Article

Web-based social media for professional medical education: Perspectives of senior stakeholders in the nursing home sector

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Abstract

Participatory web-based platforms, including social media, have been recognised as valuable learning tools in healthcare education for over a decade. Use of these platforms is now widespread in tertiary education. It is less widely accepted as a tool for continuing professional education and development at the industry level. This study explores perspectives of senior stakeholders in the nursing home sector to explore perceived benefits, barriers and risks for use in professional education. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews of 'high level' clinical and executive staff from a cross section of nursing home stakeholder organisations. Established printed educational material (PEM) was used as a case study for adaptation to web-based social applications. Questions were designed to gather information about the interviewee's views on the potential to apply PEM to programs such as blogs, Twitter and YouTube to deliver education and aid communication in the sector. Twelve participants from eleven stakeholder organisations took part in the study. Most participants were cautious about the use of social media programs in continuing professional education. Participants described the benefits (contemporary information, delivered rapidly, varying formats) and barriers (credibility of information, potential misinterpretation, sector demographics, time constraints) to uptake of these programs. The majority of participants preferred formal e-learning programs to web-based social media applications. Reservations expressed about the use of social media, such as accuracy, legal and privacy risks to the organisation reflected those previously expressed by the broader medical community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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... Several studies further showed that e-learning is the most effective approach for transferring clinical skills and knowledge, using virtual clinical case studies adopting a mixed learning approach, combining different styles and modes not only to facilitate learning but also to bring positive change in practice [47,[53][54][55]. Therefore, the integration of theoretical learning into practice using el-HSE is evident [44,47,53,56]. ...
... As e-learning involves multidisciplinary uses, creativity, motivation, quality and accessibility, it provides an alternative education approach or opportunity for lifelong learning, addressing both the long-term and shortterm healthcare and education goals of learners [3,43,44,50,55,56]. It has also been reported that the effectiveness of e-learning would be determined by the extent to which learners' short-term and long-term personal and professional educational needs are met [3,49,55]. ...
... As e-learning involves multidisciplinary uses, creativity, motivation, quality and accessibility, it provides an alternative education approach or opportunity for lifelong learning, addressing both the long-term and shortterm healthcare and education goals of learners [3,43,44,50,55,56]. It has also been reported that the effectiveness of e-learning would be determined by the extent to which learners' short-term and long-term personal and professional educational needs are met [3,49,55]. ...
Article
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Background: Recently, much attention has been given to e-learning in higher education as it provides better access to learning resources online, utilising technology - regardless of learners' geographical locations and timescale - to enhance learning. It has now become part of the mainstream in education in the health sciences, including medical, dental, public health, nursing, and other allied health professionals. Despite growing evidence claiming that e-learning is as effective as traditional means of learning, there is very limited evidence available about what works, and when and how e-learning enhances teaching and learning. This systematic review aimed to identify and synthesise the factors - enablers and barriers - affecting e-learning in health sciences education (el-HSE) that have been reported in the medical literature. Methods: A systemic review of articles published on e-learning in health sciences education (el-HSE) was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Allied & Complementary Medicine, DH-DATA, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Global Health, from 1980 through 2019, using 'Textword' and 'Thesaurus' search terms. All original articles fulfilling the following criteria were included: (1) e-learning was implemented in health sciences education, and (2) the investigation of the factors - enablers and barriers - about el-HSE related to learning performance or outcomes. Following the PRISMA guidelines, both relevant published and unpublished papers were searched. Data were extracted and quality appraised using QualSyst tools, and synthesised performing thematic analysis. Results: Out of 985 records identified, a total of 162 citations were screened, of which 57 were found to be of relevance to this study. The primary evidence base comprises 24 papers, with two broad categories identified, enablers and barriers, under eight separate themes: facilitate learning; learning in practice; systematic approach to learning; integration of e-learning into curricula; poor motivation and expectation; resource-intensive; not suitable for all disciplines or contents, and lack of IT skills. Conclusions: This study has identified the factors which impact on e-learning: interaction and collaboration between learners and facilitators; considering learners' motivation and expectations; utilising user-friendly technology; and putting learners at the centre of pedagogy. There is significant scope for better understanding of the issues related to enablers and facilitators associated with e-learning, and developing appropriate policies and initiatives to establish when, how and where they fit best, creating a broader framework for making e-learning effective.
... That disciplines of medical, nursing and pharmacy should place a greater focus on deprescribing by instituting policies and practices that will support the identification of residents, in consultation with their families, who may benefit from this initiative. 27. That policy makers and disciplines of medicine and nursing should explore the feasibility and impact of a pharmacist-led medication review service with a focus on medication simplification and de-prescribing. ...
... Acute airway obstruction has the potential to cause brain injury and death due to cardiac arrest unless the obstruction is removed within minutes 26 unable to dislodge the obstruction by coughing 27 , for successful obstruction removal. Cardio pulmonary resuscitation is always required if the obstruction is not rapidly removed 28 . ...
... Some residents may prefer to eat without supervision and specifying a ratio specifically for residents with dysphagia may create conflict between care staff and residents. 27 Op ...
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This report is the culmination of an in-depth analysis of injury-related deaths of residents living in accredited Australian RACS. The seven topics of focus comprised: choking; medication; physical restraint; resident-to-resident aggression (RRA); respite; suicide; and unexplained absence. Three methods were applied to develop the evidence for this report: 1) a series of systematic literature reviews; 2) a retrospective case series study of deaths among residents of RACS reported to Australian coroners; and 3) expert consultation forums and follow up survey. The Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine Research Advisory Committee and the Department of Justice Human Research Ethics Committee for access to coronial information via the NCIS approved this program of research. From this analysis 104 recommendations to reduce the risk of future similar deaths have been formulated for consideration by government, RACS providers and other agencies and professionals with a mandate or interest in the health and safety of nursing home residents. These recommendations were provided to over 300 agencies and individuals with an interest or mandate for the health and safety of RACS residents. In addition to our 104 recommendations generated through expert panels for reducing injury, our research team proposes an additional eight recommendations that apply broadly to the whole of the aged care sector.
... In the published literature, it is possible to locate various research studies based on the use of OERs by those employed in many fields. Kitching, Winbolt, MacPhail, and Ibrahim (2015) conducted a study with managers and other high-level clinical and executive staff. According to the researchers, staff and managers were seen as cautious about the use of social media for the purposes of professional development. ...
... Guo, Zhang, Bonk, and Li (2015) stated in their study that the factors that encourage academics to use OERs are not sufficient. However, academics are ready to use and develop OERs (Nkuyubwatsi, 2017) and MOOCs (Ab Jalil, Ma'rof & Omar, 2019).. Managers could help to incentivize academics in this regard; however, Kitching, Winbolt, MacPhail, and Ibrahim (2015) determined that managers are cautious about the usage of e-resources for professional development. Todorinova and Wilkinson (2020) offered financial incentives to academics in order to develop OERs and identified certain positive effects from offering such an incentive. ...
Article
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Introduction: Open educational e-resources (OERs) are one of the informational resources that are openly available to all. Open educational e-resources provide learners with free access to high-quality educational content and materials. Learners should be able to use, read, adapt, and share these resources freely. In this study, we aimed to examine academics’ open educational e-resources usage intentions. We also tried to understand behavioral differences by collecting data from two different countries: Turkey and the United Kingdom.
... Communications between professionals in different hospitals, sharing practical experience and clinical cases, way to improve clinical outcomes or to reduce healthcare costs represent real facts in sharing economy time [10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. At the same time patients are extremely interested to be under the hands of Clinical really updates with the best practice or to be treated with the best technologies (the same insurance corporations) [17,18]. ...
... In literature analyzed in this work, there is the need to improve the healthcare systems introducing management and ICT instruments starting from clinical pharmacist university course. All these management instruments must be added to EBM criteria in clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical care working activities (OSAMA ET AL) [13]. ...
... Also, the learner has the flexibility to access reading material anytime and anywhere [36]. Attempts should be made to blend e-learning into the present curricula [37]. This would "facilitate independent, interactive, and collaborative learning due to its flexible and technologically rich format" [36]. ...
Article
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The drastic change in the technological environment has transformed the entire world including the education sector which was and is largely dominated by classroom teaching. In the last decade, a new entrant in the education sector has been e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutes to look at e-learning as a path to continue the learning process. The present paper aims to propose a model highlighting the enablers that encourage the smooth and effective delivery of e-learning process and highlight the barriers that cause hurdles in the effective delivery of e-learning. The researchers have followed the Total Interpretive Structural Modelling and Fuzzy Matriced’ Impacts Croise's Multiplication Appliquée a UN Classement (MICMAC) analysis approach of extant literature review, expert opinion and multiple iterations to arrive at the proposed model. The findings of the present research study show the linkages between the identified enablers: institutional culture, institutional capability and support, flexibility in the teaching-learning process, e-readiness, motivation, knowledge management practices, and technology. Knowledge management practices that include practices of capturing knowledge and sharing knowledge have emerged as the most significant enabler of e-learning. The model on barriers to e-learning shows the relationship between lack of required skills, lack of access to technology, quality concerns, time as a barrier, learner engagement as barriers to effective e-learning. Modelling of enablers and barriers and effective e-learning is a less explored area, particularly in the Indian context with special emphasis on the pandemic. The study was carried out to address this research gap.
