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... Experimenty priniesli dôkazy proti prvej hypotéze a v prospech druhej a tretej hypotézy. I ďalší autori zapodievajúci sa širšie dimenzovanými, kroskultúrnymi štúdiami o láske (Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992;Hatfield, Rapson & Martel, 2007;Karandashev, 2015) potvrdzujú, že charakter romantickej lásky a s ňou spojený diskurz, sú významne ovplyvnené konkrétnou kultúrou. V predchádzajúcej štúdii (Lukšík, & Guillaume, 2018) v súvislosti s láskou mladých ľudí sa potvrdilo, že v rámci nášho kultúrneho priestoru možno uvažovať o troch významných skupinách zdrojov lásky a to o tzv. ...
... Každý človek má s láskou vlastnú individuálnu skúsenosť, ktorá je ovplyvnená celou radou životných (špecifických) skúseností a podmienok, vďaka čomu sa síce môžu skúsenosti jednotlivcov v niečom zhodovať, ale môžu byť aj veľmi odlišné. Niektorí jedinci sa viac zameriavajú na citovú zložku, iní lásku vnímajú ako súbor noriem, nevyhnutných pre existenciu takéhoto vzťahu, ďalší lásku vnímajú predovšetkým ako istú formu sebaupozadenia a uprednostnenia potrieb a šťastia druhého človeka alebo ako ochotu zdieľať s niekým svoj najvnútornejší svet, aspekty nazerania na lásku sú rôzne.Marston, Hecht, Robers (1987) uvádzajú, že láska je komplexná emócia, ktorá ale záleží od spôsobu bytia jedinca a jeho vzťahov k ostatným k svetu a k sebe, to potom určuje charakter lásky a spôsob akým je prežívaná.Karandashev (2015) a pred nímJankowiak, Fischer (1992) podávajú dôkazy, že láska je univerzálna emócia, ktorú zažíva väčšina ľudí v rôznych historických obdobiach a vo všetkých kultúrach sveta, ale prejavuje sa rôznymi spôsobmi, pretože kultúra má vplyv na predstavy o láske a na spôsoby cítenia ľudí, ich premýšľanie a správanie sa v romantických vzťahoch. V predchádzajúcich štúdiách sme skúmali individuálne reprezentácie lásky u mladých ľudí(Lukšík & Guillaume, 2018) ako aj so sociálne a kultúrne zdroje, z ktorých mladí ľudia pri vytváraní týchto reprezentácií čerpajú(Guillaume, 2020). ...
... ovplyvnený obdivom a vyzdvihovaním vášnivej lásky (amour passion).Hatfield a Rapson (2002) zhodne tvrdia, že už v najstaršej západnej literatúre sa stretávame s vášnivou láskou, ktorá "existovala vždy a všade".Hoci sú rôzne dohady o tom, či je vášnivá a neskôr idealizovaná romantická láska len zvláštnym západným javom alebo platí univerzálne, ako dokazujú posledné výskumy(Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992;Karandashev, 2015), je nesporné, že v kultúrnom priestore západu má silnú tradíciu. Rougemont považuje za fundamentálny zdroj súčasných románov a filmov podporujúcich ideu vášnivej lásky mýtus o Tristanovi a Izolde o ich vášnivej mileneckej a cudzoložnej láske, ktorý má tragické vyústenie. ...
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The topic of violence against women providing sexual services on the streets is discussed very little in the context of Slovakia. There are a lot of prejudices among the public, so as professionals. One of them is that this woman can't be raped. On the contrary, this minority group of women experienced all types of violence whether in intimate or clients relationships. They are daily in risky situations. The study aimed to find out what strategies, private or public, women working in street sexbusiness used to prevent, reduce, and terminate violence. Nine qualitative interviews were conducted. The respondents were women - clients of a nongovernmental organization providing services for injecting drug users or people involved in street sexbusiness. Women talked more often about violence from clients than about violence in an intimate relationship. Besides physical assaults, they mentioned psychological violence mostly in an intimate relationship - threats, jealousy, and panic disorder as a consequence of psychological violence. Regarding strategies, they used safety planning most often. The common reaction to the violence at work was to succumb to the perpetrator. They rarely used public non�formal strategies, they didn ́t trust friends or relatives. They didn ́t form a peer (community) background. They used very few formal public strategies, most of them didn't trust the police, few gave the credit to the organization, which provided community services. Research reflects the social environment of women working in street sexbusiness regarding institutions, which are supposed to protect them against violence, and also empowers and supports them in talking about violence, which contributes to knowledge and principles of community psychology.
