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Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 1, Issue 1, October-December, 2010
58
Address for
correspondence:
Shradha Bisht
1-ta-39, Jawahar Nagar,
Jaipur, India
E-mail: itsshradha30@
gmail.com
B. N. College of
Pharmacy, Udaipur,
Rajasthan, India
Coffea arabica: A wonder gift to medical science
Shradha Bisht, S. S. Sisodia
ABSTRACT
In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world and a large body of evidence
has collected to show the immense potential of medicinal plants used in various traditional systems. More
than 13,000 plants have been studied in recent years. Coffee is the most frequently consumed functional
food around the globe. The average consumption per capita in the United States is approximately 4.4 kg
annually at a cost of $164.71 per individual. These statistics provide compelling motivation to investigate
the consequences of such large-scale consumption of this beverage. Coffee also has a rich medical history.
The therapeutic benets of coffee are now supported by a rapidly growing and signicant level of scientic
validation. Coffee is a medium-sized tree of the Rubiacea family, living up to 25 years, and grows to a
height of 6–15 m. Traditionally, different parts of the coffee plants are used for inuenza, anemia, edema,
asthenia and rage, hepatitis and liver troubles, externally for nervous shock, as a stimulant for sleepiness and
drunkenness, as an antitussive in u and lung ailment, as a cardiotonic and a neurotonic and for asthmas.
The present review on Coffea arabica aims to compile data generated through the research activity using
modern scientic approaches and innovative scientic tools in recent years and potential clinical applications
of the functional food that is humbly known as the coffee bean. The data in the present review have been
organized in various sections according to pharmacological activities. One section in the present review
deserves special mention, i.e. on diabetes, as the World Health Organization stated diabetes as a basic
health indicator. The number of patients with this ailment continues to increase at the rate of about 1 million
new patients per year.
Key words: Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, coffee, diet, insulin sensitivity, prevention, type 2 diabetes
INTRODUCTION
Coffee (Coffea arabica) is the second-largest
worldwide commodity, overshadowed only by
crude oil. Without question, coffee is the most
frequently consumed functional food around
the globe. In the United States alone, there
are 108 million coffee consumers,[1] and these
numbers represent only a fraction of the global
population, large numbers of whom incorporate
coffee as a staple in their cultural practices.
The National Coffee Association reported
that in 2000, 54% of the U.S. adult population
drank coffee.[2] The average consumption per
capita in the United States is approximately
4.4 kg annually, at a cost of $164.71 per
individual. Among the U.S. coffee drinkers,
the average consumption is 3.1 cups of coffee
per day.[2] These statistics provide compelling
motivation to investigate the consequences of
such large-scale consumption of this beverage.
What follows is a review of some of the most
recent research into the active constituents
and potential clinical applications of the
functional food that is humbly known as the
coffee bean Coffee also has a rich medical
history. The therapeutic benets of coffee
are now supported by a rapidly growing and
signicant level of scientic validation. The
epidemiologic signicance of the research
in the eld of coffee cannot be overstated,
considering the prevalence of coffee ingestion
among the people of the world.
Coffee is a medium-sized tree of the Rubiacea
family. The plants can live up to 25 years
and grow to a height of 6–15 m. In the
rst century, it was cultivated in Arabic
countries, and then later in Iran and India.
The main producers of this plant currently
are Brazil and Columbia.[3]
TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL
USES
In Brazil, the decoction of the seed is taken
General Article
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DOI: 10.4103/2229-5119.73595
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orally for inuenza.[4] The hot water extract of the seed
is taken orally by males as an aphrodisiac in Cuba.[5] In
Haiti, the decoction of the grilled fruit and leaf is taken
orally for anemia, edema, asthenia and rage. The fruit is
taken orally for hepatitis and liver troubles.[6] The soaked
fruit is used externally for nervous shock.[6] The leaves
are made into a poultice and used to treat fever[7] and the
hot water extract of the roasted seed is taken orally by
nursing mothers to increase milk production in Mexico.[8]
In Peru, the hot water extract of the dried fruit is used
as a stimulant for sleepiness and drunkenness[9] and as
antitussive in u and lung ailment.[10] The hot water
extract of the dried seed is taken orally as a cardiotonic
and a neurotonic in Thailand.[11] In West Indies, the hot
water extract of the seed is taken orally for asthmas. The
root juice is taken orally for scorpion sting.[12]
PHARMACOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL
TRIALS
Coffee’s Antimicrobial Activity
Namba and Matsuse reported that coffee can lessen the
physiologic damage that may arise during viral infections.
[13] Antibacterial properties have been reported to arise
from caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechnic
acid, all of which are present in coffee.[14] Antiadhesive
properties have been attributed to roasting-induced
molecular changes (e.g., that roasting helps prevent
the attachment of bacterial mbriae to the mucosal
membranes). In one study, the antiadhesive properties
were associated with a specic inuence on Streptococcus
mutans.[15,16] S. mutans is frequently associated with
chronic oral pharyngeal infections, including recurrent
tonsillitis, although clinical studies have yet to be
conducted.
