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... Lack of infrastructure is depicted as a negative symptom in several ways. Firstly, because urban sprawl and informal settlements lead to town-quarters, inaccessible to collection vehicles, secondly because of overall poor road and traffic conditions [54][55][56], and thirdly because of the near absence of essential SWM-infrastructure such as waste transfer-stations [2,57,58]. ...
... The following causal diagram in Figure 5 provides an attempt by the authors to describe these relations. Operational and financial processes are analyzed by Kinobe et al., using interviews in a case study on Kampala [55,56]. According to their findings, inadequacies such as the needed removal of illegal dumping and the manual loading of waste into trucks deteriorate the efficient deployment of collection vehicles. ...
... Merging these results into one causal diagram may lead to the set up presented in Figure 6. Operational and financial processes are analyzed by Kinobe et al., using interviews in a case study on Kampala [55,56]. According to their findings, inadequacies such as the needed removal of illegal dumping and the manual loading of waste into trucks deteriorate the efficient deployment of collection vehicles. ...
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The potential and scale of cities enable economic growth and the improvement of citizens' access to jobs, education, healthcare, culture, public utilities and services. Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the key services provided by cities. Its operations are complex, very visible to the general public, and impacted by strong financial, societal, and political constraints. Performances in developing countries, however, are not positive. United Nations research shows urban collection services covering no more than 39% of the population in low-income countries. Why are many cities in developing countries not able to use their increasing wealth and scale for basic SWM services such as city cleaning, collection, and sustainable landfilling? This paper provides a review of literature on this question over the last decade. It shows that research is mostly on symptoms and has not led to a deeper diagnosis of causes. Lack of resources, infrastructure, awareness, and institutional strength are often pinpointed as causes but, in fact, they should be addressed as symptoms. These symptoms should be designated as dependent variables in a complex causal network with systemic feedbacks, hindering or neutralizing attempts to improve performances if not properly dealt with. Research should concentrate more on assessing the relations between urbanization, urban processes, and urban governance that shape the performance of urban solid waste management. System dynamics modeling may provide new approaches for this diagnosis.
... O'Connor (2013) applied Esri's ArcGIS Network Analyst Extension to optimize truck routes to reduce the overall cost through improvements in travel distance and time for a small collection group in Redlands, California. Also, GIS was used by Kinobe et al. (2015) in Kampala to optimize travel distances, trips and collection times of MSW collection trucks which generated savings of 60, 67and 27 percent, respectively. Kallel et al. (2016) developed three optimized scenarios using ArcGIS Network Analyst tool to improve the efficiency of waste collection and transportation. ...
... SMA) further indicates that distance cannot be used to effectively predict the operating cost of MSW management. This is because in some cities, shorter distances may be inconvenient to use due to network impedances and constraints such as traffic flow, leading to comparatively high operating cost as reported by Kinobe et al. (2015). The use of such short routes means MSW collection trucks will spend longer hours in lifting containers, with increased operating cost of managers as well as environmental pollution, resulting from burning of more fuel by trucks. ...
... This resulted in significant reductions in travel time in all operational sites considered. These findings are consistent with results of previous studies (Apaydin et al., 2004;Apaydin and Gonullu, 2007;Kinobe et al., 2015;Zsigraiova et al., 2013). This implies that the optimized system saves travel time which can be used to increase operational coverage of MSW managers and get more work done. ...
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to determine the effect of route optimization on travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption of municipal solid waste (MSW) collection trucks. Design/methodology/approach: The study modeled the existing waste collection routes in three local authorities in Ghana and proposed optimal routes using Esri’s ArcGIS Network Analyst Extension. The system generated optimal distances and times were validated by subjecting collection trucks to the optimal routes. Paired sample t-test was used to analyze the differences in means of the existing and optimal outcomes. The collected data were subjected to correlation and uncertainty analyses. Findings: Results from the study indicated that weekly travel distance reduced by 81.27 km, translating into saving of 4.79 percent when trucks used the optimal routes. Travel time and fuel consumption reduced by 853.59 min and 145.86 L, making savings of 14.21 and 10.81 percent, respectively. Significant differences occurred between the means of the existing and optimal routes for travel time and fuel consumption, for each of the three local authorities. Research limitations/implications: The study was conducted in Ghana using data collected from three local authorities. Practical implications: Significant reduction of MSW collection cost can be achieved by waste management practitioners through route optimization. Originality/value: The effect of route optimization on travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption has been established. Statistical analyses of the existing and optimal outcomes of the three local authorities have been provided. The findings from this study support the hypothesis that optimal routes reduce operating cost through savings in travel distance, travel time and fuel consumption. Keywords: Solid waste collection, Route optimization, Geographic information system, Fuel consumption, Travel distance, Travel time
... The long-established norm for waste collection in Kampala has been the collection, transportation and disposal of waste at the only recognized landfill, Kiteezi (Kinobe, Bosona, et al., 2015). Of the 1500-2500 metric tons of municipal waste generated per day in the city, only about 900 metric tons is collected (Kinobe, Bosona, et al., 2015 and adequate services are only provided in affluent settlements. ...
... The long-established norm for waste collection in Kampala has been the collection, transportation and disposal of waste at the only recognized landfill, Kiteezi (Kinobe, Bosona, et al., 2015). Of the 1500-2500 metric tons of municipal waste generated per day in the city, only about 900 metric tons is collected (Kinobe, Bosona, et al., 2015 and adequate services are only provided in affluent settlements. Uncollected waste ends up in drainage channels, open land spaces, burnt or recycled. ...
... Typical materials include plastics, metals, organic materials, paper, glass and hazardous materials, and are generally not segregated at source prior disposal. This makes waste sorting difficult and often a dangerous work (Kinobe, Bosona, et al., 2015). ...
Article
Kampala has a complex set of regulations describing actors, rules and procedures for collection and transportation of waste, and requires waste to be disposed of at the landfill. Yet little of the city’s waste moves through this “formal system”. Building on wider scholarship on urban infrastructure and calls to theorize from southern cities, we examine recycling in Kampala as a heterogeneous infrastructure configuration. Kampala’s lively recycling sector is socially and materially diverse: it is comprised of entrepreneurs, public-private partnerships and non-governmental organizations, as well as a range of materials with different properties and value. We articulate how actors assert claims, obtain permissions, build and maintain relationships as they rework flows away from the landfill. We argue that recognizing socio-material heterogeneity throughout the waste configuration enables a clearer analysis of contested processes of claiming value from waste. We also demonstrate how these efforts have pressured the state to reconsider the merits of the modern infrastructure ideal as a model for what (good) infrastructure is and ought to be. Various actors assert more heterogeneous alternatives, raising the possibility of alternative modes of infrastructure which might generate better incomes and improve service provision.
... In this context, the prevention and reuse of food waste remain one of the main objectives of the United Nations 2030 agenda that stipulates the fight against food waste in the world. The techniques of reconverting food waste into raw materials in developed countries should reach developing countries where food insecurity problems and landfills are greatest (Kinobe et al., 2015). ...
... Organic waste is the most recurrent in developing countries (Kinobe et al., 2015). There is not yet a national food waste prevention and reduction directive to be adopted by the various actors in the food chain in developing countries . ...
Article
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The limit of the linear economic model increased the interest in developing a new economic model based on a closed circle. The circular economy (CE) emerges as a model of sustainable, regenerative and restorative development, whose focus is to maintain products, food waste and natural resources at their highest level of usefulness and value over time. This paper aims to discuss the issue of food waste and how to preserve it through CE. The methodological procedure was the Systematic Literature Review (SLR), based on the protocol by Cronin, Ryan & Coughlan (2008), using the time frame of the last ten years, 2009 to 2019, considering papers published in international journals. It was clear that there is an accumulation of articles published in European countries, focused on attempts to implement circular models that aim to mitigate food waste, and that the transition to this model is essential due to the depletion of natural resources and negative socioeconomic externalities. This work highlights the CE processes and benefits of food waste. In addition, it provides suggestions, management, and policy contributions for future research. The valorization and treatment of food waste could contribute to the mitigation of acute hunger in developing countries and the creation of value in food supply chains (FSC).
... Consequently, this has increased the hauling distance between generation and disposal sites, translating into higher time, energy, and financial resources on MSW collection and transportation (Asefi et al., 2019;Cavdar et al., 2016;Taşkın & Demir, 2020). Literature indicates that collection costs accounted for 40% to 80% of the total solid waste operation budget in many countries (Behi et al., 2021;Kinobe et al., 2015;Richter et al., 2018). Thus, any improvement in waste collection and transportation efficiency would bring considerable cost savings (Greco et al., 2015;Karadimas et al., 2007;Xue et al., 2015). ...
... Despite of its practicality, optimization of waste collection and transportation at a regionalized level is much less addressed and studied in the literature, and most of the published MSW collection optimization studies have focused on a single city or metropolis. For example, Kinobe et al. (2015) proposed alternative routes for the waste collection trucks in Kampala city, Uganda, using GIS tools and reported an overall reduction in number of trips, travel distances, and environmental emissions. Vu et al. (2020) optimized the waste collection system in a small region in Austin, Texas, USA, using GIS Network Analysis, and found that higher waste density and collection frequency can save up to over 18% and 41% in travel time and distance, respectively. ...
