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Radcliffe, R. A., & Bos, B. (2013). Strategies to prepare middle school and high school students for college and career readiness. Clearing House, 86 (4), 136 - 141. doi:10.1080/00098655.2013.782850.



Trends among adolescents continue to be discouraging in terms of career and college readiness based on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) achievement reports and high school graduation rate data. In response, this article presents five goals and eight strategies we have engaged in during a seven-year research study focused on building college and career readiness among adolescents. During our final year of helping students build college and career readiness, we found associated improvements in their academic-related perceptions, beliefs, and strategies; positive personal achievement and goal orientation; rising perceptions of college; improving trends in academic performance ; and stronger perseverance in high school when compared to a control group. Because the students in this study have not completed their high school senior year, we do not have data that predict their college acceptance or career readiness.
The Clearing House, 86: 136–141, 2013
Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 0009-8655 print; 1939-912x online
DOI: 10.1080/00098655.2013.782850
Strategies to Prepare Middle
School and High School Students
for College and Career Readiness
Abstract: Trends among adolescents continue to be
discouraging in terms of career and college readiness
based on National Assessment of Educational Progress
(NAEP) achievement reports and high school gradua-
tion rate data. In response, this article presents five goals
and eight strategies we have engaged in during a seven-
year research study focused on building college and ca-
reer readiness among adolescents. During our final year
of helping students build college and career readiness,
we found associated improvements in their academic-
related perceptions, beliefs, and strategies; positive
personal achievement a nd goal orientation; rising per-
ceptions of college; improving trends in academic per-
formance; and stronger perseverance in high school
when compared to a control group. Because the students
in this study have not completed their high school se-
nior year, we do not have data that predict their college
acceptance or career readiness.
Keywords: college readiness, career readiness, college-
going culture
rends among adolescents continue to be discourag-
ing in terms of college readiness. Recent National
Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (National
Assessment Governing Board n.d.) academic achieve-
ment reports present a continuing trend where only
about one-third of eighth-grade students rank within
the “at or above proficient” category for mathematics,
reading, writing, and science, and a significant gap con-
tinues to exist where Hispanic and African American
groups underachieve in comparison to other groups.
Adolescents’ low NAEP scores and the current drop-
out rates force the question: How many will be ready
for college by graduation? Overall, the gap in educa-
tion preparation among whites, Hispanics, and blacks,
Rich A. Radcliffe and Beth Bos are at Texas State University–C&I, San Marcos, TX.
as evident in their scaled scores, results in many minor-
ity students being poorly prepared for higher education
(Spellings 2006).
Equally disturbing is the news regarding adolescents’
career readiness. Recent high school graduation rate
data indicate that nationally about 71 percent of all
students graduate from high school on time with a reg-
ular diploma, but barely half of African American and
Hispanic students earn diplomas with their peers (Sum
2009). Each year approximately 1.2 million students
fail to graduate from high school, more than half of
whom are categorized as belonging to minority groups
(Editorial Projects in Education 2009). Legters and Bal-
fanz (2010) report that the employment market has
changed since the early 1980s when most high school
dropouts could find a job at a living wage. To-
day dropouts are more likely to face unemployment,
poverty, ill health, incarceration, and dependence on
social services.
In response to these concerns we have been engaged
in a seven-year research study and program focused on
building college and career readiness among adoles-
cents. A distinguishing feature of this program is that it
has supported a cohort of young adolescents, starting
in their sixth-grade year and continuing through their
high school years. In this article we present the goals and
strategies that pre-service teachers implemented to build
college and career readiness among these students. Our
conclusions summarize the positive student outcome
that may be associated with pursuing these goals and
strategies, and are based on a Goal-setting Worksheet,
the Patterns of Academic Learning (PALS) survey, self-
report surveys, the school district’s student registration
records, and our state’s mandated Texas Assessment
of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test. Because the stu-
dents in this study have not completed their high school
Strategies for College and Career Readiness 137
senior year, we do not have final data on their college
acceptance or career readiness.
Three of Conley’s (2010) key dimensions for building
college readiness provide a framework for our strate-
gies and include college knowledge, academic behav-
iors, and content knowledge. College knowledge, also
referred to by Conley (2010) as “contextual skills and
awareness,” is defined as “the privileged information
necessary to understand how college operates as a sys-
tem and culture” (40). Academic behaviors that gen-
erally relate to self-management are the dimension of
college readiness that includes a “range of behaviors that
reflects greater student self-awareness, self-monitoring,
and self-control of a series of processes and behaviors
necessary for academic success” (Conley 2010, 39–40).
Content knowledge is described as “overarching aca-
demic skills,” which include reading and writing, and
“core academic subjects knowledge and skills,” which
encompasses English, mathematics, science, social stud-
ies, world languages, and the arts (Conley 2010, 35–39).
