among dogs that were admitted to the small animal clinic, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt from March to December 2019. About twenty-eight dogs were studied and included thirteen apparently healthy dogs while fifteen dogs suffered from meningeo-encephalitis. All dogs subjected to thorough clinical examination. Whole blood and serum samples were taken for evaluation of hematobiochemical changes. In addition, conjunctival and nasal swabs were taken for rapid detection of canine distemper virus infection (CDV) infection. Also, fecal samples were taken for detection of parasitic infection. Results showed that CDV is the most recorded cause for meningeo-encephalitis. Other causes were recorded included Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Babesia canis and head trauma. Physical examination revealed significant increase in both respiration and heart rates in affected dogs. Hematological status revealed significant decrease in RBCs count and relative lymphocytes in affected dogs while there was a significant increase in WBCs count and relative neutrophils. Biochemical status indicated significant decrease in serum albumin and A/G ratio while there was a significant increase in serum activity of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level among diseased dogs. CDV infection is the most recorded cause for meningeo-encephalitis in dogs beside Toxocara spp., Babesia canis and head trauma. Infectious causes have an impact on physical, hematological and biochemical status in affected dogs.
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Many gastrointestinal diseases affect the mucosal layer, suggesting that on computed tomography (CT) examination, detection of consistent inner wall layering of the gastrointestinal tract may aid in detection of disease. Changes in wall enhancement can also characterise specific diseases and provide prognostic information. The objectives of this mixed retrospective and prospective analytical study were therefore to identify the scan delays for peak detection of canine stomach and small intestinal inner wall layering and enhancement when using a 20 s fixed‐injection‐duration and bolus tracking technique. For each patient, 700 mg I/kg iohexol was administered intravenously. Bolus tracking was used to determine aortic arrival. Diagnostic scans were performed after a post‐aortic arrival scan delay. Postcontrast CT series were grouped according to post‐aortic arrival scan delay: 5 s (n = 17), 10 s (n = 18), 15 s (n = 23), 20 s (n = 10), 25 s (n = 6), 30 s (n = 14), 35 s (n = 17), 40 s (n = 24), and 180 s (n = 60). The stomach and small intestine were assessed for the presence of a contrast‐enhancing inner wall layer and wall enhancement. Statistical modeling showed that the scan delays for peak inner wall layering and enhancement were 10 and 15 s for the small intestine, respectively, and 40 s for the stomach. For the injection protocol used in this study, assessment of the canine gastrointestinal tract may use scan delays of 10–15 s and 40 s.
Article
Over a period of 5 years, a study was undertaken to establish the prevalence of clinical diseases in dogs and cats in Douala city, Cameroon, based on sex, breeds and age. Data were collected from clinical cases of dogs and cats admitted in six private veterinary clinics and analysed using Chi² test statistics. A total of 2397 clinical conditions were recorded; among them, dogs and cats were 2222 (92.7%) and 175 (7.3%), respectively. For dogs, the most occurring clinical diseases comprised parvovirosis (16%), helminthoses (8.2%), gastroenteritis (7.8%) and poisoning (7.8%), whereas pet cats showed highest prevalence of helminthoses (9.7%), poisoning (5.1%) and dermatitis (2.9%). The sex-wise highest prevalence was observed in male (dogs 67% and cats 59.4%) than female (dogs 33% and cats 40.6%) (P = 0.009). Cross breeds (31.7%), local breeds (24.02%) and German shepherd (13.1%) were mostly affected, while highest clinical diseases were found (96, 54.9%) in the local cat breed counterpart. Incidence of diseases was more in puppies (68.7%) and in young cats (75.5%) compared to other age groups. The result of this study might help to instruct pet owners on preventive measures and to develop supplementary effective disease management and control strategies against pet animal diseases.
