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Customers' Participation in Product Development through Crowdsourcing: Issues and Implications

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Abstract

This paper focuses on customers' participation in a product development process through crowdsourcing practices. Results from five case studies of consumer goods companies suggest that the implementation of crowdsourcing operations affects the components of an existing business model and requires rethinking the marketing function. Moreover, despite some organizational constraints and fears, crowdsourcing generates a win-win relationship, creating value for both firms and customers. However, the findings reveal two negative consumer reactions to crowdsourcing practices, i.e., feelings of exploitation and being cheated, that may jeopardize their success. The results suggest the need to establish an open business model based on crowdsourcing.

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... Additionally, in markets with asymmetric information, expectations about a product's quality (services or goods) generate a certain level of thickness, which points to the relative frequency of buyers compared with sellers (Moellers et al. 2019). In such markets, buyers are unaware of the quality of a producer's product, whereas suppliers do not know the values that inspire an individual to buy a product (Djelassi and Decoopman 2013). This situation could help create a certain quality level. ...
... Consumers impact product design with their buying behaviors, influenced by prices, value propositions, and existing competitive qualities. Targeting a new market segment implies integrating these new customers' demands into the value proposition and revising the revenue model accordingly (Djelassi and Decoopman 2013). Another point is that value propositions are designed based on customer needs. ...
... Research has demonstrated that a doubled market can increase a company's average productivity by 2-10% (Ylimäki 2014). Many new technologies and innovations can only be developed in large markets with many customers because the constant costs of PD may be economically unjustifiable in small markets (Djelassi and Decoopman 2013). As customers are part of a larger environment, that is, society, the conditions of the business environment also affect the customer sector. ...
Article
Business systems are a subclass of dynamic, complex systems; the plurality of multifarious and interwoven factors affecting a business system makes prediction, modeling, and decision-making challenging for the players in such systems. This study conceptualises dynamic business modeling from a sustainability viewpoint by investigating the basic principles, requirements, and methodological limitations, as well as gaps in the business model design literature. This conceptual model combines an adapted business model canvas and system dynamics modeling using an up-to-date review. The studies used in this systematic review were retrieved from the Scopus and Web of Science databases between 2010 and 2021. The total number of publications in all databases was 422. However, following an in-depth investigation of these publications, 164 papers were selected for further review. Based on the business model canvas, the interactions between different business dimensions and the impact on environmental stakeholders were examined. Finally, a dynamic, sustainable business model canvas is conceptualised and developed. The findings suggest that the proposed system dynamics business modeling approach can frame the environmental, social, and economic drivers of value creation in a causal feedback structure and overcome the gaps and criticisms of existing business model design tools.
... The firm included in this study constitutes a unique setting considering its ad-hoc approach to the implementation of both platforms. In contrast to experienced firms investigated by previous research (Bjelland and Wood, 2008;Di Gangi et al., 2010;Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013), we selected a firm with limited experience and maturity with crowdsourcing. This enabled us to generate a rich understanding of: (1) the challenges faced by the firm when implementing internal and external crowdsourcing; ...
... First, our findings address recent calls for how crowdsourcing is implemented within firms (Palacios et al., 2016;Zuchowski et al., 2016;Birkinshaw, 2017;Blohm et al., 2018) and its impact on R&D employees and their work (Bogers et al., 2017;Lifshitz-Assaf, 2018). Our study points to the need to further explore internal and external crowdsourcing in the context of firms with lower maturity with these platforms, something that previous studies have paid less attention to due to their focus on more experienced firms (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). Second, our study provides an integrative perspective that considers both internal and external crowdsourcing. ...
... Second, our study provides an integrative perspective that considers both internal and external crowdsourcing. Their combination and management has been addressed only to a limited extent by crowdsourcing research as the majority of studies focuses either on internal or external crowdsourcing, with a few exceptions (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013;Simula and Ahola, 2014). Third, our study addresses recent calls about providing micro-level insights into the engagement of internal employees in open innovation practices such as crowdsourcing and related challenges when having to adapt to an open innovation culture (Antons et al., 2016;Lifshitz-Assaf, 2018;Mention et al., 2019;Ter Wal et al., 2017;Salter et al., 2014). ...
Article
It is increasingly common for firms to gather ideas and solutions through the use of crowdsourcing. However, limited focus is placed on understanding how firms can manage different crowdsourcing platforms to involve both employees and external crowds in innovation. The tendency of crowdsourcing research to focus on successful cases does not allow unfolding the difficulties that the implementation of these platforms create in less experienced firms. This paper presents an exploratory study of a large firm experimenting with both internal and external crowdsourcing. Based on data collected through interviews and secondary sources, we unveil the challenges experienced by the firm when implementing both platforms. We discuss how the implementation of both platforms impacted the work of R&D employees, as they were required to assume new roles and responsibilities related to crowdsourcing. Finally, we present how the firm attempted to address these issues. Implications for innovation research and practice are discussed.
... In general, customer participation refers to the extent to which a customer participates in the supplier's process for developing new products (Fang, 2008). Customer participation is considered as an essential strategy for new product development Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013;Chang & Taylor, 2016;Wang & Yu, 2019). While suppliers may lack knowledge to improve and refine their products (Sawhney et al., 2005), it has been long believed that customers play a critical role in offering ideas about needs and solutions that suppliers may lack internally (Bogers, Afuah, & Bastian, 2010;Cui & Wu, 2016;Nambisan, 2002;Vander Schee, Peltier, and Dahl, 2020). ...
... For example, customers may share knowledge with the supplier (Noordhoff et al., 2011) and offer ideas about their preferences (Powers, Sheng, & Li, 2016). To gain more information and ideas from customers to develop successful products, NPD requires greater customer participation (Athaide & Klink, 2009;Chang & Taylor, 2016), where customers can provide direct suggestions to technical problems (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013). Increasing and managing customer participation can thus enhance the success of new product development Smets et al., 2013;Chang & Taylor, 2016). ...
Article
The fast development of B2B digital platforms offers many suppliers opportunities to engage their customers in new product development projects on these platforms. However, customers are often reluctant to participate in these projects due to potential risks, such as leaking critical business information and opportunism. Digital platforms further increase these risks as customers may face more uncertainties due to a lack of physical contact on these platforms. Drawing on the transaction cost analysis, we examine how platform governance mechanisms (i.e., macroculture and collective sanctions) influence customer participation in supplier NPD on B2B digital platforms. We find that both macroculture and collective sanctions can potentially facilitate customer participation on B2B digital platforms but in different ways. Specifically, macroculture tends to influence customer participation directly, especially when customers have heterogeneous needs. In comparison, the impact of collective sanctions on customer participation is contingent on high platform accessibility and customer need heterogeneity.
... As technology is upgraded ad customers are rapidly adopting these technologies so online participation of customers pushes suppliers to invite crowd into creative input. Despite the implementation of crowdsourcing practices in many companies but still it is little understood (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013). More specifically, the following three questions are addressed: ...
... Customer participation formality in new product development process through practices of crowdsourcing was measured with four items developed by researchers. Crowdsourcing formally specifies the scale and nature of customer participation (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013) and Crowdsourcing formality for customer participation in new product development process encompasses two essential elements (Vargo & Lusch, 2008;Baron & Warnaby, 2011): (1) key resources for companies can be directly acquired from customers that are skills and knowledge (Arnould, Price & Malshe, 2006). (2) Key activities in the product development process are related to customer participation in knowledge exchange from initial idea through to marketing. ...