Antioxidant Power
Coffee is a rich source of antioxidants, including those
derived from the hydroxycinnamic acid family (caffeic,
chlorogenic, coumaric, ferrulic and sinapic acids),
flavonoids and polyphenols.[17] When evaluating the
antioxidant properties of coffee, higher activity levels
appear in vivo, after the coffee has been consumed,
because colonic microflora metabolize most of the
dietary phenols and therefore significantly increase
the antioxidant activity.[18] When reviewing the coffee
literature, additional consideration must be taken into
account regarding whether the coffee is consumed ltered
or unltered. Consumption of unltered coffee (as in Italy)
has been shown to increase the plasma glutathione.[19] As
an example of naturally occurring synergy, chlorogenic
acid undergoes conjugation with glutathione, increasing
the protective mechanism of both of these substances.[20]
Revealing more about the unique properties and chemical
prole of coffee, research has demonstrated that the
melanoidins in coffee produce a higher antioxidant
activity than the melanoidins present in beer.[21]
Coffee, Asthma, and Bronchitis
Asthma and other pulmonary ailments continue to grow
in prevalence in the United States. Interestingly, coffee
rich in methylxanthines appears to confer a protective
effect for maintaining healthy airway function. This is
not surprising because another xanthine, theophylline,
has been used over the years as a prescription asthma
medication. Studies have shown that regular consumption
of coffee reduces symptoms of asthma and lessens the
probability of experiencing bronchial asthma.[22] Further,
pulmonary applications include using coffee to treat both
acute and chronic airow obstructive disease in smokers.[23]
Coffee for treating acute and chronic bronchitis may prove
to be a worthy area for further clinical investigation.
Coffee and Cardiovascular Disease
Other studies have shown that regular coffee intake has
the potential to decrease the susceptibility of low-density
lipoprotein to oxidation and decrease the malondialdehyde
levels.[24] Further research has examined the ability
of caffeine (250 mg two-times per day) in lowering the
incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with type 1
diabetes, demonstrating a positive effect.[25] (For another
view of coffee and heart health, see Caffeine and the
Heart in News You Use.)
Coffee’s Impact on Cognition and Mood
According to recent ndings, consuming a few cups of
coffee can indeed strengthen information processing and
enhance the ability to monitor for erroneous outcomes.[26]
The physiologic effects of challenging mental capacity
increased the catecholamine levels, and coffee drinking
increased the concentration of both adrenaline and
noradrenaline further, providing “in the moment”
clarity. There was also an increased urinary excretion
of adrenaline and noradrenaline after the ingestion of a
single cup of coffee.[27]
Coffee and Gastrointestinal (GI) and Liver Health
The effects of coffee on the GI tract, the liver and
the biliary tract are well documented and have been
attributed to the effects of caffeine and chlorogenic
and caffeic acids. The effects of coffee as a laxative
and digestive aid within the GI tract are triggered
either directly or indirectly by the release of gastrin
and other GI hormones.[28] Maintaining regular bowel
movements is itself protective against GI disease; in
addition, specific studies have demonstrated other
potential protective effects of coffee for reducing the risk of
serious overt disease processes, such as alcohol-induced
pancreatitis.[29] Another clinically signicant application
for coffee appears to arise from its ability to help inhibit
both alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis.[30,31]
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Because of the unique relationship between caffeine and
the hepatic microsomes that metabolize it, it has been
proposed that the fasting plasma caffeine concentration
may serve as a guide to measuring the physiologic
impairment arising from chronic liver disease.[32] By
inducing phase 1 detoxication, caffeine can provide, via
hepatic detoxication testing, information on whether an
imbalance between phase 1 and phase 2 detoxication
pathways are present. Finally, gallstone formation may
be modied by coffee consumption according to a study
of 46,008 men, aged 40–75 years, in which those who
consumed two to three cups of coffee per day had a lower
risk of forming gallstones.[33]
Coffee, Parkinson’s Disease and Other Neurologic
Conditions
Several studies have shown that coffee consumption can
decrease the incidence or risk of Parkinson’s disease.
Indeed, evidence exists for protection against the
incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Asian-Americans[34] as
well as in the general population in the United States,[35]
Italy[36] and China.[37] Additional studies support ndings
that coffee consumption lowers the risk of Parkinson’s
disease.[38] With an ever-increasing number of cases of
Alzheimer’s disease being diagnosed, interest in ways
to mitigate this devastating illness is quite high. It
appears that coffee might very well be the beverage of
choice in this instance as well, as it has been associated
with a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease.[39,40] However,
currently, there is a lack of evidence that coffee slows
non-specic, age-related mental decline. There appears to
be a synergistic effect between coffee and anticonvulsant
therapy, when used together, which results in a reduction
of sleep seizures.[41] However, this is not advisable for
all patients with seizure disorders because individual
tolerances vary.