The Creating a College Culture Project (McClafferty,
McDonough, and Nunez 2002), which also provides
a framework for our research, emerged from concerns
about the declining number of college-bound students
from a southern California cluster of 24 schools that
are ethnically and racially diverse. The schools had
high drop-out rates and low participation by both low-
income students and minority students in honors and
advanced placement courses. McClafferty recommends
that schools should create a “college culture”: a school
culture that encourages all students to consider college
by introducing information about higher education op-
portunities during early adolescence and in high school.
This concept of creating a college culture among di-
verse adolescents who are considered at risk aligns with
Conley, who includes “create and maintain a college-
going culture in the school” among his key principles of
college and career readiness (McClafferty, McDonough,
and Nunez 2002, 105).
Our strategies were implemented in a school district
that is ethnically and racially diverse and enrolls many
students who may not graduate from high school. The
setting for this recent program is a professional devel-
opment model for pre-service teacher education.
The participants in our program initially included 100
sixth-grade students with a composition of about 60 per-
cent Hispanic, 30 percent white, and 7 percent African
American. With the assistance of school administrators,
these students were randomly selected from a pool of
about 120 students identified as at risk based on the
school district’s guidelines for academically and eco-
nomically at-risk students. Fifty of these students partic-
ipated in the treatment group and were engaged in the
strategies presented in this article; the other 50 partici-
pated in a control group. The participants also included
pre-service teachers, typically college seniors, enrolled
in two teacher preparation classes that were taught two
days a week in a blended approach on the students’
school campus; that is, the pre-service teachers were
enrolled in a “professional development model.” Each
semester a different group of about 30 pre-service teach-
ers mentored the students. During the writing-marathon
event, participants in the study also included college
professors who hosted the visiting middle school stu-
dents in the professor’s college freshman-level English,
math, or science class.
At the start of the high school phase of our study, after
the students had completed eighth grade, a change in
school boundaries led to some student attrition, result-
ing in about 40 treatment-group participants. During
the next three years, a few of our high school partici-
pants withdrew from the school district, resulting in 31
treatment-group students at the end of the 2011 aca-
demic year.
Goals and Strategies for Building College
and Career Readiness
Following are the five goals that are the foundation for
the eight strategies used to help secondary students be-
come college-ready and develop a college-going culture:
The student will (1) understand the nature of college,
(2) recognize that a college education may be impor-
tant to his or her future success, (3) gain positive per-
ceptions and aspirations about college, (4) prepare aca-
demically for college admission, and (5) set short- and
long-term goals that support becoming college-ready.
Table 1 lists the eight recommended strategies for help-
ing secondary students become college-ready and a rec-
ommended schedule for implementing these strategies.
Students Create Digital Stories
While students are in middle school we recommend
that pre-service teachers coach them in creating three
digital stories that may help them become college-ready.
The topics of these three stories are “my positive school
experience,” “my future career and how to prepare for
it,” and “how to be successful in middle school.” Col-
lectively, engaging students in creating these three sto-
ries may support three of our goals (goals 2, 4, and 5).
Digital stories are from two- to three-minute multime-
dia movies that combine photographs, sound, music,
text, and a narrative voice. Digital stories are used as
an expressive medium for the young adolescents to re-
spond to the three topics that engage them in reflecting
about their past, current, and future academic prepara-
tion. Literature supports the use of digital stories in the
classroom. Bull and Kajder (2004) describe digital sto-
rytelling in language arts class; Hull and Nelson (2005)
138 The Clearing House 86(4) 2013
TABLE 1. Strategies to Build College and Career Readiness and Grade Implementation Schedule.
Strategy Implementation Schedule
1. Create three digital stories: 7th–8th grades
a. “my positive school experience”
b. “my future career and how to prepare for it”
c. “how to be successful in middle school”
2. Visit university and community college campuses. 7th–11th grades
3. Use a writing-marathon approach during college visits. 7th–9th grades
4. Participate in academic tutoring. 8th–9th grades
5. Attend presentations by college students about the attractions of attending
9th–11th grades
6. Attend presentations by college representatives about getting admitted into
college and obtaining financial aid.
9th–11th grades
7. Plan school-related goals that help prepare for college readiness. 10th–12th grades
8. Collaborate with college students on college entrance tasks, including visit a
college resource room at school, select a favored college, respond to the state’s
college admissions site, and complete the Free Application for Federal Student
Aid (FAFSA) application.
11th–12th grades
discuss the expressive power of digital storytelling; Ka-
jder, Bull, and Albaugh (2005) explain the nature of
digital stories; and Salpeter (2005) describes the g row-
ing popularity of this technology-based strategy.
The approach for coaching young adolescents in cre-
ating a digital story includes the nine steps presented
in Table 2. Necessary resources include a computer
lab, PowerPoint software, microphone input capabil-
ity, computer scanning equipment, and access to the
Visit University and Community College Campuses
In order to help adolescents become college-ready,
we recommend that pre-service teachers lead them on
university campus tours starting when they are in sev-
enth grade. Careful organization and scheduling of all
aspects of the tour are essential to meeting three of our
TABLE 2. Steps for Coaching Students to
Create a Digital Story.