... Time constraints, the difficulty of team management, and the lack of participation of shy students in the discussion have been listed as the disadvantages of teambased learning; however, they can be solved using virtual social networks (10). Today, there is great potential for using collaborative web platforms that allow online groups to be created, and health ideas, advice, and experiences can be shared (11). ...
Article
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Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a team-based educational program through smartphone applications on Iranian nursing students’ problem-solving ability and clinical skills. Methods: This quasi-experimental study with two groups, including an experimental and a control group, was conducted among 60 nursing students who spent internship period in post CCU and CCU wards for 16 weeks. The control group received routine training, and the students of the experimental group received a team-based program through a smartphone application in addition to routine training. Students involved in the program were invited to complete the clinical skills questionnaire and Heppner's Problem-Solving Inventory at baseline and week four, and week 12 of follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (Version 22). Results: A significant improvement was found in nursing students’ clinical skills and problem-solving ability at week four and week 12 of follow-up compared with baseline (P < 0.001). However, the mean scores increased more in the experimental group. Conclusions: This study suggests that team-based training through smartphone applications can enhance problem-solving perception and clinical skills in nursing students. It is expected that in the future, team-based training through smartphone applications may be used in the internship training of nursing students continuously.
... However, these new forms of learning are reported to challenge and disadvantage students who are unable to access the relevant technologies. For example, students may experience poor internet connections and lack the appropriate software and equipment to connect with online classes (Hammarlund et al., 2015;Kitching et al., 2015). Further reported challenges experienced include instructional design issues, low self-efficacy, poor time management skills, lack of motivation, and difficulties forming relationships with peers and instructors (Gustafsson, 2020;Rasheed et al., 2020). ...
Article
Introduction: In many countries, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in sudden changes to the delivery of health professions education in response to local and national lockdowns. Within occupational therapy, university education programs traditionally delivered in face-to-face classroom, and clinical settings, the transition to online learning presented unique issues and challenges for faculty and students. This study compared the experiences and perceptions of learning in two groups of occupational therapy students during the pandemic: one group converted to online learning only and the other had a blended approach that combined face-to-face on-campus learning with some online lecture content delivery. Methods: Two hundred and eight (n = 208) undergraduate occupational therapy students from three Australian universities completed an online self-report demographic questionnaire and two standardised instruments: the Student Engagement in the e-Learning Environment Scale and the Distance Education Learning Environment Scale. An independent-samples t test with bootstrapping was completed to examine differences in students' scores. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between the online and blended learning groups across a range of the SELES and DELES subscales. The strongest findings related to psychological motivation (p = 0.001), personal relevance (p = 0.001), interactions with instructors (p = 0.002), instructor support (p = 0.001), student interaction & collaboration (p = 0.001), and cognitive problem solving (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Occupational therapy students who transitioned to online-only learning experienced higher levels of motivation, interactions with instructors and peers, and self-directed learning than students who experienced a blended education delivery approach of face-to-face and online learning. The findings extend educators' understanding of the matrix of factors that have impacted students' education during COVID-19 and support the development of contemporary and pedagogically sound online and traditional modes of occupational therapy instruction. The results provide evidence of the importance of well-structured programs that facilitate active and flexible learning, provide meaningful and positive experiences, and promote initiatives safeguarding social and personal well-being. Further research in this area is recommended.
... However, some studies have reported that not all content may be appropriate, as some disciplines require practical or demonstrative types of learning, and so, online education creates communication problems and also deficiencies in group dynamics. (Hammarlund et al., 2015;Kitching et al., 2015). Occupational therapists are expected to be well-equipped in areas such as being able to communicate well, expressing themselves adequately, adapting to teamwork, having strong social relations, being friendly, and respecting personal differences. ...
Article
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Introduction The aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting the e-learning process in occupational therapy education in the COVID-19 period. Method In the study, a form containing personal information and questions about the e-learning process, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, the Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were applied to 253 occupational therapy students via the Google form. Principal component analysis was used to evaluate the data. Results A large number of questionnaires were applied in the study, and principal component analysis, an advanced statistical method that enables the interpretation of this type of big data more effectively, was used. 13 components were determined, and a variance of 88% was explained. The main components were listed as students’ self-perception about the education system, learning methods, home and university environment, information technologies, physical activity level, and academic performance/participation. Conclusion We hope that the results of our study will provide a perspective on what innovations can be made for quality improvement in occupational therapy education. It would be beneficial to increase student feedback by applying similar studies in other education programs.
... Benetoli et al. performed a comparison study, which indicated that 62% of participants agreed that social media positively improved their performance [21]. Kitching et al. claimed that students' communication skills improved by using healthcare programs with blogs, Twitter, and YouTube [22]. Van R. indicated that social media has made teaching more accessible and enjoyable and that students also supported social media technologies [23]. ...
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Social media applications have been increasingly gaining significant attention from online education and training platforms. Social networking tools provide multiple advantages for communicating , exchanging opinions, and discussing specific issues. Social media also helps to improve the processes of teaching and learning through sharing educational programs. In this study, we used a quantitative research technique based on the partial least-squares (PLS) linear regression method to determine the influence of using social media as an online discussion and communication platform for academic purposes by assessing the relationships among the skills obtained through social media, the usage of social media, and the purpose of social media. A total of 200 students participated in this study (88% female and 12% males), and a purposive sampling technique was used to select a suitable population for the study. The results show that 61.5% of the participants use the web daily for more than five hours, mainly for social communication (meaningful dialog and discussion skills) and entertainment. The students agreed that social media develops their creative thinking, but it has no positive impact on their academic performance.
... Benetoli et al. performed a comparison study, which indicated that 62% of participants agreed that social media positively improved their performance [21]. Kitching et al. claimed that students' communication skills improved by using healthcare programs with blogs, Twitter, and YouTube [22]. Van R. indicated that social media has made teaching more accessible and enjoyable and that students also supported social media technologies [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media applications have been increasingly gaining significant attention from online education and training platforms. Social networking tools provide multiple advantages for communicating , exchanging opinions, and discussing specific issues. Social media also helps to improve the processes of teaching and learning through sharing educational programs. In this study, we used a quantitative research technique based on the partial least-squares (PLS) linear regression method to determine the influence of using social media as an online discussion and communication platform for academic purposes by assessing the relationships among the skills obtained through social media, the usage of social media, and the purpose of social media. A total of 200 students participated in this study (88% female and 12% males), and a purposive sampling technique was used to select a suitable population for the study. The results show that 61.5% of the participants use the web daily for more than five hours, mainly for social communication (meaningful dialog and discussion skills) and entertainment. The students agreed that social media develops their creative thinking, but it has no positive impact on their academic performance.
... Benetoli et al. performed a comparison study, which indicated that 62% of participants agreed that social media positively improved their performance [21]. Kitching et al. claimed that students' communication skills improved by using healthcare programs with blogs, Twitter, and YouTube [22]. Van R. indicated that social media has made teaching more accessible and enjoyable and that students also supported social media technologies [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media applications have been increasingly gaining significant attention from online education and training platforms. Social networking tools provide multiple advantages for communicating, exchanging opinions, and discussing specific issues. Social media also helps to improve the processes of teaching and learning through sharing educational programs. In this study, we used a quantitative research technique based on the partial least-squares (PLS) linear regression method to determine the influence of using social media as an online discussion and communication platform for academic purposes by assessing the relationships among the skills obtained through social media, the usage of social media, and the purpose of social media. A total of 200 students participated in this study (88% female and 12% males), and a purposive sampling technique was used to select a suitable population for the study. The results show that 61.5% of the participants use the web daily for more than five hours, mainly for social communication (meaningful dialog and discussion skills) and entertainment. The students agreed that social media develops their creative thinking, but it has no positive impact on their academic performance.
... However, use of these digital platforms have strengths and weaknesses. It has been reported that Moodle promotes professionalism, ethical behavior and develops critical thinking, but the use of other participatory web-based platforms, including social media platforms may suffer from credibility of information and are open to student misinterpretation [83]. The choice of appropriate platform requires some competence [80]. ...