Article
Landfilling continues to be one of the most popular waste treatment methods in Canada or abroad. NIMBYism has forced waste facilities to be sited further from populated centers, meaning that increases in waste management efficiency result in considerable cost savings. Concurrent optimization of waste collection and disposal siting on a regional scale is of practical importance. This study combines collection route optimization and landfill siting using GIS methods to design a regional waste management system in Saskatchewan, Canada. Two original performance indicators are proposed based on route optimization and landfill siting, namely the accessibility (ACC) and Landfill Minimization Index (LMI). The result suggest that the accessibility was able to be improved by between 15.4 and 794.7%, and the optimization methods was always effective in providing higher resident accessibility. Improvements in the LMI yielded less improvement, ranging from -13.9% to +422.2%. Correlation analysis showed that road length is a key optimization parameter. This finding is important to Indigenous communities who suffer from a lack of intensified road network. Divisions that share provincial or international borders generally have higher improvements in ACC and LMI. Strategic placement of landfills and road networks are key to improve waste management system efficiency in Saskatchewan.
... However, these authors neither address the actual route optimization for waste collection vehicles as a real-world problem, nor consider the three aspects of sustainability together. Hemidat et al. (2017), Erfan et al. (2017), Sanjeevi and Shahabudeen (2016), Khan and Samadder (2016), Kallel et al. (2016), Abdelli et al. (2016), Kinobe et al. (2015), and Ansari et al. (2015), applied GIS-based network analysis and vehicle routing problem solver toolbox for MSW collection bins and route optimization, while not considering the application of optimization models. ...
... Optimization of MSW collection routes using GIS (Case Study: Tabriz City) Network Analysis toolbox of ArcGIS Ansari et al. (2015) Optimization of waste collection and disposal in Kampala city Geographical information system (GIS) Kinobe et al. (2015) Optimal routing for efficient municipal solid waste transportation by using ArcGIS application in Chennai, India ArcGIS Sanjeevi and Shahabudeen (2016) A novel approach to find and optimize bin locations and collection routes using a geographic information system Geographic information systems (GIS) Erfani et al. (2017) Evaluation of key indicators of waste collection using GIS techniques as a planning and control tool for route optimization ArcGIS Hemidat et al. (2017) Life cycle assessment tools ...
Article
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A multi-stage optimization approach for sustainable collection system design for urban municipal solid waste is developed for megacities in Asia’s newly industrialized countries. The approach combines four methods—analysis of waste and area characteristics, data acquisition and evaluation by GIS, mathematical projection of existing and future collection systems, and identification of most suitable alternatives through comparative multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). The approach is applied in Bangalore, India with 1.66 million inhabitants and 46.7-km2 area of investigation, and stratified based on population density. Two possible collection mechanisms (door-to-door (D2D) and community bin (CB)) are analyzed with a varied combination of collection coverage and waste segregation level. The study results confirm that both operational and investment expenses of the collection system decrease with an increasing rate of CB collection. Moreover, overall CO2 emissions of waste collection from the entire area of investigation decrease from 5.2 to 3.1 tons per day if the present 100% D2D collection is replaced with 100% CB collection system. Also, the increase of segregation at source contributes to the reduction of operational expenses and CO2 emissions; for example, a 20% increase of segregation level for D2D collection system leads to a 6% reduction of CO2 emissions. Considering all decision parameters through MCDA, a collection system comprising only CB with one separate compartment for wet waste and another combined compartment for dry and mixed waste is determined to be the most favorable approach.
... No fixed timing for collection is prescribed and whole system contributed three segments as smart bin, gateway and control station ( Mamun, Hannan, Hussain & Basri, 2014 ). Kinobe et al (2015) proposed GPS Technology for collection of data on dump sides and routes and GIS as an optimization tool for collection of shortest route for WC in Kampala City by usage of three kinds of conveyance namely tippers, tractors and compactors. The GIS model performed better in terms of operational cost and fuel consumption (Kinobe, Bosona , Gebresenbet, Niwagaba & Vinneras, 2015 ). ...
... Kinobe et al (2015) proposed GPS Technology for collection of data on dump sides and routes and GIS as an optimization tool for collection of shortest route for WC in Kampala City by usage of three kinds of conveyance namely tippers, tractors and compactors. The GIS model performed better in terms of operational cost and fuel consumption (Kinobe, Bosona , Gebresenbet, Niwagaba & Vinneras, 2015 ). Gutierrez et al (2015) proposed scheme depending upon the establishment of GIS. ...
Article
Cells are the smallest unit of life and are considered to be as the building blocks of life. Our body is consists of number of cells that grow and divide to form new cells and eventually die. But in the case of cancer, the cell grows uncontrollably and spread to the other parts of the body as well, and forms a growth called tumor. Though it is not possible to cure cancer completely but there are various treatments like chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy , target therapy and various others, that can lead cancer in a remission phase, which means that the cancer has shrunk. Optimization is a very effective approach which allows choosing an optimal treatment plan so as to minimize the cancerous cells. In the current paper discussion is made about how nature inspired optimization and particularly particle swarm optimization can be used in the treatment, as these nature inspired optimization techniques can solve complex problems more effectively.
... Notably, there are different Acts and Ordinances for solid waste legislation and even by-laws (Sandra & Weghmann, 2019). At the same time, it is noted that the country lacks an integrated waste management legal framework, instead existing legal provisions are fragmented and un-specific on aspects like public hygiene, environmental conservation and health (Kinobe et al., 2015). The status of solid waste management has not improved since less than 60% of waste is collected in Kampala city (Okot-Okumu, 2015;KCCA, 2014). ...
... Policies lack constitutive and constraining instruments (Levi-Faur, 2017). Countries like Nigeria and Uganda also have by-laws in place to ensure waste disposal in an environmentally sustainable way, but they are not enforced, leading to uncontrolled dumping and burning (Kinobe et al., 2015;Sandra & Weghmann, 2019). ...
Article
Solid waste management remains a challenge globally attributed to several factors including inadequacies and ineffectiveness of policies. Presumably, good policies should translate to better solid waste management practices. However, other underlying factors and implementation challenges may determine the waste management status. Thus the debate in the literature on solid waste management policy and practice remains inconclusive. Based on literature review, this paper examines the discourse on solid waste management regulation and status in Sub-Saharan Africa. A paradox of policy outcomes is revealed at global and national level. Global policies have not been holistically contextualised and integrated in national policies. While national policies have not improved the solid waste management status of some countries, in others, it has, albeit unsustainably. Notably, inherent weaknesses such as insufficiency, homogeneity and ambiguity of policies affects implementation. This is exacerbated by poor enforcement strategies, lack of participatory mechanisms, inadequate sensitisation, influence of power and politics, as well as weak political commitment, among others. To ensure smart and clean cities, it is crucial for initiatives of solid waste management not only to be legally supported, but also contextualised and co-generated. For effective policy implementation, there is need for sensitisation of urban dwellers to enable comprehension of policies. Participatory strategies and governments’ commitment towards solid waste management should be paramount. Due to rapid changes in urban areas, periodic studies on content and context inferences such as solid waste collection practices and participation of actors in the informal settlements are required to dispel the practice of homogenising policies in order to enhance relevancy and suitability.
... The research on vehicle routes (Cortinhal et al., 2016;Teixeira et al., 2004) and landfill locations (Kinobe et al., 2015), which was part of logistics or supply chains (Cui and Sosic, 2019), can give suggestions to the formulation and improvement of urban household waste classification rules. Different cities in different countries can develop the urban household waste classification rules that are in line with the local actual situation. ...
Article
The selection of the urban household waste classification rules is important to both city sustainability and clean production of enterprises using the renewable urban household waste, but few studies focused on it. Probabilistic linguistic preference relations have been proposed to express both quantitative and qualitative preference information, which attracted many researchers' attention. For the consensus studies of probabilistic linguistic preference relations, current methods have two challenges regarding the information change in normalization and the information loss in integration. To overcome these challenges, from the perspective of experts' networks under criteria, this study aims to propose a network consensus analysis of probabilistic linguistic preference relations based on a novel probabilistic linguistic Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance measure. To achieve this goal, the cumulative probability distributions of probabilistic linguistic term sets are introduced to define the probabilistic linguistic Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance measure. Based on this novel distance measure, an argument measurement and a programming with analytic solutions are proposed to group experts' networks into three categories: the harmonious network, adjustable divergent network, and non-adjustable divergent network. The consensus degrees of these three kinds of networks are also given to get the consensus degrees of criteria. A fuzzy Cronbach's alpha is presented to calculate the weights of criteria and the final consensus degree of a group. Given that the urban household waste classification rule selection is actually an multi-criteria group decision making problem, we then provide an illustration of selecting a suitable urban household waste classification rules to validate the applicability of the proposed method. Comparative analyses are provided to demonstrate the advantages and reliability of the network consensus analysis in selecting urban household waste classification rules.
... Bolivian policymakers and engineers require support for evaluating possible management improvements, reducing costs, and quantifying environmental impacts. The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) is a methodology that has proven to be relevant for planning and improving municipal solid waste (MSW) collection routes in developing countries, such as in India (Sanjeevi and Shahabudeen, 2016), Uganda (Kinobe et al., 2015), Algeria (Abdelli et al., 2016), and Iran (Farahbakhsh and Forghani, 2019). At the same time, the use of life cycle assessment (LCA) has been employed in low-income regions like Mauritius, Vietnam (Thanh and Matsui, 2013), and India (Ghose et al., 2006), for the quantification of the impacts avoided thanks to recycling and appropriate disposal, even though the LCA approach is still limited use in areas with a low economic level (Khandelwal et al., 2019). ...
