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Abstract and Figures

The K8538 is the world's first scientific documentation on approach and terrestrial impact of a large comet on Earth. Observations were made on top of an astronomical tower, located 100 km close to the impact site. The report is presented in form of a sequence of eight pictures, explaining the comet's first astronomical sighting, the appearance of comet tail and coma, the growing comet size, the comet flight across the sky and finally, its visible impact beyond the horizon, i.e. the impact flash lighting of the sky and the subsequent elevation of ash plumes, glowing beyond the horizon, spreading North and West. The impact itself is not described as a blast pressure wave but rather as an ash and dust tempest, rising out of mud sediments from the Tigris and Euphrates river delta, where the hot comet found its burial. The astronomical observer carried out trigonometrical measurements to record the flight path in the sky, flying distances and flying times. The observer started his measurements as soon as the comet showed its spectacular size, coma and tail, which convinced the observer, that an extraordinary celestial event was about to take place. The K8538 is a full comprehensive analysis of the comet event; its eight-picture sequence is cohesive. The tablet is a masterly work, explaining with as little text a maximum amount of impact event features. The tablet is a late Babylonian copy of the early old Sumerian original. Written cuneiform signs of two zodiacal constellations, Orion and Triangulum, are later Babylonian copy scribe additions and were not part of the Sumerian original. The K8538 tablet had high priority in Babylonian times, because it provided the documented evidence that the comet emerged out of the constellation Triangulum, Mul-Apin, onto which late Babylonian astronomy and religion rested. The tablet eyewitness account shows Mul-Apin as celestial seat of Gods and celestial source of destructive meteors on Earth. For this reason, the K8538 was guarded, copied and refreshed over more than 1,500 years, until the late Babylonian period, after the observed meteor impact in 2,193 BC. The tablet does not deal with any Babylonian zodiacal astrology. The described cosmic impact on Earth is the so-called 4.2 kyr event, shown in our other Holocene climate change studies. The comet impact is responsible for a 300 year long drop in global temperatures combined with lasting mega-droughts, which led to the collapse of various ancient civilizations around the world.
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J.*Seifert,*F.*Lemke:*The*Sumerian*K8538*tablet.*The*great*meteor*impact*devastating*Mesopotamia
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CONTENT)
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1. INTRODUCTION)
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DAY)AND)THE)20TH)NIGHT)
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REFERENCES)AND)SOURCES)
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J.*Seifert,*F.*Lemke:*The*Sumerian*K8538*tablet.*The*great*meteor*impact*devastating*Mesopotamia
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J.*Seifert,*F.*Lemke:*The*Sumerian*K8538*tablet.*The*great*meteor*impact*devastating*Mesopotamia

Supplementary resource (1)

... • The fourth impact is the Sumerian K8538 impact, with a small impact crater of 3 km in diameter at the Umm-al-Bini location in Iraq (Seifert, 2014). The approach of the bolide over 3 weeks and the subsequent impact on Earth from a distance of 100 km by an ancient astronomer on his observation platform is preserved as Babylonian tablet K8538 in the British Museum. ...
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  • A H Sayce
Bosanquet, R.H.M.; Sayce, A.H.: The Babylonian Astronomy No.2, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. XL, No.3, 105 pages, (Jan 1880)
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Ernst F. Weidner: Handbuch der Babylonischen Astronomie, Erster Band, Der Babylonische Fixsternhimmel, 145 pages, J.C. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, Leipzig, 1915
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Alan Bond and Mark Hempsell, A Sumerian Observation of the Koefels Impact Event, (2008), A l c u i n A c a d e m i c s, U K, 1 1 3 p a g e s, I S B N 978---1---904---623649