Article
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Background Person-Centered Care is often seen as an indicator of quality of care. However, it is not known whether and to what extent person-centered care can be enhanced by continuing education interventions in older people’s long-term care settings. This systematic review aimed to analyze and synthesize the existing research literature about person-centered care-based continuing educational interventions for nurses working in long-term care settings for older people. Methods Five databases were searched 6/2019 and updated 7/2020; PubMed (Medline), CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane and Eric using the keywords person-centered car* OR person-centred car * OR patient-centered car* OR client-centered car* OR tailored car* OR resident-centered car* OR individualized car* AND older* OR elder* OR old person* AND Long-Term Care OR Nursing home OR 24-h treatment OR long-term treatment. Twenty-seven full texts from 2587 initially retrieved citations were included. Results The continuing educational interventions found were divided into five themes: person-centered interventions focusing on medication; interaction and caring culture; nurses’ job satisfaction; nursing activities; and older people’s quality of life. The perspective of older people and their next of kin about the influence of continuing education interventions were largely absent. The background theories about interventions, the measurements taken, and the clarity around the building blocks of the continuing-care interventions need further empirical verification. The pedagogical methods used were mainly quite behavioristic mostly lectures and seminars. Conclusion Most of person-centered care continuing education interventions are effective. Still more empirical research-based continuing education interventions are needed that include learner-centered pedagogical methods, with measurable outcomes that consider the opinions of older people and their next of kin. Continuing educational interventions for nurses need to be further developed to strengthen nurse’s competence in person-centered care, job satisfaction and for better quality of care.
... Therefore, they need constant guidance from their teachers-mentors until they become familiar with educational technologies (Ng, 2012). It is also widely discussed that there are learners not familiar with e-learning and, in some contexts, lacking even basic IT knowledge and skills (Kitching et al., 2015;Regmi & Jones, 2020). Thus, academic teachers need skills not only to be able to navigate their online activities but also to guide students through the maze of emergency online learning. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities worldwide are going into ‘emergency mode’—radically transforming education by switching to online and e-learning education. In the face of these emergent changes, many academic teachers who are unwilling to use e-learning or who lack the appropriate competences are suddenly being forced to teach via electronic devices and the Internet. But how will this COVID-19 forced e-learning influence academic teachers' motivation and performance? In this conceptual paper, drawing from Job Characteristics Theory—a model of human work motivation, we would like to discuss the possible changes in six motivational job characteristics of the academic teacher's job (task identity, task significance, skill variety, feedback, autonomy, social dimensions of the work) caused by COVID-19 forced e-learning. Our concise conceptual elaboration might spark a debate on the possible unintended consequences of COVID-19 forced e-learning.
... Since the social network has been considered one of the most valuable tools for learning and training health topics in the last decade, this technology is now widely used in academic training. Using this tool in professional training at the industry level is less than the academic level (Kitching et al., 2015). In this regard, the American Red Cross investigations in 2010 showed that social media could provide users with more and faster information than tools such as websites, radios, and text urgency messages. ...
Article
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This study explores effective care training factors for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through social network message combining qualitative and quantitative methods. The research was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, based on the theoretical saturation approach, active social networking audiences were sampled and questioned in the field of COVID-19 learning. In this regard, 38 audiences interviewed and based on thematic analysis 20 non-repetitive features (basic them), five organizing themes, and a thematic network extracted. In the second phase, 11 experts were used to rank these extracted basic and organizing themes using the DEMATEL as a quantitative method. Finally, the results were tested using a one-sample T-test and Spearman correlation by a more significant number of social network users. The thematic analysis results introduce 20 basic themes, five organizing themes, and network themes for effective care training factors for patients with COVID-19 through the social network. Indeed, it can be concluded that the performed network themes and DEMATEL entails a unique model in this context. This model shows useful messages for COVID-19 training in the social network under the influence of five factors: simplicity, multimedia, validity, availability, and generalization.
... There should be library instruction programs for their awareness and to meet their information needs more efficiently (Ajayi, 2004). Kitching, Winbolt, Macphail, and Ibrahim (2015) emphasized that the social media platform is a valuable learning place for healthcare professionals. Students are widely utilizing this opportunity for their education and learning. ...
... For future projection, advanced researches which can support that webbased learning is better than paper based-learning are needed because in this study the difference in the frequency of opinions from students and test results is not significantly different. However, this research can be used as the basis of research that web-based method for learning and assessment provides more benefits in terms of student accessibility and time efficiency 11,13 . In India, a web-based learning session has been implemented in several medical schools and have received positive outcome from the students in the effectiveness of competency-based medical education 10 . ...
Article
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Background: E-Learning or web-based technology can be used to train undergraduate medical students’ clinical reasoning skills. Currently, many learning methods are being developed using web-based environment to replace paper-based because they are more efficient in terms of paper usage and are flexible for a student in accessing materials. This study aims to explore student’s working durationaccess time and scores upon the usage of webbased test, to compare students’ scores to paper-based test scores, to explore the advantages anddisadvantages, and suggestions to improve the web-based learning method. Method: This study randomly enlisted 60 medical students of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia and divided them into web-based (n = 30) and paper- based test (n = 30) groups. Students answered 15 disaster management questions and completed a questionnaire. The scores and times needed to answer the questions were compared using the Mann-Whitney and Independent Sample tests. Results: The duration to answer in the web-based group was shorter than in paper- based group (p = 0.001), but the average scores difference was not significant (p = 0.169). In the web-based group, similar numbers of students accessed the website during and after working hours. Survey questionnaire results showed that most students realized the advantages of this program and gave appropriate suggestions. Conclusion: Practicing clinical reasoning skills using web-based learning method is more time-efficient compared to the paper-based test. Its high-accessibility improves the learning interest and motivation of the student, with an equal outcome to the paper-based test.
... The time factor is relevant to this process and an instrument that improves it is needed [11][12][13]. ...
... Unfortunately, a considerable number of the already working colleges are confronted with lack in the number of Faculty members, even with a staff-to-student ratio far away from what is ideal. The problem is complicated by an unsatisfactory Faculty compensation scale as matched up with other international universities and private health care centres, a similar circumstance to Malaysia (Lim, 2008) Many authors wrote about the shift in public attitude as secondary stakeholders, (MacLellan, 1998, Jadad, 1999, Zoeller, 1999, Bloom, 1999, Larkin, 1999, Dennis, 2014, Kitching, 2015and Shi, 2016. They claimed that the challenges due to the shift in the public attitude Hassanien M MedEdPublish https://doi.org/10.15694/mep.2018.0000023.1 are mainly due to two main reasons. ...
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Introduction and aim: Medical Education journey in Saudi Arabia started from about 50 years ago, however, it witnessed a lot of changes and rapid development in the last 10 years especially with the increase the number of medical colleges. Medical Education in Saudi Arabia seems to follow the same international pattern regarding the change process. There is a great need for a rigorous approach for evaluating the effectiveness of this changes and the process of its management. The aim of this study is to evaluate medical education change in Saudi Arabia from Faculty Staff Members' point of view. Method: The research was conducted through a cross-sectional study using a survey and grounded theory, as a mixed methods strategy. Results: The challenge that has the highest perception was the shortage of well-trained Faculty Staff Member. The strategies for implementing change are categorized into three categories: Curriculum reform, faculty development and improving learning environment. Conclusion: Change could be implemented through curriculum reform with the help of qualified Faculty staff members in presence of an enabling learning environment and supportive organizational measures. In Saudi Arabia, a variety of strategies was used for implementing change in medical education, without any preference to specific one.
... The interviewer (AM) had a general interest in LCOs and the role of junior doctors as well as an interest in understanding management of dementia patients. The interviewer was also experienced in interviewing junior doctors and conducting qualitative data analyses, having published on both topics [28][29][30][31][32]. ...
Article
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Background/Objectives: Globally, junior doctors play a central role in completing limitation of care orders (LCOs). This study aims to guide improvement of LCO utility by ascertaining junior doctor perspectives, LCO experiences and identifying challenges encountered in LCOs for patients with dementia, a particularly complex patient group. Design/Setting/Participants: Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Participants were registered medical practitioners who had graduated within the previous 3 years and were practicing in a hospital in Victoria, Australia. Results: Nineteen junior doctors were interviewed between December 2013 and January 2015. Junior doctors were frequently involved in discussion and decision-making around treatment limitations and end-of-life care. Participants described inconsistent support, a lack of preparedness, a vague understanding of related hospital policies and inadequate knowledge and experience when it came to completing LCOs. Although participants acknowledged the additional nuances of capacity and prognosis assessment for patients with dementia, they did not feel that the processes for completing LCOs were significantly different for these persons. Many also recognised that decisions were often made without adequate consultation with the relevant stakeholders in this patient group. Conclusion: The junior doctors in this study highlighted global challenges in providing appropriate end-of-life care, particularly when they are responsible for this role. To improve patient care and ensure the wellbeing of junior doctors, hospitals need to address gaps in training needs and supervision with respect to end-of-life care, as well as to implement policies that support consistent and informed use of LCOs.