COFFEE AND DIABETES
The prevalence of diabetes increased by 33% in the
U.S. between 1990 and 1999, with 7% of the population
being currently affected.[42,43] Estimated projections are
that the global prevalence of diabetes will almost double
by 2030.[44] Several recently published cohort studies
suggest a signicant reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in
coffee drinkers.[45-50] As similar results have been found
with decaffeinated coffee,[51,52] compounds in coffee other
than caffeine have been proposed as being potentially
responsible for the reduced risk.[53-56] With 52% of the
U.S. adults consuming coffee on a daily basis,[57] a coffee
benet could have widespread impact on the health of the
population. Recently, published articles investigating the
association between coffee and type 2 diabetes, although
strong in their methodology, have relied heavily on a
self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, which may be more
prone to misclassication or underreporting. Presently,
only two studies have used an oral glucose tolerance
test (OGTT) for the classication of type 2 diabetes at
follow-up.[58,59]
In a recent study, current or past coffee drinkers who did
not have diabetes at baseline had a 60% reduced risk of
type 2 diabetes during the next 8 years when compared
with those who never drank coffee. Additionally, those
without diabetes, who had impaired glucose at baseline,
were similarly protected against incident diabetes. The
quantity of coffee consumed daily (cup-years) did not
predict the diabetes risk in either those with normal or
those with impaired glucose at baseline. A signicant
reduced risk of diabetes among coffee drinkers is consistent
with other recent cohort studies.[45-50] However, unlike those
studies in which the diagnosis of diabetes was based
on medical records or self-report, in the present study,
a glucose tolerance test was used.[47,48,50] A number
of recent human population studies associated coffee
consumption with a reduced risk for the development
of type 2 diabetes,[60] suggesting that coffee might be
regarded as ‘‘functional food’’ for the prevention of
metabolic disease.[61] However, little progress has been
made so far in elucidating the mechanisms underlying
the anti-diabetic effect of coffee drinking. It became clear
that this effect is not related to caffeine itself, because
consumption of decaffeinated coffee also exerted an
antidiabetic effect.[62,63] Moreover, although for a long time
most of the biological effects of the coffee beverage have
been referred to as pure caffeine effects, a recent study
indicated that acute caffeine ingestion impairs glucose
tolerance while regular consumption of caffeinated or
decaffeinated coffee beverage exerts a protective effect
against type 2 diabetes.[64]
Although some human studies reported that the
catecholamine activity decreases with increased tolerance
to caffeine,[65] studies in mice showed that caffeine promotes
the release of catecholamines and stimulates an increased
metabolic rate and thermogenesis of brown adipose
tissue,[66] which is expected to reduce obesity. Caffeine
also upregulates the expression of uncoupling protein
3,[67] which has been linked to carbohydrate metabolism
and type 2 diabetes.[68] Specically, uncoupling protein 3
is lower in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with
healthy control subjects,[69] and is inversely related to the
body mass index.[70]
Geographic differences exist with respect to the coffee
bean and ltration method commonly used.[71-73] In the
earlier report, Finns were more likely to drink boiled
coffee than drip-ltered coffee. The diterpene content is
lower in coffee that has been drip-ltered.[74] Diterpenes,
in particular, cafestol and kahweol, have been reported
to increase the serum total cholesterol levels and to be
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associated with higher rates of coronary heart disease in
coffee drinkers from Norway[75] who, like the Finns, once
preferred boiled coffee. Therefore, different results in the
two Finnish studies may reect a conversion from boiled
to ltered coffee. Most countries, including the U.S., use
arabica coffee beans, which contain about half the caffeine
of the robusta coffee beans[71] primarily used in France,
Italy, Portugal and the U.K., countries with slightly lower
prevalence estimates of diabetes than the U.S.[76]
Table 1 shows the results of studies of coffee consumption
in relation to markers of hyperglycemia and insulin
sensitivity.[76-82] Coffee consumption was not appreciably
associated with early insulin secretion assessed during
an oral glucose tolerance test.[82] In several,[77,79] but not
all,[78,80] studies, higher habitual coffee consumption
was associated with higher insulin sensitivity. Results
from studies that included an oral glucose tolerance test
suggested that coffee consumption affected the post-
prandial glucose metabolism rather than the fasting
glucose concentrations [Table 1].
In an intervention study that did not include a control
group, 14 days of higher decaffeinated coffee consumption
was associated with a decrease in the plasma glucose
concentrations.[83] In a randomized crossover study, 4
weeks of very high coffee consumption did not affect the
fasting glucose concentrations, and increased the fasting
insulin concentration. This increase may reect the
effects on hepatic extraction of insulin or the direct effects
on insulin secretion,[84] which requires further study.
