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The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is best known as a threat to the laying-hen industry; adversely affecting production and hen health and welfare throughout the globe, both directly and through its role as a disease vector. Nevertheless, D. gallinae is being increasingly implemented in dermatological complaints in non-avian hosts, suggesting that its significance may extend beyond poultry. The main objective of the current work was to review the potential of D. gallinae as a wider veterinary and medical threat. Results demonstrated that, as an avian mite, D. gallinae is unsurprisingly an occasional pest of pet birds. However, research also supports that these mites will feed from a range of other animals including: cats, dogs, rodents, rabbits, horses and man. We conclude that although reported cases of D. gallinae infesting mammals are relatively rare, when coupled with the reported genetic plasticity of this species and evidence of permanent infestations on non-avian hosts, potential for host-expansion may exist. The impact of, and mechanisms and risk factors for such expansion are discussed, and suggestions for further work made. Given the potential severity of any level of host-expansion in D. gallinae, we conclude that further research should be urgently conducted to confirm the full extent of the threat posed by D. gallinae to (non-avian) veterinary and medical sectors.
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... konaklarını yani kanatlı hayvanları bulamadığı ortamlarda geçici olarak, insan, kedi, köpek, sığır, at, tavşan, fare, domuz gibi 20'den fazla memeli hayvan türünden beslenebilmektedirler. [7][8][9][10][11] Sınıflandırma: Dermanyssus gallinae, Mesostigmata (Gamasida) takım altı, Dermanyssidae ailesi, Dermanyssus soyu içinde yer alan bir akardır. 12,13 Günümüzde Dermanyssus soyu içerisinde 23 türün yer aldığı bilinmektedir. ...
... Almanya, Hollanda ve Belçika'da %94, İspanya'da %90 olarak tespit edilmiştir. 11 Polonya'da ise enfestasyon yaygınlığı %100 olarak kayıtlara geçmiştir. 21 İngiltere'de yumurta tavukçuluğu işletmelerinde %85 enfestasyon oranı saptanmıştır. ...
Chapter
Kırmızı tavuk akarı, Dermanyssus gallinae, tüm dünyada yumurta tavukçuluğunu tehdit eden kan emici bir ektoparazit olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Hayvan sağlığı ve refahı için büyük risk oluşturan parazit halk sağlığı açısından da önem arz etmektedir. Dermanyssus gallinae enfestasyonu, hayvanlarda, anemi, irritasyon, huzursuzluk, saldırganlık gibi etkiler oluşturmakta ayrıca patojenik ajanların naklinde rol oynamaktadır. Böylelikle, yumurta tavukçuluğu sektöründe ciddi ekonomik kayıplara sebep olmaktadır. Enfestasyonun direkt ve indirekt etkileri sonucu yumurta veriminin azaldığı, yumurta kabuğu kırılganlığının arttığı ve yumurtalar üzerinde küçük kırmızı kan lekelerinin oluştuğu görülmektedir. Sektörde hem hayvanların refah koşullarını artırıp perfomansı iyileştirmek hem de rantabiliteyi artırmak için başarılı mücadele yöntemlerine ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.
... The poultry production system considers infestation by Dermanyssus gallinae, commonly referred to as the poultry red mite (PRM), to be a matter of concern because of its deleterious impact on both productivity and welfare of the animals [1,2]. In addition, in highly infested environments, poultry workers may also be at risk of infestation by PRMs, with clinical conditions varying from itching, dermatitis and erythematous rashes to papules, urticarial plaques and erythema [3][4][5][6][7]. The control strategies mostly rely on the application of synthetic or semisynthetic acaricides [8], with phoxim, fluralaner and spinosad being among the few acaricides authorized worldwide [9]. ...
... Other cases of deceiving citations are due to a kind of "Chinese whispers" game from author to author. A putative association between D. gallinae and some protozoa and filariae has been reported in several papers [4,23]. Nonetheless, going back to the origin of this information, Valiente Moro et al. [24] claimed in their review that the potential relationship of those pathogens was with Ornithonyssus bacoti [25,26] and not D. gallinae. ...