... To date, numerous descriptive articles have been published outlining a large array of social media technology and educational practices in relation to nursing and midwifery (Ashton, 2016;Clifton & Mann, 2011;Schmitt, Sims-Giddens, & Booth, 2012;Stewart, Sidebotham, & Davis, 2012), including more robust studies examining the use of social media in this literature (Booth, 2015;Kitching, Winbolt, MacPhail, & Ibrahim, 2015;Richardson, Grose, Nelmes, Parra, & Linares, 2016;Uppal, Davies, Nuttall, & Knowles, 2016). There has also been some past review efforts completed to synthesize how social media technology has been used to support mentorship activities between nursing faculty (Bassell, 2010); for health professional education in university settings (Smith & Lambert, 2014); and, in nursing education in general (Arrigoni, Alvaro, Vellone, & Vanzetta, 2016). ...
Article
Aim: To synthesise evidence on the use of social media in nursing and midwifery education. Background: Social media is one type of online platform that is being explored to determine if there is value in using interactive, digital communication tools to support how nurses and midwives learn in a variety of settings. Design: A sequential explanatory synthesis approach will be used for this mixed study review. Method: Five bibliographic databases; PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and ERIC will be searched using a combination of keywords relevant to social networking and social media, nursing and midwifery and education. The search will not be limited by year of publication. Titles, abstracts and full papers will be screened by two independent reviewers against inclusion and exclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved via a third reviewer. Selected studies will undergo quality assessment and data extraction. Data synthesis will occur in three sequential phases, with quantitative and qualitative data analysed separately and then integrated where possible to provide a conceptual framework illustrating learning via social media. Funding for this review was confirmed in May 2016 by Sigma Theta Tau International and the National League for Nursing. Discussion: The mixed study systematic review will produce the first rigorous synthesis on the use of social media in nursing and midwifery education and will have important implications for educators as well as students. It will also highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations on the use of this novel technology in higher and continuing education. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Adding the clinical pharmacy skills and expertise in medicinal chemistry and pharmacology to his/her clinical work, we can have an improving the patients' clinical outcomes, and on patients quality of life [19][20][21][22]. The hospital, institutions, the government or insurance can receive a great benefit from this new working system (Economics monitoring shows relevant reduction in therapy and diagnostic costs) [23][24][25]. ...
Article
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ASHP Guidelines: Clinical pharmacy service, in which pharmacist provide direct patient care are important foundation for successful medication utilization management program focused on managing drug cost. The purpose of this work is to analyze the advantages played by ward clinical pharmacists as stabile members of medical equips with physicians, other healthcare professionals and nurse. Using the data obtained by diagnostic activity (medicine laboratory and imaging) to choose and monitor the therapy clinical pharmacist can reduce therapy costs in the same time improve patients clinical outcomes, and increase of patients quality of life and safety. The application of management and ICT principle can give significant reducing in healthcare process.
... This study highlighted the need to improve the education of nursing students to both the benefits and dangers of social media platforms. Concerns and reservations remain about the use of social media, including accuracy, legal and privacy concerns (Kitching et al, 2015). Role modelling by nurse leaders in the digital environment may offer at least a partial solution to this problem (Moorley & Chinn 2016), as may guidance through regulatory bodies (Moorley & Watson 2015). ...
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Background: Social media platforms such as Facebook allow users to connect with each other online. They are also used as tools for creating communities, which can then be utilised as a mean for supportive, professional and social learning. Objective: This study aimed to explore first year Bachelor of Nursing student experiences with social media in supporting student transition and engagement into higher education. Design: Qualitative focus groups Methods: First year Bachelor of Nursing students were conveniently sampled for inclusion in this study. Ten students were included in three face-to-face focus groups which lasted between 45 minutes and one hour each. When it became apparent that no new information was emerging from focus groups, recruitment stopped. Sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Results: Three key themes emerged from the data that illustrates the experiences of transition and engagement of first year student nurses using social media at university. These were; 1) Facilitating familiarity and collaboration at a safe distance; 2) Promoting independent learning by facilitating access to resources; and 3) Mitigating hazards of social media. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated the importance of social media applications such as Facebook in supporting informal peer-peer learning and support, augmenting online and offline relationships, and building professional identity as a nurse. Students reported active increased use when assessments were due and while on clinical placement. Students found Facebook useful as an avenue to debrief and reflect, whilst on clinical placement, and as a tool to meet new friends and strengthen existing relationships. There is need for future research and evaluation of interventions that bridge the divide between traditional learning platforms such as Blackboard and social media platforms.
... The time factor is relevant to this process and an instrument that improves it is needed [11][12][13]. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between professional social media use and the healthcare researcher. The innovation which was introduced with biomedical databases has improved research works by making rapid steps in all kind of scientific researchers. Besides, instruments such as the Internet, search engines, and professional social media have brought a great development in the way of rapidly connecting with the professionals and the researchers all over the world in last decades. So it is very interesting to see how they are playing a vital role today in this field through this rapid development. For example, Linkedin, Slideshare, Research gate, PubMed, NCBI, Facebook, Skype etc. has already brought a revolutionary change in the field. The possibility to bridge researchers; for example, with similar discipline or by other different discipline using professional social media has provided the scientific community a rapid development which was never seen in last decades.
... Another crucial group in terms of acquisition of medical information is among trainees. Twitter usage is increasingly becoming adopted by medical students, residents, and fellows during the course of their training and education [36], although the legitimacy and standardization of the information being obtained often requires a high level of vigilance in terms of accuracy [37]. As the field of social media intersecting with medical education continues to evolve, Twitter may provide trainees with opportunities to follow and, ultimately, contribute to specific areas of research and provide a venue for mentees to find mentors and for initiation of research collaborations. ...
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The advent of social media has led to the ability for individuals all over the world to communicate with each other, in real time, about mutual topics of interest in an unprecedented manner. Recently, the use of social media has increased among people interested in healthcare and medical research, particularly in the field of hematology and oncology, a field which frequently experiences rapid shifts of information and novel, practice-changing discoveries. Among the many social media platforms available to cancer patients and providers, one platform in particular, Twitter, has become the focus for the creation of disease-specific communities, especially for those interested in, affected by, or those who perform research in the fields of rare cancers, which historically have had a dearth of reliable information available. This article will focus on the initiation and progress of one such Twitter hematology/oncology community, #mpnsm, which was originally created for the purpose of serving as a venue for improving the interaction among patients, providers, researchers, and organizations with interest in the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) and to further the availability of reliable up-to-date analysis; relevant expert commentary; and readily usable information for patients, providers, and other groups interested in this field.
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Background: COVID-19 pandemic resultant in many universities suspending their academic activities, making virtual learning an option for saving the disrupted academic year. One rural-based university was forced to enhance its learning management system. The pandemic presented an opportunity to assessment the implementation of virtual learning at this university. The paper aims to describe the perceived barriers of virtual learning in a rural-based university of Limpopo Province. Method: A quantitative descriptive design was applied to describe the barriers of virtual learning in a rural university. The purposive convenience sampling method was used to select learner nurses from the School of Healthcare Sciences. An electronic survey questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions sent via WhatsApp messenger was used to collect data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with SPSS version 26. Results: Learner nurses described various barriers for virtual learning such as; weak networks for connecting Blackboard, lack of ICT facilities such as laptops and tablets by learner nurses, lack of skills for using Blackboard, and aging. Conclusion: The study findings add knowledge regarding the use of virtual learning in a rural-based university. We conclude that virtual learning in a rural-based university is a significant transition process that comes with complex challenges such as network problems. There is a need to develop strategies to enhance virtual learning in rural-based university.