MECHANISM OF ANTIDIABETIC
ACTIVITY
Most data on the effects of coffee components on glucose
metabolism are based on animal and in vitro studies,
and the relevance for the development of type 2 diabetes
in humans is currently unclear. Caffeine intake was
Bisht and Sisodia: Coffea arabica
Table 1: Studies of habitual coee consumpon and markers of hyperglycemia, insulin sensivity and
insulin Secreon
Country Sex , age
(years)
N AdjustmentaMulvariate adjusted results Comments
Sweden14 M, 35-56 3128 a, c, d, g (no
change aer
adjustment for
i, j)
For consumpon of ≥5 vs. ≤2 cups/day, the OR for being in
the highest 3rd of HOMA-IR was 0.89 (95% CI 0.71-1.12)
among NGT, 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.72) among IGT, and 0.40
(95% CI0.19-0.86) among T2D
Also inverse associaon with
prevalence IGT and T2D
F, 35-56 4821 a, c, d, g (no
change aer
adjustment for
i, j)
For consumpon of ≥5 vs. ≤2 cups/day, the OR for being in
the highest 3rd of HOMA-IR was 0.63 (95% CI 0.52-0.77)
among NGT, 0.45 (95% CI 0.26-0.78) among IGT, and 0.31
(95% CI 0.12-0.79) among T2D
Also inverse associaon with
prevalence of IGT and T2D
The
Netherland77
M, 69-89 419 a,c, d, f, g, h, i, l Consumpon of ≥5 vs. ≤2 cups/day: no substanal
dierence in fasng insulin (_2.22 pM; 95% CI -10.2,
5.75) and/or C-pepde (-0.048 nM; 95% CI -0.13, 0.03)
Inverse associaon with
prevalence of IGT/T2D combined
Spain80 M/F, 18-65 1226 a, b, c, d Consumpon of≥1 vs.<1 cups/day was associated with 8.2%
lower 2-h glucose (P = 0.01) and 25.3% lower 2-h insulin (P
< 0.001). No associaon with HOMA-IR, fasng glucose, or
fasng insulin
Also inverse associaon with
prevalence of IGT/T2D combined
Japan81 M, 46-59 3224 C, d, g, h, I, j Consumpon of ≥5 vs.<1 cup/day was associated with 1.5%
lower fasng glucose (P trend 0.02) and 4.3% lower 2-h
glucose (P trend 0.001)
Also inverse associaon with
prevalence of IGT and T2D,
but not with prevalence of IFG
Sweden82 M, 69-74 936 c, d, g, h, l (no
change aer
adjustment for a)
For each cup/day higher
consumpon the insulin
sensivity index (clamp)
was 0.16 (95% CI0 .07-0.26) units higher (P < 0.001). No
associaon with early insulin response during an OGTT
The
Netherland76
M/F, 50-74 2280 a, b, c, d, e, g, h, l For each 5 cup/day higher
consumpon, 0.8% (95% CI
-0.6, 2.1) lower fasng
glucose, 8.8% (95% CI -5.6,
11.8) lower 2-h glucose,
6.3% (95% CI 2.1, 10.4) lower HOMA-IR, and 19.7% (95% CI
8.1, 30.2) lower 2-h insulin
Also inverse
associaon with
incidence of IGT
USA52 F, 43-69 2112 a, c, d, g, h k, l Regular and decaeinated
coee consumpon were
associated with lower fasng C-pepde (both -16% for≥_4
cups/day vs. nondrinker, P < 0.001)
Stronger
associaon for
coee than for
caeine
OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; IFG, impaired fasng glucose; IGT, impaired glucose tolerance; T2D, type 2
diabetes. a Adjustments: a ¼ age, b ¼ sex, c ¼ cigaree smoking, d ¼ body mass index, e ¼ waist-to-hip rao, f ¼ subscapula skinfold thickness, g ¼ physical acvity, h ¼ alcohol
consumpon, i ¼ family history of diabetes, j ¼ socio-economic status, k ¼ menopausal status, l ¼ dietary factors.
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associated with an acute reduction of insulin sensitivity
in short-term metabolic studies in humans.[85-87] This
effect reects decreased glucose storage, probably due
to increased epinephrine release.[88] The acute effects
of caffeine through increased epinephrine levels cannot
be extrapolated to the long-term effects of coffee
consumption, because the acute effects of coffee on
epinephrine are weaker than that expected from its
caffeine content[89] and because the effects of caffeine on
the epinephrine levels wane after continued intake.[90]
Based on animal studies, the benecial effects of caffeine
on glucose metabolism through increased uncoupling
protein expression and lipid oxidation have also been
suggested.[91] Some biologically active ingredients of
coffee that were suggested to contribute to its antidiabetic
actions are as below.
Chlorogenic acid is a major component of coffee, and it
has been estimated that chlorogenic acid intake is several
times higher for persons who regularly drink coffee as
compared with non-drinkers.[92] Firstly, chlorogenic acid
may delay glucose absorption in the intestine through
inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate translocase 1 and
reduction of the sodium gradient-driven apical glucose
transport.[93] Secondly, in vitro studies of chlorogenic
acid[94] and animal studies of chlorogenic acid derivates[95]
showed that these substances can decrease the hepatic
glucose output through inhibition of glucose-6-phospatase.