Article
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The possibility that Dermanyssus gallinae, the poultry red mite, could act as a vector of infectious disease-causing pathogens has always intrigued researchers and worried commercial chicken farmers, as has its ubiquitous distribution. For decades, studies have been carried out which suggest that there is an association between a wide range of pathogens and D. gallinae, with the transmission of some of these pathogens mediated by D. gallinae as vector. The latter include the avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Gallinarum and influenza virus. Several approaches have been adopted to investigate the relationship between D. gallinae and pathogens. In this comprehensive review, we critically describe available strategies and methods currently available for conducting trials, as well as outcomes, analyzing their possible strengths and weaknesses, with the aim to provide researchers with useful tools for correctly approach the study of the vectorial role of D. gallinae. Graphical Abstract
... The poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite that feeds on avian blood. This mite has a worldwide distribution and is endemic in many commercial poultry farms, with up to 83% of European egg-laying facilities infested by D. gallinae (George et al., 2015). Infestation of poultry houses has a serious impact on hen health and welfare and causes a significant reduction in both egg quality and production. ...
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Many obligate blood-sucking arthropods rely on symbiotic bacteria to provision essential B vitamins that are either missing or at sub-optimal levels in their nutritionally challenging blood diet. The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae, an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite, is a serious threat to the hen egg industry. Poultry red mite infestation has a major impact on hen health and welfare and causes a significant reduction in both egg quality and production. Thus far, the identity and biological role of nutrient provisioning bacterial mutualists from D. gallinae are little understood. Here, we demonstrate that an obligate intracellular bacterium of the Rickettsiella genus is detected in D. gallinae mites collected from 63 sites (from 15 countries) across Europe. In addition, we report the genome sequence of Rickettsiella from D. gallinae (Rickettsiella – D. gallinae endosymbiont; Rickettsiella DGE). Rickettsiella DGE has a circular 1.89Mbp genome that encodes 1,973 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis confirms the placement of Rickettsiella DGE within the Rickettsiella genus, related to a facultative endosymbiont from the pea aphid and Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) from blood feeding ticks. Analysis of the Rickettsiella DGE genome reveals that many protein-coding sequences are either pseudogenized or lost, but Rickettsiella DGE has retained several B vitamin biosynthesis pathways, suggesting the importance of these pathways in evolution of a nutritional symbiosis with D. gallinae. In silico metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that Rickettsiella DGE is unable to synthesize protein amino acids and, therefore, amino acids are potentially provisioned by the host. In contrast, Rickettsiella DGE retains biosynthetic pathways for B vitamins: thiamine (vitamin B1) via the salvage pathway; riboflavin (vitamin B2) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and the cofactors: flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and coenzyme A (CoA) that likely provision these nutrients to the host.
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In free-range and organic production systems, hens can make choices according to their needs and desires, which is in accordance with welfare definitions. Nonetheless, health and behavioral problems are also encountered in these systems. The aim of this article was to identify welfare challenges observed in these production systems in the EU and the most promising solutions to overcome these challenges. It is based on a review of published literature and research projects complemented by interviews with experts. We selected EU specific information for welfare problems, however, the selected literature regarding solutions is global. Free range use may increase the risk of infection by some bacteria, viruses and parasites. Preventive methods include avoiding contamination thanks to biosecurity measures and strengthening animals' natural defenses against these diseases which can be based on nutritional means with new diet components such as insect-derived products, probiotics and prebiotics. Phytotherapy and aromatherapy can be used as preventive and curative medicine and vaccines as alternatives to antibiotics and pesticides. Bone quality in pullets and hens prevents keel deviations and is favored by exercise in the outdoor range. Free range use also lead to higher exposure to variable weather conditions and predators, therefore shadow, fences and guard animals can be used to prevent heat stress and predation respectively. Granting a free range provides opportunities for the expression of many behaviors and yet many hens usually stay close to the house. Providing the birds with trees, shelters or attractive plants can increase range use. Small flock sizes, early experiences of enrichment and personality traits have also been found to enhance range use. Severe feather pecking can occur in free range production systems, although flocks using the outdoor area have better plumage than indoors. While many prevention strategies are facilitated in free range systems, the influence of genetics, prenatal and nutritional factors in free range hens still need to be investigated. This review provides information about practices that have been tested or still need to be explored and this information can be used by stakeholders and researchers to help them evaluate the applicability of these solutions for welfare improvement.