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Background: A fundamental component of supervising a student speech and language therapist (SLT) on placement is the provision of feedback. There are numerous identified challenges to ensure the delivery of high-quality feedback to optimise student learning and student success. Supervisors can help overcome these challenges and engage in evidence-based feedback processes if they are supported to develop the necessary knowledge and skills. E-learning is one possible means to provide this professional development to a large number of practising SLTs who are geographically dispersed and have conflicting schedules. Aims: This study aimed to capture and evaluate the perspectives of SLTs who completed an e-learning course on providing feedback in the clinical learning environment, including the suitability and effectiveness of the e-learning tool used. Methods and procedures: An innovative e-learning course was designed to provide asynchronous video and interactive content on evidence-based theories and practices for effective feedback processes. Clinical scenarios relevant to the discipline of speech and language therapy were included. Participants were invited to complete optional, anonymous pre- and post-evaluation surveys. Data were analysed quantitively (descriptive and inferential statistics) and qualitatively (thematic analysis). Outcomes and results: Participants indicated that the e-learning course supported them to enhance their feedback processes in the clinical learning environment through identified changes to their practices. The increases in confidence providing feedback they reported were statistically significant. In addition, the e-learning course was rated highly on numerous variables related to quality. Recommendations for adaptations and additions were also highlighted. Conclusions and implications: An e-learning course on effective and evidence-based feedback processes provides an opportunity to provide professional development to a large number of geographically dispersed practitioners in a cost-effective and flexible way. This could ensure more SLTs are confident and competent in their role as supervisor of students, which requires distinct knowledge and skills from that of a practitioner. Ultimately, this will help maximise educator and student success in the feedback process and consequently improve clinical performance and healthcare delivery.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of task-technology fit (TTF), learning-technology fit (LTF) and cognitive absorption (CA) in determining medical professionals’ cloud-based electronic learning (e-learning) system continuance intention and performance outcomes and evaluate whether medical professionals’ perceived impact on learning can affect their perceived impact on tasks within medical institutions. Design/methodology/approach Sample data for this study were collected from medical professionals at six hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed, and 373 (62.2%) usable questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling in this study. Findings In this study, medical professionals’ perceived TTF and LTF as antecedents to their cloud-based e-learning continuance intention and performance outcomes were validated, and medical professionals’ perceived impact on learning had a positive effect on their perceived impact on tasks. Synthetically speaking, this study’s results strongly support the research model with all hypothesized links being significant. Originality/value It is particularly worth mentioning that this study introduces a new construct, “LTF,” to conceptualize, define and measure it, and further contributes to the application of capturing both expectation–confirmation model and CA (i.e. an intrinsic motivator) for completely explaining medical professionals’ perceived TTF and LTF as external variables to their cloud-based e-learning continuance intention and performance outcomes.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to propose an integrated model based on expectation–confirmation model (ECM), flow theory and human–organization–technology fit framework to examine whether human, organizational and technology factors as antecedents to medical professionals' beliefs can affect their continuance intention of the cloud-based e-learning system. Design/methodology/approach Sample data for this study were collected from medical professionals at five hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed, and 368 (73.6%) useable questionnaires were analyzed using structural equation modeling in this study. Findings Synthetically speaking, human, organizational and technology factors, as antecedents to medical professionals' continuance intention of the cloud-based e-learning system have been examined, and the results strongly support the research model with all hypothesized links being significant. Originality/value Particularly, it is worth mentioning that the application of capturing both ECM and flow theory for completely explaining three types of factors (i.e. human, organizational and technology factors) as external variables to medical professionals' cloud-based e-learning continuance intention is well documented, that is, information systems (IS) and nonIS determinants are simultaneously evaluated, and extrinsic and intrinsic motivators are both taken into consideration in this study's theoretical development of medical professionals' cloud-based e-learning continuance intention to acquire a more comprehensive and robust analysis.
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Social media has become the dominant method of mass digital communication over the past decade. Public figures and corporations have learned how to use this new approach to deliver their messages directly to their followers. Recently, medical educators have begun to use social media as a means to deliver educational content directly to learners. The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of using social media for medical education. Because each social media platform has different platform-specific constraints, several different popular social media networks are discussed. For each network, the authors discuss the basics of the platform and its benefits and disadvantages for users and provide examples of how they have used each platform to target a unique audience.
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Whole workforce development takes place in an environment where individual members of the organisation understand the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviours required to perform their current roles and those needed to advance their future careers; it is the creation of a culture of learning and access to the means through which such learning can be acquired; it is exemplified by both support and resources for development from executives and managers. The challenge therefore is to ensure that talent management supports the aspirations of all individuals wherever they are in the organisation and at the same time enhances the culture of the organisation and contributes to meeting overall strategic objectives. To achieve such an alignment requires focus and clarity, sufficient resources to deliver development for the majority of the workforce, and an understanding of how to get a balance between exclusivity and inclusivity.
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In this article I examine how intersections between information policy and social media affect professional ethics and instructional decision making as considered through the lens of professional development and continuing education. The discussion uses techniques from autoethnography such as personal narrative, figurative language and scenarios. Data are extracted from my field notes, observations and writings. My experiences as an instructor of information policy and as an academic with a Ph.D. in Educational Communication and Technology who teaches online courses to graduate professional learners are included. My conclusions are: (1) The formal information policies of social media platforms create an environment requiring instructors to apply professional ethics considerations when deciding how students will use social media platforms. (2) The informal information policies which students hold affect their responses to the information policies of social media platforms used for educational purposes. (3) Instructors can examine the intersections of information policies, professional ethics and student preferences to aid their instructional decision making regarding the integration of social media platforms into professional development and continuing education.
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The rapid adoption rate and integration of mobile technology (tablet computing devices and smartphones) by physicians is reshaping the current clinical landscape. These devices have sparked an evolution in a variety of arenas, including educational media dissemination, remote patient data access and point of care applications. Quantifying usage patterns of clinical applications of mobile technology is of interest to understand how these technologies are shaping current clinical care. A digital survey examining mobile tablet and associated application usage was administered via email to all ACGME training programs. Data regarding respondent specialty, level of training, and habits of tablet usage were collected and analyzed. 40 % of respondents used a tablet, of which the iPad was the most popular. Nearly half of the tablet owners reported using the tablet in clinical settings; the most commonly used application types were point of care and electronic medical record access. Increased level of training was associated with decreased support for mobile computing improving physician capabilities and patient interactions. There was strong and consistent desire for institutional support of mobile computing and integration of mobile computing technology into medical education. While many physicians are currently purchasing mobile devices, often without institutional support, successful integration of these devices into the clinical setting is still developing. Potential reasons behind the low adoption rate may include interference of technology in doctor-patient interactions or the lack of appropriate applications available for download. However, the results convincingly demonstrate that physicians recognize a potential utility in mobile computing, indicated by their desire for institutional support and integration of mobile technology into medical education. It is likely that the use of tablet computers in clinical practice will expand in the future. Thus, we believe medical institutions, providers, educators, and developers should collaborate in ways that enhance the efficacy, reliability, and safety of integrating these devices into daily medical practice.
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Background: Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps) has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors.Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods: An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants' views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results: 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257) of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131) of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203) of students and 68.4% (n=67/98) of doctors owning an iPhone.The majority of students and doctors owned 1-5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p<0.001). Both populations showed similar trends of app usage of several times a day. Over 24 hours apps were used for between 1-30 minutes for students and 1-20 minutes for doctors, students used disease diagnosis/management and drug reference apps, with doctors favouring clinical score/calculator apps. Conclusions: This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.
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Qualitative research produces large amounts of textual data in the form of transcripts and observational fieldnotes. The systematic and rigorous preparation and analysis of these data is time consuming and labour intensive. Data analysis often takes place alongside data collection to allow questions to be refined and new avenues of inquiry to develop. Textual data are typically explored inductively using content analysis to generate categories and explanations; software packages can help with analysis but should not be viewed as short cuts to rigorous and systematic analysis. High quality analysis of qualitative data depends on the skill, vision, and integrity of the researcher; it should not be left to the novice.
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The purpose of the EU FP6 funded coordination action HENVINET was to create a permanent network of environment and health professionals. The main outcome is a networking portal (http://www.henvinet.eu), based on the concepts of social media to support communication between professional stakeholders in the environment and health fields. Its aim is to enable sharing of relevant information in an innovative and interactive manner to eventually support policy making. A social networking tool is not necessarily a typical platform for communication in the professional context, or between scientists and decision-makers. The aim of this paper is to look upon the use of social media in relevant professional communities in the light of the HENVINET experience, and to reflect on the acceptance and usefulness of such a new approach. The portal was designed over the course of HENVINET through intensive interactions by a multi-disciplinary group, involving environmental as well as health scientists, but with only limited access to decision-makers’ opinions. After the social networking portal was launched, a recruitment campaign was run during the last six months of the project, taking every opportunity to present the portal and to get feedback from users. This feedback was used to improve the functionalities of the tool. Additionally, a feedback session was organized at the final event of the project, attended by over 50 professionals, about half of whom participated from the beginning in the entire HENVINET project. We have also compared the HENVINET portal with similar tools employed by other related communities, and made a literature-based survey on the use of social media for scientific communication. At the end of the project, the portal had more than 300 members with registered professional profile, over 10 topics and 15 discussion groups. The HENVINET consortium members were the most active group of users. The quality of the portal content was considered more important than having a large amount of information. To maintain the content, the majority of the participants declared their willingness to use their time, stating however that dedicated content providers would be also necessary. In theory, professionals see the value of such a tool, and are willing to contribute. Only time will tell if the tool is viable in the long run.
