Article

Weep and Get More: When and Why Sadness Expression Is Effective in Negotiations

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Abstract

Although recently some research has been accumulated on emotional expressions in negotiations, there is little research on whether expressing sadness could have any effect in negotiations. We propose that sadness expressions can increase the expressers' ability to claim value in negotiations because they make recipients experience greater other-concern for the expresser. However, only when the social situation provides recipients with reasons to experience concern for the expresser in the first place, will recipients act on their other-concern and, eventually, concede more to a sad expresser. Three experiments tested this proposition by examining face-to-face, actual negotiations (in which participants interacted with each other). In all 3 experiments, recipients conceded more to a sad expresser when, but only when, features of the social situation provided reasons to experience other-concern for the expresser, namely (a) when recipients perceived the expresser as low power (Experiment 1), (b) when recipients anticipated a future interaction (Experiment 1), (c) when recipients construed the relationship as collaborative in nature (Experiment 2), or (d) when recipients believed that it was inappropriate to blame others (Experiment 3). All 3 experiments showed that the positive effect of sadness expression was mediated by the recipients' greater other-concern. These findings extend previous research on emotional expressions in negotiations by emphasizing a distinct psychological mechanism. Implications for our understanding of sadness, negotiations, and emotions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Sadness has received attention in negotiation research. In one study, displays of sadness led to greater concessions from the other side, presumably because the latter felt concern for the person displaying sadness (Sinaceur et al., 2015). In one of their experiments, Sinaceur et al. (2015) examined the interaction between the emotion displayed (anger or sadness) and the appropriateness of the emotion. ...
... In one study, displays of sadness led to greater concessions from the other side, presumably because the latter felt concern for the person displaying sadness (Sinaceur et al., 2015). In one of their experiments, Sinaceur et al. (2015) examined the interaction between the emotion displayed (anger or sadness) and the appropriateness of the emotion. In that experiment, the negotiating partner who was exposed to the emotional display was informed either that in negotiations it is inappropriate to blame the other side for disagreements or that blaming others was a normal and natural part of negotiations. ...
... In that experiment, the negotiating partner who was exposed to the emotional display was informed either that in negotiations it is inappropriate to blame the other side for disagreements or that blaming others was a normal and natural part of negotiations. Sinaceur et al. (2015) found that in the conditions where blaming was deemed inappropriate, participants who displayed sadness, which is not indicative of blame, obtained better outcomes in the negotiation than those who displayed anger, which is indicative of blame. However, when blaming the other side was deemed to be the norm, sadness displays did not lead to better outcomes for the displayer. ...
Article
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When it comes to evaluating emotions as either “good” or “bad,” everyday beliefs regarding emotions rely mostly on their hedonic features—does the emotion feel good to the person experiencing the emotion? However, emotions are not only felt inwardly; they are also displayed outwardly, and others’ responses to an emotional display can produce asymmetric outcomes (i.e., even emotions that feel good to the displayer can lead to negative outcomes for the displayer and others). Focusing on organizational settings, this manuscript reviews the literature on the outcomes of emotional expressions and argues that the evidence points to perceived (in)appropriateness of emotional displays as key to their consequences: emotional displays that are deemed inappropriate generate disadvantageous outcomes for the displayer, and at times also the organization. Drawing on relevant theoretical models [Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theory, the Dual Threshold Model of Anger, and Asymmetrical Outcomes of Emotions], the paper highlights three broad and interrelated reasons why emotion displays could be deemed unfitting and inappropriate: (1) characteristics of the displayer (e.g., status, gender); (2) characteristics of the display (e.g., intensity, mode); and (3) characteristics of the context (e.g., national or organizational culture, topic of interaction). The review focuses on three different emotions—anger, sadness, and happiness—which differ in their valence based on how they feel to the displayer, but can yield different interpersonal outcomes. In conclusion, the paper argues that inappropriateness must be judged separately from whether an emotional display is civil (i.e., polite and courteous) or uncivil (i.e., rude, discourteous, and offensive). Testable propositions are presented, as well as suggested future research directions.
... Considerably less is known about how sadness strategically expressed impacts negotiation outcomes. Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag (2015) conducted a series of experiments involving face-to-face negotiation where participants were given the goal of maximizing the percentage of total points accumulated (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag, 2015). In a two-party negotiation, the expresser in the sadness condition was directed to strategically express sadness using vocal expressions (i.e., sighing and softening their voice), physical expressions (i.e., looking gloomy and looking down), and using specific messages (i.e., "This negotiation makes me sad" or "… almost brings tears to my eyes"). ...
... Considerably less is known about how sadness strategically expressed impacts negotiation outcomes. Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag (2015) conducted a series of experiments involving face-to-face negotiation where participants were given the goal of maximizing the percentage of total points accumulated (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag, 2015). In a two-party negotiation, the expresser in the sadness condition was directed to strategically express sadness using vocal expressions (i.e., sighing and softening their voice), physical expressions (i.e., looking gloomy and looking down), and using specific messages (i.e., "This negotiation makes me sad" or "… almost brings tears to my eyes"). ...
Article
Strategic emotion expression constitutes a common-thread phenomenon in emotion regulation and emotion management research across multiple behavioral and social science disciplines. Despite this prevalence, less is known about the “why” behind these observable emotion displays within organizations. Exemplary research is reviewed reflecting the variety of motives behind strategic emotion displays. We argue that significant theoretical opportunity exists with acknowledging motivational differences underlying expressed emotion at work. Our narrative review helps generate a comprehensive and multilevel taxonomy of individual motives (personal and interpersonal), organizational emotion display rules or norms, and socio-cultural emotionologies that reflect dynamic societal expectations and conventions regarding appropriate emotion displays. Strategic emotion expression in organizations reveals the intersection of self- and other-imposed prescriptions and/or restrictions on emotional episodes and distinguishes the nature and purpose of emotive behaviors at work.
... The negotiation field has largely focused on economic outcomes (Bazerman et al. 2000a, b;Bazerman and Neale 1992), and only a few studies have focused on examining the benefits of future interaction (Ben-Yoav and Pruitt 1984;Heide and Miner 1992;Mannix 1994;Pruitt and Carnevale 1993;Sinaceur et al. 2015). Moreover, an emergent body of research has focused on the importance of social psychological outcomes, such as relational capital among negotiating parties (Curhan et al. 2006;Gelfand et al. 2006). ...
... Specifically, anger directed at the offer and disappointment directed at the person, result in effective value claiming (Lelieveld et al. 2011). Sadness can also increase the negotiator's ability to claim value (Sinaceur et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Three experimental studies show that interpersonal relationships influence the expectations of negotiators at the negotiation table. That is, negotiators expect more generous negotiation offers from close others (Study 1), and when expectations are not met, negative emotions arise, resulting in negative economic and relational outcomes (Study 2). Finally, a boundary condition for the effect of interpersonal relationships on negotiation expectations is shown: perspective taking leads the parties to expect less from friends than from acquaintances (Study 3). The findings suggest that perspective taking helps negotiators reach agreement in relationships. The article concludes with implications for practice and future research directions. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature
... For example, showing disappointment can result in more generous offers from the counterpart, if it evokes guilt from the other party (Lelieveld et al. 2013). Communicating sadness can lead to more concessions, if the sender of the emotion is perceived as lower in power (Sinaceur et al. 2015). However, the strategic use of a discrete emotion requires that the receiver of the communication is able to perceive and understand the sender's intended emotion. ...
... Based on our findings, it is not only difficult to convey the right emotion and thus elicit a desired response from the counterpart, but there is also a high chance that a different, undesired, and possibly even counterproductive emotion is perceived by the receiver of an email. For example, imagine a negotiator considers accepting an offer, but before doing that she wants to communicate sadness about an issue to claim a bit more value (Sinaceur et al. 2015). However, the counterpart reads the email and perceives anger, which can hinder a settlement if she also expresses anger as an answer to that request (Friedman et al. 2004), quickly leading to an escalation of arguments that is unintended by both sender and receiver and then leads to impasse. ...