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Pests that pose a risk in terms of agriculture and livestock cause economic losses directly or indirectly. However, some pests are also vectors of various diseases that threaten the health of living things, especially of humans. Therefore, the detection of maternally inherited reproductive manipulator endosymbiotic bacteria is important in the development of alternative strategies to chemical methods in the fight against pests. In this study, the endosymbiotic Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia in gallery fly (leaf miner fly) (Liriomyza sp.), legume seed beetle (Bruchus sp.), tomato pest Lasioptera sp., cattle louse (Bovicola bovis) and winged red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) scanning was carried out. As a result of the scans, we could not detect any of the endosymbiotic bacteria studied. This study includes the first known data from Anatolia regarding maternally inherited reproductive manipulator endosymbiotic bacteria in Liriomyza sp., B. pisorum, B. bovis and D. gallinae pests.
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Dermanyssus gallinae is a blood-feeding mite that parasitises on wild birds and farmed poultry. The D. gallinae mite has a short life cycle of fewer than two weeks from the egg to an egg-laying female. The remarkably swift processing of blood, together with the capacity to blood-feed in most developmental stages, makes this mite a highly debilitating pest. We have constructed developmental stage-specific transcriptomes, through Illumina RNA-seq, to mine the repertoire of protein-encoding mRNA transcripts, products of which participate in key processes that ensure the success of blood digestion, rapid ontogeny, and immunity. As a result of high reproductive capacity, the prevalence of D. gallinae in egg-producing poultry farms globally causes significant economic losses. Acaricides that are used to limit the reproduction of D. gallinae mites target cys-loop ion channels, which are widely shared across the phylogeny of invertebrates. To catalogue a comprehensive list of potential invertebrate-specific ion channels, we have constructed and analysed an additional RNA-seq library of D. gallinae micro-dissected midguts, a tissue with direct exposure to host blood and potential anti-parasitics. We phylogenetically defined groups of cys-loop proteins and probed their sensitivity to selected acaricides. Ultimately, we have catalogued all assembled transcripts and their expression values in a hyper-linked excel sheet with available sequences of individual contigs. The transcriptomic data were complemented by mass-spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite identification and by viability assays using selected inhibitors applied either by microinjection or through artificial membrane feeding. Additionally, we have described the RNA-virome of D. gallinae and identified a novel virus dubbed Red Mite Quaranjavirus 1.