Article
Objective To determine the agreement of canine faecal scoring between individuals with different levels of experience using two available faecal scoring systems. Materials and Methods Naturally‐voided, undisturbed bowel movements from 126 dogs were evaluated by veterinarians (n = 3) and members of the lay public (n = 126) within 15 minutes of defecation. Each participant was provided a copy of the Purina and Waltham faecal scoring charts in order to characterise the faeces. Agreement between veterinarians and lay people was assessed with kappa statistics, Bland‐Altman analysis and visualised with Bland‐Altman plots. Results Variable levels of consistency were observed in assessing faecal form among individuals with varying degrees of experience. Fair to substantial agreement existed between individual veterinarians scoring the same bowel movement (kappa statistic ranging from 0.40 to 0.77 on the Purina Scale and 0.54 to 0.61 on the Waltham Scale), while the agreement scores between the veterinarian and the lay public was fair (kappa statistic of 0.38 on the Purina Scale and 0.34 on the Waltham Scale). Disagreement in faecal scores occurred more frequently with lay people versus veterinarians. Clinical Significance The consistency of faecal scoring improved based on the level of experience with the highest agreement consistently noted between veterinarians. In all comparisons, there was inconsistency in faecal scoring which might have implications for veterinarians managing diarrhoeic canine patients. Further studies are needed to better investigate how faecal scoring can be optimised for use in clinical and research settings.
Article
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The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of clinical conditions in dogs and cats admitted at Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) in Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (CVASU) during the period of January to December 2012. A total of 424 clinical cases, 324 (76.42%) dogs and 100 (23.58%) cats were observed with different clinical conditions. These conditions were primarily categorized as medicinal cases, surgical cases and vaccination and health check up. Medicinal cases occupied highest number in dogs 167 (51.54%) and cats 54 (54%) followed by surgical cases 77(23.76%) in dogs and 29 (29%) in cats and vaccination and health check up 80 (24.69%) in dogs and 17(17%) in cats. Among of the medicinal cases parasitic diseases occupied highest prevalence 51 (15.74%) in dogs. Prevalence of clinical conditions was analyzed on the basis of age, sex, breed and season. Prevalence of ectoparasitic and infectious diseases in dogs was higher in winter with significant P-value (P ≤ 0.05). Prevalence of clinical conditions in response to age, sex and breed were not significant (P > 0.05). Keeping in view these findings, an appropriate control strategy could be designed and applied, which helps to prevent of these disease conditions in study area.
Article
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The importance of gastrointestinal disorders arise from the fact that they are one of the most common cause of presentation to clinicians. Thus, formulating a clear diagnosis is a "must do" in determining disease, using ultrasound technology with great value in that it can detect inner lesions, thus observing the location of the gastrointestinal pathological processes. Investigations were conducted on 36 dogs of different breeds and ages, of whom 12 cases representing 33.33% showed only gastric disorders, 9 subjects representing 25% only intestinal disease and the remaining 15 cases, representing 41.77% showed associated gastric and intestinal disorders. Ultrasound-diagnosed disease were represented by gastritis (24 cases), pyloric hypertrophy (three patients), enteritis (22 cases) and intussusception (two cases).
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The importance of gastrointestinal disorders arise from the fact that they are one of the most common cause of presentation to clinicians. Thus, formulating a clear diagnosis is a "must do" in determining disease, using ultrasound technology with great value in that it can detect inner lesions, thus observing the location of the gastrointestinal pathological processes. Investigations were conducted on 36 dogs of different breeds and ages, of whom 12 cases representing 33.33% showed only gastric disorders, 9 subjects representing 25% only intestinal disease and the remaining 15 cases, representing 41.77% showed associated gastric and intestinal disorders. Ultrasound-diagnosed disease were represented by gastritis (24 cases), pyloric hypertrophy (three patients), enteritis (22 cases) and intussusception (two cases).
Article
Full-text available
Females are more often affected by constipation than males, especially during pregnancy, which is related to the menstrual cycle. Although still controversial, alterations of progesterone and estrogen may be responsible. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to determine whether the female sex steroid hormone itself is responsible for development of constipation in both female and male mice. Administration of estrogen resulted in a decrease in weight of accumulated feces on days 2, 3, 4, and 5 in male mice and on day 5 in female mice, compared with the control group, but progesterone administration did not. Administration of estrogen resulted in a decrease in gastrointestinal movement, compared to normal; however, no significant change was observed by administration of progesterone. In conclusion, estrogen, rather than progesterone, may be a detrimental factor of constipation via decreased bowel movement in mice.