Article
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This research investigates consistency of emotion detection in email negotiations. Conveying and detecting emotions in negotiation is important because emotions can function strategically. Therefore, this research systematically explores in four separate studies how consistently individuals detect discrete emotions in text-based (email) negotiations. Study 1 compared the ratings from two coders using a high quantity of thought units (n = 1317) and a negative bargaining zone negotiation scenario. In studies 2 and 3, three different negotiation scenarios were explored, first on a thought unit level and then on a message unit level using a hierarchical emotion coding scheme. In all three studies, coders’ perceptions were also compared with the text analysis program LIWC. Study 4 compared coding from seven of the actual negotiators with that of an independent coder and a computerized text program. All four studies found low emotion recognition consistency across 14 different coders with only one negotiation scenario in study 3 showing a moderate level of consistency. Comparisons of computerized coding with human coders did not show improved agreement. High amounts of contrary coding by independent coders were also found. Our research makes an important contribution to the literature by challenging the common assumption that emotions can be reliably detected in email negotiation. Factors that might influence more consistent emotion recognition and conveyance as well as implications for practice and future research are discussed.
... Additionally, it is likely that individuals would try and strategically elicit these emotions in others to reap the benefits of the prosocial behavior they generate. As one illustration, eliciting other-oriented concern or compassion from partners by inauthentic expressions of sadness in a negotiation has been found to extract greater concessions from partners (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015). The strategic elicitation of the self-transcendent emotions raises intriguing issues about how these emotions can be used to exploit others, and whether or not individuals can reliably differentiate between authentic and inauthentic expressions of these states, issues awaiting empirical study. ...
Article
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In this article we review the emerging literature on the self-transcendent emotions. We discuss how the self-transcendent emotions differ from other positive emotions and outline the defining features of this category. We then provide an analysis of three specific self-transcendent emotions—compassion, gratitude, and awe—detailing what has been learned about their expressive behavior, physiology, and likely evolutionary origins. We propose that these emotions emerged to help humans solve unique problems related to caretaking, cooperation, and group coordination in social interactions. In our final section we offer predictions about the self-transcendent emotions that can guide future research.
... In some cases, affective and inferential processes inform similar behavioral responses. For instance, expressions of disappointment or sadness may elicit complementary feelings of guilt and compassion in negotiation partners (Lelieveld et al. 2012(Lelieveld et al. , 2013Sinaceur et al. 2015) as well as inferences that the expresser's current outcomes are below expectations (Van Kleef et al. 2006a), and both of these reactions may fuel cooperation. In other cases, however, affective and inferential processes drive opposite behavioral tendencies. ...
Article
Conflict is an emotional enterprise. We provide an integrative synthesis of theory and research on emotional dynamics in conflict and negotiation at three levels of analysis: the individual, the dyad, and the group. At the individual level, experienced moods and emotions shape negotiators’ cognition and behavior. At the dyadic level, emotional expressions influence counterparts’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses. At the group level, patterns of emotional experience and/or expression can instigate cooperation, coordination, and conformity, or competition, conflict, and deviance. Intrapersonal (individual-level) effects of diffuse moods can be explained by affect priming and affect-as-information models, whereas effects of discrete emotions are better explained by the appraisal-tendency framework. Interpersonal (dyadic- and group-level) effects of emotions are mediated by affective (e.g., emotional contagion) and inferential (e.g., reverse appraisal) responses, whose relative predictive power can be understood through the lens of emotions as social information (EASI) theory. We offer a critical assessment of the current literature, discuss practical implications for negotiation and conflict management, and sketch an agenda for future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 5 is January 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... However, many individuals will intentionally self-disclose weakness to coworkers because they want to share it. They may share it strategically because they believe it will help them affiliate with or indirectly influence the receiver (Dingler-Duhon & Brown, 1987) by eliciting sympathy or concern (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015). They may also self-disclose weakness because they want their coworkers to know them 'as they really are' (cf. ...
Article
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It is generally believed that self-disclosure has positive effects, particularly for relationships; however, we predict and find negative effects in the context of task-oriented relationships. Across three laboratory experiments, we find that both task-relevant (Study 1) and task-irrelevant (Studies 2 and 3) weakness disclosures, made by a higher (versus peer) status coworker during an interdependent task, negatively affected the receiver's perception of the discloser's status and consequently undermined the discloser's influence, encouraged task conflict, and led to lower relationship quality with the discloser. Peer status disclosers did not trigger these negative responses. We find support for perceived vulnerability as the proposed psychological process (Study 3). Specifically, higher (but not peer) status disclosers experience a status penalty after weakness disclosures because these disclosures signal vulnerability, which violates the expectations people have for higher (but not peer) status coworkers. These findings provide insight into the effects of self-disclosing weakness at work and the ways in which high status employees may inadvertently trigger their own status loss.
... Sadness may likewise elicit other prosocial responses; Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag (2015) report that in negotiation scenarios, participants conceded more to someone expressing sadness (relative to other emotions), as it evoked the participants' other-focused empathic concern. ...
Article
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Critical emotion theorists have raised concerns that ‘normal’ human emotions like sadness are increasingly being pathologised as disorders. Counter efforts have thus been made to normalise such emotions, such as by highlighting their ubiquity and appropriacy. This paper goes slightly further by suggesting that sadness is not merely normal, but may have inherent value, and indeed be an integral component of a flourishing life. It offers a meta-theoretical review of literature on the potential ‘virtues’ of sadness. Three overarching themes are identified, each comprising four subthemes: (a) sadness as a mode of protection (including as a warning, as prompting disengagement, as a mode of conservation, and as enhanced accuracy); (b) sadness as an expression of care (including as a manifestation of love, of longing, of compassion, and eliciting care); and (c) sadness as a vehicle for flourishing (including as a moral sensibility, as engendering psychological development, as an aesthetic sensibility, and as integral to fulfilment). It is thus hoped that the paper can contribute to a more ‘positive’ cultural discourse around sadness, suggesting that, for the majority of people, experiences of sadness may serve an important and even desirable function in their lives.
... They may also elicit different forms of care. Whereas perceiving others' fear generates active helping, the perception of pain, suffering, or sadness may be more likely to elicit soothing or consolation (Bandstra et al. 2011, Sinaceur et al. 2015. ...
Article
Implicit in the longstanding disagreements about whether humans' fundamental nature is predominantly caring or callous is an assumption of uniformity. This article reviews evidence that instead supports inherent variation in caring motivation and behavior. The continuum between prosocial and antisocial extremes reflects variation in the structure and function of neurohormonal systems originally adapted to motivate parental care and since repurposed to support generalized forms of care. Extreme social behaviors such as extraordinary acts of altruism and aggression can often be best understood as reflecting variation in the neural systems that support care. A review of comparative, developmental, and neurobiological research finds consistent evidence that variations in caring motivations and behavior reflect individual differences in sensitivity to cues that signal vulnerability and distress and in the tendency to generalize care outward from socially close to distant others. The often complex relationships between caring motivation and various forms of altruism and aggression are discussed. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 70 is January 4, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... These findings and the limitations of these studies suggest numerous directions for future research. First, given the influence of anger intensity on compensation by service employees, future research might also explore how other displayed discrete emotions, such as sadness (Sinaceur et al. 2015) or anxiety (Brooks and Schweitzer 2011;Rosette et al. 2014), expressed at higher versus lower intensity impact service providers. It would also be interesting to explore the relationships between the intensities of various emotional displays (e.g., anger, sadness, or anxiety), cultural values (e.g., PD), and compensation behaviors across organizations that vary in terms of what and how emotions are typically expressed (e.g., because of differences in service climate, job expectations, workload, or compensation policies). ...
Article
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When customers express anger, do they gain greater returns, as suggested by the proverb “the squeaky wheel gets the grease”? If so, does the intensity of the squeak matter? In four studies we explore employee compensation responses to customers who express relatively high- versus low-intensity anger in service-failure settings. The studies demonstrate that the cultural value of power distance (PD) moderates the relationship between emotional intensity and customer compensation: high-PD service employees offer less compensation to customers expressing higher-intensity anger and low-PD service employees offer more to customers expressing higher-intensity anger. For high-PD service employees this relationship between emotional intensity and compensation is mediated by the perceived appropriateness of the anger expression; for low-PD employees it is mediated by perceived threat. However, when perceptions of threat are mitigated, low-PD service employees offer higher compensation to lower-intensity anger and this effect is mediated by perceptions of appropriateness. This research is the first to examine the effect of anger intensity in service-failure settings. For managers, the findings illuminate the importance of adopting a cultural lens when designing emotion management training programs and when setting practices for compensating angry customers.