Article
Solid waste open dumping is a big issue in the developing world. Environmental and social impacts due to this practice affect population health, increasing the spread of diseases and child mortality. The safe collection of waste is the first step for reducing these impacts. This research assesses households' waste collection in a Bolivian developing city with the aim to find a solution to fostering waste safe disposal and recycling. The novelty of the study consists in implementing field analysis together with the use of geographic information systems and the life cycle assessment approach where the lack of data is challenging. Following the results of the research, the system optimization, compared to the current scenario, implies that: (1) collection distances increase by 8%, while the selective collection increases them by 27.8%; (2) the collection coverage increase from 51% to 94% and selective collection switch from zero to 6.7%; (3) about 75% of CO2-eq emissions are reduced, as well as the eutrophication potential (about 55%); (4) recycling reduces the human toxicity potential of 260% and depletion of abiotic resources of 30%; (5) finally, the cost per ton of waste collected reduces from 36.2USD t−1 to 26.5USD t−1 , and rises to 39.7USD t−1 if the selective collection is applied. The research demonstrates how waste collection optimization can be implemented obtaining enormous benefits in developing cities. The methods and outcomes presented can be of reference for policymakers and stakeholders of the developing world for addressing safe collection toward sustainable development.
... Waste collection systems represent a wide range of uncertainties, as shown in a Hong Kong case study, where the difficulties of the design of appropriate infrastructure for waste collection and recycling are described [21]. Other case studies from Denmark [22], Kampala City [23], Italy [24] and Taiwan [25] demonstrate the importance of new technologies in municipal waste collection systems. ...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this paper is to introduce clustering algorithms and present a literature review. Clustering means grouping of objects. Elements that resemble each other are placed in the same cluster, while those objects that differ, placed into a different cluster. Numerous clustering algorithms were published. Objects can be of category type, numeric, all require different clustering methods. In some cases, we may need to filter out outliers, which we can do by density-based clustering. Clustering can be used in many areas, such as commerce, logistics, materials science, geography, etc. This study first reviews the major clustering algorithms, followed by literature research on each application area.
... Efficient waste collection and transportation could be a costsaving option for municipalities (Kinobe et al., 2015), but setting up resource recovery systems from FSM requires planning and efficient logistics within the service chain. Application of spatial Geographic Information System (GIS) tools can facilitate logistics planning by reducing the number of trips and travel distance, thereby decreasing fuel consumption and vehicle emissions and providing cost savings in overall sanitation provision (Schoebitz et al., 2017). ...
Article
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At the current rate of progress, there will probably still be 2.8 billion people world-wide without safely managed sanitation by 2030. To incentivise and increase implementation of sustainable faecal sludge management (FSM), especially in low and middle-income countries like Cambodia, human waste must be regarded as a resource. However, planning data, e.g. on the quantities, composition and fate of faecal sludge after leaving households, are inadequate and lack accuracy. The aim of this study was to provide baseline data for effective FSM planning by sanitation stakeholders in Phnom Penh. This was done by quantifying sludge volumes generated, transport logistics and resource recovery potential to incentivise sustainable management. Interviews were conducted with users and emptying and transportation contractors, together with collection of technical data about on-site sanitation systems. Geographical coordinates of household sampling locations and disposal sites were also mapped. The results revealed that Cheung Ek and Kob Srov wetlands are the main recipients of faecal sludge collected in Phnom Penh with the amount of 18,800 m ³ and 13,700 m ³ annually, respectively. The analysis showed that faecal sludge in Phnom Penh contains valuable resources such as nitrogen (6 tons), phosphorus (13 tons) and energy (148-165 GWh) annually, but in-depth investigations of appropriate treatment options for resource recovery are required. Detailed documentation of the location of potential recoverable resources from faecal sludge would assist decision-makers in developing action plans for sustainable FSM in Phnom Penh and similar cities.
... Waste collection systems represent a wide range of uncertainties, as shown in a Hong Kong case study, where the difficulties of the design of appropriate infrastructure for waste collection and recycling are described [21]. Other case studies from Denmark [22], Kampala City [23], Italy [24] and Taiwan [25] demonstrate the importance of new technologies in municipal waste collection systems. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents the two methods Support Vector Machines and the Multi-layer Perceptron’s and their application to the handwritten character classification. Also, the hybrid architecture of the SVM and MLP was taken, which is based on the idea that the correct digit class almost systematically belongs to the two maximum MLP outputs and some of these pairs constitute the majority of these errors. The accuracy of these methods was tested, and it is concluded that the hybrid MLP-SVM has better accuracy of 98.01% on handwritten digit recognition
... The median travel time for vacuum and non-vacuum technologies was found to be 33 and 36 min (Fig. 6), moving at average speeds of 30.28 and 28.95 km/h, respectively (Table 3). Both technology types were used within the city with similar road conditions such as traffic jam and reckless driving (Kinobe et al., 2015). The average travel times are comparable to the 32.7 min reported in Accra, Ghana using cesspool trucks (Sagoe et al., 2019). ...
Article
Over 90% of the population in Kampala Informal settlements is served by onsite sanitation facilities (septic tanks and pit latrines). These fill up fast, leaving emptying as the most viable option for their sustained reuse. This study fills the gap for the limited information about different emptying technologies suitable for informal settlements and limitations they face while carrying out operations. The study compared adequacy of vacuum and non-vacuum emptying technologies used in informal settlements of Kampala. 111 questionnaires (78 for vacuum and 33 for non-vacuum) were administered to obtain data about faecal sludge (FS) source and time estimates, while an additional 37 samples were used in characterising emptied FS. The results showed that FS emptied by vacuum trucks was 43.6% from lined pits, of which 28.2% are from informal settlements. 56.4% is emptied from septic tanks by vacuum technology, where informal settlements contribute 12.8%. FS emptied by non-vacuum technologies was 9.1% from lined pit latrines, 30.3% septic tanks and 60.6% unlined pit latrines (42.4% from informal settlements). Vacuum trucks of capacity 3.6 m³ were the mostly used in informal settlements, while large vacuum trucks (7.2–14 m³) exclusively operated outside informal settlements. The most critical event is the time spent during containment emptying, where non-vacuum can take up to 3 h and less than an hour for vacuum technologies. Such longer emptying times by non-vacuum technologies can be reduced through enforcing minimum standards of containment facilities and preventing dumping of solid wastes in pits. In addition, there is a need to sanction non-compliant operators in observation of PPEs and SOPs in order to improve their safety.
... Waste collection systems represent a wide range of uncertainties, as shown in a Hong Kong case study, where the difficulties of the design of appropriate infrastructure for waste collection and recycling are described [21]. Other case studies from Denmark [22], Kampala City [23], Italy [24] and Taiwan [25] demonstrate the importance of new technologies in municipal waste collection systems. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Software repositories are storage locations containing a historical and valua-ble wealth of information or data about the overall development process of soft-ware systems. Mining software repositories (MSR) are a new emerging research field It focuses on extracting and analyzing the heterogeneous data available in software repositories. Historical and valuable information stored in software re-positories provides a great opportunity to acquire knowledge and help in monitor-ing complex projects. This paper is an overview of mining software repositories and presents fundamental concepts, finds the general structure of software reposi-tories and how mining is carried out and discussed some challenges related to software repositories data and the role of mining software repositories to resolve these challenges.
... Decision making on top priority for several garbage transportation routes is one optimization concept of waste transportation [6]. The other is the optimal and cheapest distribution pattern, it is the optimization of routes in transportation issue [7]. Here, the study proposed an optimization model in waste transportation. ...
... Other studies were conducted in low-middle income regions using GIS, however, the scientific literature lacks the assessment of the parallel inclusion of waste pickers in the MSWM system. For example, in Kampala, Uganda, (Kinobe et al., 2015) and in Allahabad, India, (Sharholy et al., 2007) where the activity of the informal sector is persistent, its assessment was not involved in the GIS analysis. Nevertheless, other research conducted in low-middle income countries suggests including informal recycling into the formal waste management system (Ferronato and Torretta, 2019) such as in São Paulo, Brazil (Gutberlet et al., 2013), in Johannesburg, South Africa (Simatele et al., 2017), in Jakarta, Indonesia, (Sasaki and Araki, 2013) waste pickers were involved in the MSW recycling and the authors strongly recommended their integration into the formal recycling system. ...
Article
The analysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) selective collection (SC) scenarios is compulsory for planning future policies and actions towards circular economy. The use of geographic information system (GIS) is appropriated for obtaining reliable data about SC yields and management costs. However, in low-middle income countries, advanced assessments are difficult to introduce due to the lack of technical knowledge, financial support and the presence of the informal recycling sector. This research aims to assess the main potentialities of the introduction of SC systems in a Bolivian developing city taking into account the informal SC system in place. The study was conducted with QGIS3.8 software in order to evaluate the main advantages of the implementation of formal and informal recycling chains. Results reported that, comparing the implementation of formal SC of MSW with the scenario that considered the inclusion of the informal recycling, the activity of waste pickers allows reducing the expenses of about 10%, increasing the recycling rate of about 3.5%, and reducing the distances traveled with com-pactor trucks of about 7%. It means that, the annual path traveled by the collection trucks for gathering about 16,000ty À1 , is reduced by 2734kmy À1 , reducing the waste disposed to landfill of about 543.6ty À1 and the expenses of about €59,000 per year. The presentation of these results to policy-makers can support decision-making boosting the implementation of recycling activities including waste pickers. The study provided a contribution to the scientific literature assessing the main challenges and opportunities for implementing the circular economy in developing regions.