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Cutaneous fowlpox is a disease of chickens and turkeys caused by the Fowlpox virus (FWPV), characterized by the development of proliferative lesions and scabs on unfeathered areas. FWPVs regularly carry an integrated, active copy of the reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and it has been hypothesized that such FWPVs are more problematic in the field. Extensive outbreaks are usually observed in tropical and sub-tropical climates, where biting insects are more difficult to control. Here, we report an epidemic of 65 cutaneous fowlpox cases in Austria, in layer chickens (91% of the cases), but also in broiler breeders and turkeys, all of them unvaccinated against the disease, from October 2018 to February 2020. The field data revealed appearance in flocks of different sizes ranging from less than 5,000 birds up to more than 20,000 animals, with the majority raised indoors in a barn system. The clinical presentation was characterized by typical epithelial lesions on the head of the affected birds, with an average decrease of 6% in egg production and an average weekly mortality of 1.2% being observed in the flocks. A real-time multiplex PCR confirmed the presence of FWPV-REV DNA, not only in the lesions, but also in the environmental dust from the poultry houses. The integration of the REV provirus into the FWPV genome was confirmed by PCR, and revealed different FWPV genome populations carrying either the REV LTRs or the full-length REV genome, reiterating the instability of the inserted REV. Two selected samples were fully sequenced by Next Generation Sequence (NGS) and the whole genome phylogenetic analysis revealed a regional clustering of the FWPV genomes. The extensive nature of these outbreaks in host populations naïve for the virus is a remarkable feature of the present report, highlighting new challenges associated with FWPV infections that need to be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Chapter
Ticks are considered as the second most potential source of vector-borne diseases to humans. Migratory birds are long-distance transporters of ticks and have been accounted for carrying different human pathogens such as tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) virus, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia divergens, Anaplasma phagocytophilium, Ehrichia, and Borrelia burgdorferi. The majority of the cases of human parasitism are identified with hard ticks compared to soft ticks. Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus are the most important vectors for tick-borne pathogens in Asia and Europe, respectively. CCHF is a tick-borne zoonotic viral endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. CCHF virus was identified around 31 species of ticks in seven genera of the Ixodidae family. Amid the different genera of Ixodidae, the most proficient and basic vectors for CCHF are the members of the genus Hyalomma in which transovarial and transstadial transmission of infection can be seen. CCHF causes no disease in animals but causes a hemorrhagic disease in humans. Dermanyssus gallinae, also known as the Poultry Red Mite, is a hematophagous parasite that infects many bird species and is associated with the transmission of various poultry pathogens, including zoonotic pathogens like Salmonella enteritidis, Borrelia burgerdorferi, and Avian Influenza virus. Birds also serve as vectors for Trichobilharzia szidati, a lung fluke which usually lodges in the lungs of birds and can cause severe parasitic pneumonia, followed by lymphatic lesions and additionally death of the animal in extreme cases. The most commonly used serologic tests for TBD diagnoses are enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and western blot. Microscopy and PCR offer good choices and use of immunodominant epitopes can improve protein-based diagnostic methods. Treatment modalities, such as doxycline, are available for bacterial and parasitic infections are no specific antiviral treatment available but not for viral infections.
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Poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae , causes egg drop production, anemia and can be a vector in transmitting diseases. The PRM control mainly focuses on usage of the conventional chemical biocides. The objective of this study was to analyze the farmers’ perception regarding the impact, management and control of PRM in Macedonian layer farms. The data were collected with direct on-site visits using a unified questionnaire. In total, 29 poultry farms (28% of farms in the country), all with conventional cages, were part of this study. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and Naïve Bayes Classifier technique. In 30% of the poultry farms the farmers had observed that the flock was infested with PRM. In total, 32 different treatments against PRM were reported from the farmers, and three of them were non-biocide treatments. The most used biocides (17% of the farms) were crude oil, Formalin, Neopitroid ® and disinfectants. The highest agreement regarding biocides application among the farms (38%) was before the production starts. Most of the farmers applied biocides routinely, before the infestation is evident (75%). The median costs for PRM treatment were 175€ per flock, higher in the infested farms 493±677€ compared to non - infested 100±71€, p<0.05. None of the Macedonian farmers included in the study was using monitoring method for PRM infestation, contributing to poor data records. This study highlights the need of developing unified strategy for PRM control included in the Integrated Pest Management in poultry layer farms.