... Finally, given the degree to which technology is present in our daily lives, it is imperative to explore the plethora of discrete emotions relevant to negotiations. Not only anger and happiness, but also less studied emotions such as anxiety (Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011;Rosette et al., 2014) and sadness (Sinaceur et al., 2015) are relevant to understanding cross-cultural communication via information technology. Future research will help understand whether, and to what degree and intensity, expression of discrete emotions are considered culturally appropriate when communicated face-to-face and via information technology. ...
Article
To invigorate future teaching and research, this article discusses theoretical approaches and empirical opportunities to better understand emotional dynamics in negotiation settings across cultural contexts. We adopt a culturally informed logic of appropriateness (Kopelman, 2009) to shed light on emerging and underexplored topics in this domain. The goal of this article is to inspire scholars worldwide to engage in rigorous empirical investigations of the antecedents, consequences, mechanisms, boundary conditions, and evidence‐based strategies in the combined domain of negotiation, culture, and emotion through research, teaching, and practice.
... It is evident from everyday experience that releasing tears is not only a signal of sorrow we send to others (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015), but it can also blunt stress and give us a sense of well-being. Starting from the idea that social-soothing and self-soothing mechanisms share the same physiological systems, it has been argued (Gračanin, Bylsma, & Vingerhoets, 2014) that biological processes act in parallel with learning and reappraisal processes that accompany weeping, which, in turn, results in homeostatic regulation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Most animals can cry but only humans have psychoemotional shedding of tears, also known as “weeping”. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the available data on the function and significance of weeping. It emerged that weeping is a behavior distinct from crying. Crying is the immediate reaction to pain or anger, it is not always associated with shedding tears, and indicates a peculiar and shocking change in behavior. Weeping is a more complex phenomenon: it is a behavior that induces empathy perhaps with the mediation of the mirror neurons network, and influences the mood through the release of hormones elicited by the massage effect made by the tears on the cheeks, or through the relief of the sobbing rhythm. It also emerged from the present review that weeping is not a “mild” or “weak” response to stress, but that it is a strong behavior with positive effects on health and social interaction.
... For the advertisement visuals, a current COVID-19 advertisement from the Ford brand was used. The message of this advertisement fit with the independent variable by exhibiting an empathetic message, as established earlier in the theoretical framework (Sinaceur et al., 2015). The audio track was removed from the ad and replaced by the happy and sad sonic logo conditions used in Experiment 1 and the pretest. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to show how sonic logos, despite their brief exposure time, resonate with consumers’ emotions and attitudes in a manner that until now has been attributed to only longer background music in advertising. The moderating role of sonic logo placement within the ad (beginning versus ending) and the mediating role of emotion felt after exposure to the brand and advertisement are also explored. Design/methodology/approach An expansion on sonic logo research is completed through two experiments testing nine hypotheses. A pretest is also conducted to create two orthogonal sonic logos (sad sonic logo and happy sonic logo) which are then used in the two experiments. Findings Participants had higher attitude scores for an advertisement that had a happy sonic logo over the ad that had a sad sonic logo. These consumer attitudes are mediated by emotion felt because of the exposure to the brand and advertisement and are moderated by placement of the sonic logo within the ad. Placement drove more positive consumer attitudes of a sad sonic logo at the beginning and a happy sonic logo at the end of the advertisement. Practical implications Given the short nature of a sonic logo, sonic logo placement in the advertisement is shown to change consumer perceptions. This effect uncovers an important aspect of placement of the sonic logo in the advertisement which gives practitioners a means of application. Furthermore, consumer emotions drive these strong attitudes despite the short exposure times of the sonic logo. Originality/value This paper expands upon the limited sonic logo research and shows how the short exposure time of a sonic logo can have the same emotional qualities as long-form music, previously reserved for background music in advertising. In addition, by uncovering the mediating relationship of emotion felt after exposure to the brand and advertisement, it is shown how these short audio branding elements can help shape emotion and consumer attitude toward brands. Finally, altering placement of the sonic logo can enhance consumer attitudes of the advertisement and brand.
... In vengeful interactions, opponents' displays of sadness could decrease revenge seeking by inducing a greater concern for the antagonist's welfare in the observer. Supportive of this hypothesis, a study showed that negotiators conceded more to interaction partners who expressed sadness, especially if they felt responsible for the other's feeling (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015). Thus, one could hypothesize contrary social-communicative effects of sad and angry expressions in vengeful interactions. ...
Preprint
What reaction stops revenge taking? Four experiments (total N=191) examined this question where the victim of an interpersonal transgression could observe the offender’s reaction (anger, sadness, pain, or calm) to a retributive noise punishment. We compared the punishment intensity selected by the participant before and after seeing the offender’s reaction. Seeing the opponent in pain reduced subsequent punishment most strongly, while displays of sadness and verbal indications of suffering had no appeasing effect. Expression of anger about a retributive punishment did not increase revenge seeking relative to a calm reaction, even when the anger response was disambiguated as being angry with the punisher. It is concluded that the expression of pain is the most effective emotional display for the reduction of retaliatory aggression. The findings are discussed in the light of recent research on reactive aggression and retributive justice.
... Intrapersonal negative emotions reflect the effect that emotions have on the cognition and behaviour of the negotiator who experiences these emotions (Overbeck, Neale, & Govan, 2010). We focus on the arguably two most prominent and impactful negative emotions in negotiations, (a) anger and (b) disappointment (for sadness, see Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015; for anxiety, see Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011). (a) Intrapersonal anger lowers negotiators' initial offers (R. A. Baron, 1990), decreases joint gains (Allred et al., 1997), and boosts the rejection of profitable ultimatum offers (resulting in failures to reach an agreement; Pillutla & Murnighan, 1996). ...
Article
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En route to crafting profitable deals, negotiators face abundant challenges—from overcoming anger, to dealing with low power, to seeking hidden integrative opportunities. Here, we argue that self-regulation can help to master these negotiation challenges and improve negotiation outcomes. To this end, we provide a review of the literature on negotiation challenges and integrate it with self-regulation research. Based on the cybernetic feedback model of self-regulation and the phase model of negotiations, we structure the literature and argue how and why prominent self-regulation techniques such as specifying goals, mental contrasting, and if–then plans help to master negotiation challenges. In addition, we expand on the less researched self-regulation technique of self-monitoring and how it may help to achieve negotiation goals. We conclude that self-regulation provides a powerful toolbox to master the challenges that negotiators face at the bargaining table, identify limitations of the extant literature, and suggest avenues for future research.
... Although research on deception in negotiation has explored many emotions, these and other emotions (e.g., disappointment and sadness) remain largely unexplored. Future research could look to research in the fields of business ethics (e.g., Smith-Crowe & Warren, 2014;Treviño, Weaver, & Reynolds, 2006;Warren & Smith-Crowe, 2008), judgment and decision making (e.g., Lerner, Li, Valdesolo, & Kassam, 2015), negotiation and conflict management (e.g., Lelieveld, Van Dijk, Van Beest, Steinel, & Van Kleef, 2011;Lelieveld, Van Dijk, Van Beest, & Van Kleef, 2012Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015), and moral psychology (e.g., Greene & Haidt, 2002;Haidt, 2001Haidt, , 2003 for insights into the possible effects of these emotions on deception in negotiation. ...
Article
Deception is pervasive in negotiation, and emotions are integral to the deception process. In this article, we review the theoretical and empirical research on emotions and deception in negotiation and introduce a theoretical model. In our review of the research, we find that emotions profoundly influence the decision to use deception. We also find that although negotiation is inherently interpersonal, theoretical and empirical research on deception has focused on the intrapersonal effects of emotion. For this reason, we integrate theory and research on the interpersonal effects of emotions into research on deception and propose a model—the Interpersonal Emotion Deception Model—that relates the emotions of a counterpart to the deception decisions of a negotiator. Our review and model expands our understanding of the important role of emotions in the deception decision process and provides a theoretical foundation for future research in the intrapersonal and interpersonal perspectives.
... In vengeful interactions, opponents' displays of sadness could decrease revenge seeking by inducing a greater concern for the antagonist's welfare in the observer. Supportive of this hypothesis, a study showed that negotiators conceded more to interaction partners who expressed sadness, especially if they felt responsible for the other's feeling (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015). Thus, one could hypothesize contrary effects of sad and angry expressions on revenge seeking for interactions in which the person has high power and can risk further escalation of aggression. ...