... In the Industry 4.0 environment, the waste management systems apply increasing IoT technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of the collection and reuse. Geographic Information System tools are suggested to support the definition of the best waste collection routes, suitable vehicle fleet, and logistic and technological capacity to be used by the Kampala Capital City Authority [37]. The integration of RFID technologies into the collection and recovery processes can increase the efficiency and availability of the whole waste management system [38], while intelligent e-containers are used in Italy to improve the efficiency of logistic processes [39]. ...
Article
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The accelerated movement of people towards cities led to the fact that the world’s urban population is now growing by 60-million persons per year. The increased number of cities’ population has a significant impact on the produced volume of household waste, which must be collected and recycled in time. The collection of household waste, especially in downtown areas, has a wide range of challenges; the collection system must be reliable, flexible, cost efficient, and green. Within the frame of this paper, the authors describe the application possibilities of Industry 4.0 technologies in waste collection solutions and the optimization potential in their processes. After a systematic literature review, this paper introduces the waste collection process of downtowns as a cyber-physical system. A mathematical model of this waste collection process is described, which incorporates routing, assignment, and scheduling problems. The objectives of the model are the followings: (1) optimal assignment of waste sources to garbage trucks; (2) scheduling of the waste collection through routing of each garbage truck to minimize the total operation cost, increase reliability while comprehensive environmental indicators that have great impact on public health are to be taken into consideration. Next, a binary bat algorithm is described, whose performance is validated with different benchmark functions. The scenario analysis validates the model and then evaluates its performance to increase the cost-efficiency and warrant environmental awareness of waste collection process.
... Several programs have been designed in search of a sustainability among population growth, caused environmental impact, and mortality rates reductionmainly, in urban settlements. Most of such programs consider the importance of ensuring equitable access to municipal solid waste (MSW) collection services [3,4,5,6]. ...
Article
This paper presents the results of the optimization of the urban solid waste container network in the urban sector of the Ibarra City, Ecuador by the implementation of an optimization model, which consists of a multi-objective mixed integer programming model which has been successfully used in the context of recycling in past studies. This model was modified so that possible locations of the containers at each corner of the blocks containing the constructed buildings were considered. As well, a restriction to count the containers to be installed was added. Furthermore, to add robustness to the model, it was also considered the filling of the container based on the density of the deposited waste and the model objective functions – being, a weighted sum of the cost of the installation of the network along with the average walking distance between users and the assigned containers. The outputs of the model are the total number of containers and a map with the optimal locations of municipal solid waste containers for Ibarra city. The model was implemented in GAMS platform wherein parameters can be permanently revised so that the results may be updated in case of variations of the initial conditions.
... This is the most important tool for waste collection optimization in the process of sustainable waste management. The estimation of waste production and the vehicle capacity are directly related to each other (Kinobe et al., 2015). This estimation involves the following data: ...
Book
Although green innovation and technology is not new, so far very limited information is available regarding the diversified approaches for green technologies and engineering. This book highlights the challenges and opportunities, offering a roadmap for using various approaches in the most cost effective way. The book discusses the interrelationship between a circular economy and green technologies. It presents the dimensions of green innovations and illustrates the challenges of industrialization, especially in terms of material synthesis and utilized processes. It covers the current environmental and health challenges of societies and describes the role of stakeholders in developing sustainable societies and industries. This book provides a line of approach to core and interdisciplinary students, academicians, research scientists, and various industry personnel to present their ideas of green innovations with a common vision of sustainable development of community and industries in mind. Features Discusses the interrelationship between a circular economy and green technologies Presents the dimensions of green innovations Illustrates the challenges of industrialization, especially in terms of material synthesis and utilized processes Covers the current environmental and health challenges of societies Offers the identification and role of stakeholders in the sustainable development of societies and industries
... (2015) proposed GPS Technology for collection of data on dump sides and routes and GIS as an optimization tool for collection of shortest route for WC in Kampala City by usage of three kinds of conveyance namely tippers, tractors and compactors. The GIS model performed better in terms of operational cost and fuel consumption [8]. Gutierrez et al (2015) proposed scheme depending upon the establishment of GIS. ...
Article
In modern age, waste generation is an important problem for masses not only due to its increasing level but also for the increasing trouble due to production of some hazardous components. In reverse logistics, Waste Collection is an Intensive pertinent pursuit and how efficaciously waste collection can be done is a field of rectification. This paper examined important share about waste collection routing problem in literature. Firstly we categorize the kinds of Waste Collection and presenting the analysis of distinct methods and techniques used in WCVRP. This paper will bestead as an orientation in research literature.
... Mid term decisions constitute 28.8% of the papers, which includes studies associated with travel route planning [15], [70], [141], [142]; prediction of event participants [189]; as well as resource optimization and/or calibration during operation [65], [167], [174], [178]. Finally, short term decisions constitute 30.4% of the studies, where we found recommendation systems applied to telecommunications [163] and logistics [148], [170], among others. ...
Article
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Context information has become a significant asset to optimize the value obtained from information systems. Location is an important type of context information that refers to the place in which an event occurs. In business environments, the implementation of location-based analytics systems to aid decision making processes is of paramount importance for business development. However, after an exhaustive literature review, we found that researchers and practitioners still lack a comprehensive characterization of location-based data analytics systems that have been effectively applied to business processes. This paper presents the results of a systematic literature review (SLR), in which we characterized a total of 168 location-based and business oriented analytics solutions that were published between 2014 and 2019. To conduct this SLR we defined three characterization dimensions: business aspects , through which we identified value chain business processes or activities that may be benefited with the proposed solution; data source , which allowed us to report on the data used in each of the studies; and data analytics , through which we report on the analytics techniques and validation strategies implemented by the studied approaches. The contribution of our SLR is twofold. First, it provides business and data analytics practitioners with a comprehensive catalog of location-based data analytics approaches that could be applied to improve value generation, at different levels, along their businesses’ value chains. And second, it provides researchers with a complete landscape of recent advancements and open challenges in the field.
... Many researchers used GIS techniques to minimize overall cost of management that involves road travel. Other research (Kinobe et al., 2015;Ahmad, 2016;Kalle et al., 2016;Beijoco et al., 2011) also successfully reduced the cost of SWM transportation by implementing Dijkstra and TSP algorithm methods. By finding effective routes, not only the cost of diesel is reduced but the savings can be extended to labor cost, traveling cost, daily output or coverage, and truck maintenance cost. ...
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The fourth industrial revolution (IR 4.0) supports new solid waste management and effective routing system for collection and transport of solid wastes, especially in achieving Penang 2030 vision to become a pollution free smart city. This study will enhance Seberang Perai Municipal Council (MBSP) solid waste routing system in Prai industrial area by implementing Dijkstra and Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) algorithms using Geographic Information System version 10.1. The route optimization study involved 24 companies in Phase I, Phase II, and Phase IV of Prai industrial area. The authority is currently using only one route to transfer the waste-to-waste transfer station. The Dijkstra algorithm can optimize alternative route 1 distance by 19.74% whereby alternative route 2 ended up with extra distance by 3.73% compared to existing single route used by MBSP. The forward Dijkstra algorithm involves single direction route with cleaning depot (source) as starting point and waste transfer station (destination) as ending point. TSP algorithm is having advantage with return direction route. The alternative route 1 evaluated through TSP algorithm gave shorter distance by 6.61% compared to existing route. Alternative route 1 evaluated through Dijkstra algorithm is potential to save fuel cost by 19.75%. Existing route carries 9.2% per year of transportation carbon emission level. The alternative route 1 assessed through Dijkstra and TSP algorithms reported lower carbon emission level at 7.4% per year and 8.6% per year, respectively. Findings of this study can help in improving MBSP’s routing system and realize Penang 2030 vision.
... Contamination by OSS practices of the shallow aquifer underlying the Bwaise informal settlement has been investigated in recent years (Twinomucunguzi et al. 2021b;Nyenje et al. 2014Nyenje et al. , 2013Kulabako et al. 2010;Kulabako, Nalubega, and Thunvik 2007). The main OSS practices contributing to shallow groundwater contamination in the study area include pit latrines and septic tanks (Twinomucunguzi et al. 2021b;Nyenje et al. 2014;Kulabako, Nalubega, and Thunvik 2007); illicit solid waste dumping (Nyenje et al. 2013;Kinobe et al. 2015); and greywater disposal (Katukiza et al. 2012;Kulabako et al. 2010). Subsistence urban agricultural practices, including poultry, piggery and cattle rearing in back-yard shelters, is also a common practice in the area (Katongole et al. 2012;Kulabako et al. 2010). ...
... Several programs have been designed in search of a sustainability among population growth, caused environmental impact, and mortality rates reductionmainly, in urban settlements. Most of such programs consider the importance of ensuring equitable access to municipal solid waste (MSW) collection services [3,4,5,6]. ...
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This paper presents the results of the optimization of the urban solid waste container network in the urban sector of the Ibarra City, Ecuador by the implementation of an optimization model, which consists of a multi-objective mixed integer programming model which has been successfully used in the context of recycling in past studies. This model was modified so that possible locations of the containers at each corner of the blocks containing the constructed buildings were considered. As well, a restriction to count the containers to be installed was added. Furthermore, to add robustness to the model, it was also considered the filling of the container based on the density of the deposited waste and the model objective functions-being, a weighted sum of the cost of the installation of the network along with the average walking distance between users and the assigned containers. The outputs of the model are the total number of containers and a map with the optimal locations of municipal solid waste containers for Ibarra city. The model was implemented in GAMS platform wherein parameters can be permanently revised so that the results may be updated in case of variations of the initial conditions.
