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A Review on Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids: Uses, Benefits and their Availability in Pumpkins (Cucurbita maxima) Seed and Desert Dates (Balanites aegyptiaca) Seed Kernel Oils

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... This could be explained by the richness of these oils in essential fatty acids (linoleic acid (n-6) and α-linolenic acid (n-3)) which have a lipid-lowering effect [10]. Diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are well known for their cholesterol-lowering action [34]. Thus, replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with n-6 PUFA (or having a diet enriched with n-6 PUFA) leads to a substantial decrease in total cholesterol [34]. ...
... Diets rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are well known for their cholesterol-lowering action [34]. Thus, replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with n-6 PUFA (or having a diet enriched with n-6 PUFA) leads to a substantial decrease in total cholesterol [34]. However, the high cholesterol level in untreated hyperlipidemic rats is thought to be due to the richness of hyperlipidaemic cholesterol diet (1%) which could have significantly increased the serum total cholesterol levels [33]. ...
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Background: Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Cucumeropsis mannii and Citrullus lanatus commonly called pumpkin seeds or egussi, the oil-rich seeds, have already demonstrated hypolipidemic activity. In Africa, these seeds are popularly used in the preparation of local foods. During that thermal process, the fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds’ oils may be altered in their functionality. Thus, this work aims at studying the effect of stifled cooking on the quality and the lipid-lowering potential of oils’ extracts from Citrullus lanatus (CL) and Cucumeropsis mannii (CM). Methods: The oils were extracted from the pumpkin seeds (raw and cooked) by a mixture of chloroform and methanol (2/1). The acid, iodine, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid value of the oils were assessed. For 28 days, the oils were subsequently administered by oral intubation to high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. At the end of the experimentation, the lipid profile, the markers of the hepatic and kidney function were determined. Results: The oils extracted from raw CL and CM significantly reduced (p˂0,05) serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, uric acid, serum transaminases, creatinine, urea and increases the serum High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)cholesterol level relative to the oils extracted from cooked CM and CL. Moreover, the oil from cooked CL significantly (p<0.05) reduced some lipid profile and toxicity parameters (triglycerides and Alanine animotransferase) while increasing the serum HDL compared to the oil extracted from cooked CM. On the other hand, all the quality parameters of the raw materials followed the limits for vegetable oils, as opposed to cooked samples. Conclusion: Stifled cooking affects the lipid-lowering potential of CM oil compared to that of CL oil. Keywords: Citrullus lanatus; Cucumeropsis mannii; Cucurbitaceae, Hyperlipidemia, Stifled cooking.
... stearic acid (18:0) 3.1-7.4% and palmitic acid (16:0) 9.5-14.5% are the main fatty acids of Pumpkin seed oil [9]. Pumpkin seeds are popular especially in Arabian countries, after salting and roasting [10,11]. Pumpkin seeds contains many valuable functional components such as antioxidants including carotenes which reduces skin damage and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent and vitamin E (Tocopherols) which protects cells from oxidative damage by preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in cell membrane [12]. ...
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The purpose of this paper was to extract and compare two species of Syrian pumpkin (Cucurbita Maxima, Cucurbita Moschata) seeds, as defatted and as full-fat seeds. The extraction of the seeds was performed by ultrasonic using three different solvents (methanol 80%, ethanol 80% or water). Total phenol content (TPC) was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method, total flavonoids content (TFC) by the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, the radical scavenging activity by the chromatic change of DPPH, ABTS and reducing power assay by the reduction of FeIII to FeII in the solution (FRAP). The results showed that the highest yield of extraction were in aqueous extracts for both species at both fat level. While methanol 80% or ethanol 80% was better than water for TPC and TFC in extraction. The highest TPC was found in the methanolic extracts of both C. Maxima and C. Moschata full-fat seeds (16.22 ± 0.03 and 18.66 ± 0.13 mg GaE/g extract, respectively). DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assay results showed that C. Moschata full-fat seed methanolic extracts exhibited a free radical scavenging activity, expressed as IC50, and a reducing power greater than that of C. Maxima full-fat seed methanolic extracts. This may refer to a significant antioxidant capacity of C. Moschata full-fat seeds. Defatting process had significant effect on TPC and radical scavenging activity of DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of the two studied pumpkin species seed. While no significant effect on TFC using ethanol as solvent. Thus, full-fat extract increases the antioxidant capacity of the seeds.