1. Show an example of a digital story.
2. Determine the topic for the assigned digital story.
3. Ask probing questions to help students develop ideas
for the story.
4. Describe the format for the story, specifically the
number of slides, guidelines for inserting images, the
amount of text, background music, and how to record
5. Help student develop a project timeline.
6. Discuss images to use and sources.
7. Guide the student in sketching a story line to create a
8. Help the student write text and secure images.
9. Help the student assemble the digital story.
goals (goals 1, 2, and 3). We recommend scheduling
a school bus to transfer adolescents to the university
campus, a rriving at 9:00 a.m., when they are greeted by
pre-service teachers. Small groups of six persons each are
formed that include two pre-service teachers and four
visiting adolescents. The pre-service teachers, who have
planned their own walking routes, escort their young
visitors around campus. Half of the groups immediately
begin their tours, incorporating a writing-marathon ap-
proach. The other half goes directly to underclassman-
level college classes, such as biology or creative writing,
where they observe and may be invited to participate.
An hour later, the two large groups switch agendas. At
noon, all persons converge at a university dining hall
where they sit together, talk about their tours, and enjoy
lunch. As lunchtime ends, staff from the campus admis-
sions office and financial aid office give presentations
on college application procedures.
Use a Writing-Marathon Approach during College Visits
We suggest incorporating a writing-marathon (Rad-
cliffe and Stephens 2009; Stephens, Radcliffe, and
Schaefer 2007) into the university tours because it sup-
ports the three goals of the previously described tour.
Richard Louth (2002), of the Southeastern Louisiana
Writing Project, describes a writing-marathon as a visit
to an engaging and new setting where a small group of
writers walk and explore, stop to write about what they
are experiencing, and then share their writing. They re-
peat this cycle a small number of times. Marathoners
write freely and spontaneously; their writing becomes
a response to the exploration of the context that the
writers are experiencing. The sharing period is impor-
tant but brief, and no particular response is requested
from the listeners other than a simple “thank you” or “I
Strategies for College and Career Readiness 139
TABLE 3. Steps for Tutoring a Student in One
Content Area.
1. Pre-service teacher talks with student’s content-area
teacher to determine the student’s motivation and/or
learning needs and tips for helping the student.
2. Pre-service teacher and content teacher agree on a
tutoring plan.
3. Pre-service teacher documents the plan.
4. Student(s) and pre-service teacher meet twice
weekly for tutoring in a location such as a classroom,
cafeteria, or library.
5. Four times per semester, as part of tutoring, the
pre-service teacher presents a short lesson on a topic
using a real-world problem.
enjoyed hearing that.” The writing-marathon is facili-
tated by the pre-service teachers, who should choose
stopping points based on the availability of a comfort-
able place and the potential for responses to a particu-
larly rich segment of the tour, such as an art gallery.
Participate in Academic Tutoring
Achieving high grades in academic courses is impor-
tant to adolescents’ progress toward becoming college-
ready and supports two of our goals (goals 4 and 5).
We recommend that pre-service teachers tutor students
twice a week, starting when students are in middle
school and based on the structure described in Table 3.
Initially, pre-service teachers are matched up to one or
two students based on content areas where students
most need to improve their achievement and are also
consistent with the pre-service teacher’s area of content
strength, such as mathematics or language arts.
Attend Presentations by College Students About
the Attractions of Attending College
Starting when students are in high school, we rec-
ommend that college students and pre-service teachers
present information to adolescents about college that
includes telling their own stories about deciding to at-
tend college, preparing for college admission, gaining
financial aid, attending college classes, participating in
campus life, and explaining the expected benefits of a
college degree. Such presentations support all five of our
program goals.
Planning presentations by college students to high
school students involves determining topics that col-
lege students would be willing to discuss that would
interest adolescents and that would also support build-
ing college readiness. For example, in our program we
discovered that high school students held a strong inter-
est in participating in collegiate sports. In response, our
pre-service teachers hosted a panel of college athletes
who talked about collegiate sports. Two other examples
of presentations that we hosted include a talk by the
editor of the university’s student paper who had over-
come many challenges to attend college and a talk by
a senior-rank college student who had, in her words,
“worked the scholarship system to get a full ride.” We
suggest hosting these presentations at the students’ high
school and also during their college tours.
Attend Presentations by College Representatives About
Getting Admitted into College and Obtaining Financial Aid
The college-readiness goals of our program, includ-
ing helping students gain an understanding of college,
give students the opportunity to appreciate the potential
benefits, develop positive perceptions, and prepare for
college admission. Some students may come from fam-
ilies where postsecondary education is unfamiliar and
adult family members may lack information about the
nature of college, how to apply to college, how to ac-
cess financial resources, and how to guide their teenager
through the complexities of enrolling in college. We
recommend that, starting in high school, the univer-
sity tours feature detailed presentations about college
entrance requirements, tuition, and financial aid. We
found it convenient to host these presentations dur-
ing the college tours when all participants were having
lunch in a reserved section of a university dining hall. To
help adolescents understand this complex information,
we suggest presenting essentially the same information
each time they complete a campus tour.