Article
Full-text available
Crowdsourcing communities' participation revolves around customers throughout all steps of creating ideas and product value. Firms across manufacturing industries and suppliers have started to interact with customers/users to understand their knowledge, creative ideas and influence. However, little research exists that looks at the interactions between customers and networking suppliers through crowdsourcing to know how product value is created. Using institutional arrangement perspective to develop an end to end model, we tested model empirically based on sample of 185 manufacturers of construction safety equipment, electronic and optics, metal and metal working, and rubber and plastic products industries. The results show that customer participation affects product value and ideas creation by improving effectiveness of the new designed product development process by enhancing ideas sharing and customer-supplier interactions. Concerning product development process, customer resources investments are enhanced by increasing the soundness of the customer participation process. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of customer participation on the customers' share of new ideas and product value contribution part which is based on the dependence and equity perspective. Finally, we propose several suggestions for the distribution of knowledge sharing and product value to ensure the distribution of value is fair.
... Hence, from a S-D logic perspective, consumers are regarded as value co-creators and implementers of value creation with brands (Vargo and Lusch, 2008). Consumers are the source of valuable information, ideas and knowledge for brands, further justifying the importance of facilitating the two forms of CP in the process of value creation (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013), especially for how CCI and CBI drive positive consumer behavioral intentions (Heinonen et al., 2018). ...
... The application of S-D logic is enhanced by social-media development, with brands investing substantial effort to facilitate CCI and CBI in order to collect feedback and ideas from consumers for improving their goods and services (Cheung et al., 2020c;Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013;Luo et al., 2015). Reportedly, most businesses utilize social-media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, WeChat and Weibo, to involve consumers as part of a strategy to improve their brand image (Cheung et al., 2020a;Luo et al., 2015). ...
Grounded on service-dominant logic (S-D logic), a vital issue for marketers is to understand how the multiple approaches encouraging consumer participation (CP), as manifested by consumer-consumer interaction (CCI) and consumer-brand interaction (CBI), reflect on the extent of consumer-brand engagement (CBE). This study examines the role of CCI and CBI in driving the CBE's cognitive, emotional and behavioral dimensions, and their effect on consumers' behavioral intentions based on repurchase intention and ongoing search behavior. Data collected from 316 Malaysian consumers using a self-administrated online survey was analyzed using Partial Least Square – Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The findings demonstrate the importance of the two forms of CP in strengthening the CBE dimensions, revealing that the cognitive engagement is an influential driver of consumers' ongoing search behavior, while emotional engagement and behavioral engagement are significant predictors of consumers' repurchase intention. We provide meaningful implications for marketers to manage CP on social-media platforms.
... Defined as contests among a crowd of individuals involving their skills, ideas, and creativity, crowdsourcing contests are becoming increasingly efficient for enterprises to spur innovation in product development and marketing [29,30]. By collecting solutions for creative and challenging problems, enterprises can stretch their external intelligence to develop new products or services [29][30][31], reduce costs [19,32], and strengthen customer relationships and brand visibility [31,33]. Meanwhile, crowdsourcing changes the way solvers work by offering them digital platforms to earn rewards, display talents, and even satisfy their psychological, emotional, or social demands [20,34,35]. ...
... Defined as contests among a crowd of individuals involving their skills, ideas, and creativity, crowdsourcing contests are becoming increasingly efficient for enterprises to spur innovation in product development and marketing [29,30]. By collecting solutions for creative and challenging problems, enterprises can stretch their external intelligence to develop new products or services [29][30][31], reduce costs [19,32], and strengthen customer relationships and brand visibility [31,33]. Meanwhile, crowdsourcing changes the way solvers work by offering them digital platforms to earn rewards, display talents, and even satisfy their psychological, emotional, or social demands [20,34,35]. ...
Article
Task instructions are seeker-generated content aiming to disclose information and persuade solvers to participate in crowdsourcing contests. There are various writing strategies for task instructions, with different levels of informativeness and persuasiveness for solvers. This work examines how requirement-oriented and reward-oriented strategies affect solver participation. The empirical results reveal a U-shaped relationship between the usage of restrictive words and the number of participants. In contrast, an inverted U-shaped relationship is found between terminology usage and participation. Emphasizing intrinsic and extrinsic rewards through issue-relevant information statements and emotional appeals also proves to be effective in motivating solvers’ involvement.
... Importantly, the underlying assumptions behind such forms of participation is to have a longterm and sustainable organizational advantage. So building upon customer engagement theory, the present study uses SNS-based platform to encourage customer participation (Quach et al., 2020) and subsequently, customer engagement (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). ...
... SNS provides a type of interaction-based platform that effectively encourages customer participation (Quach et al., 2020), and subsequently, customer engagement (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). On SNS, customers in fact, are given many opportunities to provide suggestions that help organizational productivity, through employee engagement, yielding in addition of revenues (Sawhney et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Existing research lacks a comprehensive understanding of the individual factors that may transform an “ordinary” customer into an active participator in the service innovation process and/or the situational factors that determine a customer's participation in any stage of the service innovation process. The purpose of this paper is to fill these research gaps by developing and validating a conceptual framework on CPSIB in the Indian hotel industry by using smartphones to access SNS apps. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey design method was used in this study to collect representative samples with greater response rates. The target population included in this study were hotel guests of all of the star category hotels in New Delhi who had earlier experiences of staying in star category hotels. Structured questionnaire was formulated, which was later pre-tested to confirm its reliability and validity. Out of 400 questionnaires, 348 usable responses were obtained. Findings This research examines CPSIB in the Indian hotel industry using SNS smartphone apps. It confirms that user innovativeness and perceived trust in the service provider determine customers' participative service innovation behavior, which further results in positive adoption intention via SNS smartphone apps. Research limitations/implications This research provides valuable insights into the hotel industry, specifically in the context of India. However, it has a few limitations that must be taken into account when generalizing its results. Practical implications First, investigating the key antecedents and consequences of CPSIB has important implications for marketing practitioners. Moreover, it was observed that hotel guests with higher innovativeness and trust in the service provider would show positive participative service innovation behavior toward innovating new services along with the hotel service providers, which may result in a positive adoption intention toward the newly developed services. Second, hoteliers should integrate hotel guests into hotel service innovation via the use of SNS smartphone apps. Social implications This research conceptualizes that user innovativeness is a driving factor for CPSIB that may further generate a positive adoption intention toward newly developed services. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, only a very few studies have tested the interrelationships between individual factors and customer participation behavior in the mobile technology-mediated service ecosystem simultaneously. Furthermore, research examining the individual and situational factors influencing CPSIB and adoption intention towards newly developed services using SNS smartphone apps is still in a nascent stage.