Article
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is still spread among puppies in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil despite the use of vaccination. The evolution of CPV enteritis depends on the host's age, general condition, and on preexisting or concurrent parasitic infections. Fifty-two fecal samples collected in puppies up to 6 months old with gastroenteritis from November 2002 to July 2004 were tested for CPV infection and intestinal parasites. Eighteen samples (34.6%) were positive for CPV and 12 (23%) were positive for intestinal parasites. The clinical signs of more severe enteritis (vomiting, anorexia, lethargy, and hemorrhagic fluid diarrhea) was observed in 10 of the 18 CPV-positive puppies and in 3 of the 12 puppies with parasitic infection. The concurrent CPV and detectable parasitic infection was found in 2 samples. Only 1 puppy with concurrent CPV and Ancylostoma spp presented signs of severe disease. For the remaining puppies, the clinical signs varied from soft diarrhea to acute dysentery. These results show that in cases of hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic diarrhea with or without vomiting, lethargy, or anorexia, laboratorial diagnosis is essential to confirm CPV or parasitic infection.
Book
he latest edition of the critically acclaimed Small Animal Endoscopy presents informative, practical, and up-to-date guidance on endoscopic indications, instrumentation, patient preparation, and techniques. Todd R. Tams and Clarence A. Rawlings, the foremost experts in veterinary endoscopy, provide the novice as well as the advanced practitioner with the information needed to deliver the safest, high-quality endoscopic services for small animals, including avian and exotics. Chapters are organized consistently and lavishly illustrated to help you easily find and understand key concepts and procedures. This edition includes a companion website with expert demonstrations of techniques, as well as a collection of marketing brochures and examples of patient discharge instructions for veterinarians to give clients. Enables you to deliver the safest, high quality care and a wider range of services to the pets of increasingly concerned and savvy owners. Features cutting-edge information on minimally invasive procedures to improve diagnostic accuracy, reduce operating time, improve success, minimize post-operative stress and pain, and promote faster healing. Helps you recognize the many indications for endoscopy in everyday practice. Covers a vast range of topics in a clear, concise and readable style. Describes instrumentation, examination, and sample procurement techniques in detail. Shows both normal and abnormal findings you may encounter during a procedure in an atlas of images in relevant chapters. Provides minimally invasive examination and surgical options for veterinarians treating uniquely sensitive avian and exotic patients. Provides step-by-step instructions on specific techniques Helps beginners master endoscopic diagnosis and treatment and more experienced endoscopists utilize their endoscopic equipment to its fullest capacity. Expanded content on the use of rigid endoscopy helps you perform the most current minimally invasive surgical procedures. A new coeditor, Dr. Clarence Rawlings, shares his expertise in rigid endoscopy for diagnostic and surgical procedures and his extensive knowledge of endosurgery. Consistent chapter organization includes sections on indications, instrumentation, patient preparation, and restraint, in addition to details of the procedures themselves. Over 1,000 color images depict normal and abnormal anatomical features, as well as numerous tables and diagrammatic representations. Required or recommended instrumentation Instructions on how to care for, clean, and store endoscopic instruments Pre-endoscopic procedures, including patient preparation, equipment set-up, and positioning of personnel Instructions on how to correctly hold and manipulate both flexible and rigid endoscopes Post-endoscopic procedures, including patient recovery and proper submission of tissue samples Information on how to incorporate flexible and rigid endoscopy into a veterinary practice using specific marketing skills and appropriate personnel training A bonus website takes understanding to the next level with videos of: Cystoscope placement technique, normal cystoscopy, and calculi removal How to perform a normal examination 12 different clinical endoscopic procedures, including intraoperative uretheroscopy, laparoscopic-assisted cystoscopy, laser correction of an ectopic ureter, and more Many patient cases are showcased, with each case presenting a patient''s complaint, diagnostic studies used for assessment, the endoscopic procedure enlisted, surgical treatment, and case follow-up. The benefits of using endoscopy are discussed in each case.