Plan School-Related Goals That Help Prepare
for College Readiness
We recommend that pre-service teachers help ado-
lescents set and work toward goals that prepare them
for college through a mentoring approach that merges
an emphasis on both g oal setting and building re-
lationships. As summarized by Karcher and Nakkula
(2010), two constructs for characterizing a “mentoring
match” are the developmental style and the instrumen-
tal style. The developmental pattern of interactions in-
cludes both goal-directed and relational interactions.
Emphasis is initially placed on building the relationship
and then shifts into goal-oriented interactions. Mentors
who adopt an instrumental style enter the relationship
with an agenda that is predominantly goal-oriented.
However, like the developmental style, there is a hy-
brid of relational and goal-oriented interactions. The
strength of the relationship increases over time as the
dyad collaborates on the focus, purpose, and manner
of accomplishing goals. For high school students, we
recommend an instrumental mentoring style to help
them set and work toward goals. Although students in
our study focused on setting goals for high school, we
suggest that goal setting be extended to include life goals
over the next 10–20 years.
140 The Clearing House 86(4) 2013
Larose, Cyreene, Garceau, Brodeur, and Tarabulsy
(2010), who address mentoring older adolescents, sup-
port a goal-directed approach while meaningfully re-
sponding to mentees’ needs, displaying authoritarian
and directive guidance as necessary, and focusing on
conventional purposes, such as future academic success.
During goal-planning sessions we suggest that men-
tors regularly direct their mentees’ attention to question
prompts for goal setting and engage them in reviewing
previously set plans that support the mentees’ academic
We recommend that during the pre-service teacher’s
and student’s first mentoring meeting each semester,
the mentors focus on learning about their new mentees,
including their shared interests, hobbies, families, mu-
sic, friends, college interests, and goals. In general,
the mentors and mentees share their stories. However,
quickly and early in the semester, the mentoring ap-
proach shifts to working together to engage the mentee
in writing specific college-readiness goals for the upcom-
ing semester, discussing obstacles they may encounter,
planning how to cope with foreseen difficulties, and re-
viewing progress. Over the course of the semester and
multiple meetings it is hoped that the dyad will develop
a trusting and positive working relationship.
Specifically, we suggest that pre-service teachers use
a goal-setting worksheet that includes 15 question
prompts encouraging mentees’ open-ended responses
that describe personal goals, plans, and steps to achieve
goals, “pros and cons associated with each plan or
strategy,” and other considerations related to achiev-
ing goals. The source for these questions is the Hope
Worksheet adapted from Lopez, Floyd, Ulven, and Sny-
der (2000, 147–8). The mentors guide their mentees to
handwrite goal-planning responses on the worksheet,
answer questions to help the mentees understand the
prompts, and sometimes elaborate on the prompts.
Collaborate with College Students on College
Entrance Tasks
We suggest engaging students and their mentoring
pre-service teachers in collaborating on college entrance
tasks, including a visit to the high school’s college re-
sources room, select favored colleges, apply on a state-
wide college admissions site, and initiate the Free Ap-
plication for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) application.
These tasks support all five of our goals.
We recommend that pre-service teachers guide their
mentees in a visit to their high school’s college resource
room. In preparation, we suggest collaborating with the
high school counseling department to schedule use of
the room and to arrange for the high school’s college re-
sources specialist to orient the pre-service teachers about
the nature and location of resources. After pre-service
teachers become knowledgeable about these resources
they can schedule a time to meet with, guide, and sup-
port their mentee in a search for useful college informa-
tion. We recommend that discussions about favored col-
leges, which develop while visiting the college resource
room, be continued during the dyad’s subsequent goal-
planning meetings. We encourage pre-service teachers
to guide their mentee to c onsider c olleges that best
match the area of study that interests the mentee and to
select several favored colleges to apply to. Some states,
including Texas, offer a universal application website
(called ApplyTexas), which allows college applicants to
apply to many universities in the state. Pre-service teach-
ers, who may have recently used this site for their own
applications, can sit at a computer with their mentee
and guide completion of this application process. Sim-
ilarly, pre-service teachers are likely experienced with
the FAFSA, a source of federal aid for college expenses.
Because the FAFSA application requires much informa-
tion, we recommend that pre-service teachers describe
to high school students the types of information that
they will need before they enter the FAFSA site. We sug-
gest that pre-service teachers and their mentees sit at a
computer, enter some information together, and discuss
the additional information that the student must collect
and enter later, often with a parent’s assistance.