... It was also observed that the oils contained significant amount of unsaturated fatty acids of 76.17% and 62.72% for the kernel and pulp oils of B. aegyptiaca. Elhardallou" [27] "reported that omega-3 and omega-6 essential fatty acids are present in the kernel and pulp oil. [11,28,29]. ...
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Aims: This work is aimed at investigating fatty acid, phospholipid and sterol compositions of desert date (Balanites aegyptiaca) kernel and pulp. Study Design: Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is one of the oldest feed-stocks in Africa which little or no attention has been given to it. It has a medicinal effect in human body system. The plant plays a diverse cultural and traditional role in different societies. Therefore, it is very important to explore more about the chemical composition of the kernel and pulp oils of Balanites aegyptiaca; since it is currently attracting considerable interest as a result of their diverse beneficial properties. Methodology: The physicochemical parameters, fatty acids, phospholipids and phytosterols of B. aegyptiaca seed and pulp oils have been analyzed and compared with the standards and that of conventional oil for easy assessment of their suitability for nutritional and industrial applications. Results: The results of some physicochemical parameters of kernel and pulp oils were acid value (26.35 and 15.60 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (3.82 and 5.90 meq/kg), saponification value (162.40 and 198.60 mg KOH/g), iodine value (55.20 and 142.50 mg of I/100 g), specific gravity (0.93 and 0.92), kinematic viscosity (2.12 and 1.65 St) and refractive index (1.41 and 1.39), respectively. The most concentrated fatty acids were palmitic acid (14.53%) < linoleic acid (35.65%) < oleic acid (38.27%) for the kernel oil while that of pulp oil were linolenic acid (8.21%) < oleic acid (16.80%) < palmitic acid (32.70%) < linoleic acid (33.56%). Arachidic, behenic, lignoceric and myristic acids were all present in small quantities with none of them recording up to 1.0% in either of the samples. Caprylic, capric acid and lauric acids were determined but not detected in both oils. The fatty acid composition of kernel and pulp oils contained a healthy mixture of all the types of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The value of polyunsaturated/saturated index (P/S) which is associated to the impact on human health was higher in the pulp oil (2.47). Phosphatidylcholine had the highest content in both oils that is 75.99 mg/100 g and 25.88 mg/100 g, respectively. The total phytosterols for kernel and pulp oils were 85.00 and 9.87 mg/100 g, respectively. Conclusion: Balanites aegytiaca kernel and pulp oils have the potential to substitute several materials used in manufacturing oil in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. However, in order to extend usage, these oils should be refined to improve the taste and colour.
... lower serum cholesterol concentration was recorded in 1PS and 1NS-PS compared with 0NS-PS and 1NS. The reason for the reduction was polyunsaturated fat in pumpkin seed specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids (Sirelkhatim and Asha, 2014). Similar research has shown that these essential fatty acids can lower bad cholesterol and prevent cardiovascular disease. ...
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A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of feeding neem (Azadirachta indica) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed as natural feed additive for broiler chicks on dry matter intake, mortality, meat quality and blood parameters of broilers. One hundred ninety two day-old Cobb 500 chicks distributed to four treatments with three replications in a completely randomized design. Feed offered and refusals were recorded and Dry matter intake was calculated as the difference between the two on dry matter basis. At the end of the trial, four broilers were randomly picked up from each replication and slaughtered for carcass evaluation and the treatment used were ration that contain only commercial broiler diet (0 kg Neem and pumpkin seed (0NS-PS)), 1kg neem seed on 100kg commercial broiler diet (1NS), 1kg pumpkin seed on 100kg commercial broiler diet (1PS) and 1kg of neem and pumpkin seed combination on 100kg of commercial broiler diet (1NS-PS) stands for Treatment1, Treatment 2, Treatment 3 and Treatment 4 respectively. The average daily dry matter intake during the entire experimental period was 106, 111, 114 and 117 g/ bird for 0NS-PS, 1NS, 1PS and 1NS-PS respectively, and it was significantly higher (p<0.05) for 1NS-PS as compared to 0NS-PS, 1NS and 1PS. The serum cholesterol and white blood cell of broilers in the experimental period were significantly (p<0.05) decreased but total blood protein was significantly (p< 0.05) increased among treatment. Crude protein content of breast and thigh meat was significantly high for 1NS-PS. It is concluded that neem and pumpkin seed can be a good feed additive for broiler production aside its nutritional importance. Key words: Broiler; Feed additive; Hematology; Neem and Pumpkin seed.