Article
Full-text available
What reaction stops revenge taking? Four experiments (total N = 191) examined this question where the victim of an interpersonal transgression could observe the offender's reaction (anger, sadness, pain, or calm) to a retributive noise punishment. We compared the punishment intensity selected by the participant before and after seeing the offender's reaction. Seeing the opponent in pain reduced subsequent punishment most strongly, while displays of sadness and verbal indications of suffering had no appeasing effect. Expression of anger about a retributive punishment did not increase revenge seeking relative to a calm reaction, even when the anger response was disambiguated as being angry with the punisher. It is concluded that the expression of pain is the most effective emotional display for the reduction of retaliatory aggression. The findings are discussed in light of recent research on reactive aggression and retributive justice.
... Note that not all affective reactions create convergence, as some can be complementary (Elfenbein, 2014). For instance, expressions of sadness may elicit complementary feelings of empathy and compassion in negotiation counterparts, which in turn may lead them to adopt a more cooperative approach with the expressers (Sinaceur et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The rapidly growing body of research on the effect of emotional expressions in negotiation has been the subject of several narrative reviews. Through meta-analysis, we combine relevant findings, compare and integrate moderators, and examine the mediating mechanisms quantitatively. The analysis incorporates 64 published and unpublished studies conducted over three decades. The findings suggest that, generally, negotiators expressing negative emotions will increase counterparts’ concession-making, which presumably enables them to claim more individual value. Expressing negative emotions diminishes trust and other subjective outcomes. Relationships between negative emotions and negotiation outcomes are moderated by factors that are both theoretical (i.e., power, culture, emotion regulation) and methodological (i.e., characteristics of research design, phases of negotiation). Additionally, we tested theoretical frameworks from Emotions as Social Information theory, which describes the processes through which negative emotions influence negotiation outcomes. The effects for concessions are mediated by inference of limits, inference of toughness, and affective reactions. The effect of negative emotions on individual outcomes is mediated by complementary affective reactions. Based on the existing body of work, we make specific calls for further research.
... Note that not all affective reactions create convergence, as some can be complementary (Elfenbein, 2014). For instance, expressions of sadness may elicit complementary feelings of empathy and compassion in negotiation counterparts, which in turn may lead them to adopt a more cooperative approach with the expressers (Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015). ...
... The weeping spells that she expressed were a manifestation of her emotional burden that could not be released freely. They communicated her emotional response and formed part of her negotiation (Lund, 1930;Sinaceur, et al., 2015) to convey her wishes in circumstances when there was a risk they would be overlooked. ...
Thesis
This thesis examines both disaster and disability experiences of newly disabled women who are wheelchair users as a result of injuries they sustained in the 2006 earthquake in Java. This study is based on 14 months' ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the period of January 2015 to March 2016, during which time the newly disabled women were in the phase of long-term adaptation of their lives after the earthquake. Examining the disaster and post-disaster experiences of those women, I argue that the disability-focused humanitarian and development intervention of that emergency contributed to the disempowerment of the women in their home, family and neighbourhood. The programs of relief and long-term recovery overemphasised the individualisation, independence and self-reliance of these 'victims' rather than tap into cultural and social resources that were potentially available to them (Reindal, 1999). I argue in my thesis that the emphasis on establishing newly disabled women as independent individuals resulted in their marginalisation and alienation in their interaction with the community and confined them to prolonged isolation in their village homes. Rather than give them protection, dignity and guidance to return into their 'normal' life these interventions rather reduced them to 'bare life' (Agamben, 1998), which put them in specialised programs but disregarded their needs to connect with their community. The unintentional marginalisation they have experienced during the process of recovery happened because the humanitarian and development interventions created short-term programs and ignored the women's long term needs to integrate with their community. The program's priority on the medicalisation and independence of people with disabilities during the process of recovery suspended the social life of the newly disabled women for a long time. In addition the villagers' lack of knowledge on how to engage with disabled people resulted in exceptionality, avoidance, prejudice and awkwardness in the relationship between disabled and non-disabled people in the kampong. It exacerbated the segregation and this led to the newly disabled women living their life outside the mainstream of the village. Despite these challenges, I demonstrate that these women became resilient and adaptable during this long-term crisis in their personal lives. They exercised agency in their negotiations within the household and extended family, with the relief organisations and with neighbours. In the emergency, rehabilitation, reconstruction and post-disaster recovery, the newly disabled women applied various forms of agency to rebuild their everyday lives and to regain their power as tiang rumah tangga (household pillar). They cultivated Javanese feminine values of sabar (patience), pasrah (surrender) and nrima (acceptance) as tools to keep going in nurturing their personal and family lives. They also applied strategies, tactics and manoeuvres to rebuild their livelihoods and to reconnect to their community. I demonstrate in this thesis that through the phases of their disaster recovery, they were resilient in countering the passivity imposed on them by the programs of NGOs and government. This research contributes to the understanding of disaster intervention and calls for rehabilitation and development strategies that integrate all survivors in the process of recovery to maintain their sense of belonging as active members in their community.
... Expressing sadness can also increase the extent to which one is perceived as warm, nice, and likeable , and in the face of adverse circumstances, may engender perceptions of the expresser's sincerity (e.g., Stephens et al., 2019). Expressing sadness in a collaborative setting may also lead receivers to feel concern for the expressor (Sinaceur et al., 2015). ...
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We build upon theory from evolutionary psychology and emotional expression, including basic emotion theory and the dual threshold model of anger in organizations, to extend knowledge about the influence of facial expressions of emotion in entrepreneurial fundraising. First, we conduct a qualitative analysis to understand the objects of entrepreneurs' facial expressions of four basic emotions in their pitches: happiness, anger, fear, and sadness. This provides a base for our theorizing that the frequency of entrepreneurs' facial expression of each of these emotions exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with funding. We also argue that the frequency of changes in entrepreneurs' facial expressions is positively related to funding. We test our predictions with a sample of 489 funding pitches using computer-aided facial expression analysis. Results support inverted U-shaped relationships of the frequency of facial expression of happiness, anger, and fear with funding, but show a negative relationship of sadness with funding. Results further support that the frequency of change in entrepreneurs' facial expressions promotes funding.
... In another series of negotiation studies, verbal and nonverbal expressions of disappointment elicited more guilt when the counterparts belonged to the same group than when they belonged to a different group (Lelieveld et al. 2013). Expressions of sadness elicited complementary feelings of empathy and compassion in negotiation counterparts only when features of the social situation provided reasons to experience other-concern for the expresser (e.g., when recipients had a collaborative relationship with the expresser or anticipated future interaction with them; Sinaceur et al. 2015). These findings suggest that complementary emotional reactions to others' emotional expressions are modulated by motivational processes that reflect the degree to which people depend on (in the case of power) and care about (in the case of shared group membership or ongoing collaborative relationships) another person. ...
Article
We review the burgeoning literature on the social effects of emotions, documenting the impact of emotional expressions on observers’ affect, cognition, and behavior. We find convergent evidence that emotional expressions influence observers’ affective reactions, inferential processes, and behaviors across various domains, including close relationships, group decision making, customer service, negotiation, and leadership. Affective reactions and inferential processes mediate the effects of emotional expressions on observers’ behaviors, and the relative potency of these mediators depends on the observers’ information processing and the perceived appropriateness of the emotional expressions. The social effects of emotions are similar across expressive modalities (face, voice, body, text, symbols). We discuss the findings in relation to emotional contagion, emotional intelligence, emotion regulation, emotions as social information (EASI) theory, and the functionality of emotions in engendering social influence. Finally, we identify gaps in our current understanding of the topic and call for interdisciplinary collaboration and methodological diversification. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Our results add to research examining the expression of emotion at work. Although crying has not received much attention from organizational researchers, a recent article by Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag (2015) examined whether expressions of sadness, such as sighing or saying things like "this almost brings tears to my eyes," induced concessions during negotiations. The authors argued and found that expressions of sadness send the message that the expresser needs help and support, which stimulates empathy and compassion, leading to increased concessionary behavior. ...