During our study we collected student data using a va-
riety of tools including the Goal-setting Worksheet, the
PALS survey, and mentees’ self report surveys. School
records were a source for students’ scores on the state
mandated TAKS test. School records also allowed us to
track students’ annual registration in the school district,
an indicator of attendance and drop-out trends. As we
enter the final year of helping our students build col-
lege and career readiness, we find associated improve-
ments in their academic-related perceptions and strate-
gies, positive personal achievement and goal orienta-
tion, and rising perceptions of college. When compared
with the control group, the students engaged in this
study’s strategies demonstrated a stronger rate of im-
provement in their academic performance based on the
state-mandated TAKS test and stronger perseverance in
high school.
An analysis of students’ Goal-setting Worksheets,
which were administered three times during high
school, identified the types of goals that students are set-
ting, plans to attain these goals, perceived barriers, and
their predictions for successful attainment of the goals.
Almost two-thirds of the students set going to college as
their major goal with most students also stating an as-
sociated career goal such as becoming a nurse, graphic
organizer, or social worker. Similarly, about two-thirds
of the survey respondents described academic strate-
gies such as “study hard,” “get good grades,” “pass all
classes,” or “do my best in school” as their major goal-
attainment plan. The results of the PALS survey, which
Strategies for College and Career Readiness 141
was administered three times during high school and
evaluated using paired t-test analysis (p < .05), reveal
statistically significant student gains in the assessment’s
scales including the Academically Related Perceptions
and Strategies category and the Personal Achievement
and Goal Orientation category. As determined by a self-
report written survey administered four times between
students’ seventh and tenth grades, students’ percep-
tions about college became more positive after being
involved in this study’s strategies (statistically signifi-
cant at p < .05). These survey responses were analyzed
using a paired-samples approach and were based on
survey mean scores.
We expect that these factors will contribute to improv-
ing these students’ likelihood of attending college. Al-
though our reported outcomes are positive, the s trength
of these findings is limited by the relatively small num-
ber of participants in the study. As we continue this
longitudinal study, following and supporting this group
of students through their senior year in high school, we
will collect additional information and publish our find-
ings regarding how to build college and career readiness
among adolescents who were identified in their sixth-
grade year as at risk in s ucceeding in school.
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... Various researchers, (Ewert & Kominski, 2014;Hooker & Brand, 2010;Lent, Ireland, Penn, Morris, & Sappington, 2017;Radcliffe & Bos, 2013), extolled how experiential learning can lead to higher career self-efficacy (Lent et al., 2017). College knowledge can also be facilitated through experiential learning experiences (Hooker & Brand, 2010) that take form in dual-enrollment programs (Hofmann, 2012) or early college programs (Edmunds, 2012;Hooker & Brand, 2010). ...
... Experiential learning can lead to a practical benefit of a license or other alternative credential (Ewert & Kominski, 2014) that yield economic value (Carnavale & Rose, 2015). Foundational planning has its place throughout the school experience, starting as early as grade six (Radcliffe & Bos, 2013). ...
... Participants in the current study benefitted from applying goals and strategies for college and career planning at CTI. One recommendation is that more systematic and comprehensive planning should start earlier than high school, as suggested by Radcliffe and Bos (2013). Despite the preponderance of research (Ewert & Kominski, 2014;Hooker & Brand, 2010;Lent et al., 2017;Radcliffe & Bos, 2013) about the benefits of hands-on learning for all students as a mechanism for preparing them for successful, productive lives after high school, generally, there seems to be a lack of will on the part of education leaders to effectuate more experiential opportunities for young people. ...
Full-text available
This study has explored the perceptions of recent high school graduates in the United States about their levels of preparedness for post-secondary life after they engaged in experiential learning while in high school. A qualitative, phe-nomenological methodology was utilized whereby data were collected through a three-level interview protocol applied to a sample of participants (n = 10). Four of the participants were attending a two-year community college, three were employed in their area of interest, and three were both employed and attending college. Using the analytical procedures of phenomenological reduction, constant comparison analysis was employed whereby ongoing data collection informed re-cursive data analysis. As a result of a reductive coding procedure that included open coding, axial code grouping, signif icant thematic identif ication, and f inal-ly, a signif icant f inding statement with four themes emerged that included expe-riential learning as a readiness factor, exposure to college and career experiences, college and career planning, skills and dispositions, and learning. Implications and recommendations are offered.
... Academic achievement reports show that only one-third of eighthgrade students rank above proficiency in mathematics, reading, writing, and science. Also, relatively consistent performance deficits persist among Hispanic and African American students compared to otherwise comparable groups (Radcliffe & Bos, 2013). ...