... Evacuating the waste out of the city by formal SWM services needs stable cash flows (Horen, 2004) and growing cities can benefit from their economies of scale (Carvalho and Marques, 2014;Lombrano, 2009;Santibañez-Aguilar et al., 2013) but also here there are agglomeration problems. City growth implies that waste needs to be transported over longer distances in heavy traffic and transfer stations are needed (Fugii, 2019;Kinobe et al., 2015;Rathore and Sarmah, 2019;Thikimoanh et al., 2015). If this is not done properly, the efficiency goes down quickly (Rathore and Sarmah, 2019). ...
Article
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Cities in developing countries struggle with providing good waste collection services to all their citizens. Daily practice mostly shows low service coverage, especially in the poorer parts of cities. Up until now, research has mainly dealt with the symptoms of poor performance. This article aims at designing a qualitative System Dynamics model of the urban system that may serve as a diagnostic tool to find the root causes and leverage points for interventions. The research presented here uses a broad literature review to draw up a complex causal loop diagram describing all relevant urban variables (demographic, economic, social, financial, technical and governance-related) and their relations. The diagram is analysed using qualitative methods, partly derived from graph theory. It results in an evaluation of all variables, paths, loops and branches of the model, and finally in a simplified model. This simplified model is helpful in diagnosing waste management problems in cities, in formulating interventions and their points of leverage and even in formulating a new taxonomy that classifies cities with regard to the effect and delay in their urban processes. When it comes to interventions, the model suggests that the root cause is in populations growing faster than their economies, and that the enabling circumstances are mainly in poor governance practices that are unable to secure that tax incomes keep pace with needed budgets for sound services.
... GIS also is one of the common methods in transportation route optimization [37]. Kinobe et al. used GIS to select the site of the waste landfill plant in Kampala under the constraint of waste transportation routes and time [38]. Additionally, the simulation method has also been applied in waste transportation optimization. ...
Article
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The output of municipal solid waste is growing rapidly, which has brought tremendous pressure to urban development. The supply chain of municipal solid waste (MSW) in China mainly contains three processes: collection, transportation, and disposal. The waste is sorted at the collection and disposed of according to the classification. However, it is mixed at the transportation stage. Mixed transportation remixes the separately collected waste, which seriously affects the disposal effect. The supply chain of MSW urgently needs to be redesigned to improve the MSW disposal effect. First of all, on the ground of the waste treatment situation, we redesigned the supply chain of MSW in China. Secondly, combined with the redesign of the MSW supply chain, this paper established the function allocation model for collection stations, making a collection station only gather one type of waste, and built the transportation path planning model for vehicles, reducing the impact of waste storage on residents. Finally, based on the data of Xuanwu District in Beijing, the supply chain redesigning practical example of incinerable waste was given. The supply chain redesigning model in this paper not only makes full use of the existing infrastructure but also improves the disposal effect of waste. The supply chain redesigning model has practical application value.
... Therefore, based on institutional theory, the circular model can reach many developing countries, particularly developing countries where there are no adequate institutional structures concerning the management of natural resources, air pollution, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, food waste, etc. increasingly affecting society (Kinobe et al., 2015). For Xu and Zeng (2017), institutional pressure positively and significantly affects supply chain actors concerning sustainable design. ...
Article
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The current linear economy, inherited from the 19th-century industrial revolution, has reached its limit due to the depletion of natural resources. In this context, the notion of circular economy (CE) emerged, which is regenerative and restorative. It deals with the transformation of waste or garbage into other value-added resources. This paper aims to discuss the issue of food waste from the perspective of the CE. It was evident that there is a more significant accumulation of papers published in developed countries than in developing countries on the CE of food waste. The Systematic Literature Review (SLR) raises research gaps and suggestions for future work and offers actionable inferences for practice. We found that researchers focused their studies more on the economic and environmental impacts of the CE than on the social implications in food supply chains. This paper can contribute to academics and practitioners interested in this area of study because it identifies research gaps and avenues for future studies.
... e purpose of their study was to cover all demand points and to employ an innovative method to optimize routes and the number of vehicles. Kinobe et al. [10] presented a novel and compound approach to optimize waste collection and disposal in the city of Kampala. eir methodology includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to optimize total traveled distance, number of trips, and the total spent time on waste collection. is resulted in maximizing the total volume of collected waste, large savings, and environmental conservation. ...
Article
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Municipal solid waste management (MSW) is a factor that affects environmental pollution and the spread of diseases in cities. Therefore, an efficient MSW management system results in reducing the cost of environmental impact by tackling the processes of waste collection, recycling, and disposal. In this study, a biobjective optimization model is developed which aims to minimize the costs of facility location and transportation planning and the emission of environmental pollutants. Furthermore, to consider the uncertain nature of the problem, demand or the volume of the generated waste is considered as a random parameter. As a result, a stochastic mathematical programming model with probable constraints is developed. To solve and validate the model, the ε-constraint approach has been employed. Moreover, for a real-world application of the proposed model, a case study is implemented in Qazvin, Iran. Finally, various problems are solved for different levels of reliability and an efficient MSW system is designed for each of them. Results show that the proposed method was able to achieve Pareto solutions where managers can decide to choose one of them based on their priorities in comparison with the current status. Moreover, results revealed cost and emission would be reduced by increasing confidence level. Finally, a comparison is made between our proposed ε-constraint method and one of the recently used solution approaches.
... Mechanism set in explanation in sub 3.2. The truck route is obtained by the analysis of the shortest route using Arc GIS, GIS tools are suggested to support the best waste collection routes [16], while the transfer point location is a strategic point according to the results of a survey team from the Department Public Works of Wakatobi. A well-designed location plays a critical role in establishing a financially sustainable management system [17]. ...
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Wakatobi is the center of the world’s coral triangle with its rich marine biodiversity. Aside from being a conservation area, Wakatobi is also a tourist destination that is demanded to be able to maintain the quality of its environment. One of its challenges is solid waste management. Wangi-Wangi Island is an urban area of Wakatobi that requires attention in solid waste management. Nowadays, the handling of solid waste in this area only covers 54%. Waste collection and transportation systems have not been through good planning. In addition, the limited facilities and the lack of operational costs are the causes of low coverage handling services. This study aims to analyze the system of collecting and transporting to make solid waste management efficient on Wangi-Wangi Island. The research methodology was conducted by surveying the existing patterns, analyzing the system by transforming the collection pattern and selecting the best transportation route using GIS. The results showed that by changing the pattern of transportation of solid waste from direct to indirect and choosing the best route with the fastest travel time. Solid waste management coverage can be increased by 80% by reducing transportation costs from 46,596 to 31,475 rupiah / ton or savings up to 30%.
... ArcGIS network analysis is an extension of GIS and it helps solve network problems by calculating travel time and distance, locating facilities, and planning routes for the entire fleet (Son, 2014). Kinobe et al. (2015) used GIS to optimize waste collection in Kampala, Uganda, seeking to maximize total waste collected while minimizing total vehicle numbers and total travel distance. The results increased waste collection per vehicle from 6 to 10 metrics ton, reduced travel distance by 34%, and reduced the number of trips from 82 to 48. ...
Article
The waste collection routing problem (WCRP) can be defined as a problem of designing a route to serve all of the customers (represented as nodes) with the least total traveling time or distance, served by the least number of vehicles under specific constraints, such as vehicle capacity. The relevance of WCRP is rising due to its increased waste generation and all the challenges involved in its efficient disposal. This research provides a mini-review of the latest approaches and its application in the collection and routing of waste. Several metaheuristic algorithms are reviewed, such as ant colony optimization, simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, large neighborhood search, greedy randomized adaptive search procedures, and others. Some other approaches to solve WCRP like GIS is also introduced. Finally, a performance comparison of a real-world benchmark is presented as well as future research opportunities in WCRP field.
... This aids in decision making in terms of corrective measures to enhance performance and future projections. Performance indicators of solid waste collection include cost of operational activities [19], distances traveled by vehicles for haulage [11,20], quantity of waste collected [21,22], scheduling and routing of vehicles [23], and number of waste truck trips [4,24]. Other indicators, as reported by Johansson [25], include total operational cost of the system, penalty cost, labor hours, and number of containers collected. ...
Article
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This paper reviews the effect of applying optimization methods on the collection process of solid waste, with particular interest in mathematical programming and geographic information system approaches in developing countries. Mathematical programming approaches maximize or minimize an objective function for improvement in procedure, to ensure operational efficiency and also serve as decision support tools. They however provide partial solutions when implemented in reality and cannot fully handle road network constraints. Geographic information system approaches allow processing of additional considerations, often ignored in other methods, such as the street network modeling. Incorporating environmental pollution consideration is very challenging in this approach, the vehicle routing problem solver encountering limits for large data. For enhanced efficiency of the vehicle routing systems, studies should further focus on incorporating all network constraints, environmental pollution considerations, and impact of land use changes on routing.