Thirdly, coffee was a major contributor to the in vitro
antioxidant capacity of the total diet in Norwegian and
Spanish populations,[96,97] and chlorogenic acid contributes
to these antioxidant effects.[92] This may have benecial
effects on glucose metabolism as oxidative stress plays
a role in the development of insulin resistance and
type 2 diabetes. Fourthly, chlorogenic acid can act as
a metal chelator, and chlorogenic acid changed the soft
tissue mineral composition (e.g., increased magnesium
concentrations in the liver) in rats. The authors suggested
that this change in mineral composition may have
improved glucose tolerance.[98]
Coffee contains substantial amounts of several
lignans.[99] These lignans can be converted into
enterolactone and enterodiol by intestinal bacteria
and enter the blood circulation.[100] It has recently been
estimated that coffee is among the main contributors to
the total intake of four major lignans in the Dutch diet,
although the estimated contribution of tea was higher
(19% vs. 11%). Consistent with these results, caffeine
intake was signicantly correlated with higher plasma
enterolactone concentrations in a U.S. population.[101]
Lignans may affect glucose metabolism through its
antioxidant and (anti)estrogenic properties. Intake of the
lignan secoisolariciresinol resulted in a lower incidence
of diabetes in Zucker Diabetic rats, an animal model of
type 2 diabetes.[102]
OTHER COFFEE CONSTITUENTS
AND PATHWAY FOR THE EFFECTS
OF COFFEE
Coffee also contains numerous other compounds,
including substantial amounts of magnesium, potassium,
trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) and niacin.[103]
Trigonelline lowered the glucose concentrations in
diabetic rats.[104] Higher magnesium intake was associated
with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in several cohort
studies,[105] and pharmacological doses were associated
with improved insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion
in some intervention studies.[106] However, adjustment for
magnesium intake did not explain the association of coffee
consumption with glucose tolerance and a lower risk of
type 2 diabetes.[107] Coffee consumption has also been
associated with lower levels of the g-glutamyltransferase
and other liver enzymes, suggesting a benecial effect of
coffee on liver function.[108] Because lower levels of these
liver enzymes predict a lower risk of type 2 diabetes,[109,110]
the possibility that benecial effects of coffee on glucose
metabolism are mediated by improved liver function is
of interest.
DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF
COFFEE ON THE RISK OF TYPE 2
DIABETES ACCORDING TO MEAL
CONSUMPTION
Over a dozen studies have linked coffee drinking to a
lower risk of type 2 diabetes the type closely linked
to obesity. But, the mechanism behind the relationship
has not been established and no studies have looked at
whether the timing of coffee drinking inuences this
effect.
To investigate this, Sartorelli’s team looked at 69,532
French women participating in a large European
nutrition study. The women ranged in age from 41 to 72
years when they were enrolled in the study, and were
followed for 11 years, on average. During that time,
1,415 of them developed type 2 diabetes. Overall, those
who drank at least three cups of coffee daily were 27%
less likely to become diabetic. But, when the researchers
looked at the timing of coffee consumption, they found
that only lunchtime coffee drinking reduced the type 2
diabetes risk; women who drank more than a cup with
lunch every day were 33% less likely to develop diabetes.
This was true for decaf and caffeinated coffee, with or
without sugar. But, drinking coffee at any other time of
the day did not inuence the diabetes risk at all.
“These ndings strongly suggest that only coffee taken
with lunch may reduce the diabetes risk,” Dr. Daniela
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Journal of Natural Pharmaceuticals, Volume 1, Issue 1, October-December, 2010 63
S. Sartorelli of the University of Sao Paulo in Ribeirao
Preto, Brazil, and her colleagues wrote in the American
Journal of Clinical Nutrition.[111]
RELEVANCE FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
Increased physical activity and weight management
should be the mainstay of public health strategies to
prevent type 2 diabetes. The benecial effects of physical
activity and weight management are not limited to type 2
diabetes alone but can also lower the risk of cardiovascular
diseases, various types of cancer and premature mortality.
For choices of individuals regarding coffee consumption,
the potential effect of coffee consumption on risk of
type 2 diabetes can be taken into account, but should
be considered in combination with the other health
effects of coffee. The relative risk of type 2 diabetes
that is associated with coffee consumption appears to
be similar for obese and non-obese persons. Therefore,
the absolute risk reduction associated with higher coffee
consumption was much greater for obese individuals than
for non-obese individuals. Hence, for obese individuals
at a high risk of type 2 diabetes, the potential benecial
effect of coffee consumption on 74 R.M. van Dam risk of
type 2 diabetes may be more relevant than for non-obese
individuals. The choice of appropriate types of coffees
may lead to benets with regard to glucose metabolism,
while avoiding some of the potential detrimental health
effects of coffee. Specically, use of paper ltered coffee
instead of unltered coffee can lower the low-density
lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Caffeinated
coffee consumption can lead to a modest increase in
blood pressure and may have other unfavorable effects
on sensitive individuals, e.g. reduced sleep quality.