... Work Broad understanding Crowdsourcing does not need an active shift from current employees (or again, contractors) to the crowd; it can start with the crowd (Howe, 2006a) Different levels of skills are required (Felstiner, 2011) Human process tasks that are difficult to implement in software (Satzger et al., 2013) A wide range of pay levels (Hammon & Hippner, 2012;Hossain & Kauranen, 2015) Narrow understanding A job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) (Greengard, 2011;Satzger et al., 2013;Schörpf et al., 2017) Content creation, problem-solving and corporate R&D (Brabham, 2008;Kleemann et al., 2008). Usually innovation-related work (Saxton et al., 2013) Compensated at piece rate (Felstiner, 2011) Using workers' spare resources (Kleemann et al., 2008) Platform Broad understanding Web-based environment (Barnes et al., 2015;Brabham, 2008;Satzger et al., 2013;Saxton et al., 2013) Narrow understanding Web 2.0 (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Intermediary (Battistella & Nonino, 2013;Hossain & Kauranen, 2015;Schörpf et al., 2017;mediator Hirth et al., 2013) Workers Broad understanding Large network of potential labours (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013) Open call (Barnes et al., 2015;Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013) General public (Kleemann et al., 2008) Narrow understanding Undefinably large, heterogeneous mass of interested internet users (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Amorphous collection of individuals sitting in front of computer screens (Felstiner, 2011) Diversity, largeness, suitability of independent contractors (Pongratz, 2018) Undefined, nonprofessional and heterogeneous virtual crowd (Saxton et al., 2013) Requesters Broad understanding Requesters are mostly companies, but other project initiators cannot be excluded (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Narrow understanding Company or organizations (Hossain & Kauranen, 2015;Satzger et al., 2013;Saxton et al., 2013) Profit-oriented firm (Kleemann et al., 2008) peer-to-peer (P2P) collaboration and, by extension, P2P consumption (see Parguel et al., 2017). While some have suggested that transactions in the sharing economy could happen between individuals and businesses (Puschmann & Alt, 2016), others have argued that this would amount to micro-entrepreneurship rather than sharing (Codagnone & Martens, 2016). ...
... Work Broad understanding Crowdsourcing does not need an active shift from current employees (or again, contractors) to the crowd; it can start with the crowd (Howe, 2006a) Different levels of skills are required (Felstiner, 2011) Human process tasks that are difficult to implement in software (Satzger et al., 2013) A wide range of pay levels (Hammon & Hippner, 2012;Hossain & Kauranen, 2015) Narrow understanding A job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) (Greengard, 2011;Satzger et al., 2013;Schörpf et al., 2017) Content creation, problem-solving and corporate R&D (Brabham, 2008;Kleemann et al., 2008). Usually innovation-related work (Saxton et al., 2013) Compensated at piece rate (Felstiner, 2011) Using workers' spare resources (Kleemann et al., 2008) Platform Broad understanding Web-based environment (Barnes et al., 2015;Brabham, 2008;Satzger et al., 2013;Saxton et al., 2013) Narrow understanding Web 2.0 (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Intermediary (Battistella & Nonino, 2013;Hossain & Kauranen, 2015;Schörpf et al., 2017;mediator Hirth et al., 2013) Workers Broad understanding Large network of potential labours (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013) Open call (Barnes et al., 2015;Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013) General public (Kleemann et al., 2008) Narrow understanding Undefinably large, heterogeneous mass of interested internet users (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Amorphous collection of individuals sitting in front of computer screens (Felstiner, 2011) Diversity, largeness, suitability of independent contractors (Pongratz, 2018) Undefined, nonprofessional and heterogeneous virtual crowd (Saxton et al., 2013) Requesters Broad understanding Requesters are mostly companies, but other project initiators cannot be excluded (Hammon & Hippner, 2012) Narrow understanding Company or organizations (Hossain & Kauranen, 2015;Satzger et al., 2013;Saxton et al., 2013) Profit-oriented firm (Kleemann et al., 2008) peer-to-peer (P2P) collaboration and, by extension, P2P consumption (see Parguel et al., 2017). While some have suggested that transactions in the sharing economy could happen between individuals and businesses (Puschmann & Alt, 2016), others have argued that this would amount to micro-entrepreneurship rather than sharing (Codagnone & Martens, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
The term ‘platform capitalism’ captures a dynamic set of new work modalities that are mediated by platforms and have been brought about through advances in Information and Communication Technologies, adjustments in consumption modes and preferences, and changes in how work is conceived. Beyond work-related changes, the ascent of platform capitalism reflects wider societal, political as well as economic changes. While research on platform capitalism and its manifold manifestations abounds, there is a lack of consensus in the literature regarding its key features and characteristics. Seeking to provide conceptual clarity and to contribute to efforts of theorisation, we here analyse four main facets of platform capitalism, namely crowdsourcing, sharing economy, gig economy and platform economy. We review key definitions of each term and provide an overview of their distinctive features. This allows us to identify both similarities and differences in the framing of these four terms. We also delve into the ideologies underlying these four terms, thus providing a critique of the neophilia characterising the discourse framing platform capitalism.
... The fact that organizations are facing the need to adopt an open business model based on customer participation (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013) has contributed to the rising popularity of terms such as crowdsourcing (Howe, 2008) and open innovation (Chesbrough, 2006). Accordingly, organizations are creating distributed innovation models and virtual customer environments -ranging from online discussion forums to product design and development platforms -that enable them to establish a collaborative relationship with their customers (Willis and Estanyol, 2017), facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge and involve them in the value creation process (Nambisan, 2002). ...
... Interacting with other customers within the community, discussing the product/service and its features, as well as finding solutions to existing problems may further represent a source of pleasure and stimulate customers to participate (Nambisan and Baron, 2009). In this view, Djelassi and Decoopman's (2013) research on user participation in crowdsourcing revealed that participants were primarily motivated by the fun of the activity and the emotional value they derived from it. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this paper is to improve understanding of the co-creation phenomenon in the context of virtual customer communities (VCCs), notably to provide insights into the motivations of customer participation and nonparticipation in such a virtual context. Empowered by the rise of Web 2.0 technologies, the relational paradigm of public relations and listening communication has become even more challenging with the customers' role of co-creators. Accordingly, organizations are creating distributed innovation models and virtual customer environments that enable them to establish a collaborative relationship with their customers, facilitate the exchange of information and knowledge, and integrate them in the value creation process as well as in product design, product testing, and product support activities. The following research question will guide this work: Why do customers voluntarily (not) participate in co-creation activities in firm-managed virtual customer communities? This research is built on an in-depth case study: the Preview Communities platform developed and managed by the Swiss federal railways operator (SBB). The main part of this research involved an online survey designed to explore the motives that prompt customer (non) participation in the Preview Communities. he results reveal that Identification, Learning and Hedonic factors are the most important drivers for participation. Further, the findings also provide insights into non-participants' motives for not contributing to the platform. They range from a lack of time to their needs being met by merely reading other users' content. Practical implications-Managers could develop a virtual environment fostering co-creation and maximizing the contribution likelihood of community members. Additionally, communicants could integrate these findings to address this issue appropriately and use/take advantage of the participation potential of passive customers. This paper develops recommendations for managers on how to improve customer participation by leveraging relevant triggers, as well as suggestions for reducing non-participation and stimulate their contributions in co-creation activities.
... The realization of an OBM affords companies competitive advantages due to benefits such as capturing and providing greater values to customers [7] and increasing the dynamic capability of innovations [8]. Moreover, it is also expected that new business opportunities will be discovered through various activities with external partners [9]. ...
... Moreover, Djelassi et al. mentioned that customers in OBMs are no longer simply purchasers of a company's products or targets of its value proposition. The customers are resources who present significant consequences for both the value proposition and the organization [7]. They assert that value can be captured by customer participation, which makes the business model open not only to companies but also to customers. ...