Article
The Solid Waste Management topic has assumed a large dimension in the present time due to rapid urbanization improved standards of living and concern for environmental quality the solid wastes collection and transportation are considered as one of the important elements of any solid waste management system. Many stated that a substantial shear of the total expenditure on solid waste management is spent on collection as such any improvements in the designing of collection system could result in substantial savings in cost. In Karbala the solid waste collection from the different regions, transfer and transport to the sanitary landfills are carried out by Municipality of Karbala. During the field survey it is noticed that the solid waste collection and transferring are accomplished by old manners and there is no program for solid waste management concerning the routs of the collection vehicles to achieve an efficient collection. Hence, and from this point of view, this study is initiated upon the request by Municipality of Karbala. The area under study constitutes of three districts in Karbala, namely, [Shohadaa AL-Molhaq and Dhobat AL-Usra]. These three distrctis are selected for their variety in activities (residential areas, hospital, laboratories, restaurant, etc.,). The field survey is executed for the area under study and the length of main and branch streets are determined. Moreover, the quantity Of solid waste generated daily is defined according to the collection vehicles load, taking the population density and the activity nature into consideration. Three plans for the districts in the area under study are prepared. These plans show the streets and nodes which represent the intersection points. Each street is defined by two nodes (start and end nodes) and the quantity of solid wastes generated from each street, is distributed to represent the load (flow) at start and end notes. All this information is used as input data for QSB program which treats these data mathematically to find three different solutions. Each solution represents a suggested rout for collection vehicles according to certain objective function.
Presentation
--- Educational and scientific discussions on student's thesis topics. --- Presentations on 5 emerging research subjects and their recent advances: o G.-W. Weber and E. Barbee Tirkolaee, A Novel Mathematical Model for Robust Green Urban Waste Collection, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber and E. Burcu Gürbüz, A Novel Mathematical Model for Robust Green Urban Waste Collection, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber, B. Kjamili and D. Czerkawski, LiBerated Social Entrepreneur Using Business Metrics: Migport Refugee Big Data Analytics - With a Note on Ability and Disability, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o E. Wiecek-Janka, J. Majchrzak, M. Wyrwicka and G.-W. Weber, Application of Grey Clusters in the Development of a Synthetic Model of the Goals of Polish Family Enterprises' Successors, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber, I. Baltas and A.N. Yannacopoulos, A robust control approach to optimal management of defined contribution pension funds, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama,
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This study develops and applies a logistic route-optimizing model of the collection of bale wrap waste from farms in North Karelia, Finland. To assess cost-efficiency the model analyzed three collection scenarios for one- and three-year collection intervals by full trailer combination truck and annually by lorry. According to our study the cheapest per tonne cost to collect bale wrap waste is to carry out a collection every third year by full trailer combination truck. In the three-year option the per tonne cost is 54,5 percent of the cost collecting waste by lorry annually and 42,2 percent of the per tonne cost collecting waste by full trailer combination truck annually. To maximize the loading grade of a vehicle only, the collection of waste can be made most efficiently by lorries. The study demonstrates the importance of purposefully selecting the vehicle type and the collection intervals in collecting bulk plastic waste.
Article
This paper presents a multi-objective optimization model for the design of a waste management system consisting of customers, transfer stations, landfills and collection vehicles. The developed model aims to simultaneously minimize the total costs, greenhouse gas emissions and the rates of energy consumption. To tackle the multiple objectives in the problem, an interactive fuzzy programming solution approach is utilized. The model is capable of determining the location and allocation of transfer stations as well as the selection of the waste processing technologies. The proposed model is applied to a case problem where real data is used for long-term planning of solid waste of Tehran city.
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Solid waste collection constitutes 60-80% of the total solid waste management cost. Reduction of solid waste collection cost can be achieved through route optimization in a geographic information system (GIS) environment. The purpose of this study was to generate optimized routes for solid waste collection on Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology campus in Kumasi, Ghana. The study modelled the existing routes for a complete collection cycle using travel time criteria and generated optimized routes for same using an ArcGIS software. Validation of the optimized outcome (travel distance and travel time) was done by subjecting the solid waste collection trucks to the optimized routes. The results from the study showed significant reduction in total travel time from 1,000.75 mins to 855.70 mins for existing and optimized routes respectively, translating into saving of 14.5%. Total travel distance significantly reduced from 367.30 km to 334.20 km for existing and optimized routes respectively, representing saving of 9.0%. Significant savings in travel time and travel distance have implications on reduction of fuel and maintenance cost of institutional solid waste collection trucks. The results indicate that the application of GIS-based route optimization in solid waste collection can provide significant improvement in reduction of operating cost.
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The collection and the transportation of waste are considered ones of the main tasks that the municipality undertakes and this task requires a lot of expenses, that's why this mission has to be managed well. Unfortunately, such as the case with Taroudant city. In this context, this study was carried out in order to suggest better strategies of collecting waste with the possibility of reducing the cost if an effective management plan is followed. The Geographic Information System (GIS) is the tool applied in this study, this provides an advanced and enhanced modeling framework for decision makers, it allows the analysis and the stimulation of various aspects of waste management. The objective is to achieve better optimization of the distance traveled and to reduce the time for collection circuits such as household or similar waste. However, the main goal is to improve the efficiency of waste collection and transportation, while at the same time increasing the efficiency of waste collection rates through bin reallocation and the introduction of new collection routes. So, the project's methodology deals with all the information, such as the orientation of the road routes, the spatial distribution of the inhabitants, the location of the containers and their coverage radii. In order to have the different proposals of the optimized and profitable scenarios of household waste collection. The main results of the study show that the proposed scenarios significantly improve the efficiency of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption, this is due to a 20.43% decrease in time and 19.64% decrease in distance traveled. As a result, there will be significant cost reductions compared to the current practical situations of waste management in the city of Taroudant.
Article
Municipal solid waste (MSW) management remains a challenge in developing countries due to increasing waste generation, high costs associated with waste management and the structure of the containment systems implemented. This study analyses the classification of landfilling systems by using documented cases reported mainly in publications in waste management in relation to non-engineered landfilling systems/approved dumpsites in Sub Saharan African (SSA) countries from 2000 to 2018. The work identifies an existing system for the classification of landfill sites and utilises this system to determine the situation of landfill sites in SSA countries. Each article was categorised according to the main landfilling management practice reported: Uncontrolled dumping, semi controlled facility, medium controlled facility, medium/high-engineered facility or high state-of the-art facility. Findings suggested that 80% of the documented cases of landfill sites assessed in SSA countries were classified as level 0 or 1. The structure of the containment and controlled regime were identified by the focus group discussion participants as important predictors of possible strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for the landfill sites considered. The study represents the first identifiable and comprehensive academic evaluation of landfill site classification based on site operations reported in the available peer reviewed literature. The information provides insight on the status of landfill sites in SSA countries with respect to the landfilling management practice and a baseline for alternative corrective measures.
Presentation
--- Educational and scientific discussions with students. --- Presentations on 5 emerging research subjects and their recent advances: o G.-W. Weber and E. Barbee Tirkolaee, A Novel Mathematical Model for Robust Green Urban Waste Collection, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber and E. Burcu Gürbüz, A Novel Mathematical Model for Robust Green Urban Waste Collection, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber, B. Kjamili and D. Czerkawski, LiBerated Social Entrepreneur Using Business Metrics: Migport Refugee Big Data Analytics - With a Note on Ability and Disability, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o E. Wiecek-Janka, J. Majchrzak, M. Wyrwicka and G.-W. Weber, Application of Grey Clusters in the Development of a Synthetic Model of the Goals of Polish Family Enterprises' Successors, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama, o G.-W. Weber, I. Baltas and A.N. Yannacopoulos, A robust control approach to optimal management of defined contribution pension funds, distributed to universities: USU, UMSU, UINSU, Panca Budi and Potensi Utama,
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Ускоренное перемещение людей в города привело к тому, что городское население мира в настоящее время увеличивается на 60 млн. чел. в год. Возрастающее количество городского населения оказывает значительное воздействие на объем образования бытовых отходов, которые нужно своевременно собирать и подвергать рециклингу. Сбор бытовых отходов, особенно в центральной части города связан с рядом проблем; система сбора должна быть надежной, гибкой, экономически эффективной и экологически чистой. В рамках этой статьи авторы описали возможности применения технологий Индустрии охранение. Затем описывается бинарный алгоритм летучих мышей5, результативность которого подтверждена различными эталонными функциями. Сценарный анализ подтверждает модель, а затем оценивается ее результативность для повышения экономической эффективности и гарантии экологической информированности о процессе сбора отходов.