Academic performance of K-12 students in North America could be improved in that the majority of students produce undistinguished results in every international assessment of academic proficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether student’s self-discipline and parental involvement in student’s academic activities have any impact on student’s Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) scores or on their GPA. A quantitative, cross-sectional method utilizing multiple regression was used to investigate the relationships among the variables. Due to challenges of collecting sufficient data, the study was conducted in two phases: a preliminary study involving 16 students in schools in the Texas Conference of Seventh day-Adventists and later a primary study that utilized archived data from 5,144 grades 6 and 7 students in Seventh-day Adventist schools in the North American Division (NAD). In the preliminary study, teachers responded to a questionnaire to rate their students’ level of self-discipline, while parents responded to a parent questionnaire designed to measure their parental involvement. Results indicated that student’s self-discipline and parental involvement are significantly correlated with student’s ITBS scores and GPA. Student diligence showed the highest positive correlation with academic performance.
... The recent research shows that senior high school is a good time to start career exploration, increase student self-efficacy in college career and self-efficacy, and instill college intentions (Kalchik & Oertle, 2010;Mittendorff, K. et al., 2010). Failure to positively develop student self-efficacy and interest in college and career during high school can result in high school dropouts, never entering college, or unemployment (Ascher, 2006;Benner, 2011;Langenkamp, 2010;Neild, 2009;Radcliffe & Bos, 2013). ...
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This study is a descriptive exploratory study. This study was conducted to analyze the guidance and counseling services in the career field that suits with the career needs of senior high school students. There were ten students of grade 12 in one of senior high school who participated in this study. Those students were chosen by using purposive sampling technique. The collection of data in this study was done by using interviews and need assessment instrument to investigate the needs of senior high school students in the field of career. The collected data then were analyzed with a descriptive method and exploratory. The research results show that senior high school students need the classical tutoring and individualized counseling services in the field of career counseling and counseling services, along with the subject of services that are required.
... The study reported improved academic perception and career readiness, as well as academic performance among highschool students. This cited study focused on the Conley 2010 theory of enhancing high-school students' awareness of the college system (Radcliffe and Bos, 2013). Farland-Smith (2009) studied the effect of an inquiry-focused interactive approach on female middle-school students and concluded that exposing students to real-life college experiences and stimulating genuine interactions with scientists, even over a few days, greatly reinforces their positive perceptions of science and healthcare careers. ...
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Background The decrease in the number of adolescents showing genuine interest in the fields of healthcare has been one of the recent concerns worldwide. A plethora of studies have discussed the factors that influence career choices of high school students, including science educational pedagogies, gender, environment, the student’s cognitive capabilities, and social perceptions of occupations being gender-based. As reported in 2012, a majority of the Qatari high-school students have shown a greater interest in business, technological, and administrative careers and a lower interest in healthcare. Comprehensive national and institutional strategies have since been utilized to direct the interest of Qatari generation toward healthcare careers. Objective The primary objective of this case-control study is to assess the effect of schooling type on the enrollment in the Empower Generations (EG) career training in healthcare at the Qatar University. The secondary objectives are: (1) to describe the effect of initial career interest on the EG and healthcare majors composite’s enrollments and (2) assess the association between the history of enrollment in EG and university GPAs. Method This is a case-control study that utilized the Qatar University’s enrollment databases for the health professions majors, that is, Health Sciences, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Dentistry. The datasets were collected from the registration records between 2013 and 2020. The statistical analysis was performed on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 26; the study used Chi-Square Test and Independence and logistic regression to assess the effect of schooling type and initial career interest on the enrollment in the EG training at the Qatar University. All statistics were tested for p = 0.05 and 95% CI. Results Total QU-Health records of admissions from 2013 to 2020 involve 562 eligible students. A total of 180 students (32%) attended EG training before they were admitted to QU-Health, whereas a total of 382 (68%) were enrolled to QU-Health without attending EG training. The study revealed significant findings regarding the association between EG training and international schools ( p < 0.001). Among the group who attended EG training, there were 63 students (75%) who reported that they did not have an initial career interest before they joined the EG training compared to 21 students (25%) reported that they did not have an initial career interest but enrolled immediately to healthcare majors. The findings indicate insignificant association between the history of EG training and the high school percentage p = 0.397. However, the association between a history of EG training and the university’s GPA is significant, with a p < 0.001, OR 5.016 (2.954–8.518). Conclusion The study has shown significant association between the EG training enrollment and the type of school and the initial career interest of high school students. The EG training is perceived to direct the interest of high school students toward the careers of healthcare and is thought to enhance the performance of college students through their university’s GPAs.
... Additionally, Radcliffe and Bos (2013) suggest that schools work with college representatives who can discuss the admission process, entrance requirements, tuition, and financial aid options during the lunch hour of college campus tours for high school students. It is important that each presentation include the same topics in order to assist early high school students in understanding complex college and career information. ...
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College and Career Readiness (CCR) programming during early high school years assists students with planning for effective post-school transitions. Group interventions that address CCR for early high school students permit school counselors, career counselors, career specialists, or teachers to engage with a large number of students at one time and facilitate peer-to-peer learning. In this article, CCR group interventions that are supported by research and address the National Office for School Counselor Advocacy’s (NOSCA) eight components of College and Career Readiness Counseling are presented, along with strategies to evaluate the efficacy of CCR interventions.