Article
To realize a competitive product-service system, a manufacturer is required to change its closed business model and develop open and sustainable alliances with external partners. As an alternative business model, an open business model (OBM) is a new concept, replacing the closed model, that is highly dependent on the company’s resources. An OBM is realized via resource sharing and collaboration with external partners. By incorporating an OBM in its operations, a company can receive several benefits, such as long-term profits, by providing new customer value and diversifying risks due to uncertainty in the market environment. A considerable number of studies related to this concept have been conducted. However, a practical method for OBM design remains unavailable. It is therefore difficult to design an OBM via actual design procedures. To this end, the purpose of this study is to support a design for OBMs. To achieve this, eight dimensions of openness in OBMs are first identified. On the basis of these dimensions, the requirements for an OBM design guideline are defined, and the design guideline is proposed. The proposed design guideline includes three steps: requirement analysis, OBM design, and validation. The proposed method was applied in an OBM design workshop, and the usefulness of the design guideline was verified through an evaluation of the eight openness dimensions. Finally, directions for improving the design guideline are discussed as future works.
... Moreover, it tends to be time-consuming and labor-intensive to collect sufficient CR information (Jin et al. 2015). Currently, many companies increasingly consider customers as their value co-creators in the business, and establish an "open business model" for customer participation in product development (Djelassi and Decoopman 2013). In such a business model, customers can provide their own ideas and technologies, as well as the CR information to develop new products or improve existing ones. ...
... In such a business model, customers can provide their own ideas and technologies, as well as the CR information to develop new products or improve existing ones. Since much research shows the positive effects of customer participation in diverse areas, such as time acceleration (Chang and Taylor 2016), innovation improvement (von Hippel et al. 1998), cost reduction (Eggers et al. 2014), and so on, companies pay great attentions to customer participation and many businesses are built by incorporating customer interaction as a core value-generation strategy (Djelassi and Decoopman 2013). Thus, collecting and identifying CRs from customer participation businesses is an imperative method for companies to provide customer-oriented products and continuously revise their products to satisfy changing customer expectations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Timely identification of heterogeneous customer requirements serves as a vital step for a company to formulate product strategies to meet the diverse and changing needs of its customers. By relaxing the search for global patterns in classical clustering, we propose a biclustering-based method, BiHCR, to identify heterogeneous customer requirements from the perspective of local patterns detection. Specifically, conforming to customers’ attitudes toward products derived from customer participation, we first transform the original data matrix with customers as rows and customer requirements as columns into a binary matrix. Then, by combining the two significant biclustering algorithms, Bimax and RepBimax, we design BiHCR to identify the biclusters embedded in the binary matrix to improve the detection results from the larger biclusters and their overlaps. Furthermore, the empirical case of smartphone development in a Chinese company verifies that BiHCR can identify homogeneous subgroups of customers with similar requirements without redundant noise compared with Bimax. Additionally, in contrast to RepBimax, our proposed BiHCR can also detect the intractable overlapping biclusters in the binary matrix used to describe the heterogeneity of customer requirements. Since the process of customer participation in product development gradually became a dominant approach to collecting customer requirements information for many industries, a conceptual framework of customer requirements identification is constructed and the detailed steps are clarified for manufacturers.
... When brands are consistently transparent, it demonstrates to consumers that there is an alignment between a brand's claim and actions. This alignment reinforces consumers' perceptions of the brand's ability to be authentic (Anderberg and Morris, 2006;Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013;Gebauer et al., 2013). Furthermore, transparency can reinforce consumers' perceptions of brand competence, empowerment, resource control and process (Christens et al., 2011;Füller et al., 2009;Zimmerman, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to understand the effects of brands’ transparent communication (i.e. production transparency and cost transparency) on consumers’ perceptions of a brand’s perceived transparency and authenticity, as well as how such perceptions impact consumers’ attitude, trust and behavioral intentions. Design/methodology/approach Two between-participants factorial design experiments ( n = 176 for Study 1 and n = 169 for Study 2) were conducted to examine consumers’ responses to a brand’s cost transparency and production transparency. Findings The results revealed that transparency in the focal brand’s communication of production and cost would increase consumers’ perceptions of the brand’s transparency and authenticity because of its perceived information sensitivity. Such positive effects were found to similarly impact consumers’ attitude, trust and behavioral intention toward the brand. Practical implications The results point to the importance of brand transparency in marketing communication, specifically as it pertains to the influence that the inclusion of transparent cost and production information can have on consumers’ perceptions of authenticity, trust and attitude, as well as how these perceptions translate into behavioral intention. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is among the first to explore the differences between production transparency and cost transparency in influencing consumer responses and the underlying mechanisms. The findings also expand to the literature on brand transparency and brand authenticity.
... In urban management, public meetings, advisory committees, and citizen surveys are traditional tools that have been used to obtain citizens' opinions (Denters & Klok, 2010). The crowdsourcing literature offers alternative techniques such as hackathons, public votes, or open calls for participation, which help to access the creativity, knowledge, and opinions of individuals (e.g., Bryson, 2004;Bryson, Quick, Schively Slotterback, & Crosby, 2013;Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013;Thomas, 2012;Thomas & Poister, 2009). ...
Article
Urban crowdsourcing is a new form of open innovation that aims to develop smart cities. Due to the heterogeneity of partners in urban planning, knowing the type of knowledge gained from each stakeholder at each stage of the crowdsourcing process needs to be understood for effective collaborations and innovative knowledge flow activation. Using a qualitative approach with experts involved in the Casablanca Smart City project, this research investigates complex multi-stakeholder ecosystems. More specifically, this study identifies and examines the role of external stakeholders at each stage of the innovation process, and the resulting dynamic knowledge flows that help improve the process of urban crowdsourcing in the development of smart city solutions. Depending on the complexity of the innovation project, findings identify three primary stakeholders (citizens, public authorities, and private and public firms) and three secondary stakeholders (NGOs, universities, consulting companies). Results show at which of the four steps of urban crowdsourcing they intervene. Furthermore, the findings reveal a dynamic learning environment composed of two knowledge flows (“learning with” and “learning from” stakeholders).
... Adopting a crowdsourcing model has become flexible enough to respond to firms' needs around the globe. In four sample cases mentioned by Djelassi and Decoopman (2013). crowdsourcing provides a great opportunity to increase and optimize each organization's links with its customers and allows new solutions to be brought to market. ...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of the presented research paper is to explore the different aspects of crowdsourcing and its evolution over time. Supported by three different case studies, the research focuses on the different factors that affect crowdsourcing for open innovation. Moreover, the findings give us a proposed managerial framework to be considered when adopting crowdsourcing in addition to factors that proved its huge effect on crowdsourcing activities. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative research approach for this research was the most convenient. It focuses on providing an in-depth understanding of the phenomena. Qualitative research represents the views and perspectives of the participants in a study besides it is driven by a desire to explain these events, through existing or emerging concepts (Yin, 2016). Adopting a case study research method that investigates a contemporary phenomenon (the “case”) in depth and within its real-world context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context may not be evident (Yin, 2018) as in crowdsourcing based business model for open innovation. Findings The researchers presented the benefits and challenges when considering crowdsourcing establishing a managerial framework for open innovation. Additionally, the researchers identified the different factors that highly affect crowdsourcing proposing a model that can be used for adopting crowdsourcing. The research also presented insights about how crowdsourcing was introduced in the Egyptian market and how it evolved through the years. Research limitations/implications The study had some limitations to be considered in the following work. Company X used crowdsourcing within a high degree of limitations and confidentially consequently, restricting the effects and results of crowdsourcing. Another limitation was that the study has been only qualitative, and the addition of the quantitative approach will numerically support the findings. Moreover, the research depended on the businesses only as of the source of information and neglected the crowd sample. Practical implications The main aim of this study was to address the lack of research evidence on what it means to adopt crowdsourcing for open innovation in Egyptian firms. The authors have done so by adopting three case studies which enabled them to directly observe and report on the daily work of trust CEOs, with special attention to the practices. Whereby, these executives made themselves knowledgeable for all practical purposes, as dictated by their specific job. Accordingly, the first major contribution of the present research is that it provides much-needed empirical data on the actual practices of crowdsourcing in three Egyptian, yet international companies. Moreover, the results could be used as a guideline when considering crowdsourcing activities highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of such activities. Originality/value The paper discusses different perspectives of crowdsourcing presenting a new categorization for its types. Moreover, how these types have been used especially in the Egyptian market. On the other hand, the paper investigated and documented three different sized companies' experiences utilizing crowdsourcing for innovation. The collected information was used to suggest a new model by which companies can avoid the difficulties others had. Moreover, the research highlighted the benefits and challenges of using crowdsourcing for open innovation.