... 1 3 sweets). The debittered seeds are used as snacks (nuts like) (Elhardallou et al. 2014). Edible oil is recovered from kernels by "aqueous extraction" (Elbadawi et al. 2017;Mamman et al. 2012;Mozzon et al. 2014). ...
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Key message Correlations were observed between Balanites aegyptiaca fruit morphology and kernel oil yield and quality, thus suggesting the possibility of selecting trees with smaller fruits and lower pulp/seed ratio for edible oil production. Abstract Phenotypic variations in fruit morphology (length, diameter, total fruit weight, anatomical part weight percentages) and kernel chemical traits (gross composition, amino acid content, fatty acid composition of kernel oil) were assessed in a natural population of Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. grown in the South-East of Sudan, with the main aim of highlighting the potential of B. aegyptiaca kernel for edible oil production. Mature fruits were randomly collected from eight trees, representative of eight distinct categories for shape (length/diameter ratio) and size (weight). Significant tree-to-tree differences in fruit morphology and kernel composition have been registered. The smallest fruits were characterised by the highest kernel contribution to the whole fruit weight, while the largest fruits showed the smallest seeds. The highest oleic/linoleic acid ratio in kernel oil fatty acids was found in fruits characterized by the lowest pulp percentage; the maximum oil yield (highest kernel percentage and kernel oil percentage) was associated to the highest levels of polyphenolic antioxidants and the highest radical scavenging activity of kernel tissues. Experimental data suggested the possibility of selecting trees with large fruits and high pulp/seed ratio, suitable for direct consumption as human food, and trees with smaller fruits and lower pulp/seed ratio for oil production.
... The moisture content of the seed kernel oil of Balanites aegyptiaca was 0.114% ± 0.04% while the specific gravity was 0.90 ± 0.00 and these low values guaranteed the stability of the oil [24]. The observed low moisture content serve as an indication that the activities of the micro-organisms would be reduced and thereby increases the shelf life of Balanites aegyptiaca seed [25]. ...
... The oil contains mainly palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids which were the main fatty acids ( Zang et al., 2017). Presence of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential Fatty Acids from kernel seed oil has been reported by Elhardallou et al. (2014). The oil exhibited anticancer activity against lung, liver, and brain human carcinoma cell lines. ...
... The moisture content of the seed kernel oil of Balanites aegyptiaca was 0.114% ± 0.04% while the specific gravity was 0.90 ± 0.00 and these low values guaranteed the stability of the oil [24]. The observed low moisture content serve as an indication that the activities of the micro-organisms would be reduced and thereby increases the shelf life of Balanites aegyptiaca seed [25]. ...
Chapter
The Cucurbita genus, often called as cucurbits, include several economically important fruits and vegetable crops like cucumber, gourds, squash, watermelon, pumpkin, and melon. Several of the species including Cucurbita pepo and C. maxima have nutritional value and are utilized in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal diseases and intestinal parasites. Such an activity is attributed to the presence of fatty acids, glycosides, resins, sterols, carotenoids, phenols, tocopherols, saponins, steroids, and terpenoids such as cucurbitacins. Squash and pumpkin are the major members of Cucurbitaceae family used as food and animal feed. The two major pumpkin varieties C. pepo and C. maxima are considered as highly polymorphic with manifold nutritional, including food preservative abilities and medicinal activities. Development of transgenic pepo for tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses coupled with nutritional value is the need of the hour. Very few reports are available on transgenic production of pepo. The present review summarizes the regeneration and transformation protocols for developing transgenic C. pepo and C. maxima and future prospects.
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Extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca, Khaya senegalensis, Prosopis africana and Vitellaria paradoxa were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Stem barks of the species were also investigated for hepatoprotective effects in Wistar albino rats. Different groups of animals were pre-treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of plant extracts for 10 days and administered with paracetamol (2 g/kg) on the 10th day. The effect of the extracts on serum transaminase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured in the rats. The leaf, stem and root extracts of all the plants except Vitellaria paradoxa showed preponderance of saponin and tannin. Phlobatannin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones were observed in concentrations ranging between 10 to 100 mg/kg plant material. Stem bark extracts of the four plants produced significant (P < 0.05) hepatoprotective effects by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes. Values recorded for AST, ALT and ALP were significantly lower compared to those recorded for control rats. A higher inhibition of serum level elevation of ALP was observed with the four extracts. From these results, it was suggested that the extracts could protect the liver cells from paracetamolinduced liver damages perhaps by eliminating the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites from the drug.
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