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Adoption studies of social media use by clinicians were systematically reviewed, up to July 26th, 2011, to determine the extent of adoption and highlight trends in institutional responses. This search led to 370 articles, of which 50 were selected for review, including 15 adoption surveys. The definition of social media is evolving rapidly; the authors define it broadly to include social networks and group-curated reference sites such as Wikipedia. Facebook accounts are very common among health science students (64-96%) and less so for professional clinicians (13-47%). Adoption rates have increased sharply in the past 4 years. Wikipedia is widely used as a reference tool. Attempts at incorporating social media into clinical training have met with mixed success. Posting of unprofessional content and breaches of patient confidentiality, especially by students, are not uncommon and have prompted calls for social media guidelines.
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Many studies in health sciences research rely on collecting participant-reported outcomes and attention is increasingly being paid to the mode of data collection. Consideration needs to be given to the validity of response via different modes and the impact that choice of mode might have on study conclusions. (1) To provide an overview of the theoretical models of survey response and how they relate to health research; (2) to review all studies comparing two modes of administration for subjective outcomes and assess the impact of mode of administration on response quality; (3) to explore the impact of findings for key identified health-related measures; and (4) to inform the analysis of multimode studies. A broad range of databases (for example EMBASE, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, EconLit, SPORTDiscus, etc.) were chosen to allow as comprehensive a selection as possible, and they were searched up until the end of 2004. The abstracts were reviewed against inclusion/exclusion criteria. Full papers were retrieved for all selected abstracts and then screened again using more detailed inclusion criteria related to the measures used. Papers that were still included were reviewed in full and detailed data extracted. At each stage, abstracts or papers were reviewed by a single reviewer. The search strategy identified 39,253 unique references, of which 2156 were considered as full papers, with 381 finally included in the review. Two features of mode were clearly associated with bias in response; however, none of the features of mode was associated with changes in precision. How the measure was administered, by an interviewer or by the person themselves, was highly significantly associated with bias (p < 0.001). A difference in sensory stimuli was also significant (p = 0.03). When both of these were present the average overall bias was < 1 point on a percentage scale. In terms of mediating factors, there was some suggestion that there was an interaction between both telephone and computer for data collection and date of publication, supporting the theory that differences disappear as new technologies become commonplace. Single-item measures were also related to greater degrees of bias than multi-item scales (p = 0.01). Individual analysis of the Short Form questionnaire-36 items and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) showed a varied pattern across the different subscales, with conflicting results between the two types of study. None of the MMPI measures used to detect deviant responding showed a relationship with the mode features tested. The limits of agreement analysis showed how variable measures were between modes at an individual rather than a group mean level. The search strategy covered the period up to 2004, so any new and emerging technologies were not included. Not all potential mode features were tested and there was limited information on potential mediating factors. Researchers need to be aware of the different mode features that could have an impact on their results when selecting a mode of data collection for subjective outcomes. Further mode comparison studies, which manipulate mode features and directly assess impact over time, would be beneficial.
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This study was concerned with identifying reasons behind patterns of social media (Web 2.0) usage associated with eight of Australia's major health professions. Attention was given to uncovering some of the more significant motivations for the resistance or adoption of Web 2.0 technologies for health care delivery and practice promotion by Australian health professionals. Surveys were developed from a common set of questions with specific variations between professions negotiated with professional health societies. Survey questions were constructed in an attempt to identify Web 2.0 adoption trends. An online survey (www.limesurvey.org) was used to collect data. Initial data preparation involved the development of one integrated SPSS file to incorporate all responses from the eight surveys undertaken. Initial data analysis applied Frequencies and Crosstabs to the identified groups and provided a profile of respondents by key business and demographic characteristics. Of the 935 respondents, 9.5% of participants indicated that they used Web 2.0 for their professional work, 19.1% of them did not use it for work but used it for their personal needs and 71.3% of them did not use Web 2.0 at all. Participants have indicated that the main reason for 'choosing not to adopt' Web 2.0 applications as a way of delivering health care to their patients is due to the health professionals' lack of understanding of Web 2.0 (83.3%), while the main reason for 'choosing to adopt' Web 2.0 applications is the perception of Web 2.0 as a quick and effective method of communication (73.0%). This study has indicated that Australian health professionals 'choose not to adopt' Web 2.0 usage as a way of delivering health care primarily due to 'a lack of understanding as to how social media would be used in health care' (83.3%). This study identifies that Australian health professionals are interacting with Web 2.0 technologies in their private lives but are failing to see how such technologies might be used throughout their professions. Australian health professionals are willing to undertake online educational courses (n=553, 58%) designed to upskill them about how Web 2.0 may be used for practice promotion and health care delivery.
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Qualitative methods are now widely used and increasingly accepted in health research, but quality in qualitative research is a mystery to many health services researchers. There is considerable debate over the nature of the knowledge produced by such methods and how such research should be judged. Antirealists argue that qualitative and quantitative research are very different and that it is not possible to judge qualitative research by using conventional criteria such as reliability, validity, and generalisability. Quality in qualitative research can be assessed with the same broad concepts of validity and relevance used for quantitative research, but these need to be operationalised differently to take into account the distinctive goals of qualitative research.
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During the last decade, the Internet has become increasingly popular and is now an important part of our daily life. When new "Web 2.0" technologies are used in health care, the terms "Health 2.0" or "Medicine 2.0" may be used. The objective was to identify unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and recurrent topics within the definitions. A systematic literature review of electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL) and gray literature on the Internet using the search engines Google, Bing, and Yahoo was performed to find unique definitions of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We assessed all literature, extracted unique definitions, and selected recurrent topics by using the constant comparison method. We found a total of 1937 articles, 533 in scientific databases and 1404 in the gray literature. We selected 46 unique definitions for further analysis and identified 7 main topics. Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 are still developing areas. Many articles concerning this subject were found, primarily on the Internet. However, there is still no general consensus regarding the definition of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0. We hope that this study will contribute to building the concept of Health 2.0/Medicine 2.0 and facilitate discussion and further research.
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To determine whether the Coronial Communiqué prompted subscribers to initiate changes to clinical practice for patient safety an anonymous, online cross-sectional population survey questionnaire was provided to all registered subscribers to the Communiqué. The main outcome measure was self-reported review and change to practice. From 1325 subscribers invited to participate, 697 complete and valid responses were received (52.6%). Most of the respondents (588; 84.4%) reported the Communiqué provided ideas for improving patient safety, 429 (61.5%) reviewed their practice, and 290 (41.6%) changed their practice. The characteristic most associated with a change in practice was if the subscriber was in clinical practice. This association was evident for ideas (odds ratio [OR], 3.42; 95% CI, 2.24-5.23), review (OR, 2.63; 95% CI, 1.91-3.61) and change to improve practice (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.73-3.32).
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New types of social Internet applications (often referred to as Web 2.0) are becoming increasingly popular within higher education environments. Although developed primarily for entertainment and social communication within the general population, applications such as blogs, social video sites, and virtual worlds are being adopted by higher education institutions. These newer applications differ from standard Web sites in that they involve the users in creating and distributing information, hence effectively changing how the Web is used for knowledge generation and dispersion. Although Web 2.0 applications offer exciting new ways to teach, they should not be the core of instructional planning, but rather selected only after learning objectives and instructional strategies have been identified. This paper provides an overview of prominent Web 2.0 applications, explains how they are being used within education environments, and elaborates on some of the potential opportunities and challenges that these applications present.
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Seasonal influenza epidemics are a major public health concern, causing tens of millions of respiratory illnesses and 250,000 to 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. In addition to seasonal influenza, a new strain of influenza virus against which no previous immunity exists and that demonstrates human-to-human transmission could result in a pandemic with millions of fatalities. Early detection of disease activity, when followed by a rapid response, can reduce the impact of both seasonal and pandemic influenza. One way to improve early detection is to monitor health-seeking behaviour in the form of queries to online search engines, which are submitted by millions of users around the world each day. Here we present a method of analysing large numbers of Google search queries to track influenza-like illness in a population. Because the relative frequency of certain queries is highly correlated with the percentage of physician visits in which a patient presents with influenza-like symptoms, we can accurately estimate the current level of weekly influenza activity in each region of the United States, with a reporting lag of about one day. This approach may make it possible to use search queries to detect influenza epidemics in areas with a large population of web search users.
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Much qualitative research is interview based, and this paper provides an outline of qualitative interview techniques and their application in medical settings. It explains the rationale for these techniques and shows how they can be used to research kinds of questions that are different from those dealt with by quantitative methods. Different types of qualitative interviews are described, and the way in which they differ from clinical consultations is emphasised. Practical guidance for conducting such interviews is given.