... From this perspective, customers become valuable sources of service inputs, and service providers become fundamentally a value facilitator (Grönroos, 2011), whereas values, in turn, are uniquely and phenomenologically determined by the beneficiaries (Vargo and Lusch, 2008). The notion of co-creation implies that each actor provides resources "for" and, more importantly, acts "with" each other for the purpose of value creation (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). In this regard, value creation, which is previously considered internal to the service offering firms, is increasingly dependent on the active participation of formerly passive consumers. ...
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Increasingly, logistics industry offers innovative solutions that interact directly with end-consumers. Consumers are encouraged to participate in co-creating e-commerce last-mile logistics. Built on the synthesised insights from “consumer logistics” and the “value co-creation (VCC)” concept, this study proposes a conceptual framework of consumers’ involvement in last-mile logistics from a VCC perspective. This research study is based on a synthesised analysis of 52 peer-reviewed journal articles using Scopus of Elsevier and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of Thomson Reuters as search databases. It is found that consumers are empowered to influence specific changes in the service offerings, whereas logistics service providers accrue benefits by transferring part of the service obligations to consumers. Given the mutual benefits, the trend of VCC is expected to gain strong development in last-mile logistics. However, three major contingencies exist: (1) consumers’ resistance in adopting the innovation service concept of VCC; (2) the potential risk of exploitation and the associated concern about service fairness; and (3) a lack of a proper governance mechanism of the co-creation relationship. A conceptual framework along with four propositions is presented. Based on the conceptual insights, we further propose three emerging research fields that have great potential in generating interdisciplinary findings.
... Regarding crowdfunding (VII.a), Djelassi and Decoopman (2013) and Brown, Mawson, and Rowe (2019) study the C2B funding model, wherein consumers are requested to participate in the funding of a new venture or a product or service development project of an existing company, by supplying small amounts of investment money or capital (either to buy the firm's shares or to pre-pay for the product or service that is being developed). In turn, Maier (2016) utilises the term 'crowdlending' when focusing on loan financing provided by consumers to firms. ...
Article
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Business models such as C2B and B2B2C, in which consumers get involved in companies' supply chains and business operations, are burgeoning in many industries. Academic research on the phenomenon is, however, lagging behind, and extant research has typically focused on just one or a few variants of such business models at a time. The present conceptual research addresses this research gap by developing a comprehensive typology that explicates and unpacks the full variety of consumer involvement types in supply networks of contemporary business models. The three-dimensional typology developed contributes to literature by identifying and integrating the relevant dimensions, which have been addressed in prior research only implicitly or in a piecemeal manner. This elucidates the full range and variety of the phenomenon to researchers. For managers, the three-dimensional, cubic typology offers a business development tool, facilitating the identification of altogether 56 alternative business models, wherein consumers may serve as suppliers of various inputs, including work, effort, and entrepreneurial activity; goods; platform goods; natural resources and energy; data, information, and knowledge; attention and presence; as well as money and capital.
... Amazon, Dell, Proctor and Gamble, Lay's (Pepsi Co.), Johnson and Johnson, SpaceX, and 31 even NASA (Love & Hirschheim, 2017) actively use crowdsourcing for idea generation, 32 complex problem solving, and product development (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013). In an 33 integrated definition, Estellés and González (2012) regard crowdsourcing as an online open 34 call by an entity to a group of people with various skills to undertake a task for mutual benefit, 35 ...
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Although crowdsourcing is ubiquitous, it is unclear what factors affect the quality of contributions by participants in crowdsourcing activities. This study attempts to understand the mechanism of how perceived intellectual property rights (IPR) protection influences participant's contribution effort in crowdsourcing contests by analyzing the mediating role of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the moderating role of task complexity. For this purpose, data were collected through an online survey from members of a major crowdsourcing platform for seeking innovative solutions to problems across various industries. Partial least square based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) is employed for analyzing the data. The results show the new findings that (1) both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence contribution effort and the effect of extrinsic motivation is stronger; (2) IPR protection does not influence the contribution efforts of participants directly but indirectly via extrinsic motivation rather than intrinsic motivation; (3) the importance of IPR protection holds irrespective of the gender of the participants and the complexity of the task. The results indicate that a one-time prize might be insufficient for the participants to exert their full efforts in crowdsourcing contests if the resulting IPRs are not protected.
... De surcroit, de nombreuses entreprises dans les pays développés adoptent de nouveaux business models collaboratifs basés sur la co-création et le crowdsourcing (Djelassi et Decoopman, 2013). Ces business models ne semblent pas être répandus dans certains pays émergents, notamment dans les pays d'Afrique. ...
... Consumers share their opinions in public domains, and their input can be used as the source of ideas for new generation products, services and business models. Two innovative approaches can be implemented to retrieve information from the crowd: 1) crowdsourcing models, where consumers are led to a certain task and information is retrieved (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013;Schemmann et al., 2016), and 2) idea or opinion mining, where information is retrieved from generic public data with a specific approach (Li et al., 2014;Lipizzi, 2015). Both approaches may have advantages and disadvantages. ...
Article
Social media platforms are considered one of the most effective intermediaries for companies to interact with consumers. Social media-based decision support systems for the marketing domain are highly developed, but product development and innovation-oriented studies remain limited. This study offers a novel approach which utilises opinion retrieval theme along with sentiment analysis to support the decision-making process for product analysis and development. To achieve this aim, we propose an end-to-end social media-based opinion retrieval system and utilise machine learning and natural language processing techniques. Google Glass is chosen as a use-case as this product was unable to achieve its commercial targets despite its superior technological offerings. We design a multi-task deep neural network architecture for the training of sentiment prediction and opinion detection tasks. We first divide the tweets containing certain useful opinions and suggestions into two categories based on their sentiment labels. The negative tweets are analysed to identify product-related concerns, whereas the positive and neutral tweets are used to extract innovative ideas and identify new use cases for product development. We visualise and interpret the clusters of keywords extracted from each sentiment label group . Apart from methodological contributions, this study offers practical contributions for the next generations of smart glasses.
... Therefore, the authors built a dynamic decision support system (DSS) to predict consumer behavior and define consumer value from the perspective of the life cycle of given products, consumers, and market influencing factors [45]. Djerassi and Decoopman studied how consumer participation played a role in product development in a crowdsourcing scenario [46]. Chang and Taylor proposed a conceptual framework that integrated various accidental factors based on the original analysis method and knowledge management theory. ...