Consumption of decaffeinated coffee may provide benets
for reduction of the risk of type 2 diabetes while avoiding
these detrimental effects of caffeine. Further knowledge
on the effects of different coffee constituents may aid the
development or selection of types of coffee with improved
overall health effects.
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Source of Support: Nil, Conict of Interest: None declared.
Bisht and Sisodia: Coffea arabica
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... This intricacy is consistent with NPR1's numerous roles previously documented, which imply it not only positively regulates SA signal transduction but both negatively and positively regulates SA accumulation. Different NPR1 functions are likely reliant on pathogen input signals and plant genetic background, allowing plants to fine-tune disease resistance by combining intrinsic and extrinsic variables [73], [74], [75], [76]. ...
... Morphological changes in the root, such as thickening, white coloration and elongation [71], [26], [68], [36], [8] [75], [76] a neurotonic and for asthmas. ...
... It is a saturated fatty acid that is found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. n-Hexadecanoic acid has a chemical structure of C16H32O2 with a molar mass of 256.42 g / mol, a melting point of 62.9 o C, a boiling point of 351 o C, and a density of 853 kg / m3 [26]. The molecular structure of n-Hexadecanoic acid can be seen in Fig. 4. ...
... Physiological role: Al plays important role in stimulating the rate of photosynthesis, activation of antioxidant enzymes, increasing membrane protein integrity, regulation of C and N metabolism, regulation of the expression and activation of some genes and proteins associated with the biosynthesis of organic acid, participation in the signal transduction pathway [47]. [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53], [54], [17] [55], [56], [17], [57], [58], [38], [57], [35], [59] , [60] [68], [57], [58], [38], [35], [64], [65], [69], [70] Quercus acutissima [75], [76] a neurotonic and for asthmas. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Mineral elements which either stimulates growth without being essential or which are being essential for only certain plant species or families are usually defined as beneficial elements. Aluminium (Al), Cobalt (Co), Sodium (Na), Selenium (Se) and Silicon (Si) are known as beneficial elements as they are not essential by most of the plants but their presence at low dosage can stimulate the growth, development and yield quality of the plants. A number of scientific investigations have highlighted the role of these elements in enhancing the crop productivity, nutritional quality, environmental stress tolerance capacity and other beneficial qualities in many plants species. Mankind is always dependent on the medicinal plants for development of new drugs. Species of Asteraceae, Liliaceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Rutaceae, Piperaceae and Sapotaceae are reported to have mostly used as herbal medicines. Medicinal plant exhibits an important role not only in traditional medicines but also in different commercial prospects. To meet the demand of the growing market there is need to have proper scientific knowledge to enhance the quality yield of the medicinal plants. Therefore, the present study attempts to review the effects of the beneficial elements in the growth, development and quality yield of the medicinal plants.
... Di Peru, ekstrak air panas dari buah kering kopi digunakan sebagai stimulan untuk kantuk, antitusif pada flu, dan penyakit paru-paru.Di Thailand ekstrak air panas dari biji kering kopi diminum sebagai cardiotonic dan neurotonic. Di Hindia Barat, air panas ekstrak biji kopi diminum untuk asma (Bisht & Sisodia, 2010). Di Indonesia, daun kopi dimakan sebagai sayur atau lalap untuk pengobatan hipertensi (Sutomo & Iryadi, 2019) serta ampas kopi digunakan sebagai anti selulit penggunaannya dengan cara dibalurkan dan didiamkan pada kulit menit yang mengalami selulit selama beberapa menit (Chandra & Fitria, 2019). ...
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Kopi Arabika (Coffea arabica L.) adalah tanaman yang memiliki populasi cukup banyak di Indonesia dan merupakan salah satu komoditas di dunia. Kopi arabika memiliki aktivitas sebagai antiinflamasi, antihiperglikemik, antiselulit, hiperurisemia, antimikroba, dan antioksidan. Hal ini mengindikasikan kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) memiliki bahan aktif atau metabolit sekunder seperti kafein dan asam klorogenat yang memberikan aktivitas tersebut. Penggunaan kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) pada kalangan masyarakat terbatas pada obat herbal dan juga minuman dengan pengolahan standar sehingga saat ini banyak dikembangkan ulasan mengenai formulasi dan inovasi dari kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) sehingga lebih memberikan aktivitas terapi. Pada review artikel ini akan diulas secara lengkap mengenai kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) dalam hal kandungan kimia, aktivitas, dan formulasi yang telah dikembangkan pada kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.). Kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.) memiliki potensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai bahan aktif berdasarkan tinjauan tentang efektivitas kopi arabika (Coffea arabica L.).
... Coffee also worked as an antitussive agent in common cold and lung disease. It acts as a cardiotonic, neurotonic and also works wonders for asthmas [15]. Coffee oil possesses many biologically active components that act as anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and antiatherosclerotic agent [16,17]. ...