Article
A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in Mekelle Veterinary Clinic to assess major health problems of dogs and to determine the associated risk factors. A total of 109 dogs were examined based on history and clinical signs. Out of the total 109 dogs examined, 42 (38.5%), 36 (33.0%), 15 (13.8%) and 16 (14.7%) had skin, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory and injury problems, respectively. Of 42 dogs that had skin problems, 25 (59.5%) were lice and flea infested and 17 (40.5%) were mange mite infested. From 36 dogs that had gastrointestinal tract problems, 21 (58.3%) showed diarrhea, 5 (13.9%) were with vomiting and 10 (27.8%) showed both diarrhea and vomition. Out of the 16 injured dogs, 11 (68.75%) were dog bite wounds and 5 (31.25%) were car accident and bad management inflicted injuries. All 15 dogs that came with respiratory tract infection showed various degrees of coughing and nasal discharges. The occurrence of the disease conditions did not show any statistical significant difference between male and female. Moreover, the difference in occurrence of health problems between the local and exotic breeds of dog was not found to be statistically significant. Nevertheless, the difference in occurrence of major health problems among various age categories was statistically significance. The current study presents new data about the major health problems of dogs in Mekelle City. Further studies should be conducted in other cities of Ethiopia so as to assess major health problems of dogs and their role in the transmission of diseases to humans.
Chapter
The general examination is a visual and manual examination to collect, in a reasonably short time, information that can be combined with the signalaient, history, and general impression to guide the problem formulation and give direction to further examination. The signs and the abnormalities which are recorded will be translated into problems and on the basis of these the subsequent examination can be directed to the appropriate organ system or part of an organ system so that the problems can be better defined and, hopefully, resolved.
Article
A case control study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of clinical diseases and/or clinical conditions of 3670 sick pet dogs presented to the Central Veterinary Hospital (CVH), Dhaka during the one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 57 types of diseases and conditions in 17 categories were recorded in these pet dogs and their variation in prevalence were analyzed on the basis of age, gender, season and breeds of dogs. The prevalent diseases and/or conditions from low to high rates included glaucoma (0.05%), babesiosis (0.08%), sinusitis (0.08%), tetanus (0.08%), spaying (0.14%), nail injury (0.19%), nephritis (0.19%), cataract (0.25%), metritis (0.25%), poisoning (0.33%), orchitis (0.35%), rabies (0.35%), pus in antrum (0.41%), purulent cough (0.46%), alopecia (0.52%), pharyngitis (0.52%), transmissible venereal tumor (0.54%), cystitis (0.52%) phimosis (0.52%), paraphimosis (0.60%), stomatitis (0.63%), pneumonia (0.63%), mastitis (0.71%), otitis (0.73%), taeniasis (0.74%), abscess (0.82%), anal gland disease (0.82%), dystocia (0.84%), conjunctivitis (0.90%), lice infestation (0.90%), lameness (0.95%), ottorrhea (1.06%), uterine prolapse (1.31%), posthitis (1.31%), dental disorders (1.34%), metabolic diseases (1.36%), protrusion of eye ball (1.44%), canine distemper (1.61%), liver disease (1.72%), nutritional deficiency diseases (1.77%), infertility (1.80%), coccidiosis (1.93%), toxocariasis (1.93%), urinary tract infection (2.10%), accidental wounds (2.32%), haematuria (2.34%), bronchitis (2.81%), arthritis (2.94%), dermatomycosis (3.30%), aspiration pneumonia (3.32%), mange (3.76%), echinococcosis (3.92%), dermatitis (4.99%), diarrhea (5.21%), ancylolostomiasis (6.20%), flea infestation (9.84%) and tick infestation (11.88%). Age-wise overall prevalence of clinical diseases revealed significantly (p <0.05) highest in age group above 36 months (48.12%) compared to that in 7 to 36 months (34.33%) and up to 6 months (17.55%) age groups of pet dogs. The significantly (p <0.05) highest prevalence of diseases and/or clinical conditions was recorded in local (33.35%) and German shepherd (22.53%) breeds of pet dogs in comparison to that in their counterpart breeds of Lhasa-Apso (7.57%), Greyhound (7.11%), Doberman (6.34%), Samoyed (6.23%), Dachshunds (5.20%), Spaniel (3.37%), Spitz (3.07%) and Poodle (3.18%). Results from season-wise analysis of overall prevalence of diseases and/or clinical conditions in pet dogs did not differ significantly (p >0.05) among spring (21.53%), summer (25.80%), autumn (22.83%) and winter (29.84%). The highest prevalence of arthropode infestation (22.62%), followed by intestinal parasitic diseases (14.80%) and diarrhea (5.20%) suggest a poor husbandry of these pets in Dhaka. Results of this study indicate that the risk of zoonotic infection by canine intestinal parasite may be high in Bangladesh.