Article
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The rise of “cloud-computing, mobile-Internet, Internet of things, big-data, and smart-data” digital technology has brought a subversive revolution to enterprises and consumers’ traditional patterns. Product research and development has become the main battlefield of enterprise competition, facing an environment where challenges and opportunities coexist. Regarding the concepts and methods of product R&D projects, the domestic start was later than the international ones, and many domestic companies have also used successful foreign cases as benchmarks to innovate their management methods in practice. “Workers must first sharpen their tools if they want to do their jobs well”. This article will start from the relevant concepts of product R&D projects and summarize current R&D management ideas and methods. We combined the bibliometric analysis software Histcite and Citespace to sort out the content of domestic and foreign literature and explore the changing trends of research hotspots. Finally, combined with the analysis of confirmed cases in domestic masters and doctoral dissertations to test the theory, the literature review of the product R&D project management theme was carried out from the dual perspectives of comprehensive theory and practice. This study uses the core collection library of Web of Science as the object of document extraction. Based on the search conditions of “Product development” or “Intergrat* product development”, 8998 sample documents were initially retrieved. The search deadline was June 2019, with a time range from 2000 to June 2019. Then, using the record number of 50 as the critical condition, 5007 analysis samples were deleted, refined, and cleaned. Through the review and measurement of 5007 papers, the analysis showed that: (1) in the last ten years, sustainability, consumer focus, new approaches to product development management, and organizational design have become critical considerations in the product development process stage; (2) at this stage, researchers are paying more attention to the innovation, design, product development, identification, simultaneous engineering, consequence, and stage/gate model aspects of product development; and (3) factors such as long development cycles, high costs, and poor organizational design are now common problems in the product development process.
... In addition, many companies in developed countries are adopting new collaborative business models based on co-creation and crowdsourcing (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). These business models do not seem to be widespread in some emerging countries, particularly in Africa. ...
... The Danone company encouraged consumers to vote for a creamy dessert flavor, and the 400,000 participants in 2006 more than doubled to 900,000 in 2011. Lay's used the wisdom of crowds to develop more than 245,825 flavors of potato chip [54]. Procter & Gamble, Starbucks and Unilever sought better product design based on collective intelligence [55]. ...
Article
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A huge amount of data is being produced in the food industry, but the application of big data—regulatory, food enterprise, and food-related media data—is still in its infancy. Each data source has the potential to develop the food industry, and big data has broad application prospects in areas like social co-governance, exploit of consumption markets, quantitative production, new dishes, take-out services, precise nutrition and health management. However, there are urgent problems in technology, health and sustainable development that need to be solved to enable the application of big data to the food industry.
... With crowdsourcing a task once performed by one or a few persons is outsourced to a large, undefined group of people external to the organisation. The goal is to harness the creativity and ingenuity of many (Aitamurto et al., 2011;Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013) and increase the probability of generating original ideas by increasing the number of individuals that participate in ideation. In more complex forms of crowdsourcing, organisations introduce community-based sessions in which members of a community participate in focused idea generation. ...
Article
The effect of digital transformation towards more efficient, place-based and bottom-up innovation policies at different spatial scales has proven significant, as digital technologies modify existing policy-design routines in cities and regions. Smart places (cities, districts, neighbourhoods, ecosystems) depend on the way digitalisation disrupts systems of innovation in cities, making it more open, global, participatory and experimental. We argue that the rise and interconnection of various types of intelligence (artificial, human, collective) could bring profound changes in the way smart places are being created and evolve. In this context, cyber-physical systems of innovation are deployed through multiple nodes acquiring digital companions, collaboration is deployed over physical, social, and digital spaces, and actors can use complex methods guided by software and get insights from data and analytics. The paper also presents the case study of OnlineS3, a two-year Horizon 2020 project, which developed and tested a digital platform composed of applications, datasets and roadmaps, which altogether create a digital environment for empowering the design of smart specialisation strategies for local and regional systems of innovation. The results indicate that digital transformation allows the operationalisation of multiple methodologies which have not been used earlier by policy makers, due to lack of capabilities. It can also increase the scalability of indicators facilitating decision making at different spatial scales and, therefore, better respond to the complexity of innovation systems providing dynamic and scale-diverse information.
... Pozyskanie jednego lub więcej zdalnych użytkowników Internetu do wykonywania prac na rynku. Howe 122,123,124 Internetowy schemat biznesowy, który w najlepszy sposób wykorzystuje jednostki ludzkie (w drodze open call) i ostatecznie pozyskuje innowacyjne rozwiązania. Stosowanie zasad open source w dziedzinach innych niż programowanie. ...
... The recent development in technology leads to more online participation of users, with companies gaining more opportunities to get their customers more connected and engaged in company-related activities (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013;Mahavarpour et al., 2019). These technological developments alongside expanded collaborative tools such as platforms and social networks have accelerated and facilitated the use of open innovation strategies such as crowdsourcing (Mladenow et al., 2014). ...
... The crucial prerequisite is the use of the open call format and the large network of potential laborers. Crowdsourcing, whose meaning depends on the context of application, has significant application and exposure in fields such as environmental sciences, business and marketing, computer science, and healthcare among many others; yet it remains little understood [11] in the literature. In [33], one can see a number of examples of crowdsourcing and for a recent survey paper we refer to [17]. ...
Article
In this paper, we model crowdsourcing using MAP for Type 1 arrivals who may opt to serve the other (Poisson type) arrivals. Such models are useful in service sectors wherein one type of customers visit the store to buy items while the other type may place orders over some medium such as internet and phone, and expects them to be delivered. The store management may use the (willing) in-store customers as couriers to “serve” the other type of customers. We study the model using matrix-analytic methods and discuss some qualitative illustrative examples.
... The recent developments in technology have led to more online participation from people, with companies gaining more opportunities to get the crowd more connected and engaged in company-related activities (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013;Saad & Yaacob, 2021;Naeem & Ozuem, 2021). These technological developments, alongside expanded collaborative tools such as platforms and social networks, have accelerated the usage of crowd power (Al-Omoush et al., 2021;Mladenow et al., 2014). ...
Article
Because e-WOM is one of the useful digital marketing elements for any organization, a better understanding of its process will help individuals take more advantage of this concept. e-WOM enables individuals to form relationships with firms, brands, and other customers, which leads to benefits for both consumers and companies. It plays a significant role in a firm’s performance. The present study implements a different approach to reviewing by combining two bibliometric methods, multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), via Bibexcel software to have a deeper investigation of the process. Considering the 468 journal papers on e-WOM allowed us to study the intellectual streams and significant perceptions underpinning e-WOM. By dividing the study timeframe into three periods, we realized that there have always been three main concepts in this field: consumer behavior, sales, and the tourism and hotel industry. Further, by proposing a framework, we have expanded these concepts accompanied by the role of artificial intelligence and robots in the process of e-WOM. Consequently, new concepts “r-WOM”, “automated user engagement”, and “smart selling” are introduced and demonstrated as a consequence of using technology-based tools in the process of e-WOM. Finally, the future scope of this field has been designed. We contribute to the literature by offering theoretical and managerial implications.
... Since the creation of social media, crowdsourcing has been applied to the fields of marketing [58,59], urban planning [60], sustainability [61] tourism [62], public policy and government [63,64], medics [65], bioinformatics [66], higher education [67], disaster risk [68], and product development [69]. A specific type of crowdsourcing uses volunteered geographic information available through photo sharing platforms. ...