... In this study, we highlighted the importance of high school students having a college-attending and career-ready mindset in STEM fields (Conley, 2010;Radcliffe and Bos, 2013). According to the Center on Education Policy (2011) and the College Board (2011), they suggested that developing the college-attending and career-ready mindset can enhance high school students' knowledge about their future-to-be (occupations) and their willingness to pursue a college degree. ...
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In this study, we highlight the importance of high school students having a college-attending and career-ready mindset in STEM fields. With this purpose, we adopted a stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine which variables are significant predictors of students' STEM college learning and career orientation. The participants were 1,105 high school students from nine randomly selected high schools across greater Houston Texas. Forty-two percent of the variance on STEM college learning and career orientation as an outcome variable can be explained by six predictor variables: (a) parental involvement; (b) STEM related activities engagement; (c) academic experience; (d) teacher effective pedagogy; (e) technology/facilities; and (f) self-esteem. The results indicate that when students received support from teachers and parents, they could develop more positive attitudes toward future post-secondary education and career pathways in STEM fields.
Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) is a valuable framework when developing applicable and appropriate career development interventions for students with disabilities. The use of SCCT in developing interventions will enhance the self-efficacy and outcome expectations of K–12 students with disabilities, thereby leading to more purposeful, realistic, and positive career beliefs and behaviors. This article explores the self-efficacy and outcome expectations of students with disabilities and discusses possible interventions for school and college counselors.
Career and college readiness interventions have been associated with numerous benefits for students. This chapter presents a case study of a developmental, comprehensive, culturally responsive career and college readiness unit. This chapter aims to demonstrate how one school counselor implemented a college and career readiness intervention through a culturally responsive lens, generating insights that potentially benefit comprehensive school counseling programming. Implications for K–12 school counselors to foster culturally responsive career and college readiness by using data to inform decisions, ensuring students at all grade levels are exposed to career awareness and exploration by using a tiered systems approach and developing a culturally affirming college culture, are discussed.
The number of immigrant students have been on the rise in the last decades in many American classrooms. Both public schools and institutions of higher learning have increasing numbers of racially and ethnically diverse students than in the past. Immigrants from around the world come to America for different reasons but with one dream, and that is to create better lives for themselves and their children. Many leave their countries of origin seeking economic opportunities, while others leave their countries fleeing political, religious, and ethnic persecution. A number of refugees fleeing wars and turmoil from their home countries come to America with psychological, physical, and emotional trauma. Adelman and Taylor suggested that refugee students are among the most vulnerable for school failure and its consequences. This chapter discusses the role of teachers and school counselors in facilitating a smooth transition of all immigrant children in college and career readiness.
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________________________________________________________ Members of National Collegiate Athletic Association Power-5 Conference athletic departments perform institutional work to maintain a shared institutional logic. However, within Power-5 athletic departments there are also subcultures (e.g., subunits) that perform institutional work in conflict with espoused institutional ceremonial facades. Within this research context, this study examined official visit itineraries from a sample of Southeastern Conference (SEC) athletic departments as institutional work products that reflect a negotiated institutional terrain within which athletic department sub-units make decisions regarding the amount of time dedicated to social, athletic, and academic activities. The current study reports the findings from an examination of (n = 76) SEC official visit itineraries across (n = 21) sports. Overall, findings revealed official visit itineraries emphasized social and athletic activities, while minimizing or ignoring academic activities. Male sports-particularly male revenue sports-dedicated significantly less time to academic activities. Not surprisingly, profit sport official visits involved significantly more social and athletic activities than both revenue sports and non-revenue sports. These findings support the need for additional research across Power-5 conferences to determine whether the differences found within SEC athletic departments exist across the institutional field of Power-5 college sport.
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Recent reports have demonstrated that the United States has a dropout crisis of alarming proportions. In some large-city school systems, more than 50% of students leave high school without a diploma. A large proportion of these dropouts have not accumulated enough credits to be promoted beyond ninth grade. Using survey and student record data for a cohort of Philadelphia public school students, the authors find that ninth-grade academic outcomes are not simply proxies for student characteristics measured during the pre—high school years and that ninth-grade outcomes add substantially to the ability to predict dropout. An implication is that efforts to decrease the dropout rate would do well to focus on the critical high school transition year.
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This article provides an overview of the evolution of experiential instruction theory and practice from its popular emergence in the late 1960s through the present period. Simulations, games, and other experience-based instructional methods have had a substantial impact on teaching concepts and applications during this period. They have also helped to address many of the limitations of traditional instructional methods, seven of which are discussed in the article. In addition to influencing classroom instruction, experiential methods have come to provide a pervasive and largely taken-for-granted foundation for a wide range of endeavors across many fields. Still, many of the limitations of the classic paradigm continue as vital and largely unresolved challenges today, and there remains much important work to be done to translate insights about experience, teaching, and learning into common practice.