Article
BACKGROUND The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is recognized worldwide as the most important bloodsucking ectoparasite in layer and breeder flocks. In bloodsucking ectoparasites, ferritins (FERs), the iron-storage proteins, play a pivotal role in dealing with the challenge of large amounts of released iron during the digestion of blood meal. However, no information is available concerning FERs of D. gallinae. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics, functions and the vaccine efficacy of FERs in D. gallinae. RESULTS Two heavy-chain FERs of D. gallinae were identified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Dg-FER1 may be a secretory FER and Dg-FER2 as an intracellular one. RNAi results demonstrated that Dg-fers play key roles in mite survival, successful reproduction, and blood digestion. Immunization with rDg-FER1 or rDg-FER2 successfully induced chickens to produce high level of antigen-specific IgY, resulting in a significant increase in mite mortality (by 58.67% on day 5) and decreases in oviposition (by 42.15%) and fecundity (by 68.97%) in rDg-FER1 group, and a 13.73% increase in mite mortality and a 20.89% decrease in fecundity in the rDg-FER1 group. The overall immunization efficacy of rDg-FER1 was 93.51%. CONCLUSION Two Dg-FERs are crucial to the survival, reproduction, and blood digestion of D. gallinae. This study has provided preliminary evidence demonstrating the potential of rDg-FER1 as a vaccine antigen for D. gallinae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
In a poultry house housing 60,000 egg layers, extremely numerous Dermanyssus gallinae populations developed in June 1998. Significant decrease in egg production was recorded (95 % - 70 %), and the amount of dead chickens increased from 5 to 52. Macrocytic and hypochrom anaemia was diagnosed clinically. The cause of this red poultry mite invasion was the persistence of 20° -30°C temperature inhouse for three weeks, which allowed rapid evolution of generations and offsprings survival near to biological potential of Dermanyssus gallinae species.
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The poultry red mite, D. gallinae has been involved in the transmission of many pathogenic agents, responsible for serious diseases both in animals and humans. Nowadays, few effective methods are available to control the ectoparasite in poultry farms. Consequently, this is an emerging problem which must be taken into account to maintain good health in commercial egg production. This paper addresses the vector capacity of the ectoparasite with special emphasis on salmonellae, pathogenic agents responsible for many of the most important outbreaks of food-borne diseases worlwide. It has been experimentally shown that D. gallinae could act as a biological vector of S. enteritidis and natural carriage of these bacteria by the mite on poultry premises has also been reported. It was also found that D. gallinae carried other pathogens such as E. coli, Shigella sp., and Staphylococcus, thus increasing the list of pathogenic agents potentially transmitted by the mite. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009. All rights reserved.
Article
Ordinary human scabies is caused by an arthropod (insect) of the order Acarina, a member of the family Sarcoptidae known as Sarcoptes (or Acarus) scabiei de Geer (var. hominis). As is well known, this burrowing mite is an obligatory human parasite which is specifically adapted to one host—man. In human beings the mite burrows into and within the horny layer, reaches the less cornified epidermal cells, and there derives the nutrient substances which enable it to live and to propagate. The mating and the entire life cycle of the insect take place on the human host. The result of this parasitism is the disease called scabies. The severity both of the objective manifestations and of the itching varies greatly from person to person. This variation must be due in a great measure to the fact that the degree of reaction is dependent to some extent on variations in the host's
Article
Studies of rodent parasites are very important in relation to human and veterinary medicine and biology. Previous studies have demonstrated that the rate of infestation with ectoparasites and infection with nematodes, cestodes, and trematodes differs among locations. We surveyed the ectoparasites and endoparasites of 77 Mus musculus (house mice) collected from 41 poultry houses between April and December 2010 in northwest Iran. The rates of infection with ectoparasites and gastrointestinal helminths were 23.4 and 55.8%, respectively. We collected the ectoparasites Dermanyssus gallinae (prevalence 78%), Ornithonyssus bacoti (prevalence 11%), Polyplax serrate (prevalence 6%), and Myocoptes musculinus (prevalence 5%). We collected the gastrointestinal helminths Syphacia obvelata (prevalence 42%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (prevalence 19%), Syphacia muris (prevalence 18%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (prevalence 15%), and Hymenolepis diminuta (prevalence 5%). The chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and the tropical rat mite, Ornithonyssus bacoti are potential vectors of zoonotic pathogens. Hymenolepis diminuta can infect humans, and highlights the importance of house mice in certain zoonoses and suggests a more robust need for mouse control in the poultry houses.