Article
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The increase in geoheritage studies has secured recognition globally regarding the importance of abiotic natural features. Prominent in geoheritage screening practices follows a multicriteria assessment framework; however, the complexity of interest in values often causes decision making to overlook geoeducation, one of the primary facets of geosystem services. Auckland volcanic field in New Zealand stretches through the whole area of metropolitan Auckland, which helps preserve volcanic cones and their cultural heritage around its central business district (CBD). They are important sites for developing tourist activities. Geoeducation is becoming a significant factor for tourists and others visiting geomorphological features, but it cannot be achieved without sound planning. This paper investigates the use of big data (FlickR), Geopreservation Inventory, and Geographic Information System for identifying geoeducation capacity of tourist attractions. Through landform classification using the Topographic Position Index and integrated with geological and the inventory data, the underpromoted important geoeducation sites can be mapped and added to the spatial database Auckland Council uses for urban planning. The use of the Geoeducation Capacity Map can help resolve conflicts between the multiple objectives that a bicultural, metropolitan city council need to tackle in the planning of upgrading open spaces while battling of growing demand for land.
... We collected the validity/reliability assessment data by presenting respondents with a scenario where they were asked to aid a fictional cereal company in developing new flavors and new packaging design ideas. Consumer goods companies employ crowdsourcing techniques across their strategic initiatives more than other company types [32], [33]. As such, we simulated a consumer goods crowdsourcing endeavor in this research. ...
... Creating an image is one of the benefits possible to be achieved by the organisation exactly thanks to making use of crowdsourcing [Djelassi, Decoopman 2013;Hsieh, Chang 2016]. A feeling of satisfaction of the members of the virtual community translates to a positive perception of the crowdsourcing initiator. ...
Article
The purpose of this article was to analyze the benefits, barriers and perspectives for the development of inter-school cooperation in Poland. A review of the literature on various forms of cooperation, competition and coopetition in the environment of higher educa- tion institutions as well as challenges connected with them were presented. Subsequently, pilot in-depth interviews with decision-makers from universities educating in social sciences were conducted and analyzed. The main conclusion is that cooperation between universities, in particular cooperation with a stronger partner, is considered to be beneficial. In practice, however, there are numerous barriers that make this cooperation very limited, mainly due to operating in conditions of competition for students and funds for scientific and research activities. Therefore, cooperation with a reputable foreign partner seems to be nowadays the most desirable form of cooperation.
... Crowdsourcing allows organizations to utilize an anonymous crowd to accomplish tasks over the Internet (Howe, 2006). Crowdsourcing has been used for a variety of tasks, from simple to complex (Djelassi and Decoopman, 2013). While the uptake of crowdsourcing has been significant, organizations still face strategic decisions regarding whether it is suitable or not for their goals and contexts, and if yes, how to manage business process crowdsourcing (BPC). ...
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Evidence-based management (EBMgt) concerns making complex managerial decisions by combining the decision maker’s knowledge and experience with scientific knowledge. A major obstacle to this practice is the lack of support. In this paper, we employ design science to develop an ensemble of conceptual, information and IT artefacts that support EBMgt. The approach is instantiated and validated in a case study using a combination of methods, including proof of concept, laboratory experiment, satisfaction survey, and focus groups. The proposed approach turns EBMgt into a repeatable practice, supported by reusable tools, and brings some degree of automation to the process. To our knowledge, EBMgt services have not yet been realised in a concrete manner, and not with concrete empirical results. Therefore, this study provides a first-of-a-kind demonstration and assessment of the viability of EBMgt services.
... The awarding body will then announce the finalists and go on to use customer voting or public surveys to select the eventual winners. Where voting is set as the criterion for winning awards, many firms draw up elaborate plans to push out calls for customers and clients to vote for them (Djelassi & Decoopman, 2013). ...
Article
Business excellence awards (BEAs) have become all too commonplace. Entering and winning one has now become part of contemporary organising. However, scholarly work examining these awards remains scattered, with the dominant narrative focusing on what could even be described as the intense obsession with award ceremonies. In this paper, we articulate the mechanisms through which the dual demands for managing competitive pressures and achieving competitive advantage drive organisations to enter these awards. In doing this, we integrate and expand upon prior work to explicate an integrative framework for examining how the interactions between various contextual and environmental factors may induce organisations to enter BEAs, and the potential outcomes, particularly for those who win or are shortlisted for these awards. We go on to present a set of propositions constituting a contribution, after which our study’s implications for the theory and practice of BEAs are outlined.
... In addition to the prizes offered to crowd members with winning ideas, crowdsourcing contests or innovation tournaments offer various benefits to the firms. In particular, they promise enhanced competitiveness, access to creative ideas, and skills and knowledge among customers, along with reducing internal innovation costs ( [26,33,68,82]; Surowiecki, 2004; [14,58,65]). This umbrella concept of crowdsourcing encompasses various efforts to come up with opinions, content, innovative ideas, designs, assets, and solutions in a different manner [3,15,24,37,110], each of which can take various forms, such as crowdsolving or crowdcasting, crowdcollaboration, crowdcontent, and crowdopinion [34]. ...
Article
This conceptual article contains a proposed four-part categorization of crowdsolving platform features: contest, idea, participant, and community. A related conceptual framework depicts the relationships of these features with the outcomes of creating, transferring, and assimilating knowledge for the platform and its client firms, according to the socialization, externalization, combination, and internalization (SECI) model. Arguments based in Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory inform the predictions about the spiral of interactions between explicit and tacit knowledge that occurs during a contest on a crowdsolving platform. The findings suggest ways to design a crowdsolving ba (shared space for creativity) and platform-level absorptive capacity. For platform managers, this study also offers new insights into the important decisions they must make to develop their platforms’ features.
Article
Purpose In recent years, crowdsourcing – an open and innovative model for outsourcing tasks to a crowd – has become popular for production processes, allowing organizations and firms in different industries to access external skills and expertise efficiently. Companies have opened their innovation processes to crowds outside their boundaries, and users and customers are often involved in developing products in line with market needs. This work aims to investigate the link between crowdsourcing, production and quality to better understand this new interesting phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach An explicit and systematic method for reviewing the literature was used. Through the selection and analysis of the relevant articles in the field, this paper presents a comprehensive overview of the pros and cons, risks and opportunities, disadvantages, or concerns, as addressed in the literature, for the adoption of crowdsourcing in the production processes. Findings It identifies where, how and to what extent crowdsourcing can be applied profitably within the production of products and services, highlighting how crowdsourcing could affect product and process quality. Finally, some directions for future research are outlined from the analysis conducted. Originality/value This work applied the systematic literature review to investigate and evaluate the actual use and impact of crowdsourcing on the production process, focusing on quality enhancement contribution.
Article
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The market circumstances around the manufacturing companies have changed due to several factors, including globalization, commoditization, and advanced innovation. This condition triggers the manufacturing companies to reconsider the competitive advantage of their value propositions and to promote their change not only their product but their closed business models. In regard to these circumstances, Open Business Model (OBM) is attracting attention as a new concept that replaces the closed business model which depends on the company’s own resources. OBM is a business model realized by sharing resources and collaborating with external partners. If the companies can transform their business model to OBM, they can receive several benefits such as long-term profits through providing new customer value, diversifying risks due to uncertainty in the market environment, and shortening the development period for products and services. Responding to this expectation to OBM, many researchers make a study related to this concept. However, existing research on OBM is limited to its advantages and comparison with similar concepts. Thus, it is difficult to design OBM in actual design activities. For this background, this study aims to support OBM design with high openness and proposes a design tool composed of the design templates and the procedure to use them. A proposed tool was applied to the OBM design workshop, and the application result confirmed usefulness and direction for improvement of this tool.