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Many of us use the internet or the “web” (world wide web) as a source of information. In medical education, the web is increasingly used both as a learning tool to support formal programmes and as a means of delivering online learning programmes. What can educators do to ensure that the potential of the web is used effectively to support both their own learning and that of their students? The technology Much of the literature on web based learning shows that one of the main barriers to the effective use of teaching materials is the technology (for example, poor access, slow downloading) rather than the design of the learning materials themselves. Some of these issues are discussed later in the article, but it is vital that teachers take on expert help with technical issues in the planning, design, and delivery of web based learning programmes. Through programming and the use of “plug-ins” (programs that can be downloaded from the internet), designers can produce interactive course materials containing online activities (such as self assessments), animations, and simulations. These can improve learning and are often more enjoyable and meaningful for learners. Glossary E-conferencing—Use of online presentations and discussion forums (in real time or stored as downloadable files on a website) to avoid the need for participants to travel E-learning—Learning through electronic means, such as via the web (see world wide web), an intranet, or other multimedia materials HTML (hypertext markup language)—The language used to create web pages. HTML files can also contain links to other types of files including wordprocessed files, spreadsheets, presentation slides, and other web pages Hyperlinks—Links in web pages that enable the user to access another web page (either on the same or a different site) with just one mouse click Internet—A global network of computers divided …
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Web 2.0 sociable technologies and social software are presented as enablers in health and health care, for organizations, clinicians, patients and laypersons. They include social networking services, collaborative filtering, social bookmarking, folksonomies, social search engines, file sharing and tagging, mashups, instant messaging, and online multi-player games. The more popular Web 2.0 applications in education, namely wikis, blogs and podcasts, are but the tip of the social software iceberg. Web 2.0 technologies represent a quite revolutionary way of managing and repurposing/remixing online information and knowledge repositories, including clinical and research information, in comparison with the traditional Web 1.0 model. The paper also offers a glimpse of future software, touching on Web 3.0 (the Semantic Web) and how it could be combined with Web 2.0 to produce the ultimate architecture of participation. Although the tools presented in this review look very promising and potentially fit for purpose in many health care applications and scenarios, careful thinking, testing and evaluation research are still needed in order to establish 'best practice models' for leveraging these emerging technologies to boost our teaching and learning productivity, foster stronger 'communities of practice', and support continuing medical education/professional development (CME/CPD) and patient education.
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Web 2.0 has brought a change to how we communicate and disseminate information with the use of Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, instant messaging and blogging. This technology is beginning to be used in the health field for public awareness campaigns, emergency health alerts, medical education and remote healthcare services. Australian Health Information Managers will be called upon to reconcile their organisations' policies and procedures regarding the use of Web 2.0 technologies within the existing legal framework of privacy, confidentiality and consent. This article explores various applications of Web 2.0, their benefits and some of their potential legal and ethical implications when implemented in Australia.
Article
Context There is concern about the potential harm associated with the use of poor quality health information on the Internet. To date, there have been no systematic attempts to examine reported cases of such harm.Methods We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, to evaluate the number and characteristics of reported cases of harm associated with the use of health information obtained on the Internet. Using a refined strategy, we searched MEDLINE (from 1966 to February 2001), CINAHL (from 1982 to March 2001), HealthStar (from 1975 to December 2000), PsycINFO (from 1967 to March 2001), and EMBASE (from 1980 to March 2001). This was complemented with searches of reference lists. Two authors separately reviewed the abstracts to identify articles that describe at least 1 case of harm associated with the use of health information found on the Internet. Articles of any format and in any language deemed possibly relevant by either researcher were obtained and reviewed by both researchers.Results The search yielded 1512 abstracts. Of these 186 papers were reviewed in full text. Of these, 3 articles satisfied the selection criteria. One article described 2 cases in which improper Internet searches led to emotional harm. The second article described dogs being poisoned because of misinformation obtained on the Internet. The third article described hepatorenal failure in an oncology patient who obtained misinformation about the use of medication on the Internet.Conclusions Despite the popularity of publications warning of the potential harm associated with using health information from the Internet, our search found few reported cases of harm. This may be due to an actual low risk for harm associated with the use of information available on the Internet, to underreporting of cases, or to bias.
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Background: A social-network site is a dedicated website or application which enables users to communicate with each other and share information, comments, messages, videos and images. Aims: This review aimed to ascertain if "social-networking sites have been used successfully in medical education to deliver educational material", and whether "healthcare professionals, and students, are engaging with social-networking sites for educational purposes". Method: A systematic-review was undertaken using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Eight databases were searched with pre-defined search terms, limits and inclusion criteria. Data was extracted into a piloted data-table prior to the narrative-synthesis of the Quality, Utility, Extent, Strength, Target and Setting of the evidence. Results: 1047 articles were identified. Nine articles were reviewed with the majority assessing learner satisfaction. Higher outcome measures were rarely investigated. Educators used Facebook, Twitter, and a custom-made website, MedicineAfrica to achieve their objectives. Conclusions: Social-networking sites have been employed without problems of professionalism, and received positive feedback from learners. However, there is no solid evidence base within the literature that social-networking is equally or more effective than other media available for educational purposes.
Article
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the Residential Aged Care Coronial Communiqué that have promoted previously reported professional practice change, and to explore the circumstances of these changes. Methods: This was an exploratory, qualitative study for which data was collected through semi-structured interview of 15 subscribers to the Residential Aged Care Coronial Communiqué. Results: The Residential Aged Care Coronial Communiqué was reported to promote self-reported practice change though the inclusion of case studies, by being associated with the Coroner, and by providing evidence to justify change. The combination of existing concerns about risk and staff awareness, in conjunction with reading the Residential Aged Care Coronial Communiqué was also reported to promote practice change, as was having the support of senior staff and the authority to implement change. Conclusions: The combination of narrative case studies in the context of an educational publication associated with the Coroner's Office has been reported to provided evidence and incentive to promote professional practice change in an aged care setting. However the relative influence of the Residential Aged Care Coronial Communiqué, and other background circumstance and facilitating factors on practice change cannot be determined from this study.
Article
In order to maintain competence to practice, midwives must become lifelong learners and engage in education and CPD activities. The Virtual International Day of the Midwife event (VIDM) is a free online annual synchronous conference that uses social networking tools to bring midwives together to network, share research and practice information. This paper presents the evaluation based on the 2010 and 2011 events. Participants appreciated the opportunity to be able to network with colleagues in an international context, believed the event provided access to quality material and presenters, and valued the accessibility and availability of the event and resources. Participants suggested that the event could be improved by making the program more accessible, with sessions spread over several days, as opposed to 24 hours; providing information about appropriate netiquette and extensive advertising. Further research is required to investigate how social networking and initiatives such as the VIDM impact on practice in the long term.
Article
Learning management systems (LMSs) are very widely used in higher education. However, much of the research on LMSs has had a technology focus or has been limited to studies of adoption. In order to take advantage of the potential associated with LMSs, research that addresses the role of LMSs in learning success is needed. Task–technology fit is one factor that has been shown to influence both the use of information systems and their performance impacts. The study described in this paper used the technology-to-performance chain as a framework to address the question of how task–technology fit influences the performance impacts of LMSs. The results provide strong support for the importance of task–technology fit, which influenced perceived impact on learning both directly and indirectly via level of utilization. Whilst task–technology fit had a strong influence on perceived impact of the LMS on learning it only had a weak impact on outcomes in terms of student grades. Contrary to expectations, facilitating conditions and common social norms did not play a role in the performance impacts of LMSs. However, instructor norms had a significant effect on perceived impact on learning via LMS utilization.
Article
Health professionals are working in an era of social technologies that empower users to generate content in real time. This article describes a 3-part continuing education minicourse called "Friending Facebook?" undertaken at Penn State Hershey Medical Center that aimed to model the functionality of current technologies in health care and encourage discussion about how health professionals might responsibly utilize social media. Fifteen health professionals participated in the course and provided written evaluation at its conclusion. The course instructor took field notes during each of the 3 classes to document emergent themes. The course received uniformly positive evaluations, and participants identified several current tools perceived as being potentially useful in their professional lives, including news aggregators, Google Alerts, and--if used responsibly--social networking sites such as Facebook. Developing innovative and appropriate programming that teaches to emerging social media technologies and ideologies will be crucial to helping the health professions adapt to a new, networked era. Medical institutions would do well to foster interprofessional-and perhaps even intergenerational-conversations to share not only the dangers and risks of social media, but also the opportunities that are emerging out of a rapidly evolving online world.