Presentation
Outline: Introduction, Literature review, Problem description/Mathematical model, Robust optimization approach, Augmented ε-constraint method, Illustrative example, Model validation, Sensitivity analysis, References. (distributed)
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Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is possible to be identified as one of the mostly cited fields in the optimization applications. This is because optimization of solid waste management is most general in contemporary research applications as the issue is being becoming more complex and impasse with rapidly increasing of urban population particularly in the developing world. Optimal site selection is to be identified as one of the famous facility location problems in the discipline of location science. With a range of growing impediments, such as scarcity of suitable lands for dumping, increasing of transportation and labour costs, diversifying of environmental pollutions etc, the application of optimization approaches on municipal solid waste management has been very famous among scholars and policy planners. The city of Colombo is a famous rapidly growing and propelling city in the South Asia. This is because many forms of internal migration flows can be seen into the city of Colombo. On this background, daily tonnage of solid waste accumulation has been augmented exponentially. At present, the issue has been become one of the burning dilemmas in the city. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to identify the potential, optimal and safe sites for SMW management in the city of Colombo by using GIS and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The study used mainly five criteria (Inhabited and build-up areas, Slopes, Elevation, Water bodies, and Road categories) and different constraints for each of them in terms of the optimal and safe site selection mechanism. The AHP approach is applied in order to obtain acute factor scoring and weighting scheme. Finally, the study used Weighted Overlay method in ArcGIS 10.2 environment for the optimal and safe site selection. The analyses of the results are revealed that six vacant sites are available and they are potentials to be used as optimal and safe sites for the MSW management practices. The study suggests that the preliminary sites investigations are needed to be done in order  본 논문은 서울대학교 국토문제연구소의 지원을 받아 출간되었음
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Pengangkutan sampah merupakan bagian dari kegiatan pengelolaan sampah yang berpengaruh pada biaya keseluruhan pengelolaan dimana anggaran pengangkutan sampah dapat mencapai 60% dari total seluruh biaya pengelolaan sampah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengoptimasi sistem manajemen pengangkutan sampah di Kecamatan Jati, Kabupaten Kudus yang dikelola oleh Dinas Perumahan, Kawasan Permukiman dan Lingkungan Hidup, Kabupaten Kudus. Optimasi dilakukan dengan membandingkan sistem manajemen pengangkutan sampah eksisting dengan merencanakan sistem baru yang dibuat dengan berpedoman pada Permen PU Nomor 3 Tahun 2013 tentang Penyelenggaraan Prasarana dan Sarana Persampahan dalam Penanganan Sampah Rumah Tangga dan Sampah Sejenis Sampah Rumah Tangga. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang telah dilakukan, sistem manajemen pengangkutan sampah Kecamatan Jati saat ini dapat dioptimasi pada teknik operasionalnya yang meliputi pemilihan pola yang efektif dan efisien, pembagian rute secara merata dan penyediaan sarana pengangkutan sampah yang baik. Dengan demikian, pemerintah daerah setempat dapat melakukan pelayanan pengangkutan sampah secara maksimal, menggunakan waktu kerja secara efektif, mengefisienkan sarana pengangkutan sampah serta dapat mengurangi anggaran manajemen sampah secara keseluruhan
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Presentation
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Rapid improvements in the hardware and software for geographic information system (GIS) have enhanced its potential for solving various types of engineering and management problems. This study develops a multiobjective, mixed-integer programming model for collection vehicle routing and scheduling for solid waste management systems synthesized within a GIS environment. The integration of the mathematical programming model and the GIS were demonstrated through application to a specific site in Taiwan. The proposed interactive design procedure using GIS allows a decision maker to analyze many waste collection alternatives before selecting a final operational scenario. Such a system also has potential application in many other environmental planning and management problems.
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This paper presents future trends of urban wastes and their impacts on the environment of African cities using plausible mitigation scenarios. To accomplish this, an integrated dynamic model for urban waste flows was developed, tested, calibrated and validated. Its parameter sensitivity was analyzed. Using population projection up to 2052 with different levels of technological implementation, policy enforcement and awareness raising, four runs were executed. The “business as usual” run showed that with no additional mitigation measures, the environmental quality in Kampala and Dar es salaam Cities deteriorates. The “more enforcement” and “more collection” scenarios showed good reduction in environmental loads but they perform less well in resource recovery. The “proper management” scenario that combines enhanced technological implementation, awareness raising and policy enforcement, produced the smallest environmental loads, and recovered the largest amount of resources. Thus, the city authorities, general public, community based organisations and Non-governmental organizations would have to increase their efforts in finances and commitment to improve the urban environmental quality and increase resource recovery.
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The food supply chain is a current focus for considerations of food safety and environmental impacts. The objective of this study was to investigate local food supply chain characteristics and develop a coordinated distribution system to improve logistics efficiency, reduce environmental impact, increase potential market for local food producers and improve traceability of food origin for consumers. The study was based on data from 90 local food producers and 19 existing large scale food distribution centres (LSFDC) from all over Sweden. Location analysis was done using Geographic Information System (GIS) to map locations of producers and LSFDCs; to build cluster of producers; and to determine optimal product collection centres (CC). The route analysis was carried out using Route LogiX software, firstly for collection of food products from farms to CCs based on two scenarios, either producers transporting their products (no coordination) or CCs managing coordinated collection of products, and secondly for product distribution from CCs to potential markets. When compared to the first scenario, the second had improved the number of routes, driving distance and product delivery time by 68%, 50% and 47% respectively. In total, 14 clusters of producers were formed and 86% of these clusters could be integrated into the LSFDCs. This network integration could make positive improvements towards potential markets, logistics efficiency, environmental issues and traceability of food quality.
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This paper reports on an integration of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and inexact mixed integer linear programming (IMILP) methods to support selection of an optimal landfill site and a waste-flow-allocation pattern such that the total system cost can be minimized. Selection of a landfill site involves both qualitative and quantitative criteria and heuristics. In order to select the best landfill location, it is often necessary to compromise among possibly conflicting tangible and intangible factors. Different multi-objective programming models have been proposed to solve the problem. A weakness with the different multi-objective programming models used to solve the problem is that they are basically mathematical and ignore qualitative and often subjective considerations such as the risk of groundwater pollution as well as other environmental and socio-economic factors which are important in landfill selection. The selection problem also involves a change in allocation pattern of waste-flows required by construction of a new landfill. A waste flow refers to the routine of transferring waste from one location in a city to another. In selection of landfill locations, decision makers need to consider both the potential sites that should be used as well as the allocation pattern of the waste-flow at different periods of time. This paper reports on our findings in applying an integrated IMILP/MCDA approach for solving the solid waste management problem in a prairie city. The five MCDA methods of simple weighted addition, weighted product, co-operative game theory, TOPSIS, and complementary ELECTRE are adopted to evaluate the landfill site alternatives considered in the solid waste management problem, and results from the evaluation process are presented.
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a b s t r a c t This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container provision and providing timely and fixed collection time tables. Contrary to popular perception, fees charged by private companies are moderate. Public sector clients are charged fees even when the service is supposed to be free. Clients of private sector providers are more satisfied than those of public sector providers. It is however, revealed that while public sector serve mainly the low incomes, the private sector serves mainly the rich. In spite of these notable differences, clients of both public and private sector perceive the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in Kampala to be very serious. The effectiveness of public and private sector operations in solid waste collection in Kampala is hampered by corruption and lack of transparency. Given the situation of open competition for clients involving both public and private sector in Kampala, it is possible the public sector can operate effectively if they start commercial services officially like their private sector counterparts. This calls for a formal public-private partnership where the public and private sector can work together with the public sector dominating poor and marginalized areas while the private sector concentrates on rich neighborhoods.
Chapter
Definition of TermsIntegrated Waste ManagementSources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Solid WasteOn-Site Handling and StorageSolid Waste CollectionTransfer and TransportWaste Reduction and Materials RecoveryCompostingSanitary Landfill Planning, Design, and OperationIncinerationHazardous WastesReferencesBibliography
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This paper reports the study made on goods flow to, from, and within the agricultural sector in Uppsala region in Sweden in 1999. Agricultural and related goods transport has increased steadily in the recent decades, and empty haulage is common (up to about 45%) in the sector. The resulting transport intensification leads to environmental degradation by contributing to air pollution, global warming, ozone depletion, resource depletion, congestion and traffic accidents.The main objective of the current work is to map out the material flow and to investigate the possibilities of coordinated transport of agricultural produce and agricultural means of production, supported by information technology. It is assumed that the information achieved through this investigation will assist to develop an effective transport-logistics system, which may enable an efficient utilization of vehicles to meet the current demand for attenuating environmental impacts.Data collection on daily goods distribution and collection including geographical location of collections/distribution points and routes was done using the global positioning system, GPS. A total of 196 routes were measured and optimization of goods distribution/collection and route was done made using the gathered data to estimate the environmental benefit.Possibilities and constraints of coordinated goods distribution and collection were analysed. Optimization of routes and distribution/collection and the computed emissions from the vehicles as a result of optimization are presented.
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Transport and handling of slaughter animals are associated with a series of stressful events for animals, compromising welfare and meat quality. This necessitates the development of effective logistics systems, taking into consideration, road and traffic conditions, climate, transport time and distance, and queuing at delivery. The objective of the current work was to describe the logistics chain of animal transport and abattoir operations in order to demonstrate potential effects of operations planning and route optimisation on animal welfare, meat quality and the environment. The operation considered involves loading, transporting and unloading animals and the slaughter chain from lairage box to cooling room for cattle carcasses. Data collection was carried out through truck-driver interviews; activity registration on routes and at delivery, and slaughter chain activity registration. Uneven distribution of delivery arrivals affected handling at the delivery gate. Queues before delivery and vehicle washing created problems, as reported by the drivers. Time and distance of transport could be reduced through route optimisation. The analysis of collection routes indicated potential for savings of more than 20% in time, for individual routes.
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This paper considers a truck scheduling problem in the context of solid waste collection in the City of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The problem consists of designing “good” daily truck schedules over a set of previously defined collection trips, on which the trucks collect solid waste in fixed routes and empty loads in one of several operational recycling facilities in the system. These facilities are managed by cooperatives whose members are poor and not part of the mainstream economy. The main objective is to minimize the total operating and fixed truck costs. We show that the problem can be modeled as a special case of the single-depot vehicle scheduling problem, which is polynomially solvable. However, due to the social benefits of the solid waste program, it is desirable to obtain balanced assignments of collection trips unloading their cargo at the recycling facilities. We prove that the truck scheduling problem considering balanced unloading is NP-hard. A heuristic approach, incorporating an auction algorithm and a dynamic penalty method, is designed to acquire a good solution. Finally, computational experiments are conducted on real data. The results show that the heuristic approach simultaneously reduces total costs and balances the number of trips assigned to each recycling facility.