... Coffee plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree indigenous to Arabia, grown and cultivated throughout India. Traditionally, it has been used for several important medicinal purposes in different parts of the world (Bisht & Sisodia, 2010)Among 70 species of coffee,only three are cultivated.75% of the world's production of coffee is provided by Coffea arabica, about 25% by Coffea canephora, and less than 1% by Coffea liberica and others (Sharma, 2020). The main constituents of coffee are caffeine, tannin, fixed oil, carbohydrates and proteins.It contains 2-3% caffeine,3-5% tannins,13% proteins and 10-15% fixed oils.In the seeds, caffeine is present as a salt of chlorogenic acid (CGA).Also it contains oil and wax.In coffee pulp, condensed tannins are the major phenolic compounds, while in the seeds, phenolic compounds exist primarily as a family of esters formed between hydroxycinnamic acids and quinic acid, collectively recognized as chlorogenic acids (CGA). ...
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Background: Origanum vulgare (referred to as Spanish thyme and wild marjoram),is a member of the plant family Lamiaceae. Oregano contains potent components which contributes towards the cardiovascular and nervous systems, relieves symptoms of inflammation, and modulates blood sugar and lipids. Coffee which contains polyphenols attributes to a number of pharmacological activities that include antioxidant, antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects. Nigella sativa, black caraway is also called kalonji or nigella, and more common in the Far East, Mideast, Bangladesh, India and Africa. Nigella sativa contains active ingredients, in particular, thymoquinone, the main active constituent known for anti-inflammatory effect. Aim: To evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of oregano, coffee and black cumin formulation. Materials and methods: This study includes the usage of about 1g of oregano, coffee and black cumin extracts mixed with 100 mL of distilled water and boiled for 15 minutes, filtered and again concentrated till 10mL.The antiinflammatory activity of this formulation is assessed by using Bovine Serum Albumin assay. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of oregano, coffee and black cumin aqueous formulation shows about 65% of inhibition when compared with standard.
... Coffee also worked as an antitussive agent in common cold and lung disease. It acts as a cardiotonic, neurotonic and also works wonders for asthmas [15]. Coffee oil possesses many biologically active components that act as anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and antiatherosclerotic agent [16,17]. ...
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offee is one of the massive tropical crops in developing countries and historically understudied in subjects of crop nutrition and administration. Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) plant belongs to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family. It is known as the most widely recognized Coffea species created comprehensively summing up to over 75% of the all-out Coffea creation. Its compounds are a complex mixture of different chemicals that have many health benefits. The usage of various parts of a coffee plant, along with its oil is verified for the manufacturing of ancient medicines that helped in curing a number of ailments. These traditional uses were scientifically proven by many studies including psychoactive responses, neurological and metabolic disorders. Coffee oil consists mainly of triglycerol and fatty acids along with antioxidants. It also possesses some biologically active fatty acids that are anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic in nature. This paper provides the medicinal properties and scientific review of Arabica coffee oil. C Abstract www.als-journal.com
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Auf dem ganzen Globus bekannt und für viele unverzichtbarer Muntermacher – Kaffee. Doch die Kaffeepflanze hat einiges mehr zu bieten.
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Background Coffee and coffee products are known potentially to reduce levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in humans. Objective This investigation evaluates the effects of coffee pulp extract as a functional supplement (in coffee pulp drink, CPD) and a cosmetic ingredient (coffee pulp serum, CPS). Patients/Methods The effects of CPD and CPS for anti-oxidation and anti-aging were investigated. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to CPD or placebo drink groups (50 ml of a CPD/placebo drink daily for 8 weeks for each subject), and another 40 subjects were recruited to CPS or placebo serum groups (about 3 ml of a CPS/placebo serum day and night/daily for 4 weeks for each subject) in a double-blind study. Results The CPD and CPS (20%) can increase free radical scavenging activities by 93.3% and 85% (p < 0.001) for DPPH, 94.5% and 61.3% (p < 0.01) for ABTS⁺, 43.8% and 15.3% (p < 0.05) for NO than placebo. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity was increased by 91.6% and 51.0% (p < 0.05) after CPD and CPS application. The CPD comprehensively improved the moisture, brightness, elasticity, spotting, texture, and collagen content of skin for most subjects after 8 weeks, relative to the baseline without treatment (p < 0.05). After 4 weeks of CPS serum consumption, the brightness, elasticity, spotting, UV spotting and collagen content of skin were slightly better than those at week 0 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The daily consumption of coffee pulp extract products can slow the skin aging process and improve skin health.
