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Target zones for aquatic workout of healthy young and elderly women

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Abstract The aim of the study was to compare the maximal physiological responses during three protocols: maximal test on land cycle ergometer, maximal test on water cycling in an indoor pool at 27 °C (WC27) and at 31 °C (WC31). Moreover, the submaximal physiological responses were compared according cycling cadences and water temperatures during the water protocols. Ten young men were included and performed the protocols in separate days. Blood lactate (BL) concentration, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2), ventilation (VE) and thermal comfort (TC) were collected during the exercise. The maximal HR and [Formula: see text]O2 showed no significant differences between the protocols: HRmax: 189±7 (Land), 188±14 (WC27), 185±9 bpm (WC31) and [Formula: see text]O2max: 4.2±0.4 (Land), 4.1±0.5 (WC27) and 4.3±0.5 l min(-1) (WC31). However, the maximal BL demonstrated significant lower values during the water protocols compared to the land protocol (p=0.018). All the submaximal physiological responses showed significant differences between the cadences (60, 70, 80 and 90 rpm). The effect of water temperature was significant for TC response (p=0.001) showing higher values at 31 °C than 27 °C (TCW27: 7±1 and TCW31:9±1). In conclusion, higher physiological responses were showed by increasing the cadence by 10 rpm and the subjects were more comfortable when cycling in the lower water temperature.
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Comparison of Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Continuous and Intermittent Cycling The present study tested the hypothesis that the exercise protocol (continuous vs. intermittent) would affect the physiological response and the perception of effort during aquatic cycling. Each protocol was divided on four stages. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, central and peripheral rate of perceived exertion were collected in both protocols in aquatic cycling in 10 women (values are mean ± SD): age=32.8 ± 4.8 years; height=1.62 ± 0.05 cm; body mass=61.60 ± 5.19 kg; estimated body fat=27.13 ± 4.92%. Protocols were compared through two way ANOVA with Scheffé's post-hoc test and the test of Mann- Whitney for rate of perceived exertion with α=0.05. No systematic and consistent differences in heart rate, arterial blood pressure, double product and blood lactate concentration were found between protocols. On the other hand, central rate of perceived exertion was significantly higher at stage four during continuous protocol compared with intermittent protocol (p=0.01), while the peripheral rate of perceived exertion presented higher values at stages three (p=0.02) and four (p=0.00) in the continuous protocol when compared to the results found in intermittent protocol. These findings suggest that although the aquatic cycling induces similar physiologic demands in both protocols, the rate of perceived exertion may vary according to the continuous vs. intermittent nature of the exercise.
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The aims of this study were: (i) to measure the exercise intensity (EI) of the most common water-based exercises (WE) at different movement frequencies (f1 = 1.8-2.0 Hz; f2 = 2.0-2.2 Hz; f3 = 2.2-2.4 Hz) and at a standardize movement's amplitude; (ii) to measure EI during a combination (MIX) of these WE. Five WE were selected: "running raising the knees high" (S); "jumping moving the legs sideways" (SJ); "jumping moving the legs backward and forward" (FJ); "alternate forward kicks" (FK); "alternate sideways kicks" (SK). Twelve physically active women were asked to perform these WE at the three frequencies, as well as a combination (MIX) of the WE. EI increased significantly (p < 0.01) with increasing frequency; as an average, for all WE: VO2 ranged from 18 to 25 ml kg(-1) min(-1), HR from 102 to 138 bpm, RPE from 9.8 to 14.4 (at f1 and f3, respectively). In terms of % VO2max, EI ranged from 37 to 54% for S, was similar for SJ and FJ (31-43%) and for FK and SK (47-63%) at f1 and f3, respectively. Thus, a given EI can be attained either by changing the type of exercise and/or the frequency of the movement. The combination of exercises did not change (in terms of VO2, HR and RPE) the intensity of each exercise performed separately. These data can be utilized to control, in terms of exercise type and frequency, the intensity of a proposed water-based activity.
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The purpose of the present study was to correlate the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) with cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular variables during the execution of stationary running in water at different cadences. The sample consisted of 12 apparently healthy women (age: 22.33 ± 0.57 years). During the assessment session, the subjects performed the stationary running exercise in water at 3 different cadences: 60, 80, and 100 bpm. The heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (V(O2)), ventilation (Ve), and electromyographic (EMG) signal of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), rectus femoris (RF), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were measured during the exercise, and the overall body RPE was measured immediately following the end. Pearson's linear correlation and multiple linear regression were used, with p < 0.05. The analyses demonstrate a high and significant relationship between RPE and HR (r = 0.65; p < 0.001), RPE and %HR maximal (r = 0.65; p < 0.001), RPE and V(O2) (r = 0.60; p = 0.001), RPE and %V(O2) maximal (r = 0.71; p < 0.001), and RPE and Ve (r = 0.77; p < 0.001). However, there was no relationship between the RPE and the EMGs of the VL, BF, RF, and ST muscles. With regard to the regression, the model was significant (p < 0.001) with an r2 = 0.79, whereas the variables that explained better the RPE were %V(O2) maximal and Ve. Hence, these results suggest an association between the perception of exertion and cardiorespiratory variables, which was not the case with the neuromuscular variables evaluated in this study. Therefore, the Borg scale of RPE can be used when prescribing stationary running exercise in water for young women.