Article
To compare depression prevalence estimates measured by the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) with two administration modes in two national surveys. Data on adults aged 18 years and older who participated in the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 198,678) and those who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (n = 4,800) were analyzed. The crude PHQ-8 depression prevalence estimate using the diagnostic algorithm was higher in BRFSS with computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) (9.16%, SE 0.15) than in NHANES with computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) (6.28%, SE 0.59) (P < 0.001). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, the difference in the prevalence estimates remained (9.68% in BRFSS vs. 6.13% in NHANES, P < 0.001). Similar differences in the depression prevalence estimates using the PHQ-8 cutoff score ≥10 were detected (9.22% in BRFSS vs. 5.15% in NHANES, P < 0.001). Significant differences in the depression prevalence persisted in subgroups stratified by demographic characteristics and major health risk factors and outcomes. The PHQ-8 administered by CATI yielded about 3.5% higher depression prevalence estimate than that by CAPI.
Article
There are substantial knowledge and research gaps about the effects of printed educational material on professional practice. This study has examined whether the Residential Aged Care Coronial (RACC) Communiqué, an electronic newsletter of narrative case reports about lessons learned from deaths in residential aged care settings reported to the coroner in Victoria, Australia, prompted subscribers to initiate change in professional practice to improve care. An anonymous electronic survey was distributed to all registered subscribers of the RACC Communiqué to collect information about self-reported changes in professional practice, respondent characteristics, reading behavior, and an assessment of effect and content of the publication. Researchers from the Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine, Victoria, Australia, conducted the study in 2008. Of 778 subscribers invited to participate in the study, 426 (54.8%) provided valid responses. The majority of respondents were aged 45 and older, female, and working at a residential aged care facility in a management role. Half of the survey respondents reported making a change to their professional practice as a result of reading the RACC Communiqué, with one-fifth of these respondents agreeing that they would not have made the self-reported change if they had not read this publication. These findings are greater than the previously reported small effects of education through printed education material and make an important contribution to understanding the use of printed education material for initiating professional practice change.
Article
Increased access to the Internet and mobile communication combined with strategic uses of social media can bring public health informa-tion to many more people, more quickly and directly than at any time in history.Access to information and com-munication technology (ICT) is growing every year in all regions of the world. About one in four people globally are us-ing the Internet.
Article
The author provides a critical overview of three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds and "serious gaming" that are currently being developed and used in healthcare professional education and medicine. The relevance of this e-learning innovation for teaching students and professionals is debatable and variables influencing adoption, such as increased knowledge, self-directed learning, and peer collaboration, by academics, healthcare professionals, and business executives are examined while looking at various Web 2.0/3.0 applications. There is a need for more empirical research in order to unearth the pedagogical outcomes and advantages associated with this e-learning technology. A brief description of Roger's Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Siemens' Connectivism Theory for today's learners is presented as potential underlying pedagogical tenets to support the use of virtual 3-D learning environments in higher education and healthcare.
Article
The term Web 2.0 became popular following the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0 conference in 2004; however, there are difficulties in its application to health and medicine. Principally, the definition published by O'Reilly is criticized for being too amorphous, where other authors claim that Web 2.0 does not really exist. Despite this skepticism, the online community using Web 2.0 tools for health continues to grow, and the term Medicine 2.0 has entered popular nomenclature. This paper aims to establish a clear definition for Medicine 2.0 and delineate literature that is specific to the field. In addition, we propose a framework for categorizing the existing Medicine 2.0 literature and identify key research themes, underdeveloped research areas, as well as the underlying tensions or controversies in Medicine 2.0's diverse interest groups. In the first phase, we employ a thematic analysis of online definitions, that is, the most important linked papers, websites, or blogs in the Medicine 2.0 community itself. In a second phase, this definition is then applied across a series of academic papers to review Medicine 2.0's core literature base, delineating it from a wider concept of eHealth. The terms Medicine 2.0 and Health 2.0 were found to be very similar and subsume five major salient themes: (1) the participants involved (doctors, patients, etc); (2) its impact on both traditional and collaborative practices in medicine; (3) its ability to provide personalized health care; (4) its ability to promote ongoing medical education; and (5) its associated method- and tool-related issues, such as potential inaccuracy in enduser-generated content. In comparing definitions of Medicine 2.0 to eHealth, key distinctions are made by the collaborative nature of Medicine 2.0 and its emphasis on personalized health care. However, other elements such as health or medical education remain common for both categories. In addition, this emphasis on personalized health care is not a salient theme within the academic literature. Of 2405 papers originally identified as potentially relevant, we found 56 articles that were exclusively focused on Medicine 2.0 as opposed to wider eHealth discussions. Four major tensions or debates between stakeholders were found in this literature, including (1) the lack of clear Medicine 2.0 definitions, (2) tension due to the loss of control over information as perceived by doctors, (3) the safety issues of inaccurate information, and (4) ownership and privacy issues with the growing body of information created by Medicine 2.0. This paper is distinguished from previous reviews in that earlier studies mainly introduced specific Medicine 2.0 tools. In addressing the field's definition via empirical online data, it establishes a literature base and delineates key topics for future research into Medicine 2.0, distinct to that of eHealth.
Article
There is concern about the potential harm associated with the use of poor quality health information on the Internet. To date, there have been no systematic attempts to examine reported cases of such harm. We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, to evaluate the number and characteristics of reported cases of harm associated with the use of health information obtained on the Internet. Using a refined strategy, we searched MEDLINE (from 1966 to February 2001), CINAHL (from 1982 to March 2001), HealthStar (from 1975 to December 2000), PsycINFO (from 1967 to March 2001), and EMBASE (from 1980 to March 2001). This was complemented with searches of reference lists. Two authors separately reviewed the abstracts to identify articles that describe at least 1 case of harm associated with the use of health information found on the Internet. Articles of any format and in any language deemed possibly relevant by either researcher were obtained and reviewed by both researches. The search yielded 1512 abstracts. Of these 186 papers were reviewed in full text. Of these, 3 articles satisfied the selection criteria. One article described 2 cases in which improper Internet searches led to emotional harm. The second article described dogs being poisoned because of misinformation obtained on the Internet. The third article described hepatorenal failure in an oncology patient who obtained misinformation about the use of medication on the Internet. Despite the popularity of publications warning of the potential harm associated with using health information from the Internet, our search found few reported cases of harm. This may be due to an actual low risk for harm associated with the use of information available on the Internet, to underreporting of cases, or to bias.
Article
The purposes of this study were to explore the perceived barriers and challenges to continuing professional education (CPE) access for Canadian health care professionals and to identify best practices for improving access to CPE. Key informant interviews and Web-based online surveys were conducted. Key informant interviews were conducted with national CPE accreditation bodies and health professional associations. An online survey was distributed to health professional education programs, as well as provincial professional associations, licensing and professional regulatory bodies. The perceived barriers and challenges to CPE access for Canadian health care professionals and best practices for improving access to CPE. Geographic isolation and poor technological and telecommunications infrastructure were identified as key barriers to CPE delivery and access. Financial factors, such as funding to support travel or cost of attendance, were also identified as major challenges. Tele-education programming was identified as a best practice approach to improve CPE access, as were regional CPE activities and self-directed learning programs. Employer-sponsored initiatives, including staff coverage or locum support, remuneration for time off and paid travel expenses for CPE participation were also identified as best practice approaches.
Article
Syndromic surveillance uses health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response. While most syndromic surveillance systems rely on data from clinical encounters with health professionals, I started to explore in 2004 whether analysis of trends in Internet searches can be useful to predict outbreaks such as influenza epidemics and prospectively gathered data on Internet search trends for this purpose. There is an excellent correlation between the number of clicks on a keyword-triggered link in Google with epidemiological data from the flu season 2004/2005 in Canada (Pearson correlation coefficient of current week clicks with the following week influenza cases r=.91). The "Google ad sentinel method" proved to be more timely, more accurate and - with a total cost of Can$365.64 for the entire flu-season - considerably cheaper than the traditional method of reports on influenza-like illnesses observed in clinics by sentinel physicians. Systematically collecting and analyzing health information demand data from the Internet has considerable potential to be used for syndromic surveillance. Tracking web searches on the Internet has the potential to predict population-based events relevant for public health purposes, such as real outbreaks, but may also be confounded by "epidemics of fear". Data from such "infodemiology studies" should also include longitudinal data on health information supply.
Article
Nursing homes have long been used to teach geriatric medicine to medical students, primary care residents, and geriatric medicine fellows, but we may be able to more appropriately use this clinical setting by addressing principles of long-term care in addition to general geriatrics. Long-term care education starts with developing an understanding of the health care system and how to use services to maximize the functional abilities of our frailest elderly, and, depending on the needs of specific learners may incorporate skills such as quality improvement methodology, interdisciplinary team participation, managing infection risk within a community, and optimally transitioning patients between care venues. At each level of medical education, specific long-term care learning outcomes should be established with attention given to appropriate assessment of these outcomes. Curricular elements should be directed by the needs of the specific group of learners and the resources of the institution.
Vulnerable Populations in the Long Term Care Continuum
  • P R Katz
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