... Despite the differences across premarital romantic and sexual experiences, consistent with previous studies, our study shows that Indians reported a higher level of desire for a romantic relationship (Bejanyan et al., 2014;Dhariwal & Connolly, 2013;Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992). Past research has shown that gender role traditionalism, practiced in collectivistic societies, strengthens romantic beliefs and passionate love (Neto et al., 2000;Peplau et al., 1993). ...
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The current study explored cultural differences in romantic and sexual attitudes and experiences as well as their associations with mental health and well-being among young adults in India and the United States of America. We recruited a sample of 883 unmarried young adults from both countries (n USA = 459; n India = 424). The results revealed that American participants endorsed liberal sexual attitudes and reported more involvement in sexual activities. Indian participants showed more pro-romantic attitudes and reported more mental health problems. The cultural effects on sexual and romantic attitudes were stronger for women. Most of the associations between romantic and sexual attitudes and experiences differed across cultural groups. Implications for future cross-cultural research on the sexual and romantic experiences of young adults are discussed.
... In this review, I employ the definition of the term "attraction" provided by Montoya and Horton (2014): "a person's immediate and positive affective and/or behavioral response to a specific individual, a response that is influenced by the person's cognitive assessments." Romantic love is observed in nearly all societies (Jankowiak and Fischer, 1992) and is thought to be deeply connected to human mate selection (e.g., Fisher, 2004;Walum and Young, 2018). For these reasons, extensive studies on close relationships have been devoted to understanding how people evaluate potential partners. ...
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Romantic love is universally observed in human communities, and the manner in which a person chooses a long-term romantic partner has been a central question in studies on close relationships. Numerous empirical psychological studies have demonstrated that facial attractiveness greatly impacts initial romantic attraction. This close link was further investigated by neuroimaging studies showing that both viewing attractive faces and having romantic thoughts recruit the reward system. However, it remains unclear how our brains integrate perceived facial attractiveness into initial romantic attraction. In addition, it remains unclear how our brains shape a persistent attraction to a particular person through interactions; this persistent attraction is hypothesized to contribute to a long-term relationship. After reviewing related studies, I introduce methodologies that could help address these questions.
... It can be characterized as a motivation or goal-oriented state, leading to increased energy, focused attention and craving for union with one or more potential mates, whose closeness, if a lasting relationship is established, is sought as a significant source of calm, comfort and security (Aron et al., 2005;Fisher, 1998Fisher, , 2014. Romantic love is thought to be universal to mankind (Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992). However, to some it can become unhealthy and lead to what has been named "love addiction", a form of obsessive love, characterized by a maladaptive, pervasive and excessive love interest toward one or more people, that can lead to negative consequences for the individual (Borgioni, 2015;Briggie & Briggie, 2015;Reynaud, Karila, Blecha, & Benyamina, 2010). ...
... It is thought that ancestral females relied on their biological kin to assist with child care (Coxworth et al., 2015;Kramer, 2005;Rodseth et al., 1991), but this may not have always been possible as genetic relatives did not always live close enough to provide consistent help. This conundrum would have necessitated fostering supportive affinal relationships to care for children (Fletcher et al., 2015;Jankowiak & Fischer, 1992;Power & Ready, 2019). Affines have a vested interest in shared descendants, and this stake incentivizes affines to provide the same quality of childcare as that provided by women's genetic kin (Dyble et al., 2018;Willführ et al., 2018). ...
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Relationships with genetic relatives have been extensively studied in the evolutionary social sciences, but affinal, i.e., in-laws, relationships have received much less attention. Yet, humans have extensive interactions with the kin of their mates, leading to many opportunities for cooperative and conflictual interactions with extended kinship networks. To contribute to the scholarship on affinal bonds, and particularly on perceptions of affinal conflict, we collected empirical data on cooperation and conflict among affines. Here, we report empirical evidence of self-reported cooperative and conflictual aspects in affinal relationships in a Western sample. US men and women both reported more conflict with mothers-in-law than with mothers, and mothers reported more conflict with their daughters-in-law than with their daughters. We discuss the implications of this work and directions for future research.
... The fact that we are wired as such means that our physical, emotional, and mental well-being depends on the positive interpersonal relationships in our everyday lives (Fishbane, 2007;Luong et al., 2011). In particular, our romantic relationships, which are seen as a near-universal need across cultures and various ages, have a powerful influence on our wellbeing (Jankowiak and Fisher, 1992;Kansky, 2018;Fletcher et al., 2019). ...
