The fine structure of several strains of green bacteria belonging to the genus Chlorobium has been studied in thin sections with the electron microscope. In addition to having general cytological features typical of Gram-negative bacteria, the cells of these organisms always contain membranous mesosomal elements, connected with the cytoplasmic membrane, and an elaborate system of isolated cortical vesicles, some 300 to 400 A wide and 1000 to 1500 A long. The latter structures, chlorobium vesicles, have been isolated in a partly purified state by differential centrifugation of cell-free extracts. They are associated with a centrifugal fraction that has a very high specific chlorophyll content. In all probability, therefore, the chlorobium vesicles are the site of the photosynthetic apparatus of green bacteria.