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This study evaluates whether some common beverages treated before coffee could protect or increase tooth staining caused by coffee. Initial color of 50 incisor teeth were measured with a spectrophotometer and recorded according to CIELAB color system. Teeth were randomly divided into five groups, water (control), milk, green tea, orange juice, and cola (n = 10) and were kept in selected beverage for 10 min. Immediately afterward, they were immersed in coffee and allowed to stand for 24 h. The treatment was repeated for 5 days. At the end of the fifth day, L*a*b* color measurements of the teeth were repeated. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium changes on representative teeth surfaces were also investigated with X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Color differences were calculated with both CIEab and CIE00 formulas. Groups were compared with Kruskal-Wallis test complemented by the Bonferroni correction and Mann-Whitney U test for pairwise comparisons (P = .05). The teeth submitted to coffee challenges after distillated water or beverages showed a perceptible color change. Soaking in cola or orange juice before coffee immersion caused severe tooth discoloration. All the beverages tested here were not able to protect the tooth from coffee staining. People should be informed that some acidic beverages consumed before a coffee can worsen the coffee-based tooth discolorations.
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Continuing the high standards set by the widely acclaimed first and second volumes of Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Ivan A. Ross now comprehensively documents in Volume 3 the medicinal value of 16 major plant species widely used around the world in medical formulations. The plants for this volume are Camellia sinenis, Cannabis sativa, Cocos nucifera, Coffea arabica, Daucus carota, Ferula assafoetida, Hordeum vulgare, Larrea tridentata, Nicotiana tabacum, Olea europaea, Oryza sativa, Plantago ovata, Saccharum officinarum, Serenoa repens, Sesamum indicum, and Zingiber officinale. The author's exhaustive summary of available scientific data for each plant provides detailed information on how the plant is used in different countries, describing its traditional therapeutic applications and what is known from its use in clinical trials. Additional material presented includes a botanical description with a color photo of each plant for identification, the common names used for the plant throughout the world, and a listing of the plant's known chemical constituents. A comprehensive bibliography cites the literature available from a wide range of disciplines. Medicinal Plants of the World: Chemical Constituents, Traditional and Modern Medicinal Uses, Volume 3, offers a unique collection of vital scientific information for pharmacologists, herbal medicine practitioners, drug developers, phytochemists, medicinal chemists, phytologists, toxicologists, and researchers who want to explore the many uses of plant materials for medicinal and related purposes. Its wealth of significant information will reveal little-known facts about these plants and open new horizons of application for the many novel drugs and drug candidates found in them.
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This paper summarises the occurrence in foods and beverages of the cinnamic acids, their associated conjugates and transformation products. Quantitative data are lacking for some commodities known to contain them, but it is clear that for many people coffee will be the major source. The daily dietary intake of total cinnamates may vary substantially from almost zero to perhaps close to 1 g. The data relating to their absorption and metabolism are presented along with a consideration of their possible in vivo effects. Data for true bioavailability are incomplete: in particular it is not clear whether availability differs markedly with the form of the conjugate, and whether as a consequence some dietary sources may be superior to others. (C) 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.
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Background: The consumption of unfiltered coffee, containing bioactive diterpenes, causes an increase in plasma homocysteine concentration. A slight increase in plasma homocysteine is also caused by large quantities of filtered coffee. Coffee terpenes also raise plasma glutathione in mice. Aim: To verify the effect of Italian-style coffee consumption on the plasma concentration of glutathione and homocysteine in healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-two volunteers consumed five cups of coffee per day for 1 week and maintained their usual diet. Five subjects were enrolled as controls. The intervention trial was preceded and followed by seven coffee-free days. Results: Plasma glutathione increased by 16% (P < 0.05) on coffee consumption, and returned to the original concentration after the washout period. The increase in plasma homocysteine concentration (13% after 1 week of coffee intake) was not significant. No differences in glutathione or homocysteine concentration were observed in the control group. No variation of plasma hydroperoxide concentration was detectable. Conclusions: A coffee intake regimen, representing the average consumption of coffee drinkers in Italy, increased the plasma concentration of glutathione, but no significant increase in the plasma homocysteine concentration was detected.
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To decaffeinated coffee powder was added either caffeine or lactose, each in an amount of 150 mg. per dose. Prepared packets were issued to second-year medical students, who served as subjects. When consumed at bedtime, this modest dose of caffeine was significantly more effective than the lactose placebo at inducing a reduction in pulse rate in noncoffee drinkers, but not in those who habitually consumed caffeinated beverages. Small but significant differences were demonstrated in both frequency and intensity of response. Only non coffee drinkers reported disturbances in sleep patterns, most consistently a delay in the onset of sleep. The relative insensitivity of coffee drinkers to these actions of caffeine presumably represents an acquired tolerance. Like that previously demonstrated to the diuretic and salivary-stimulating actions, this tolerance is probably low grade. Some of the cardiovascular effects of caffeine are reviewed. Heightened vagal tone appears to be responsible for the bradycardia, which is reportedly masked after high doses of caffeine by direct excitatory actions on the heart. Bradycardia has not been observed regularly after small doses of caffeine in man, apparently in large measure because most investigators failed to separate the responses of habitual and occasional coffee drinkers.
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An ethnobotanical survey was performed in Lavras Novas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Differently from other areas of the State of Minas Gerais, the population of Lavras Novas is formed mainly of black people. There are no doctors and no drug stores. Forty-eight plants were found to be used, the majority of them being exotic plants, cultivated near each home.