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Our experiment is aimed at understanding how employee reactions to negative feedback are received by the feedback provider and how employee gender may play a role in the process. We focus specifically on the act of crying and, based on role congruity theory, argue that a male employee crying in response to negative performance feedback will be seen as atypical behavior by the feedback provider, which will bias evaluations of the employee on a number of different outcome variables, including performance evaluations, assessments of leadership capability, and written recommendations. That is, we expect an interactive effect between gender and crying on our outcomes, an effect that will be mediated by perceived typicality. We find support for our moderated mediation model in a sample of 169 adults, indicating that men who cry in response to negative performance feedback will experience biased evaluations from the feedback provider. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record
... Expressions of happiness have been found to be conducive to engendering a positive atmosphere and interpersonal liking, but they also invite exploitation by signaling contentment (Van Kleef et al., 2004). Expressions of sadness or disappointment can elicit concessions by functioning as a call for help (Sinaceur et al., 2015;Van Kleef et al., 2006), but they can also backfire by signaling weakness (Lelieveld et al., 2013). Such effects of emotional expressions have been observed across verbal as well as nonverbal expressions, which have been characterized as "functionally equivalent" in the sense that the social effects of emotional expressions are qualitatively similar across expressive modalities, even though they may differ in magnitude (Van Kleef, 2017). ...
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Conflicts are inherently emotional, yet parties in conflict may choose to explicitly express indifference. It is unclear, however, whether this represents an effective strategy. Drawing on emotions as social information (EASI) theory, we examined the interpersonal effects of indifference expressions in conflict and the processes that underlie these effects. Study 1 indicated that people believe indifference expressions constitute a neutral emotional signal. However, Study 2 demonstrated experimentally that counterparts’ indifference expressions reduce focal negotiators’ cooperative intentions through both affective (negative affective reactions) and inferential (decreased expected collaboration) processes when compared to negative (anger, contempt), positive (hope), and neutral (no emotion) expressions. Study 3 revealed negative effects of indifference (vs. neutral) expressions on cooperative intentions, expected collaboration, and heart rate variability as a physiological indicator of affective responding. Results further showed an indirect effect through expected collaboration, but not through affective reactions. Study 4 established the negative effects of indifference expressions on a behavioral measure of cooperation through expected collaboration. Studies 5 and 6 (pre-registered) demonstrated that the impact of indifference expressions on cooperative intentions (Study 5) and actual cooperation (Study 6) via counterpart’s expected collaboration is reduced when a counterpart explicitly indicates cooperative intentions, reducing the diagnostic value of indifference expressions. Across studies (N = 2,447), multiple expressive modalities of indifference were used, including verbal and non-verbal expressions. Findings demonstrate that explicit expressions of indifference have qualitatively different interpersonal effects than other emotional expressions, including neutral expressions, and cast doubt on the effectiveness of expressing indifference in negotiating social conflict.
... Decades of research on selfdisclosure suggest that sharing meaningful personal information makes oneself vulnerable, which can help affiliate oneself and promotes feelings of closeness and liking (Collins & Miller, 1994;Cozby, 1972;Worthy et al., 1969). In addition, individuals may decide to share potential shortcomings to elicit sympathy or concern (Sinaceur et al., 2015). ...
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Can employers use realistic job previews to encourage applicants to open up in job interviews? We draw on theories of self-disclosure to examine the association between realistic job previews and applicants' willingness to self-disclose and use image protection tactics. We also examine perceived competition for the job and Honesty-Humility as moderators. Results of a between-subjects 2 × 2 experimental study (N = 396) show that realistic job previews were associated with decreased willingness in applicants to self-disclose during the interview. This effect was stronger when applicants perceived high competition for the job. Organizational attractiveness and trust toward the employer mediated the effect. There were no direct effects of realistic job previews on image protection tactics. Furthermore, willingness to self-disclose and use image protection tactics was influenced by applicants' Honesty-Humility, but Honesty-Humility did not moderate the relation between job preview condition and willingness to self-disclose and use image protection tactics. Key points • Realistic job previews refer to providing applicants with positive and negative job-related information. • We conducted an online experiment to examine whether realistic job previews help or hinder applicants to open up during a job interview. • Realistic job previews may decrease willingness in applicants to open up during the interview, especially when applicants perceive high competition for the job.
... Intrapersonal negative emotions reflect the effect that emotions have on the cognition and behaviour of the negotiator who experiences these emotions (Overbeck, Neale, & Govan, 2010). We focus on the arguably two most prominent and impactful negative emotions in negotiations, (a) anger and (b) disappointment (for sadness, see Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, & Haag, 2015; for anxiety, see Brooks & Schweitzer, 2011). (a) Intrapersonal anger lowers negotiators' initial offers (R. A. Baron, 1990), decreases joint gains (Allred et al., 1997), and boosts the rejection of profitable ultimatum offers (resulting in failures to reach an agreement; Pillutla & Murnighan, 1996). ...
Article
Both being angry (intrapersonal anger) and facing expressions of anger (interpersonal anger) impair negotiators’ goal attainment, as evident in less profitable outcomes. Here, we hypothesize that fostering self-regulation by forming if-then plans helps to overcome these detriments. In Study 1, angry negotiators attained less successful joint gains than non-angry negotiators. Angry negotiators who had formed an if-then plan about how to negotiate, however, attained similarly profitable outcomes as non-angry negotiators. In Study 2, participants negotiating with an angry opponent conceded more than those facing a non-angry opponent. Participants who had formed an if-then plan, however, conceded less than participants without self-regulatory help. These findings demonstrate that fostering self-regulation is a valuable means to overcome the detriments of intrapersonal and interpersonal anger in negotiations.
... Waring, Alison, Cunningham, and Whitfield (2013) found that increasing accountability for outcomes (a situational variable) reduces negotiators' ability to distinguish relevant from irrelevant information (i.e., possibly due to higher cognitive load). Belur (2014) proposes "microgeographic" effects on power negotiations; and Sinaceur, Kopelman, Vasiljevic, and Haag (2015) show that expressed sadness evokes concessions from opposing negotiators only when the sadness has a plausible cause. ...
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In this tribute to the 2010 recipient of the International Association for Conflict Management Lifetime Achievement Award, we celebrate the scholarship of Linda Putnam. We highlight her transformational impact not only on conflict research, but also on those of us who have had the opportunity to work with her. Noting her multidisciplinary research and her advocacy for a communication perspective of conflict, we review four distinct contributions and their intersections with conflict research: the communication perspective of conflict, interaction analysis, the bona fide group perspective, and bounded emotionality. Underlying these contributions are cross-disciplinary principles exemplified in Linda Putnam's research and career that serve to revitalize conflict research and inspire scholars. We conclude with her words of wisdom on the future of this field of research.
Book
Do emotions happen inside separate hearts and minds, or do they operate across the spaces between individuals? This book focuses on how emotions affect other people by changing their orientation to what happens in the social world. It provides the first sustained attempt to bring together literature on emotion's social effects in dyads and groups, and on how people regulate their emotions in order to exploit these effects in their home and work lives. The chapters present state-of-the-art reviews of topics such as emotion contagion, social appraisal and emotional labour. The book then develops an innovative and integrative approach to the social psychology of emotion based on the idea of relation alignment. The implications not only stretch beyond face-to-face interactions into the wider interpersonal, institutional and cultural environment, but also penetrate the supposed depths of personal experience, making us rethink some of our strongly held presuppositions about how emotions work.
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The functioning of social collectives hinges on the willingness of their members to cooperate with one another and to help those who are in need. Here we consider how such prosocial behavior is shaped by emotions. We offer an integrative review of theoretical arguments and empirical findings concerning how the experience of emotions influences people’s own prosocial behavior (intrapersonal effects) and how the expression of emotions influences others’ prosocial behavior (interpersonal effects). We identified research on five broad clusters of emotions associated with opportunity and affiliation (happiness, contentment, hope), appreciation and self-transcendence (gratitude, awe, elevation, compassion), distress and supplication (sadness, disappointment, fear, anxiety), dominance and status assertion (anger, disgust, contempt, envy, pride), and appeasement and social repair (guilt, regret, shame, embarrassment). Our review reveals notable differences between emotion clusters and between intrapersonal and interpersonal effects. Although some emotions promote prosocial behavior in the self and others, most emotions promote prosocial behavior either in the self (via their intrapersonal effects) or in others (via their interpersonal effects), suggesting trade-offs between the functionality of emotional experience and emotional expression. Moreover, interpersonal effects are modulated by the cooperative versus competitive nature of the situation. We discuss the emerging patterns from a social-functional perspective and conclude that understanding the role of emotion in prosociality requires joint attention to intrapersonal and interpersonal effects.