Publisher Summary The chapter explores the process of development of a system of intervention techniques derived specifically from the hope theory. The review of hope-related literature suggests that hope enhancing may be best achieved by integrating solution-focused, narrative, and cognitive-behavioral interventions, and hope reminding should incorporate abbreviated versions of these techniques. Thus, hope therapy is designed to help clients in conceptualizing clearer goals, producing numerous pathways to attainment, summoning mental energy to maintain goal pursuit, and reframing insurmountable obstacles as challenges to be overcome. A hopeful therapeutic relationship facilitates these hope components. The change in hope does not occur at the surface or behavioral level; rather, a person's deeper self-perceptions of being capable of agentic and goal-directed thought must be enhanced. Therapists typically have assumed that the reduction of negative symptoms leads to improved mental health and effective functioning. This assumption may not be entirely accurate. In emerging research, for example, investigators are suggesting that the sole attention to the reduction of negative thinking does not necessarily lead to optimal functioning. Research programs, in recent years, have demonstrated the importance of positive thinking and hope in relation to improved physical and psychological well being.
This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to investigate high school dropout and its association with the high school curriculum. In particular, it examines how combinations of career and technical education (CTE) and core academic courses influ- ence the likelihood of leaving school. Hazards models indicate a significant curvilinear associ- ation between the CTE-to-academic course-taking ratio and the risk of dropping out for youths who were aged 14 and younger when they entered the ninth grade (not old for grade). This finding suggests that a middle-range mix of exposure to CTE and an academic curriculum can strengthen a student's attachment to or motivation while in school. The same association was not found between course taking and the likelihood of dropping out for youths who were aged 15 or older when they entered high school, thus prompting further consideration of the situation of being old for grade in school settings that remain highly age graded in their orga- nization.
High dropout rates among students who repeated grades are often cited as evidence that grade retention is harmful. This article uses event history analysis to explore whether and how a grade retention influenced graduation outcomes among one cohort of youths from an urban school system. Repeating a grade from kindergarten to sixth grade was associated with a substantial increase in the odds of dropping out even after controlling for differences in background and postretention grades and attendance. This article explores whether grade retention may influence school dropout because it makes students overage for grade. Students who ended sixth grade overage for grade experienced substantial disengagement during middle school; nearly one quarter dropped out, and those who remained had significant declines in attendance. I find that the impact of being overage for grade during adolescence may explain a large proportion of the higher dropout rates among retained youths.
In "Revisioning History" thirteen historians from around the world look at the historical film on its own terms, not as it compares to written history but as a unique way of recounting the past. How does film construct a historical world? What are the rules, codes, and strategies by which it brings the past to life? What does that historical construction mean to us? In grappling with these questions, each contributor looks at an example of New History cinema. Different from Hollywood costume dramas or documentary films, these films are serious efforts to come to grips with the past; they have often grown out of nations engaged in an intense quest for historical connections, such as India, Cuba, Japan, and Germany.The volume begins with an introduction by Robert Rosenstone. Part I, "Contesting History," comprises essays by Geoff Eley (on the film "Distant Voices, Still Lives"), Nicholas B. Dirks ("The Home and the World"), Thomas Kierstead and Deidre Lynch ("Eijanaika"), and Pierre Sorlin ("Night of the Shooting Stars"). Contributing to Part II, "Visioning History," are Michael S. Roth ("Hiroshima Mon Amour"), John Mraz ("Memories of Underdevelopment"), Min Soo Kang ("The Moderns") and Clayton R. Koppes ("Radio Bikini"). Part III, "Revisioning History" contains essays by Denise J. Youngblood ("Repentance"), Rudy Koshar ("Hitler: A Film from Germany"), Rosenstone ("Walker"), Sumiko Higashi ("Walker" and "Mississippi Burning"), and Daniel Sipe ("From the Pole to the Equator").
Educational researchers studying student dropout and teacher attrition typically ask whether specific events occur by particular points in time. In this article, we argue that a more powerful and informative way of framing such questions is to ask when the transitions occur. We believe that researchers avoid asking questions about time-to-event (“When?”) because of methodological difficulties introduced when members of the sample do not experience the target events during the data collection period. These people—the students who do not graduate or drop out, the teachers who do not quit—possess censored event times. Until recently, statistical techniques available for analyzing censored data were in their infancy. In this article, we show how the methods of survival analysis (also known as event history analysis) lend themselves naturally to the study of the timing of educational events. Drawing examples from the literature on teacher attrition and student dropout and graduation, we introduce a panoply of survival methods useful for describing the timing of educational transitions and for building statistical models of the risk of event occurrence over time. We hope that this nontechnical introduction to survival methods will help educational researchers articulate and explore important substantive questions that they have raised but have yet to answer.