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Today, driver support tools intended to increase traffic safety, provide the driver with convenient information and guidance, or save time are becoming more common. However, few systems have the primary aim of reducing the environmental effects of driving. The aim of this project was to estimate the potential for reducing fuel consumption and thus the emission of CO2 through a navigation system where optimization of route choice is based on the lowest total fuel consumption (instead of the traditional shortest time or distance), further the supplementary effect if such navigation support could take into account real-time information about traffic disturbance events from probe vehicles running in the street network. The analysis was based on a large database of real traffic driving patterns connected to the street network in the city of Lund, Sweden. Based on 15 437 cases, the fuel consumption factor for 22 street classes, at peak and off-peak hours, was estimated for three types of cars using two mechanistic emission models. Each segment in the street network was, on a digitized map, attributed an average fuel consumption for peak and off-peak hours based on its street class and traffic flow conditions. To evaluate the potential of a fuel-saving navigation system the routes of 109 real journeys longer than 5 min were extracted from the database. Using Esri’s external program ArcGIS, Arcview and the external module Network Analysis, the most fuel-economic route was extracted and compared with the original route, as well as routes extracted from criterions concerning shortest time and shortest distance. The potential for further benefit when the system employed real-time data concerning the traffic situation through 120 virtual probe vehicles running in the street network was also examined. It was found that for 46% of trips in Lund the drivers spontaneous choice of route was not the most fuel-efficient. These trips could save, on average, 8.2% fuel by using a fuel-optimized navigation system. This corresponds to a 4% fuel reduction for all journeys in Lund. Concerning the potential for real-time information from probe vehicles, it was found that the frequency of disturbed segments in Lund was very low, and thus so was the potential fuel-saving. However, a methodology is presented that structures the steps required in analyzing such a system. It is concluded that real-time traffic information has the potential for fuel-saving in more congested areas if a sufficiently large proportion of the disturbance events can be identified and reported in real-time.
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This paper is a survey of location-routing: a relatively new branch of locational analysis that takes into account vehicle routing aspects. We propose a classification scheme and look at a number of problem variants. Both exact and heuristic algorithms are investigated. Finally, some suggestions for future research are presented.
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The collection of waste is a highly visible and important municipal service that involves large expenditures. Waste collection problems are, however, one of the most difficult operational problems to solve. This paper describes the optimization of vehicle routes and schedules for collecting municipal solid waste in Eastern Finland. The solutions are generated by a recently developed guided variable neighborhood thresholding metaheuristic that is adapted to solve real-life waste collection problems. Several implementation approaches to speed up the method and cut down the memory usage are discussed. A case study on the waste collection in two regions of Eastern Finland demonstrates that significant cost reductions can be obtained compared with the current practice.
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In physical distribution the location of depots and vehicle routes are interdependent problems, but they are usually treated independently. Location-routing is the study of solving locational problems such that routing considerations are taken into account. We present an iterative heuristic for the location-routing problem on the plane. For each depot the Weber problem is solved using the end-points of the routes found previously as input nodes to the Weiszfeld procedure. Although the improvements found are usually small they show that it pays not to ignore the routing aspects when solving continuous location problems. Possible research avenues in continuous location-routing will also be suggested.
Article
Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).
Article
Collection of municipal solid waste (MSW) may account for more than 70% of the total waste management budget, most of which is for fuel costs. It is therefore crucial to optimise the routing network used for waste collection and transportation. This paper proposes the use of geographical information systems (GIS) 3D route modelling software for waste collection and transportation, which adds one more degree of freedom to the system and allows driving routes to be optimised for minimum fuel consumption. The model takes into account the effects of road inclination and vehicle weight. It is applied to two different cases: routing waste collection vehicles in the city of Praia, the capital of Cape Verde, and routing the transport of waste from different municipalities of Santiago Island to an incineration plant. For the Praia city region, the 3D model that minimised fuel consumption yielded cost savings of 8% as compared with an approach that simply calculated the shortest 3D route. Remarkably, this was true despite the fact that the GIS-recommended fuel reduction route was actually 1.8% longer than the shortest possible travel distance. For the Santiago Island case, the difference was even more significant: a 12% fuel reduction for a similar total travel distance. These figures indicate the importance of considering both the relief of the terrain and fuel consumption in selecting a suitable cost function to optimise vehicle routing.
Article
Emission samples for toxicity testing and detailed chemical characterization were collected from a variety of gasoline- and diesel-fueled in-use vehicles operated on the Unified Driving Cycle on a chassis dynamometer. Gasoline vehicles included normal particle mass (particulate matter [PM]) emitters (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F), "black" and "white" smokers, and a new-technology vehicle (tested at 72 degrees F). Diesel vehicles included current-technology vehicles (tested at 72 and 30 degrees F) and a high PM emitter. Total PM emission rates ranged from below 3 mg/mi up to more than 700 mg/mi for the white smoker gasoline vehicle. Emission rates of organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC), elements (metals and associated analytes), ions, and a variety of particulate and semi-volatile organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], nitro-PAH, oxy-PAH, hopanes, and steranes) are reported for these vehicles. Speciated organic analysis also was conducted on the fuels and lube oils obtained from these vehicles after the emissions testing. The compositions of emissions were highly dependent on the fuel type (gasoline vs. diesel), the state of vehicle maintenance (low, average, or high emitters; white or black smokers), and ambient conditions (i.e., temperature) of the vehicles. Fuel and oil analyses from these vehicles showed that oil served as a repository for combustion byproducts (e.g., PAH), and oil-burning gasoline vehicles emitted PAH in higher concentrations than did other vehicles. These PAH emissions matched the PAH compositions observed in oil.
Article
This paper provides an overview of the state of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) by local authorities in Kenya as a case study of a low-income developing country. Approaches of possible solutions that can be undertaken to improve municipal solid waste (MSW) services are discussed. Poor economic growth (1.1% in 1993) has resulted in an increase in the poverty level which presently stands at 56%. Migration from the rural areas to the urban areas has resulted in unplanned settlements in suburban areas accommodating about 60% of the urban population on only 5% urban land area. Political interference also hampers smooth running of local authorities. Vulnerability of pollution of surface and groundwater is high because local authorities rarely considered environmental impact in siting MSW disposal sites. Illegal dumping of MSW on the river banks or on the roadside poses environmental and economic threats on nearby properties. Poor servicing of MSW collection vehicles, poor state of infrastructure and the lack of adequate funding militate against optimization of MSW disposal service. The rural economy needs to be improved if rural-urban migration is to be managed. Involvement of stakeholders is important to achieve any meaningful and sustainable MSWM. The role of the informal sector through community-based organizations (CBOs), Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and the private sector in offering solutions towards improvement of MSWM also is explored.
Article
Optimization of solid waste management systems using operational research methodologies has not yet been applied in any Egyptian governorate. In this paper, a proposed model for a municipal solid waste management system in Port Said, Egypt is presented. It includes the use of the concept of collection stations, which have not yet been used in Egypt. Mixed integer programming is used to model the proposed system and its solution is performed using MPL software V4.2. The results show that the best model would include 27 collection stations of 15-ton daily capacity and 2 collection stations of 10 ton daily capacity. Any transfer of waste between the collection station and the landfill should not occur. Moreover, the flow of the district waste should not be confined to the district collection stations. The cost of the objective function for this solution is 10,122 LE/day (equivalent to 1716 US dollars). After further calculations, the profit generated by the proposed model is 49,655.8 LE/day (equivalent to 8418.23 US dollars).
Article
Uncontrolled growth of the urban population in developing countries in recent years has made solid waste management an important issue. Very often, a substantial amount of total expenditures is spent on the collection of solid waste by city authorities. Optimization of the routing system for collection and transport of solid waste thus constitutes an important component of an effective solid waste management system. This paper describes an attempt to design and develop an appropriate storage, collection and disposal plan for the Asansol Municipality Corporation (AMC) of West Bengal State (India). A GIS optimal routing model is proposed to determine the minimum cost/distance efficient collection paths for transporting the solid wastes to the landfill. The model uses information on population density, waste generation capacity, road network and the types of road, storage bins and collection vehicles, etc. The proposed model can be used as a decision support tool by municipal authorities for efficient management of the daily operations for transporting solid wastes, load balancing within vehicles, managing fuel consumption and generating work schedules for the workers and vehicles. The total cost of the proposed collection systems is estimated to be around 80 million rupees for the fixed cost of storage bins, collection vehicles and a sanitary landfill and around 8.4 million rupees for the annual operating cost of crews, vehicles and landfill maintenance. A substantial amount (25 million rupees/yr) is currently being spent by AMC on waste collection alone without any proper storage/collection system and sanitary landfill. Over a projected period of 15 yr, the overall savings is thus very significant.
Article
This research centered on finding and perfecting methods of collection and disposal of refuse in Ibadan North Local Government Areas. The methodology used included questionnaire administration, personal interviews, field reconnaissance, and biochemical tests of water samples, all aimed at providing useful data for the design of effective methods of collecting and disposing refuse. The local government area was divided into three classes based on resident income: a high-income area (Bodija Avenue, etc.), a medium-income area (Sanngo, Oluyole, etc.), and a low-income area (Beere, Adeoyo, etc.). The research outcomes revealed that the waste generation rate for the local government ranged from 0.2 to 0.33 kg/cap/day and waste density ranged from 172.41 to 217.61 kg/m3. Water analyses showed that the chloride, manganese, lead, and cadmium levels in water from low-income areas were above the WHO standard. The refuse generated in high and medium-income areas was collected and transported to the disposal site properly while only 54.5% of wastes were handled properly in low-income areas. Also, in order to make low-income areas free from wastes daily, an additional 15 metal skips and 9 refuse vehicles would be needed.