Article
This preregistered experiment examined two proximate drivers of retributive punishment attitudes: the motivation to make the perpetrator suffer, and understand the wrongfulness of his offense. In a sample of 514 US adults, we presented criminal case summaries that varied the level of suffering (absent vs. present) and understanding (absent vs. present) experienced by the perpetrator and measured punishment judgments and attitudes. Our results demonstrate, as predicted, that participants were more satisfied by the sentence and less punitive when they believed that the perpetrator had suffered from the punishment or that he understood the wrongfulness of his actions. This pattern held across crimes of varying seriousness (theft vs. aggravated robbery) and across two narrative perspectives (participant as victim vs. participant as third party). However, joint evidence of suffering and understanding did not strengthen this effect, contrary to predictions. We discuss the implications of these findings for leading philosophical theories of punishment.
Chapter
The role of anger in negotiation is explored in considerable depth in many papers in the literature. In the electronic negotiation situation, one way to express anger (in addition to plain textual messages) is through the use of emoticons and para-linguistic cues. Cue usage by angry negotiators under different levels of anger is unexplored in negotiation literature. In this paper, we address this gap by conducting a distributive electronic negotiation experiment and studying the usage of cues (statements and para-linguistic cues including emoticons) by angry negotiators while interacting with their counterpart (computer). We report that participants tend use more para-cues, especially emoticons, as their anger intensity increases and that emoticons have the ability to replace other para-cues while composing angry messages. The findings provide promising inputs on design of user interfaces for electronic negotiation systems.
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In this chapter a theory of motivation and emotion developed from an attributional perspective is presented. Before undertaking this central task, it might be beneficial to review the progression of the book. In Chapter 1 it was suggested that causal attributions have been prevalent throughout history and in disparate cultures. Studies reviewed in Chapter 2 revealed a large number of causal ascriptions within motivational domains, and different ascriptions in disparate domains. Yet some attributions, particularly ability and effort in the achievement area, dominate causal thinking. To compare and contrast causes such as ability and effort, their common denominators or shared properties were identified. Three causal dimensions, examined in Chapter 3, are locus, stability, and controllability, with intentionality and globality as other possible causal properties. As documented in Chapter 4, the perceived stability of a cause influences the subjective probability of success following a previous success or failure; causes perceived as enduring increase the certainty that the prior outcome will be repeated in the future. And all the causal dimensions, as well as the outcome of an activity and specific causes, influence the emotions experienced after attainment or nonattainment of a goal. The affects linked to causal dimensions include pride (with locus), hopelessness and resignation (with stability), and anger, gratitude, guilt, pity, and shame (with controllability).
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Is communicating anger or threats more effective in eliciting concessions in negotiation? Recent research has emphasized the effectiveness of anger communication, an emotional strategy. In this article, we argue that anger communication conveys an implied threat, and we document that issuing threats is a more effective negotiation strategy than communicating anger. In 3 computer-mediated negotiation experiments , participants received either angry or threatening messages from a simulated counterpart. Experiment 1 showed that perceptions of threat mediated the effect of anger (vs. a control) on concessions. Experiment 2 showed that (a) threat communication elicited greater concessions than anger communication and (b) poise (being confident and in control of one's own feelings and decisions) ascribed to the counterpart mediated the positive effect of threat compared to anger on concessions. Experiment 3 replicated this positive effect of threat over anger when recipients had an attractive alternative to a negotiated agreement. These findings qualify previous research on anger communication in negotiation. Implications for the understanding of emotion and negotiation are discussed.
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Within the field of Management and Organizational Studies, we have noted a tendency for researchers to explore symmetrical relationships between so-called positive discrete emotions or emotion-infused concepts and positive outcomes, and negative emotions or emotion-infused concepts and negative outcomes, respectively. In this Special Issue, we seek to problematize this assumption (without aiming to entirely discard it) by creating space for researchers to study what we term asymmetrical relationships. In particular, we explore the topic of when it can be good to feel bad and bad to feel good. The articles presented in this forum demonstrate both theoretically and empirically that appreciating these asymmetrical relationships holds considerable promise for enhanced understanding of a range of management and organizational phenomena, ranging from leadership and followership to emotional labor and dirty work. These unique theoretical and empirical insights have important relevance for organizational practice.
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We propose a new dimension of emotional intelligence (EI) that is particularly relevant in organizational settings: the ability to influence others via emotion displays. In this article, we first describe social functional accounts of emotions and the evidence supporting social effects of emotions. Then, we propose that individuals differ in the degree to which they can influence the behaviors, attitudes, and emotions of others via their emotion displays, and we demonstrate that this individual variation meets the criteria for an emotional ability. We articulate the mechanisms by which the ability to influence others via emotion displays is related to competence in organizational settings. In addition, we develop propositions about factors that moderate the effect of this ability on competence. We describe the research implications of our model.
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We hypothesized that anger expressions increase expressers’ ability to claim value in negotiations, but only when the recipients of these expressions have poor alternatives. This effect occurs because anger expression communicates toughness, and only recipients who have poor alternatives are affected by the toughness of their counterpart. In Experiment 1, participants read a scenario about a negotiator who either was angry or not. In Experiment 2, dyads negotiated face-to-face after one negotiator within each dyad was advised to show either anger or no emotion. In both studies, recipients of anger expressions who had poor alternatives conceded more. Experiment 2 also provided evidence that toughness ascribed to the expresser mediated the effect of anger expression on claiming value.
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We hypothesized that in online, virtual formats, negotiators receive better outcomes when mimicking their counterpart's language; furthermore, we predicted that this strategy would be more effective when occurring early in the negotiation rather than at the end, and should also be effective across both independent and interdependent cultures. Results from two experiments supported these hypotheses. Experiment 1 was conducted in Thailand and demonstrated that negotiators who actively mimicked their counterpart's language in the first 10min of the negotiation obtained higher individual gain compared to those mimicking during the last 10min, as well as compared to control participants. Experiment 2 replicated this effect in the United States (with Dutch and American negotiators) and also showed that trust mediated the effect of virtual linguistic mimicry on individual negotiation outcomes. Implications for virtual communication, strategic mimicry, and negotiations are discussed.
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Although the emotion management perspective dominates the micro-sociological study of emotions, a phenomenological approach provides access to phenomena that are inaccessible through emotion management. While the former shows the strategic management of one’s emotions to conform to norms, the latter reveals the myriad ways in which emotions move us. Indeed, if not for the poignant resonance of emotions in social life, emotions would hardly be worth “managing.” This article will employ a phenomenological perspective on emotions as they were expressed by applicants and workers in a Section 8 housing office throughout the course of eligibility interviews. I will show that despite giving off an impression of detachment and neutrality, workers are unavoidably sensitive to the emotional displays of applicants. Hence, a research agenda focusing on interpersonal emotional sensitivity is proposed as a complement to the conceptualization of emotions as managed.
Book
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For a long time I have had the gnawing desire to convey the broad motivational sig nificance of the attributional conception that I have espoused and to present fully the argument that this framework has earned a rightful place alongside other leading theories of motivation. Furthermore, recent investigations have yielded insights into the attributional determinants of affect, thus providing the impetus to embark upon a detailed discussion of emotion and to elucidate the relation between emotion and motivation from an attributional perspective. The presentation of a unified theory of motivation and emotion is the goal of this book. My more specific aims in the chapters to follow are to: 1) Outline the basic princi ples that I believe characterize an adequate theory of motivation; 2) Convey what I perceive to be the conceptual contributions of the perspective advocated by my col leagues and me; 3) Summarize the empirical relations, reach some definitive con clusions, and point out the more equivocal empirical associations based on hypotheses derived from our particular attribution theory; and 4) Clarify questions that have been raised about this conception and provide new material for still further scrutiny. In so doing, the building blocks (if any) laid down by the attributional con ception will be readily identified and unknown juries of present and future peers can then better determine the value of this scientific product."
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Previous research has shown that disputants differ substantially in how they experience, or cognitively ''frame,'' conflict-even the same conflict. We explored the influence of cognitive frames on negotiation processes and outcomes. Results suggest that such frames significantly influence the processes and outcomes of conflict along three specific dimensions.
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Integrating recent work on emotional communication with social science theories on unpredictability, we investigated whether communicating emotional inconsistency and unpredictability would affect recipients' concession-making in negotiation. We hypothesized that emotional inconsistency and unpredictability would increase recipients' concessions by making recipients feel less control over the outcome. In Experiment 1, dyads negotiated face-to-face after one negotiator within each dyad expressed either anger or emotional inconsistency by alternating between anger and happiness. In Experiment 2, participants received angry and/or happy messages from a simulated negotiation opponent. In Experiment 3, participants read a scenario about a negotiator who expressed either anger or emotional inconsistency by alternating between anger and disappointment. In all three experiments, emotional inconsistency induced recipients to make greater concessions compared to expressing a consistent emotion. Further, in all three experiments, the effect of emotional inconsistency was mediated by recipients' feeling less control. These findings qualify previous research on anger in negotiation and demonstrate the importance of feelings of control for negotiation outcomes.
