Chaim Kaufmann is Assistant Professor of International Relations at Lehigh University.
The author's thanks are owed to many people. Robert Pape's extensive help made a decisive difference in the quality of the final product. Helpful criticism was provided by Henri Barkey, Richard Betts, Michael Desch, Matthew Evangelista, Charles Glaser, Emily Goldman, Robert Hayden, Ted Hopf, Stuart Kaufman, Rajan Menon, Bruce Moon, Roger Peterson, Jack Snyder, Stephen Van Evera, and the members of the PIPES Seminar at the University of Chicago.
1. Ted Robert Gurr, "Peoples Against States: Ethnopolitical Conflict and the Changing World System," International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 3 (September 1994), pp. 347-377, lists fifty current ethnic conflicts of which thirteen had each caused more than 100,000 deaths to date.
2. Gerald B. Helman and Steven R. Ratner, "Saving Failed States," Foreign Policy, No. 89 (Winter 1992-93), pp. 3-20; William Pfaff, "Invitation to War," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 3 (Summer 1993), pp. 97-109; John Chipman, "Managing the Politics of Parochialism," in Michael E. Brown, ed., Ethnic Conflict and International Security (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1993), pp. 237-263; Flora Lewis, "Reassembling Yugoslavia," Foreign Policy, No. 98 (Spring 1995), pp. 132-144; I. William Zartman, "Putting Things Back Together," in Zartman, ed., Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority (Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1995), pp. 267-273.
3. "Let no one think there is an easy or a simple solution to this tragedy," which results from "age-old animosities," said George Bush, "whatever pressure and means the international community brings to bear." Quoted in Andrew Rosenthal, "Bush Urges UN to Back Force to Get Aid to Bosnia," New York Times, August 7, 1992. For similar views see Colin L. Powell, "Why Generals Get Nervous," New York Times, October 8, 1992; Charles Krauthammer, "Bosnian Analogies; Pick Your History, Pick Your Policy," Washington Post, May 7, 1993; Conor Cruise O'Brien, "The Wrath of Ages: Nationalism's Primordial Roots," Foreign Affairs, Vol. 72, No. 5 (November/December 1993), pp. 142-149.
4. Ethnic wars involve organized large-scale violence, whether by regular forces (Turkish or Iraqi operations against the Kurds) or highly mobilized civilian populations (the interahamwe in Rwanda or the Palestinian intifada). A frequent aspect is "ethnic cleansing": efforts by members of one ethnic group to eliminate the population of another from a certain area by means such as discrimination, expropriation, terror, expulsion, and massacre. For proposals on managing ethnic rivalries involving lower levels of ethnic mobilization and violence, see Stephen Van Evera, "Managing the Eastern Crisis: Preventing War in the Former Soviet Empire," Security Studies, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Spring 1992), pp. 361-382; Ted Hopf, "Managing Soviet Disintegration: A Demand for Behavioral Regimes," International Security, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Summer 1992), pp. 44-75.
5. Although ethnic partitions have often been justified on grounds of self-determination, the argument for separation here is based purely on humanitarian grounds. The first to argue publicly for partition as a humanitarian solution was John J. Mearsheimer, "Shrink Bosnia to Save It," New York Times, March 31, 1993.
6. To avoid discounting fundamentally similar conflicts because of differences in international legal status, "civil" wars are defined here as those among "geographically contiguous people concerned about possibly having to live with one another in the same political unit after the conflict." Roy Licklider, "How Civil Wars End," in Licklider, ed., Stopping the Killing (New York: New York University Press, 1993), p. 9. Thus the Abkhazian rebellion in Georgia and the war between Armenia and Azerbaijan are both properly considered ethnic civil wars.
7. An ethnic group (or nation) is commonly defined as a body of individuals who purportedly share cultural or racial characteristics, especially common ancestry or territorial origin, which distinguish them from members of other groups. See Max Weber (Guenther Roth, and Claus Wittich, eds.), Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology, Vol. 1 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1968), pp. 389, 395; Anthony D. Smith, National Identity (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1991), pp. 14, 21. Opposing communities in ethnic civil conflicts hold irreconcilable visions of the identity, borders, and citizenship of the state...