Article
Purpose Crowdworkers' sustained participation is critical to the success and sustainability of the online crowdsourcing community. However, this issue has not received adequate attention in the information systems research community. This study seeks to understand the formation of crowdworker sustained participation in the online crowdsourcing community. Design/methodology/approach The research model was empirically tested using online survey data from 212 crowdworkers in a leading online crowdsourcing community in China. Findings The empirical results provide several key findings. First, there are two different types of sustained participation: continuous participation intention (CPI) and increased participation intention (IPI). Second, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation positively influence crowdworker CPI and IPI. Third, community commitment negatively moderates the effects of extrinsic motivation on CPI and IPI, while it positively moderates the effects of intrinsic motivation on CPI and IPI. Originality/value This study has significant implications for research on online crowdsourcing community and provides practical guidance for formulating persuasive measures to promote crowdworker sustained participation in the community.
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The goal of this article is to identify research opportunities for scholars interested in B2B new ventures. The author focuses on opportunities that arise from a consideration of three important topics in the entrepreneurship literature: business model development, venture legitimacy, and top management teams. It is argued that significant opportunities exist for research that expands our understanding of (1) entrepreneurial paths from initial means to a fully specified business model, (2) the design of a portfolio of legitimation strategies, and (3) the impact of top management team characteristics and processes on venture characteristics, venture performance, and top management team outcomes.
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Effective creative crowdsourcing has mainly been investigated based on effective idea generation and selection management, but other dimensions of effective crowdsourcing (i.e., successful implementation and communication of ideas) have gained little attention so far. While most research has focused on idea generation as an outcome, this research highlights the outcome variety of using creative crowdsourcing techniques. The results present an evaluative framework of effective crowdsourcing and identify its drivers at each stage of the crowdsourcing process. The results contribute to an extended evaluation framework of creative crowdsourcing practices.
Article
It has become pervasive in the contemporary world that organisations leverage crowdsourcing to solicit ideas or innovations from the public. However, challenges exist in how to design tasks in an appropriate way to stimulate crowdsourcees' investing more resources in crowdsourcing activities. Motivated thus, draw on the valence theory, we propose a model to explain the influence of task design characteristics on solvers' committed resources with the consideration of the mediating role of task difficulty-significance factors. The model was assessed by using data collected from 274 crowdsourcees on two large Chinese crowdsourcing platforms. As hypothesised, crowdsourcing type, deadline, task incentives and task volume are found to positively affect perceived task significance, whereas crowdsourcing type and deadline negatively impact perceived task difficulty, personality has an indirect impact on perceived task significance by effectively enhancing solvers' positive traits and alleviating their vulnerable attitudes. In addition, we find that perceived task significance partially mediates the effect of task design and committed resources, while perceived task difficulty mediates the associations between crowdsourcing type, deadline and committed resource. The theoretical contributions and practical implications are also discussed.
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The current research examines how the social processing capability of theory of mind (i.e., ToM; the ability to understand others’ intentions) is employed when evaluating potentially persuasive marketing communications. Specifically, Study 1 reveals that ToM negatively influences product evaluations, as mediated by advertising skepticism. Study 2 replicates these findings with a company’s customer database. Study 3 manipulates advertisement transparency, showing that highly transparent communications reduce skepticism and increase product evaluations. Lastly, Study 4 examines boundary conditions, revealing that ToM influences product evaluations more so in evaluation of marketing communications for publicly versus privately consumed products.
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Crowdsourcing is an emerging web-enabled method to gain external expertise and ideas on tasks or projects. Mass contributions from the crowd are the key to the success and effectiveness of crowdsourcing. University students are important potential users and promising sources of contributions in the crowdsourcing context. However, little is known about the factors that shape university students’ intention to participate in this new web frontier. Thus, the current study investigates the determinants of university students’ contribution intention on crowdsourcing platforms. Based on the value-based adoption model (VAM) and crowdsourcing characteristics, this study develops a model to understand the determinants of university students’ intention to contribute ideas and solutions on crowdsourcing platforms. Data collected from 135 university students in Taiwan were tested against the research model using the partial least squares (PLS) method. The results indicate that perceived value and perceived behavioral control are key determinants of university students’ contribution intention on crowdsourcing platforms, and that reputation, perceived enjoyment, task autonomy, and trust are significant factors affecting perceived value. This study contributes to extend the knowledge regarding how to better promote crowdsourcing contributions, as well as how to foster and encourage university students to participate in crowdsourcing activities.
Chapter
Der Artikel widmet sich der Frage, inwiefern Crowdsourcing eine Innovation ist. Es wird erstens gezeigt, dass im Rahmen von Crowdwork die Organisation bestimmter Arbeitsprozesse, vor allem hinsichtlich der Zusammensetzung der Erwerbstätigen, der Arbeitsinhalte, der Steuerungs- und Kontrollmechanismen, der Flexibilität und der Gratifikation, erneuert wird. Zweitens weichen crowdsourcing-basierte Innovationen hinsichtlich der beteiligten Akteure, des Anwendungsfeldes, der Entscheidungsmechanismen und des Resultates von klassischen Varianten ab.
Article
In this study, we propose novel gamified active learning and inaccuracy detection for crowdsourced data labeling for an activity recognition system using mobile sensing (CrowdAct). First, we exploit active learning to address the lack of accurate information. Second, we present the integration of gamification into active learning to overcome the lack of motivation and sustained engagement. Finally, we introduce an inaccuracy detection algorithm to minimize inaccurate data. To demonstrate the capability and feasibility of the proposed model in realistic settings, we developed and deployed the CrowdAct system to a crowdsourcing platform. For our experimental setup, we recruited 120 diverse workers. Additionally, we gathered 6,549 activity labels from 19 activity classes by using smartphone sensors and user engagement information. We empirically evaluated the quality of CrowdAct by comparing it with a baseline using techniques such as machine learning and descriptive and inferential statistics. Our results indicate that CrowdAct was effective in improving activity accuracy recognition, increasing worker engagement, and reducing inaccurate data in crowdsourced data labeling. Based on our findings, we highlight critical and promising future research directions regarding the design of efficient activity data collection with crowdsourcing.
Thesis
L'objet de recherche de ce travail doctoral se situe dans le courant de recherche sur la prosommation (Toffler, 1980 ; Ritzer & Jurgenson, 2010), là où l'individu n'est pas tout à fait un consommateur et n'est pas non plus intégré dans un système de production institué (Graeber, 2011). La thèse poursuivie a comme objectif de décrire un phénomène qui n'est que très peu étudié par la littérature, y compris en marketing. La contribution non monétaire peut se définir comme l'action libre consistant à apporter une part personnelle à une oeuvre commune avec comme motivation intrinsèque de vivre une expérience positive. Pour parvenir à construire ce concept, cette thèse mobilise la méthode des entretiens d'explicitation (Vermersch, 2010, 2012), puis une double analyse, l'une phénoménologique, l'autre s'appuyant sur les travaux autour de l'expérience optimale et des motivations émergentes de Csikszentmihalyi et Nakamura (2014).
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