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Past research has found that showing anger induces cooperative behavior from counterparts in negotiations. We build on and extend this research by examining the effects of faking anger by surface acting (i.e., showing anger that is not truly felt inside) on the behavior of negotiation counterparts. We specifically propose that surface acting anger leads counterparts to be intransigent due to reduced trust. In Experiment 1, surface acting anger increased demands in a face-to-face negotiation, relative to showing no emotion, and this effect was mediated by (reduced) trust. In Experiment 2, surface acting anger increased demands in a video-mediated negotiation, relative to showing no emotion, and this effect was explained by (reduced) trust, as in Experiment 1. By contrast, deep acting anger (i.e., showing anger that is truly felt inside) decreased demands, relative to showing no emotion, and this effect was explained by (increased) perceptions of toughness, consistent with prior research on the effects of showing anger in negotiations. The findings show that a complete understanding of the role of anger in negotiations requires attention to how it is regulated. In addition, the results suggest that faking emotions using surface acting strategies may generally be detrimental to conflict resolution.
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Study 1 examined whose knowledge of a best alternative to the negotiated agreement produces documented benefits. The results suggest that (a) joint gain and the number of integrative trade-offs increase when the actor with the alternative is made aware of the alternative and (b) the actor with the alternative obtains a marginal increase in personal gain only when both negotiators (i.e., both the actor and the opponent) are aware of the actor's alternative. Study 2 explored changes in actor and opponent cognitions that result when each is informed about the actor's alternative. Results suggest that the existence of an attractive alternative changes actor and opponent walk away point (often referred to as reservation point), perception of efficacy regarding negotiation skill, perceived value of the commodity being negotiated, and distribution of power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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From the early days of the field to today, social psychologists consider goals and motives as central elements of negotiation, indeed, as the raison d'être, its reason for being. Thus, negotiation has been called "mixed-motive" interaction to reflect the fact that the parties involved simultaneously experience the motivation to cooperate and compete with each other. For example, a negotiator may prefer an agreement that satisfies her interests over one that favors her adversary's interests (an incentive to compete), while at the same time preferring any agreement over no agreement (an incentive to cooperate). In this chapter, we review social psychological work on negotiation and social conflict that considers goals and motives. We emphasize early, important studies conducted in the 1970s, and place them in context of current trends and developments. Much of our discussion reflects and supports a model of motivation and cognition in negotiation that we refer to as the motivated information processing model of negotiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships provides a synthesis of research on nonverbal communication as it applies to interpersonal interaction, focusing on the close relationships of friends, family, and romantic partners. Authors Laura K. Guerrero and Kory Floyd support the premise that nonverbal communication is a product of biology, social learning, and relational context. They overview six prominent nonverbal theories and show how each is related to bio-evolutionary or sociocultural perspectives. Their work focuses on various functions of nonverbal communication, emphasizing those that are most relevant to the initiation, maintenance, and dissolution of close relationships. Throughout the book, Guerrero and Floyd highlight areas where research is either contradictory or inconclusive, hoping that in the years to come scholars will have a clearer understanding of these issues. The volume concludes with a discussion of practical implications that emerge from the scholarly literature on nonverbal communication in relationships - an essential component for understanding relationships in the real world.Nonverbal Communication in Close Relationships makes an important contribution to the development of our understanding not only of relationship processes but also of the specific workings of nonverbal communication. It will serve as a springboard for asking new questions and advancing new theories about nonverbal communication. It is intended for scholars and advanced students in personal relationship study, social psychology, interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, family studies, and family communication. It will also be a helpful resource for researchers, clinicians, and couples searching for a better understanding of the complicated roles that nonverbal cues play in relationships. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
Article
Current models of how emotion regulation impacts strain focus on intraindividual processes that operate within the mind and body of the person regulating the emotion. This article presents a social interaction model of how emotion regulation impacts strain based on interpersonal processes. In this model, explanations of how emotion regulation impacts strain are based on the receiver's response to the sender's emotion regulation and display, the form of emotion regulation, and the emotion being regulated.
Article
The central argument of this book is that emotion is meaningful and meaning is emotional. The modern world is forcing us to understand emotion in order to cope with new problems such as road rage and epidemic levels of depression, as well as age-old problems such as homicide, genocide and racial tension. This book draws on scholarly research to address, explain and legitimize the role that emotion plays in everyday interaction and in many of the pressing social, moral, and cultural issues that we face today. © Maison des Sciences de l'Homme and Cambridge University Press 1999.
Article
Friendly gestures (e.g., smiles, flattery, favors) typically build trust and earn good will. However, we propose that people feel unsettled when enemies initiate friendly gestures. To resolve these sensemaking difficulties, people find order through superstitious reasoning about friendly enemies. Supporting this theorizing, friendly enemies created sensemaking difficulty, which in turn mediated people's tendencies to blame them for coincidental negative outcomes (Experiment 1). Further implicating these processes, individuals high in need for structure were especially prone to make these attributions (Experiment 2). Finally, we explored consequences of such blame, showing that blame mediates people's beliefs that mere contact with friendly enemies is unlucky and should be avoided (Experiment 3). Taken together, these results suggest that, rather than transforming hostile relationships, an enemy's friendliness can be so unnerving that it sometimes leads people down blind alleys of superstitious reasoning.
Article
Emotions have a pervasive impact on organizational behavior. They do not just influence people's own actions; when expressed, emotions may also exert influence on other organization members who perceive the expressions. Sometimes emotional expressions have "symmetrical" effects, in that positive expressions yield advantageous outcomes for the expresser, while negative expressions produce disadvantageous outcomes. In other cases effects are "asymmetrical," such that negative emotional expressions generate beneficial outcomes for the expresser, while positive expressions produce detrimental outcomes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theory, I develop a theoretical analysis of when and how expressions of anger and happiness generate symmetrical versus asymmetrical effects. I support my analysis with a review of empirical research on the interpersonal effects of anger and happiness in negotiations and leadership. This review permits two general conclusions: (1) symmetrical effects of anger and happiness are mediated by affective reactions of perceivers, whereas asymmetrical effects are mediated by inferential processes in perceivers; (2) the relative strength of affective reactions versus inferential processes (and thereby the likelihood of symmetrical versus asymmetrical effects) depends on the perceiver's information processing motivation and ability and on the perceived appropriateness of the emotional display. I discuss theoretical implications and future directions.
Article
Based on the idea that emotion conveys information about the expressor's needs and on Clark and Mills' (1979) distinction between communal relationships and exchange relationships, it was hypothesized that: (a) expression of emotion (when not directed at the other) would be reacted to more favorably when communal than when exchange relationships were desired, and that (b) people would be more willing to express emotion in communal than in exchange relationships. In Study 1 subjects were led to desire a communal or an exchange relationship with another who expressed either happiness, sadness, irritability, or no emotion. Then liking for the other was assessed. When no emotion was expressed, there was no difference in liking for the other between the Communal and Exchange conditions. However, as predicted, when happiness, sadness, or irritability was expressed, liking was significantly greater when a communal rather than an exchange relationship was desired. In Study 2, subjects were paired with an existing friend (Communal conditions) or with a stranger (Exchange conditions) with whom they expected to have a conversation. They were given a list of possible topics some of which involved talking about emotional experiences and some of which did not. As predicted, subjects in the Communal condition indicated a greater preference for talking about emotional topics than did those in the Exchange condition.
Article
We addressed the questions of how and to what end negotiators sacrifice their economic outcomes in exchange for hoped-for relationship gains with the other party. We predicted that negotiators' chronic belongingness needs–fundamental to human beings–would undercut the economic value of their deals. Moreover, we tested two mechanisms by which this occurs. Belongingness needs encouraged negotiators to reduce their economic ambitions ahead of time, and they interfered with negotiators' attention to the substantive issues on the table. Rather than finding that partners were able to exploit negotiators' belongingness needs for their own economic gains, we found that their partners were left worse off. If negotiators were making a calculation initially to trade economic gains for relationship gains, we did not find evidence that this paid off with a partner who especially wanted to work with the focal negotiator in the future. We conclude that belongingness needs lead negotiators to sabotage their economic outcomes without any clear benefits to the relationships these negotiators are keen to build.