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The study of processes that enrich positive relationships has been an under-researched area within positive psychology practice. The way an individual responds during couple conflicts (accommodation response) and toward the disclosure of good news of a partner (capitalization response) has been linked to relationship quality. Although the accommodation and capitalization communication processes are part and parcel of our everyday lives, the two processes have been examined separately and dominated by the Western perspectives in past research. Prior work has suggested that Western and Asian cultures differ in expressing and perceiving beneficial communication behaviors. Yet, it is still unclear which accommodation and capitalization responses matter the most from an Asian lens. To date, there is no research examining these interconnected variables simultaneously in Asia, specifically in Malaysia. In this study, two forms of communication processes, namely, (1) accommodation and (2) capitalization, were explored concurrently to disentangle the unique associations and influence on relationship satisfaction. This study also sought to understand the moderating effects of culture in terms of interdependent self-construal on the link between these two communication processes and relationship satisfaction. Responses of 139 Malaysians in dating relationships between the age of 18 and 30 years ( M age = 23.15) were collected through online surveys. An active and constructive reaction was captured as the most favorable response through both the capitalization and accommodation processes. Prominently, an active-constructive capitalization response bore the strongest influence on relationship satisfaction above and beyond other responses. A passive and constructive response was revealed only fruitful for disclosures of positive news and not during conflicts. Conversely, in the destructive paradigm, passive-destructive responses were the most detrimental factor in relationships compared to other destructive responses. The results also uncovered that interdependent self-construal did not moderate the two forms of communication processes. However, the findings discovered unexpected individual and cultural variations. This pioneering study is a noteworthy addition to the positive psychology literature from an Asian standpoint. It highlights the significance of not only protecting relationships through better conflict management but also enriching relationships by capitalizing on the positive aspects across the lives of the couple, ultimately providing a greater holistic insight into cultivating flourishing lives.
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Objectives. Study of cross-cultural differences in love attitudes of Belarusians and Chinese. Background. A large number of cross-cultural studies focus on comparing the psychological characteristics of representatives of two polar cultures — individualistic and collectivist. At the same time, little attention is paid to the study and explanation of the differences within each of these cultures. Although it is quite obvious that countries belonging to the same culture may differ significantly due to their cultural-specific features, traditions, state structure, and religions. In this regard, the study was aimed at identifying differences in such a cultural universal as love, namely, in the love attitudes of Belarusians and Chinese, who are representatives of collectivist culture. Study design. The study was conducted using a survey method. For data processing and analysis, descriptive statistics and Student t-test were used. Participants. The respondents were 1344 people, representatives of the Belarusian (men, N=544; women, N=560) and Chinese (men, N=120; women, N=120) samples, aged 17-30 years. Measurements. Love Attitudes Scale by C. Hendrik, S. Hendrik. Results. Chinese men differ from Belarusian men with higher scores of attitudes Agape, Pragma, Mania, Storge and Ludus. Belarusian women differ from Chinese women with higher Eros attitudes. In turn, Chinese women in comparison with Belarus, have higher rates of Pragma, Storge, and Ludus. At¬titudes Eros and Agape occupy the top position in the hierarchy of love attitudes of Belarusian men and women, and attitudes Agape and Pragma — in Chinese. Ludus, regardless of gender and nationality, has the least power. Conclusions. The results of the study contribute to the understanding of differences in love styles depending on belonging to Western and Eastern collectivist subcultures.
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Traditionally, the emotions have been viewed from a biological perspective; that is, the emotions have been seen as genetically determined and relatively invariable responses. The present chapter, by contrast, views the emotions as social constructions. More precisely, the emotions are here defined as socially constituted syndromes or transitory social roles. A role-conception does not deny the contribution of biological systems to emotional syndromes; it does, however, imply that the functional significance of emotional responses is to be found largely within the sociocultural system. With regard to subjective experience, a person interprets his own behavior as emotional in much the same way that an actor interprets a role“with feeling.” This involves not only the monitoring of behavior (including feedback from physiological arousal, facial expressions, etc.), but also an understanding of how the emotional role fits into a larger“drama” written by society. Some of the biological, personal, and situational factors that influence emotional behavior are also discussed.
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MacDonaldMichael. Mystical Bedlam: Madness, Anxiety, and Healing in Seventeenth-Century England. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Cambridge Monographs on the History of Medicine.) 1981. Pp. 323. $39.95. - Volume 13 Issue 4 - Peter McCandless