Article
Behavioral research on negotiation in recent years has been dominated by the decision-making research paradigm, which accords a relatively narrow role to emotions. Decision-making researchers have considered emotions primarily in terms of how an individual's positive or negative affect impacts, and usually impedes, his or her information processing. Drawing on recent advances in psychology and other fields, we propose an alternative perspective that highlights more social and more functional aspects of emotion in negotiation. We conceptualize emotions as interpersonal communication systems that help individuals navigate the basic problems that arise in dyad and group relations. Emotions are evoked by these specific relational problems and one person's emotional expression impacts other persons, often with the consequence of resolving the relational problem. From this social functional perspective, we draw insights concerning: (a) the influence of specific emotions upon negotiation-related cognition and behavior; (b) the transitions between qualitatively different phases within negotiations; and (c) the ways in which negotiations are shaped by contextual variables such as culture and communication media.
Article
For some years now, emotion researchers have debated a series of issues related to the structure of consciously experienced affective states. The present article reviews evidence that current affective experience can be summarized by a structure that is anchored by two bipolar but independent dimensions of experience, pleasure and activation. Four issues have presented themselves as central to the nature of this structure: the number of dimensions necessary to describe the space, the bipolarity of the dimensions, whether the structure displays a circumplex shape, and the definition of the activation dimension. Points of consensus and the remaining controversies regarding each issue are presented.
Article
From his Behavioural Ecology perspective, Fridlund (1994) theorised that facial expressions evolved to convey social intents and contingencies, yet offered no evidence that observers interpret faces in this way. Canadian, Chinese, and Japanese respondents were shown standard '“facial expressions of emotion'” and asked to select one of Fridlund's predicted social messages. For comparison, an independent group of respondents selected among the emotion messages predicted by Ekman and Friesen (1976). N o significant difference in the amount of agreement was found between social and emotion conditions, both across three cultures and within each culture. Faces convey social messages with about as much consensus as they convey emotional ones.
Article
The issue of emotion recognition in real-life settings, lacking a clear criterion of the nature of the underlying emotion, is raised. After reporting their luggage lost, 110 airline passengers were asked to rate their emotional state (subjective feeling criterion). The agents who had processed the claims were asked to rate the passengers’ emotional state (objective behavior criterion) as well as their own feelings. An excerpt of the videotaped interaction for 40 passengers was rated for emotional state by judges on the basis of (a) verbal and nonverbal cues or (b) nonverbal cues only. As predicted, the data show that judges’ inferences in both exposure conditions correlate more strongly with the objective behavior (agent ratings) than the subjective feeling criterion (self-ratings). Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), objectively coded “felt” (but not false) smiles correlated positively with a good humor scale in both criteria and judges’ ratings.
Article
A qualitative study of a bill-collection organization was used to identify norms about the emotions that collectors are expected to convey to debtors and the means used by the organization to maintain such norms given that collectors' expressed emotions are simultaneously influenced by their inner feelings. These data indicate that collectors are selected, socialized, and rewarded for following the general norm of conveying urgency (high arousal with a hint of irritation) to debtors. Collectors are further socialized and rewarded to adjust their expressed emotions in response to variations in debtor demeanor. These contingent norms sometimes clash with collectors' feelings toward debtors. Bill collectors are taught to cope with such emotive dissonance by using cognitive appraisals that help them become emotionally detached from debtors and by releasing unpleasant feelings without communicating these emotions to debtors. The discussion focuses on the implications of this research for developing general theory about the expression of emotion in organizational life.
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We propose that people protect the belief in a controlled, nonrandom world by imbuing their social, physical, and metaphysical environments with order and structure when their sense of personal control is threatened. We demonstrate that when personal control is threatened, people can preserve a sense of order by (a) perceiving patterns in noise or adhering to superstitions and conspiracies, (b) defending the legitimacy of the sociopolitical institutions that offer control, or (c) believing in an interventionist God. We also present evidence that these processes of compensatory control help people cope with the anxiety and discomfort that lacking personal control fuels, that it is lack of personal control specifically and not general threat or negativity that drives these processes, and that these various forms of compensatory control are ultimately substitutable for one another. Our model of compensatory control offers insight into a wide variety of phenomena, from prejudice to the idiosyncratic rituals of professional athletes to societal rituals around weddings, graduations, and funerals.
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Negotiators often concede to angry partners. But what happens when they meet again? The reputation spill-over hypothesis predicts that negotiators demand less from a partner who had expressed anger during a previous negotiation, because they perceive the other as tough. The retaliation hypothesis posits that negotiators demand more from a partner who had previously expressed anger, because they develop a negative impression of the other and want to set things straight. In Experiment 1, participants first negotiated with a simulated partner who expressed anger during a computer-mediated negotiation. Participants subsequently demanded less in a second negotiation when they dealt with the same rather than a different partner. In Experiment 2, participants demanded less in the second negotiation when their partner in the first negotiation had expressed anger rather than no emotion and the second negotiation was with the same (rather than a different) partner. Consistent with the spill-over hypothesis, this effect was mediated by inferences regarding the partner's limits.
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Social value orientations are known to influence outcome preferences, expectations, and strategic choices. This research investigated whether dyadic composition, as determined by the social value orientations of negotiators, affects the negotiation process. A log-linear analysis showed that strategy selection is influenced by dyad type: Prosocial dyads use restructuring and supportive strategies and focus on process management. Proself dyads focus on priority information exchange and concessionary behavior while avoiding positional arguing. Mixed dyads emphasize argumentation and show a pattern consistent with distributive bargaining. Sequencing of strategies also varied with dyad type. Responses to restructuring suggestions were different in the three dyad types, and positional-priority sequences were elicited in proself dyads and suppressed in mixed dyads. The authors conclude that dyads differ in the extent to which they emphasize the procedural or distributive components of the negotiating task as well as in their patterns of information search.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of motivational orientations on negotiation outcomes in unstable negotiation contexts. Instability was created by pitting individualists against cooperators (mixed dyads), and by giving only one of the parties information about the other party's orientation. A total of 162 subjects participated in negotiation simulations, where orientation and information were manipulated through instructions from management. The cooperative dyads got better outcomes than did the individualistic dyads. The mixed dyads did as well as the cooperative dyads when the cooperators had information, but did as badly as the individualistic dyads when the individualists had information. The process analyses indicated that the dyads with high outcomes achieved their results because the integrative activities increased over time. In the mixed dyads with informed individualists, the individualists reached higher individual outcome than their cooperative (uninformed) opponents. Thus, naive cooperators can easily be exploited.
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The influence of culture on the social effects of emotions in negotiations has recently gained the attention of researchers, but to date this research has focused exclusively on the cultural background of the perceiver of the emotion expression. The current research offers the first investigation of how the cultural background of the expresser influences negotiation outcomes. On the basis of the stereotype that East Asians are emotionally inexpressive and European Americans are emotionally expressive, we predicted that anger will have a stronger signaling value when East Asians rather than European American negotiators express it. Specifically, we predicted that angry East Asian negotiators will be perceived as tougher and more threatening and therefore elicit great cooperation from counterparts compared with angry European American negotiators. Results from 4 negotiation studies supported our predictions. In Study 1, angry East Asian negotiators elicited greater cooperation than angry European American and Hispanic negotiators. In Study 2, angry East Asian negotiators elicited greater cooperation than angry European American ones, but emotionally neutral East Asian and European American negotiators elicited the same level of cooperation. Study 3 showed that this effect holds for both East Asian and European American perceivers and that it is mediated by angry East Asian negotiators being perceived as tougher and more threatening than angry European American negotiators. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that the effect emerges only when negotiators hold the stereotype of East Asians being emotionally inexpressive and European Americans being emotionally expressive. We discuss implications for our understanding of culture, emotions, and negotiations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Following Yik and Russell (1999) a judgement paradigm was used to examine to what extent differential accuracy of recognition of facial expressions allows evaluation of the well-foundedness of different theoretical views on emotional expression. Observers judged photos showing facial expressions of seven emotions on the basis of: (1) discrete emotion categories; (2) social message types; (3) appraisal results; or (4) action tendencies, and rated their confidence in making choices. Emotion categories and appraisals were judged significantly more accurately and confidently than messages or action tendencies. These results do not support claims of primacy for message or action tendency views of facial expression. Based on a componential model of emotion it is suggested that judges can infer components from categories and vice versa.